Sample records for environmental compliance modeling

  1. Environmental Compliance Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panagiotis; Fitzmaurice, Malgosia


    Compliance mechanisms can be found in treaties regulating such diverse issues as human rights, disarmament law, and environmental law. In this bibliography, the focus will be on compliance mechanisms of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). Compliance with norms of international

  2. Environmental compliance management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, A. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States); Larrinaga, L.


    A cross-functional team of environmental regulatory experts, plant managers, and plant engineers have been working since 1991 on the development, implementation and maintenance of the Environmental Compliance Management System. The Environmental Compliance Management System is a practical and accurate method of determining the applicability of the state and federal environmental regulations and of establishing standard and straightforward procedures to meet these requirements. The Environmental Compliance Management System allows individual manufacturing facilities to avoid the additional manpower that would be required to read, digest and decide on the applicability and plan of action to meet the requirements of all the environmental regulations.

  3. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  4. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  5. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  6. The USAID Environmental Compliance Database (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Environmental Compliance Database is a record of environmental compliance submissions with their outcomes. Documents in the database can be found by visiting the...

  7. Environmental projects. Volume 3: Environmental compliance audit (United States)


    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at Goldstone are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL and Goldstone have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, abestos, and underground storage tanks. A JPL version of a document prepared as an environmental audit of Goldstone operations is presented. Both general and specific items of noncompliance at Goldstone are identified and recommendations are provided for corrective actions.

  8. Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.


    A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations...

  9. Modeling a farm population to estimate on-farm compliance costs and environmental effects of a grassland extensification scheme at the regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthes, Sandra; Sattler, Claudia; Piorr, Annette


    We used a farm-level modeling approach to estimate on-farm compliance costs and environmental effects of a grassland extensification scheme in the district of Ostprignitz-Ruppin, Germany. The behavior of the regional farm population (n = 585) consisting of different farm types with different...... from a spatial allocation procedure. The reduction in total gross margin per unit area was used to measure on-farm compliance costs. A dimensionless environmental index was used to assess the suitability of the scheme to reduce the risk of nitrate-leaching. Calculated on-farm compliance costs...... and environmental effects were heterogeneous in space and farm types as a result of different agricultural production and site characteristics. On-farm costs ranged from zero up to almost 1500 Euro/ha. Such high costs occurred only in a very small part of the regional area, whereas the majority of the grassland had...

  10. Environmental Compliance Assessment for Army Reserves (ECAAR) (United States)


    facilities that discharge to off-site treatment facilities must adhere to the discharge limita- tions that are stipulated in local ordinances. However, many...submitted verifying compliance with recy- of materials recovered cling requirements. (1)(2)(12)(18) from trash, refuse , and other products are to be... Compliance Assessment for Army Reserves (ECAAR) D- by DTIC by . / ELECTE !’ Diane K. Mann SE R CTED The number of environmental laws and regulations


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regulation mechanisms for different types of industrial sectors based on their gravity of impact to the environment. ... Environmental Protection Authority together with data gathered through interview, field observation and different ... the impact of this effluent on their health, products and farm land, theyanswered that it has no ...

  12. Compliance Notices – A New Tool in Environmental Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Feris


    Full Text Available This note examines compliance notices, a new administrative remedy that has been created to assist in compliance and enforcement of environmental laws. The note considers the aim and scope of compliance and the process of issuing a compliance notice. In addition, it reflects on objections to compliance notices as well as the effect of non-compliance with compliance notices. It furthermore considers the mandate of Environmental Management Inspectors (EMIs to issue compliance notices, the legislation in terms of which they may issue compliance notices and the ability of EMIs to issue compliance notices beyond the designated legislation. The note also assesses the overall effectiveness of compliance notices and the extent to which it is likely to be utilised by EMIs in the exercise of their mandate.

  13. Management information systems for environmental compliance activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) is subject to Federal and state laws designed to protect against threats to public health and the environment. The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the Department had developed adequate information systems for tracking and reporting on the status of its compliance with these laws. Systems used for prioritizing and budgeting for environmental activities are being addressed in a separate review.

  14. Perspectives on compliance: non-compliance with environmental licenses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.; van de Peppel, R.A.


    Compliance with environmental law is not self-evident. In many instances enforcement of environmental regulations is a necessary means for achieving compliance. Assuming that an enforcement strategy, in order to be effective, has to fit the type of non-compliance, we integrate six different

  15. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-14 - Compliance with environmental laws. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with environmental laws. 35... § 35.925-14 Compliance with environmental laws. That the treatment works will comply with all pertinent requirements of applicable Federal, State and local environmental laws and regulations. (See § 30.101 and...

  17. Environmental Modeling (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)


    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  19. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (USA ECAS) (United States)


    that discharge to off-site treatment facilities must adhere to the discharge limitations that are stipulated in local ordinances. I-kwever, many local...results to POIW are ments including industrial being met. (2)(9X14) 4e treatment standards CFR 403). Check if compliance schedule for installation of is submitted verifying compliance with ’wy- of materials recovered cling requirements. (1X2X9) from trash, refuse , and other products are to be

  20. Environmental Compliance. Guidance Needed in Programming Defense Construction Projects (United States)


    actions taken by Air Force installations to address areas of noncompliance with regulators. The Air Force has developed several servicewide, top -down...242565 Figur 2.- The Serv•" Budgets for Envronmenn tal Mflltar Constructon odm i,.n m.Ions Before and After Ohe Scret s 20 Reyhd Guidance 175 1SO 125...environmental compliance. The GAO also cited the Air Force development of several Service-wide, top down initiatives for environmental compliance that are

  1. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)


    This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``

  2. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on a draft Environmental Planning and Historic...

  3. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.


    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges.

  4. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations.

  5. Compliance with Environmental Regulations through Complex Geo-Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera


    Full Text Available In a context of e-government, there are usually regulatory compliance requirements that support systems must monitor, control and enforce. These requirements may come from environmental laws and regulations that aim to protect the natural environment and mitigate the effects of pollution on human health and ecosystems. Monitoring compliance with these requirements involves processing a large volume of data from different sources, which is a major challenge. This volume is also increased with data coming from autonomous sensors (e.g. reporting carbon emission in protected areas and from citizens providing information (e.g. illegal dumping in a voluntary way. Complex Event Processing (CEP technologies allow processing large amount of event data and detecting patterns from them. However, they do not provide native support for the geographic dimension of events which is essential for monitoring requirements which apply to specific geographic areas. This paper proposes a geospatial extension for CEP that allows monitoring environmental requirements considering the geographic location of the processed data. We extend an existing platform-independent, model-driven approach for CEP adding the geographic location to events and specifying patterns using geographic operators. The use and technical feasibility of the proposal is shown through the development of a case study and the implementation of a prototype.

  6. Producing in compliance with environmental obligation: case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on study of Bedele brewery with the intent to examine whether it is producing in compliance with the Ethiopian environmental laws. In line with this objective, different Ethiopian environmental laws, together with the data gathered through interview, field observation, and different literature related with the ...

  7. Environmental Compliance Assessment Army Reserve (ECAAR) (United States)


    Reserve facilities that discharge to offsite treatment facilities must adhere to the discharge limitations that are stipulated in local ordinances...requirements. A facility may certify compliance with these treatment standards accord- ing to provisions in 40:268.7. (2) Based on analysis of composite samples...Solid Waste - in relation to MSWLF, any garbage, or refuse , sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air

  8. Compliance with Environmental and Social Legislation in Certified Forestry Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Santana Leite


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of the FSC forestry certification system to improve the forestry sector, in terms of compliance to environmental and social laws and improvements in working conditions resulting from the certification process. Thirty-seven auditing reports from five Brazilian forestry companies were evaluated, throughout the 2006-2013 period. Non-compliance and observations were analyzed and organized into categories, which identified the main performance issues found in certified forestry organizations. 301 instances of non-compliance and 138 observations of audit reports were verified, where 48 and 57% respectively, were linked to the two principles studied. For obtaining and/or maintaining the certificate it is necessary for all violations to be resolved. Therefore, it was concluded that forest certification contributes to the advancement of the forestry sector in Brazil, in relation to compliance with legal, social and labor issues.

  9. Motivational Postures and Compliance with Environmental Law in Australian Agriculture (United States)

    Bartel, Robyn; Barclay, Elaine


    Motivational posture theory is applied and extended to the context of Australian agriculture and environmental regulation. Regulatory failure in this area has been observed but little was known of the compliance attitudes and behaviours of farmers prior to this study. Agriculture covers over 60% of Australia's land surface so this information is…

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions


    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  11. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries. (United States)

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S


    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  12. Environmental management compliance reengineering project, FY 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanVliet, J.A.; Davis, J.N.


    Through an integrated reengineering effort, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is successfully implementing process improvements that will permit safe and compliant operations to continue during the next 5 years, even though $80 million was removed from the Environmental Management (EM) program budget. A 2-year analysis, design, and implementation project will reengineer compliance-related activities and reduce operating costs by approximately $17 million per year from Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 through 2002, while continuing to meet the INEEL`s environment, safety, and health requirements and milestone commitments. Compliance reengineer`s focus is improving processes, not avoiding full compliance with environmental, safety, and health laws. In FY 1997, compliance reengineering used a three-phase approach to analyze, design, and implement the changes that would decrease operating costs. Implementation for seven specific improvement projects was completed in FY 1997, while five projects will complete implementation in FY 1998. During FY 1998, the three-phase process will be repeated to continue reengineering the INEEL.

  13. 1995 project of the year Hanford Environmental compliance project nomination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.R.


    The completion of the Hanford Environmental Compliance (HEC) Project in December 1995 brought to a successful close a long line of major contributions to environmental cleanup. Not since the early days of the Hanford Site during and shortly after World War 11 had such a large group of diverse construction activities, with a common goal, been performed at Hanford. Key to this success was the unique combination of 14 subprojects under the HEC Project which afforded the flexibility to address evolving subproject requirements. This strategy resulted in the accomplishment of the HEC Project stakeholders` objectives on an aggressive schedule, at a $33 million cost savings to the customer. The primary objectives of the HEC Project were to upgrade selected Hanford Site facilities and systems to bring them into compliance with current environmental standards and regulations. The HEC Project contributed significantly towards the Hanford site compliance with Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. It provided, in part, those construction activities required to comply with those requirements in the areas of liquid and solid waste treatment and disposal, waste characterization, and groundwater monitoring.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services


    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC


    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  16. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs


    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  17. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.


    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  18. Compliance notices – A new tool in environmental enforcement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMIs) to issue compliance notices, the legislation in terms of which they may issue compliance notices and the ability of EMIs to issue compliance notices beyond the designated legislation. The note also assesses the overall effectiveness of ...

  19. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Community Involvement and Issues Management Dept.; Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)


    This report on National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) chronicles past and current compliance activities and includes a recommended strategy that can be implemented for continued improvement. This report provides a list of important references. Attachment 1 contains the table of contents for SAND95-1648, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide Sandia National Laboratories (Hansen, 1995). Attachment 2 contains a list of published environmental assessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) prepared by SNL/NM. Attachment 3 contains abstracts of NEPA compliance papers authored by SNL/NM and its contractors.

  20. Overview of environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    After introductory remarks about the National Lab, the report discusses background radiation, human-produced radiation, radionuclide migration, doses, and health physics risk; the environmental programs at LANL including environmental protection, restoration, waste management, quality assurance, environmental oversight, environmental safety and training; environmental monitoring of external penetrating radiation, surface waters, sediments, soils, foodstuffs, and associated biota; and environmental compliance with existing regulations.

  1. 40 CFR 52.798 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.798 Section 52.798 Protection of Environment... PLANS Indiana § 52.798 Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance...

  2. 40 CFR 52.460 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.460 Section 52.460 Protection of Environment... PLANS Delaware § 52.460 Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance...

  3. 40 CFR 52.744 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.744 Section 52.744 Protection of Environment... PLANS Illinois> § 52.744 Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1889 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.1889 Section 52.1889 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1889 Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance...

  5. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Oil Sands Environmental Compliance Risk Management (United States)

    Roux, Izak Johannes, III

    Oil companies in Alberta, Canada, invested $32 billion on new oil sands projects in 2013. Despite the size of this investment, there is a demonstrable deficiency in the uniformity and understanding of environmental legislation requirements that manifest into increased project compliance risks. This descriptive study developed 2 prioritized lists of environmental regulatory compliance risks and mitigation strategies and used multi-criteria decision theory for its theoretical framework. Information from compiled lists of environmental compliance risks and mitigation strategies was used to generate a specialized pairwise survey, which was piloted by 5 subject matter experts (SMEs). The survey was validated by a sample of 16 SMEs, after which the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank a total of 33 compliance risks and 12 mitigation strategy criteria. A key finding was that the AHP is a suitable tool for ranking of compliance risks and mitigation strategies. Several working hypotheses were also tested regarding how SMEs prioritized 1 compliance risk or mitigation strategy compared to another. The AHP showed that regulatory compliance, company reputation, environmental compliance, and economics ranked the highest and that a multi criteria mitigation strategy for environmental compliance ranked the highest. The study results will inform Alberta oil sands industry leaders about the ranking and utility of specific compliance risks and mitigations strategies, enabling them to focus on actions that will generate legislative and public trust. Oil sands leaders implementing a risk management program using the risks and mitigation strategies identified in this study will contribute to environmental conservation, economic growth, and positive social change.

  6. Environmental Modeling Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Modeling Center provides the computational tools to perform geostatistical analysis, to model ground water and atmospheric releases for comparison...

  7. Measuring the Compliance of Processes with Reference Models (United States)

    Gerke, Kerstin; Cardoso, Jorge; Claus, Alexander

    Reference models provide a set of generally accepted best practices to create efficient processes to be deployed inside organizations. However, a central challenge is to determine how these best practices are implemented in practice. One limitation of existing approaches for measuring compliance is the assumption that the compliance can be determined using the notion of process equivalence. Nonetheless, the use of equivalence algorithms is not adequate since two models can have different structures but one process can still be compliant with the other. This paper presents a new approach and algorithm which allow to measure the compliance of process models with reference models. We evaluate our approach by measuring the compliance of a model currently used by a German passenger airline with the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) reference model and by comparing our results with existing approaches.

  8. Free Economic Competition and Environmental Protection: An approach to the study of Environmental Compliance Voluntary Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Ortiz Baquero


    Full Text Available This article pretends to illustrate the compatibility between two actual legal interests in the international economic order, the right to a healthy environment and the right of a free exercise of economic competition, by introducing voluntary agreements of compliance with environmental standards, making see that through these mechanisms can achieve compatibility of the two goals that once were considered diametrically opposed. This is an European system analysis, where these have been developed and are on track to consolidating, checking the advantages they would represent for the economy, as well as the concerns that have brought to the competition authorities, executing them in a practical scope and possible effects on the market. Finally, it aims to tackle the possible introduction of these in the Colombian legal system that would enable the rules to thereby achieve synergy between competition and environmental protection.

  9. Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. This report details compliance for model year 2015, fiscal year 2016.

  10. Managing business compliance using model-driven security management (United States)

    Lang, Ulrich; Schreiner, Rudolf

    Compliance with regulatory and governance standards is rapidly becoming one of the hot topics of information security today. This is because, especially with regulatory compliance, both business and government have to expect large financial and reputational losses if compliance cannot be ensured and demonstrated. One major difficulty of implementing such regulations is caused the fact that they are captured at a high level of abstraction that is business-centric and not IT centric. This means that the abstract intent needs to be translated in a trustworthy, traceable way into compliance and security policies that the IT security infrastructure can enforce. Carrying out this mapping process manually is time consuming, maintenance-intensive, costly, and error-prone. Compliance monitoring is also critical in order to be able to demonstrate compliance at any given point in time. The problem is further complicated because of the need for business-driven IT agility, where IT policies and enforcement can change frequently, e.g. Business Process Modelling (BPM) driven Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Model Driven Security (MDS) is an innovative technology approach that can solve these problems as an extension of identity and access management (IAM) and authorization management (also called entitlement management). In this paper we will illustrate the theory behind Model Driven Security for compliance, provide an improved and extended architecture, as well as a case study in the healthcare industry using our OpenPMF 2.0 technology.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1184 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.1184 Section 52.1184 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1184 Small business stationary source technical and environmental...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2586 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.2586 Section 52.2586 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Wisconsin § 52.2586 Small business stationary source technical and environmental...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1110 - Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business stationary source technical and environmental compliance assistance program. 52.1110 Section 52.1110 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Maryland § 52.1110 Small business stationary source technical and environmental...

  14. 25 CFR 170.451 - Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance? (United States)


    ... funds be used for archeological and environmental compliance? Yes. For approved IRR projects, IRR Program funds can be used for environmental and archeological work consistent with 25 CFR 900.125(c)(6... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can IRR Program funds be used for archeological and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaven Smojver


    Full Text Available Ever increasing scope and complexity of regulations and other rules that govern human society emphasise importance of the inspection of compliance to those rules. Often-used approaches to the inspection of compliance suffer from drawbacks such as overly idealistic assumptions and narrowness of application. Specifically, inspection models are frequently limited to situations where inspected entity has to comply with only one rule. Furthermore, inspection strategies regularly overlook some useful and available information such as varying costs of compliance to different rules. This article presents an agent-based model for inspection of compliance to many rules, which addresses abovementioned drawbacks. In the article, crime economic, game-theoretic and agent-based modelling approaches to inspection are briefly described, as well as their impact on the model. The model is described and simulation of a simplified version of the model is presented. The obtained results demonstrate that inspection strategies which take into account rules’ compliance costs perform significantly better than random strategies and better than cycle-based strategies. Additionally, the results encourage further, wider testing and validation of the model.

  16. Government Owned-Contractor Operated Munitions Facilities: Are They Appropriate in the Age of Strict Environmental Compliance and Liability?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connor, Mark J


    ... responsibility for environmental compliance and to allocate the risks associated with strict environmental compliance and liability. In addition, a mechanism must be devised to insure that Congress imposes environmental requirements on GOCO facilities only to the extent that adequate funding is provided to meet those requirements.

  17. Enhancing compliance at Department of Defense facilities: comparison of three environmental audit tools. (United States)

    Hepler, Jeff A; Neumann, Cathy


    To enhance environmental compliance, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) recently developed and implemented a standardized environmental audit tool called The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide. Utilization of a common audit tool (TEAM Guide) throughout DOD agencies could be an effective agent of positive change. If, however, the audit tool is inappropriate, environmental compliance at DOD facilities could worsen. Furthermore, existing audit systems such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Generic Protocol for Conducting Environmental Audits of Federal Facilities and the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO's) Standard 14001, "Environmental Management System Audits," may be abandoned even if they offer significant advantages over TEAM Guide audit tool. Widespread use of TEAM Guide should not take place until thorough and independent evaluation has been performed. The purpose of this paper is to compare DOD's TEAM Guide audit tool with U.S. EPA's Generic Protocol for Conducting Environmental Audits of Federal Facilities and ISO 14001, in order to assess which is most appropriate and effective for DOD facilities, and in particular those operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). USACE was selected as a result of one author's recent experience as a district environmental compliance coordinator responsible for the audit mission at this agency. Specific recommendations for enhancing the quality of environmental audits at all DOD facilities also are given.

  18. Tax Compliance Models: From Economic to Behavioral Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Margareta BĂTRÂNCEA


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the models of tax compliance with an emphasis on economic and behavioral perspectives. Although the standard tax evasion model of Allingham and Sandmo and other similar economic models capture some important aspects of tax compliance (i.e., taxpayers’ response to increases in tax rate, audit probability, penalty rate they do not suffice the need for an accurate prediction of taxpayers’ behavior. The reason is that they do not offer a comprehensive perspective on the sociological and psychological factors which shape compliance (i.e., attitudes, beliefs, norms, perceptions, motivations. Therefore, the researchers have considered examining taxpayers’ inner motivations, beliefs, perceptions, attitudes in order to accurately predict taxpayers’ behavior. As a response to their quest, behavioral models of tax compliance have emerged. Among the sociological and psychological factors which shape tax compliance, the ‘slippery slope’ framework singles out trust in authorities and the perception of the power of authorities. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the understanding of the reasons for which there is a need for a tax compliance model which incorporates both economic and behavioral features and why governments and tax authorities should consider these models when designing fiscal policies.

  19. A Novel Model for Security Evaluation for Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Sara Ligaard; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Prasad, Neeli R.


    With the increasing focus on security in information systems, it is becoming necessary to be able to describe and compare security attributes for different technologies. Existing are well-described and comprehensive, but expensive and resource demanding to apply. The Security Evaluation...... for Compliance (SEC) model offers a lightweight alternative for use by decision makers to get a quick overview of the security attributes of different technologies for easy comparison and requirement compliance evaluation. The scientific contribution is this new approach to security modelling as well...

  20. Computational compliance criteria in water hammer modelling (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Kamil


    Among many numerical methods (finite: difference, element, volume etc.) used to solve the system of partial differential equations describing unsteady pipe flow, the method of characteristics (MOC) is most appreciated. With its help, it is possible to examine the effect of numerical discretisation carried over the pipe length. It was noticed, based on the tests performed in this study, that convergence of the calculation results occurred on a rectangular grid with the division of each pipe of the analysed system into at least 10 elements. Therefore, it is advisable to introduce computational compliance criteria (CCC), which will be responsible for optimal discretisation of the examined system. The results of this study, based on the assumption of various values of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) number, indicate also that the CFL number should be equal to one for optimum computational results. Application of the CCC criterion to own written and commercial computer programmes based on the method of characteristics will guarantee fast simulations and the necessary computational coherence.

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 2: Underground storage tanks compliance program (United States)

    Kushner, L.


    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. As a large-scale facility located in a remote, isolated desert region, the GDSCC operations require numerous on-site storage facilities for gasoline, diesel and hydraulic oil. These essential fluids are stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). Because USTs may develop leaks with the resultant seepage of their hazardous contents into the surrounding soil, local, State and Federal authorities have adopted stringent regulations for the testing and maintenance of USTs. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a year-long program has brought 27 USTs at the Goldstone Complex into compliance with Federal, State of California and County of San Bernadino regulations. Of these 27 USTs, 15 are operating today, 11 have been temporary closed down, and 1 abandoned in place. In 1989, the 15 USTs now operating at the Goldstone DSCC will be replaced either by modern, double-walled USTs equipped with automatic sensors for leak detection, or by above ground storage tanks. The 11 inactivated USTs are to be excavated, removed and disposed of according to regulation.

  2. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  3. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  4. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study. (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L


    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Integrated information management systems; A solid basis for environmental compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, D.M.; Gay, J.L.; Stallard, G.S. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))


    With the wide-ranging impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, effective management of environmental issues-particularly SO{sub 2} emissions - will require not only long range planning, but daily evaluations and decisions. To produce power in the most cost-effective manner, environmental concerns and operational and economic issues must be considered. Costs, performance, and emissions must be effectively monitored and controlled, and the resulting information must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration is not a simple task. A continuous flow of new data must be collected and analyzed; current conditions must be carefully evaluated to support day-to-day decisions and long-term power production and emissions strategies must be developed and reviewed. This paper describes the main design concepts of an integrated information system, and provides examples of how its capabilities can be applied to environmental decisions.

  6. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards. (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert


    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  7. Pragmatics of Policy: The Compliance of Dutch Environmental Policy Instruments to European Union Standards (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert


    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today’s environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  8. The Merton structural model and IRB compliance


    Jovan, Matej


    This paper discusses the 1974 Merton's model in light of the minimum regulatory requirements of the Internal Ratings-Based (IRB) Approach provided in the Directive 2006/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council for the calculation of capital requirement for credit risk. The basic purpose is to illustrate potential deficiencies of the model in assigning obligors ratings and/or estimating probability of default to which supervisors should be attentive when validating this model in ban...

  9. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance. (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung


    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  10. Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight


    Full Text Available The reference model for the Open Archival Information System (OAIS is well established in the research community as a method of modelling the functions of a digital repository and as a basis in which to frame digital curation and preservation issues. In reference to the 5th anniversary review of the OAIS, it is timely to consider how it may be interpreted by an institutional repository. The paper examines methods of sharing essential functions and requirements of an OAIS between two or more institutions, outlining the practical considerations of outsourcing. It also details the approach taken by the SHERPA DP Project to introduce a disaggregated service model for institutional repositories that wish to implement preservation services.

  11. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in fiscal year 2009 : [analysis brief]. (United States)


    This Analysis Brief documents the methodology and results from the Compliance Review Effectiveness Model (CREM) for carriers receiving CRs in fiscal year (FY) 2009. The model measures the effectiveness of the compliance review (CR) program, one of th...

  12. FDA 2011 process validation guidance: lifecycle compliance model. (United States)

    Campbell, Cliff


    This article has been written as a contribution to the industry's efforts in migrating from a document-driven to a data-driven compliance mindset. A combination of target product profile, control engineering, and general sum principle techniques is presented as the basis of a simple but scalable lifecycle compliance model in support of modernized process validation. Unit operations and significant variables occupy pole position within the model, documentation requirements being treated as a derivative or consequence of the modeling process. The quality system is repositioned as a subordinate of system quality, this being defined as the integral of related "system qualities". The article represents a structured interpretation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2011 Guidance for Industry on Process Validation and is based on the author's educational background and his manufacturing/consulting experience in the validation field. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Guidance for Industry on Process Validation (2011) provides a wide-ranging and rigorous outline of compliant drug manufacturing requirements relative to its 20(th) century predecessor (1987). Its declared focus is patient safety, and it identifies three inter-related (and obvious) stages of the compliance lifecycle. Firstly, processes must be designed, both from a technical and quality perspective. Secondly, processes must be qualified, providing evidence that the manufacturing facility is fully "roadworthy" and fit for its intended purpose. Thirdly, processes must be verified, meaning that commercial batches must be monitored to ensure that processes remain in a state of control throughout their lifetime.

  13. Different Kind of"Deal": Selling Wind as Environmental Compliance; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombari, C.; Sinclair, K.


    Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs), an environmental regulatory mechanism available at both State and Federal levels, show promise as a marketing venue for wind developers. SEPs are an alternative available to defendants who have been assessed penalties for environmental non-compliance, allowing them to offset a significant amount of penalties by investing in environmentally beneficial projects. In 1999, the dollar value of Federal SEPs negotiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) totaled$277 million. In addition, cumulative state enforcement actions may be settled with SEPs. Aside from some compressed natural gas projects, no clean energy projects have been undertaken with the funds. Wind and other clean energy developers can play a unique role in introducing wind energy projects into the SEP negotiating process.

  14. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Program -- FY 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Regan S.


    During fiscal year (FY) 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Environmental Protection and Regulatory Programs Division (before March 1, 2011 known as the Environmental Management Services Department) staff performed a number of activities as part of PNNL’s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance program. These activities helped to verify U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) and Richland Operations Office (RL) compliance with NEPA requirements and streamline the NEPA process for federal activities conducted at PNNL. Self-assessments were performed to address NEPA compliance and cultural and biological resource protection. The NEPA self-assessments focused on implementation within the PNNL Energy and Environment Directorate and routine maintenance activities conducted during the previous calendar year. The cultural and biological resource self-assessments were conducted in accordance with the PNSO Cultural and Biological Resources Management Plan, which specifies annual monitoring of important resources to assess and document the status of the resources and the associated protective mechanisms in place to protect sensitive resources.

  15. A social psychologic model of female adolescents' compliance with contraceptives. (United States)

    DuRant, R H; Jay, M S


    A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral

  16. Notification: Audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0135, February 10, 2014. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin fieldwork for an audit of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's compliance with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA).

  17. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets - Fleet Compliance Annual Report: Model Year 2015, Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulates covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets, pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended. Covered fleets may meet their EPAct requirements through one of two compliance methods: Standard Compliance or Alternative Compliance. For model year (MY) 2015, the compliance rate with this program for the more than 3011 reporting fleets was 100%. More than 294 fleets used Standard Compliance and exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 acquisition requirements by 8% through acquisitions alone. The seven covered fleets that used Alternative Compliance exceeded their aggregate MY 2015 petroleum use reduction requirements by 46%.

  18. A model-driven approach to information security compliance (United States)

    Correia, Anacleto; Gonçalves, António; Teodoro, M. Filomena


    The availability, integrity and confidentiality of information are fundamental to the long-term survival of any organization. Information security is a complex issue that must be holistically approached, combining assets that support corporate systems, in an extended network of business partners, vendors, customers and other stakeholders. This paper addresses the conception and implementation of information security systems, conform the ISO/IEC 27000 set of standards, using the model-driven approach. The process begins with the conception of a domain level model (computation independent model) based on information security vocabulary present in the ISO/IEC 27001 standard. Based on this model, after embedding in the model mandatory rules for attaining ISO/IEC 27001 conformance, a platform independent model is derived. Finally, a platform specific model serves the base for testing the compliance of information security systems with the ISO/IEC 27000 set of standards.

  19. Mathematical Models Issues of Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Viorel


    Full Text Available Today the world is facing, more and more, different sources of pollution, the most affected areas being the proximity of big industrial centers (e.g.: chemistry, mining and metallurgy, machinery building etc.. Baia Mare industrial area is a typical one for such a situation. To maintain a clean and healthy environment in Baia Mare city and in the surrounding areas, important costs are needed. The usefulness of the mathematical models consists in the possibility of mathematical processing of industrial parameters evolutions, with relevant interpretations on various influences and their correction for achieving the set goals (maximizing financial efficiency, environmental protection with the compliance of legal requirements etc.

  20. A study of compliance with environmental regulations of ISO 14001 certified companies in Korea. (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Myung; Seo, Min-Seok; Seo, Yong-Chil


    This article investigates the impact of ISO 14001 certification on the compliance with environmental regulations by Korean companies. The impact of ISO 14001 certification on the industry was studied through a questionnaire survey and the compliance of environmental regulations were investigated using government-released data. The motivation for an environment management system was a result of the current international situation and the need to maintain fair competition. ISO 14001 certification has been recognized as an essential strategy for industrial competition and to improve company/product recognition. The certified and non-certified companies' environmental regulation violation (ERV) rates were 3.5% and 11.6%, respectively, in 1997. In 1998, the ERV rate had an eight-time difference with 1.0% and 8.5% for certified and non-certified companies, respectively. Annual regulation violation rates were reduced from 3.5% in 1997 to 1.0% in 1998 with certified companies and from 11.6% in 1997 to 8.5% in 1998 with their non-certified counterparts, respectively. ISO 14001 certified companies showed more improvement than non-certified companies in regards to environmental performance.

  1. Building dynamic spatial environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, D.J.


    An environmental model is a representation or imitation of complex natural phenomena that can be discerned by human cognitive processes. This thesis deals with the type of environmental models referred to as dynamic spatial environmental models. The word ‘spatial’ refers to the geographic domain

  2. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study. (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R


    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  3. Model-aware Monitoring of SOAs for Compliance (United States)

    Holmes, Ta'id; Mulo, Emmanuel; Zdun, Uwe; Dustdar, Schahram

    Business processes today are supported by process-driven service oriented architectures. Due to the increasing importance of compliance of an organization with regulatory requirements and internal policies, there is a need for appropriate techniques to monitor organizational information systems as they execute business processes. Event-based monitoring of processes is one of the ways to provide runtime process-state information. This type of monitoring, however, has limitations mostly related to the type and amount of information available in events and process engines. We propose a novel approach - model-aware monitoring of business processes - to address these limitations. Emitted events contain unique identifiers of models that can be retrieved dynamically during runtime from a model-aware repository and service environment (MORSE). The size of the events is kept small and patterns of events that signify interesting occurrences are identified through complex event processing and are signaled to interesting components such as a business intelligence. To illustrate our approach we present an industry case study where we have applied this generic infrastructure for the compliance monitoring of business processes.

  4. Environmental compliance program FY 1999 multi-year work plan, WBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, K.A.


    The Environmental Compliance Program is developing and implementing a PHMC-wide chemical management system with the goal being to: (1) manage and control chemicals from procurement through use and final disposition; (2) develop and maintain procedures for identifying and evaluating hazards and environmental impacts present in facilities, and the hazard classification of the facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) may promulgate the final rule, 1 0 CFR 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment in FY 1999. This rule establishes controls for the release of radioactive material and limits for the amount of radiation exposure to the public and the environment. It will be applicable to activities of DOE contractors at the Hanford site. This rule is expected to replace the bulk of DOE Orders 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment and 5400. 1, General Environmental Protection Program. In doing so, these Orders will be backed by the Price-Anderson enforcement procedures and carry penalties for non-compliance.

  5. Beyond compliance using environmental, health and safety management information systems (EMISs) to provide quantified competitive advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.V.; Mayer, G.


    In the last 20 years, federal, state and local regulations have provided regulatory incentives for industry to better manage environmental, health and safety (EHS) practices. In order for voluntary EHS management practices to move beyond compliance and continue improving, specific, quantifiable benefits must result. That is, companies must achieve some competitive advantage from implementing EHS improvements that are considered voluntary. Recently, many private companies and public agencies have been giving significant consideration toward the implementation of an EHS management information system (EMIS). Currently considered voluntary, the automation of EHS data collection, storage, retrieval and reporting is subject to the same benefit expectations that other EHS improvements are subject to. The benefits resulting from an EMIS typically result from a reduction in either direct or indirect costs. Direct costs, consisting primarily of labor hours, permit fees, disposal costs, etc., are definable and easily to quantify. Indirect costs, which are comprised of reduced risks and liabilities, are less easily quantifiable. In fact, many have abandoned hope of ever quantifying expected benefits from indirect costs, and simply lump all indirect benefits into a qualitative, catch-all category called intangible benefits. However, by statistically analyzing individual risk events over an expected project life, anticipated benefits can be objectively and accurately quantified. Through the use of a case study, this paper will describe the process of quantifying direct and indirect benefits resulting from the implementation of an EMIS. The paper will describe the application of a statistical model to estimate indirect benefits and will demonstrate how the results of the benefit quantification can be used to make sound, business based decisions based on a required rate of return/return on investment.

  6. Examining the Extent of Environmental Compliance Requirements on Mechatronic Products and Their Implementation through Product Lifecycle Management (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukica


    The present mixed-methods study examined the opinions of industry practitioners related to the implementation of environmental compliance requirements into design and manufacturing processes of mechatronic and electromechanical products. It focused on the environmental standards for mechatronic and electromechanical products and how Product…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  8. Work Smarter Not Harder: Utilizing an Environmental Management Information System to Meet Regulatory Compliance and Reporting Requirements for a Major Source Title V Facility (United States)


    Environmental Management Information System to Meet Regulatory Compliance and Reporting Requirements for a Major Source Title V Facility. Tannis Danley...AND SUBTITLE Work Smarter Not Harder: Utilizing an Environmental Management Information System to Meet Regulatory Compliance and Reporting...Carson) – EMS (Hawaii Garrison, West Virginia National Guard) Environmental Management Information System (EMIS) National Defense Center for Energy and

  9. A New Approach to Identifying the Drivers of Regulation Compliance Using Multivariate Behavioural Models


    Thomas, Alyssa S.; Milfont, Taciano L.; Gavin, Michael C.


    Non-compliance with fishing regulations can undermine management effectiveness. Previous bivariate approaches were unable to untangle the complex mix of factors that may influence fishers? compliance decisions, including enforcement, moral norms, perceived legitimacy of regulations and the behaviour of others. We compared seven multivariate behavioural models of fisher compliance decisions using structural equation modeling. An online survey of over 300 recreational fishers tested the ability...

  10. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for Site Characterization; Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. These objectives are described in DOE Order 5400.1 (Environmental Protection Program Requirements). This document -- the Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) -- is one method of implementing the policy set forth in DOE Order 5400.1 and the NWPA. The ERCP describes the plan by which the DOE will comply with applicable Federal environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statutes and regulations. 180 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Social norms and illicit behavior: an evolutionary model of compliance. (United States)

    Haab, Timothy C; McConnell, Kenneth E


    Economists have viewed the presence of externalities and other market failures as leading to a private equilibrium that would not be Pareto optimal. In the exploitation of common-pool resources, especially biological resources, this would lead to the much-discussed 'tragedy of the commons'. A challenge to this traditional view has emerged from a careful study of the theory and practice of the exploitation of common-pool resources. The existence of a social norm may provide an individual with information on the extent of external costs associated with a behavior, and thus provides an imperfect means of internalizing the external costs. In this paper we propose an evolutionary model of compliance that allows for the existence of a social norm. The impact of the social norm on public policy towards externalities is examined.

  12. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)


    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. A New Approach to Identifying the Drivers of Regulation Compliance Using Multivariate Behavioural Models. (United States)

    Thomas, Alyssa S; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavin, Michael C


    Non-compliance with fishing regulations can undermine management effectiveness. Previous bivariate approaches were unable to untangle the complex mix of factors that may influence fishers' compliance decisions, including enforcement, moral norms, perceived legitimacy of regulations and the behaviour of others. We compared seven multivariate behavioural models of fisher compliance decisions using structural equation modeling. An online survey of over 300 recreational fishers tested the ability of each model to best predict their compliance with two fishing regulations (daily and size limits). The best fitting model for both regulations was composed solely of psycho-social factors, with social norms having the greatest influence on fishers' compliance behaviour. Fishers' attitude also directly affected compliance with size limit, but to a lesser extent. On the basis of these findings, we suggest behavioural interventions to target social norms instead of increasing enforcement for the focal regulations in the recreational blue cod fishery in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. These interventions could include articles in local newspapers and fishing magazines highlighting the extent of regulation compliance as well as using respected local fishers to emphasize the benefits of compliance through public meetings or letters to the editor. Our methodological approach can be broadly applied by natural resource managers as an effective tool to identify drivers of compliance that can then guide the design of interventions to decrease illegal resource use.

  14. A New Approach to Identifying the Drivers of Regulation Compliance Using Multivariate Behavioural Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa S Thomas

    Full Text Available Non-compliance with fishing regulations can undermine management effectiveness. Previous bivariate approaches were unable to untangle the complex mix of factors that may influence fishers' compliance decisions, including enforcement, moral norms, perceived legitimacy of regulations and the behaviour of others. We compared seven multivariate behavioural models of fisher compliance decisions using structural equation modeling. An online survey of over 300 recreational fishers tested the ability of each model to best predict their compliance with two fishing regulations (daily and size limits. The best fitting model for both regulations was composed solely of psycho-social factors, with social norms having the greatest influence on fishers' compliance behaviour. Fishers' attitude also directly affected compliance with size limit, but to a lesser extent. On the basis of these findings, we suggest behavioural interventions to target social norms instead of increasing enforcement for the focal regulations in the recreational blue cod fishery in the Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand. These interventions could include articles in local newspapers and fishing magazines highlighting the extent of regulation compliance as well as using respected local fishers to emphasize the benefits of compliance through public meetings or letters to the editor. Our methodological approach can be broadly applied by natural resource managers as an effective tool to identify drivers of compliance that can then guide the design of interventions to decrease illegal resource use.

  15. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai


    Full Text Available The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act. Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg.

  16. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.


    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  17. Watershed monitoring and modelling and USA regulatory compliance. (United States)

    Turner, B G; Boner, M C


    The aim of the Columbus program was to implement a comprehensive watershed monitoring-network including water chemistry, aquatic biology and alternative sensors to establish water environment health and methods for determining future restoration progress and early warning for protection of drinking water supplies. The program was implemented to comply with USA regulatory requirements including Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) rules of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Source Water Assessment and Protection (SWAP) rules under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Water Environment Research Foundation provided quality assurance oversight. The results obtained demonstrated that significant wet weather data is necessary to establish relationships between land use, water chemistry, aquatic biology and sensor data. These measurements and relationships formed the basis for calibrating the US EPA BASINS Model, prioritizing watershed health and determination of compliance with water quality standards. Conclusions specify priorities of cost-effective drainage system controls that attenuate stormwater flows and capture flushed pollutants. A network of permanent long-term real-time monitoring using combination of continuous sensor measurements, water column sampling and aquatic biology surveys and a regional organization is prescribed to protect drinking water supplies and measure progress towards water quality targets.

  18. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards (United States)


    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  19. Development of a Structural Model Explaining Medication Compliance of Persons with Schizophrenia


    Seo, Mi-A; Min, Sung-Kil


    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a structural model explaining medication compliance of schizophrenia. From a review of the literature, a hypothetical model was developed based on the conceptual framework of the Health Belief Model with medication knowledge, symptom severity and social support as the exogenous variables, and perceived benefits, perceived barriers, substance use and medication compliance as the endogenous variables. Data was collected at various mental health ...

  20. Integrated Environmental Assessment Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardanz, R.; Gimeno, B. S.; Bermejo, V.; Elvira, S.; Martin, F.; Palacios, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Donaire, I. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)


    This report describes the results of the Spanish participation in the project Coupling CORINAIR data to cost-effect emission reduction strategies based on critical threshold. (EU/LIFE97/ENV/FIN/336). The subproject has focused on three tasks. Develop tools to improve knowledge on the spatial and temporal details of emissions of air pollutants in Spain. Exploit existing experimental information on plant response to air pollutants in temperate ecosystem and Integrate these findings in a modelling framework that can asses with more accuracy the impact of air pollutants to temperate ecosystems. The results obtained during the execution of this project have significantly improved the models of the impact of alternative emission control strategies on ecosystems and crops in the Iberian Peninsula. (Author) 375 refs.

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). South Carolina Supplement. U.S. Army (United States)


    refuse and not to incinerate infectious, hazardous, or chemotherapeutic wastes. 1-24 COMPLIANCE CATEGORY: CLEAN AIR ACT (CAA) South Carolina Supplement...operates and maintains all facilities and systems permitted discharges must of treatment and control that are installed and used to achieve compliance collected for treatment plants using groundwa- ter sources. 3 - 24 COMPLIANCE CATEGORY: SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (SDWA) South Carolina Supplement

  2. FootSpring: A Compliance Model for the ATHLETE Family of Robots (United States)

    Wheeler, Dawn Deborah; Chavez-Clemente, Daniel; Sunspiral, Vytas K.


    This paper describes and evaluates one method of modeling compliance in a wheel-on-leg walking robot. This method assumes that all of the robot s compliance takes place at the ground contact points, specifically the tires and legs, and that the rest of the robot is rigid. Optimization is used to solve for the displacement of the feet and of the center of gravity. This method was tested on both robots of the ATHLETE family, which have different compliance. For both robots, the model predicts the sag of points on the robot chassis with an average error of about one percent of the height of the robot.

  3. Compliance Modeling and Error Compensation of a 3-Parallelogram Lightweight Robotic Arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Guo, Sheng; Bai, Shaoping


    This paper presents compliance modeling and error compensation for lightweight robotic arms built with parallelogram linkages, i.e., Π joints. The Cartesian stiffness matrix is derived using the virtual joint method. Based on the developed stiffness model, a method to compensate the compliance...... error is introduced, being illustrated with a 3-parallelogram robot in the application of pick-and-place operation. The results show that this compensation method can effectively improve the operation accuracy....

  4. (Validity of environmental transfer models)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Gardner, R.H.


    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international cooperative study initiated in 1985 by the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection to test models designed to calculate the environmental transfer and bioaccumulation of radionuclides and other trace substances. The objective of the symposium and workshop was to synthesize results obtained during Phase 1 of BIOMOVS (the first five years of the study) and to suggest new directions that might be pursued during Phase 2 of BIOMOVS. The travelers were an instrumental part of the development of BIOMOVS. This symposium allowed the travelers to present a review of past efforts at model validation and a synthesis of current activities and to refine ideas concerning future development of models and data for assessing the fate, effect, and human risks of environmental contaminants. R. H. Gardner also visited the Free University, Amsterdam, and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven to confer with scientists about current research in theoretical ecology and the use of models for estimating the transport and effect of environmental contaminants and to learn about the European efforts to map critical loads of acid deposition.

  5. Analytical Compliance Modeling of Serial Flexure-Based Compliant Mechanism Under Arbitrary Applied Load (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Jiang, Yao; Li, Tie-Min


    Analytical compliance model is vital to the flexure- based compliant mechanism in its mechanical design and motion control. The matrix is a common and effective approach in the compliance modeling while it is not well developed for the closed-loop serial and parallel compliant mechanisms and is not applicable to the situation when the external loads are applied on the flexure members. Concise and explicit analytical compliance models of the serial flexure-based compliant mechanisms under arbitrary loads are derived by using the matrix method. An equivalent method is proposed to deal with the situation when the external loads are applied on the flexure members. The external loads are transformed to concentrated forces applied on the rigid links, which satisfy the equations of static equilibrium and also guarantee that the deformations at the displacement output point remain unchanged. Then the matrix method can be still adopted for the compliance analysis of the compliant mechanism. Finally, several specific examples and an experimental test are given to verify the effectiveness of the compliance models and the force equivalent method. The research enriches the matrix method and provides concise analytical compliance models for the serial compliant mechanism.

  6. A Model of Tax Compliance Under Budget-Constrained Auditors


    Graetz, Michael J.; Jennifer F. Reinganum; Wilde, Louis L.


    In the midst of various taxpayer "revolts" and federal budget deficits of unprecedented magnitude, noncompliance with federal and state income tax laws has become an issue of significant policy concern. If the IRS' budget is limited, the probability that any individual taxpayer will be audited depends on the behavior of other taxpayers. Thus the problem of compliance involves a "congestion" effect, which generates strategic interaction among taxpayers as well as between taxpayers and the IRS....

  7. Modeling Environmental Literacy of University Students (United States)

    Teksoz, Gaye; Sahin, Elvan; Tekkaya-Oztekin, Ceren


    The present study proposed an Environmental Literacy Components Model to explain how environmental attitudes, environmental responsibility, environmental concern, and environmental knowledge as well as outdoor activities related to each other. A total of 1,345 university students responded to an environmental literacy survey (Kaplowitz and Levine…

  8. Model-Driven Management of Internal Controls for Business Process Compliance


    Namiri, Kioumars


    The thesis tackles the problem of high effort for achieving business process compliance to regulations in the area of Enterprise Risk Management. Common to these regulations are requirements on the presence of effective internal controls in companies. The level of automation with regard to translating compliance requirements into a set of internal controls and assuring the effectiveness of these controls during execution of business processes is raised thorugh a novel model-driven approach.

  9. Environmental Compliance Assessment Protocol-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ECAP-CDC) (United States)


    Fire Safety Section (9) Medical Services (14) Grouds Maintenance Section (20) Food Service Manager 6-7 6-8 PESTICIDE MANAGFMEN1 Records to Review...Services (14) Grounds Maintenance Section (20) Food Service Manager 6-11 COMPLIANCE CATEGORY: PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT Centers for Disease Control and...Medical Services (14) Grounds Maintenance Section (20) Food Service Manager 6-12 COMPLIANCE CATEGORY: PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT Centers for Disease Control

  10. Testing and validating environmental models (United States)

    Kirchner, J.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Kendall, C.; Neal, C.; Leavesley, G.


    Generally accepted standards for testing and validating ecosystem models would benefit both modellers and model users. Universally applicable test procedures are difficult to prescribe, given the diversity of modelling approaches and the many uses for models. However, the generally accepted scientific principles of documentation and disclosure provide a useful framework for devising general standards for model evaluation. Adequately documenting model tests requires explicit performance criteria, and explicit benchmarks against which model performance is compared. A model's validity, reliability, and accuracy can be most meaningfully judged by explicit comparison against the available alternatives. In contrast, current practice is often characterized by vague, subjective claims that model predictions show 'acceptable' agreement with data; such claims provide little basis for choosing among alternative models. Strict model tests (those that invalid models are unlikely to pass) are the only ones capable of convincing rational skeptics that a model is probably valid. However, 'false positive' rates as low as 10% can substantially erode the power of validation tests, making them insufficiently strict to convince rational skeptics. Validation tests are often undermined by excessive parameter calibration and overuse of ad hoc model features. Tests are often also divorced from the conditions under which a model will be used, particularly when it is designed to forecast beyond the range of historical experience. In such situations, data from laboratory and field manipulation experiments can provide particularly effective tests, because one can create experimental conditions quite different from historical data, and because experimental data can provide a more precisely defined 'target' for the model to hit. We present a simple demonstration showing that the two most common methods for comparing model predictions to environmental time series (plotting model time series

  11. Uncertainty quantification for environmental models (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.; Lu, Dan; Kavetski, Dmitri; Clark, Martyn P.; Ye, Ming


    Environmental models are used to evaluate the fate of fertilizers in agricultural settings (including soil denitrification), the degradation of hydrocarbons at spill sites, and water supply for people and ecosystems in small to large basins and cities—to mention but a few applications of these models. They also play a role in understanding and diagnosing potential environmental impacts of global climate change. The models are typically mildly to extremely nonlinear. The persistent demand for enhanced dynamics and resolution to improve model realism [17] means that lengthy individual model execution times will remain common, notwithstanding continued enhancements in computer power. In addition, high-dimensional parameter spaces are often defined, which increases the number of model runs required to quantify uncertainty [2]. Some environmental modeling projects have access to extensive funding and computational resources; many do not. The many recent studies of uncertainty quantification in environmental model predictions have focused on uncertainties related to data error and sparsity of data, expert judgment expressed mathematically through prior information, poorly known parameter values, and model structure (see, for example, [1,7,9,10,13,18]). Approaches for quantifying uncertainty include frequentist (potentially with prior information [7,9]), Bayesian [13,18,19], and likelihood-based. A few of the numerous methods, including some sensitivity and inverse methods with consequences for understanding and quantifying uncertainty, are as follows: Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging; single-objective optimization with error-based weighting [7] and multi-objective optimization [3]; methods based on local derivatives [2,7,10]; screening methods like OAT (one at a time) and the method of Morris [14]; FAST (Fourier amplitude sensitivity testing) [14]; the Sobol' method [14]; randomized maximum likelihood [10]; Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) [10

  12. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia. (United States)

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G


    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  13. An empirical model for the equivalent translational compliance of steel studs. (United States)

    Davy, John L; Guigou-Carter, Catherine; Villot, Michel


    The effect of the resilience of the steel studs on the sound insulation of steel stud cavity walls can be modeled as an equivalent translational compliance in simple models for predicting the sound insulation of walls. Recent numerical calculations have shown that this equivalent translational compliance varies with frequency. This paper determines the values of the equivalent translational compliance of steel studs which make a simple sound insulation theory agree best with experimental sound insulation data for 126 steel stud cavity walls with gypsum plaster board on each side of the steel studs and sound absorbing material in the wall cavity. These values are approximately constant as a function of frequency up to 400 Hz. Above 400 Hz they decrease approximately as a non-integer power of the frequency. The equivalent translational compliance also depends on the mass per unit surface area of the cladding on each side of the steel studs and on the width of the steel studs. Above 400 Hz, this compliance also depends on the stud spacing. The best fit approximation is used with a simple sound insulation prediction model to predict the sound insulation of steel stud cavity walls whose sound insulation has been determined experimentally.

  14. Current Problems of Improving the Environmental Certification and Output Compliance Verification in the Context of Environmental Management in Kazakhstan (United States)

    Zhambaev, Yerzhan S.; Sagieva, Galia K.; Bazarbek, Bakhytzhan Zh.; Akkulov, Rustem T.


    The article discusses the issues of improving the activity of subjects of environmental management in accordance with international environmental standards and national environmental legislation. The article deals with the problem of ensuring the implementation of international environmental standards, the introduction of eco-management, and the…

  15. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O' Holleran


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  16. Construction: a model program for infection control compliance. (United States)

    Kidd, Francine; Buttner, Clark; Kressel, Amy B


    hospital acquired Aspergillus infections. In the 5th year, after a neighboring institution started demolition and new construction, we identified two possible nosocomial infections and took immediate steps to make more corrections. There have been no further infections. The IC compliance is based on trust, education, and on-going monitoring. Proactive education and collaboration lead to long-term relationships, trust and patient safety. This article describes how a large teaching hospital's infection prevention program achieved compliance from contractors during a large renovation.

  17. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Compliance Based on Poroelastic Theory. Part I: Model Formulation and Analytical Expressions (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Qu, Shou-Li; Ding, Ping-Bo; Zhao, Qun


    The presence of bedding-parallel fractures at any scale in a rock will considerably add to its compliance and elastic anisotropy. Those properties will be more significantly affected when there is a relatively high degree of connectivity between the fractures and the corresponding interconnected pores. This contribution uses linear poroelasticity to reveal the characteristics of the full frequency-dependent compliance of an infinitely extended fracture model assuming the periodicity of the fractured structures. The fracture compliance tensor is complex-valued due to the wave-induced fluid flow between fractures and pores. The interaction between the adjacent fractures is considered under fluid mass conservation throughout the whole pore space. The quantitative effects of fracture (volume) density (the ratio between fracture thickness and spacing) and host rock porosity are analyzed by the diffusion equation for a relatively low-frequency band. The model in this paper is equivalent to the classical dry linear slip model when the bulk modulus of fluid in the fractures tends to zero. For the liquid-filled case, the model becomes the anisotropic Gassmann's model and sealed saturated linear slip model at the low-frequency and high-frequency limits, respectively. Using the dynamic compliance definition, we can effectively distinguish the saturating fluids in the fractures with the same order magnitude of bulk modulus (e.g., water and oil) using the compliance ratio method. Additionally, the modified dynamic model can be simplified as acceptable empirical formulas if the strain on the fractures induced by the incoming waves is small enough.

  18. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2) (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher


    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  19. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in fiscal year 2009. (United States)


    In FY 2009, Federal and State enforcement personnel conducted more than 15,000 compliance reviews (CRs) on individual motor carriers. It is intended that through education, heightened safety regulation awareness, and the enforcement effects of the CR...

  20. FMCSA safety program effectiveness measurement : compliance review effectiveness model results for carriers with compliance reviews in FY 2008 (United States)


    In FY 2008, Federal and State enforcement personnel conducted 14,906 compliance reviews (CRs) on individual motor carriers. It is intended that through education, heightened safety regulation awareness, and the enforcement effects of the CR, carriers...

  1. Environmental model for a capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Eugenia Toca Torres


    Full Text Available From a review of the various options for modeling a sustainable development in its environmental dimension, this research proposes a model of environmental impact for Bogota, using the Vensim PLE software to model the pollution, the pollution load and soil contamination. The model includes a limited number of endogenous variables, as well as a greater number of exogenous variables. This modeling allows us to anticipate the environmental situation in the capital, in order to support public policies for addressing issues such as economic sanctions and moral regulations on emissions, discharges and waste, environmental measures and environmentally friendly practices

  2. Maximizing Benefits through Simultaneous Compliance with Multiple Process Models (United States)

    2011-05-01 Example Reference Models CMMI-DEV CMMI-SVC CMMI-ACQ ISO 15504 ISO 9000 AS 9100 ISO 20000 Si Si ITIL x gma Malcolm Baldrige Slide #: 4...and safety Slide #: 6 rbechtold@abridge-tech.comAbridge Technology Abridge Technology Example Reference Models ITIL

  3. The Environmental Self-Audit for Campus-Based Organizations: A Quick and Easy Guide to Environmental Compliance. (United States)

    New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany.

    This guide is intended to help public and not-for-profit campus-based organizations in New York State to comply with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The environmental self-audit serves as a basic diagnostic tool for campus-based organizations (centralized schools, colleges/universities, correctional facilities, mental health…

  4. Corporate Average Fuel Economy Compliance and Effects Modeling System Documentation (United States)


    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) of the United States Department of Transportation's Research and Innovative Technology Administration has developed a modeling system to assist the National Highway Traffic Safety Admini...

  5. Towards Using Reo for Compliance-Aware Business Process Modeling (United States)

    Arbab, Farhad; Kokash, Natallia; Meng, Sun

    Business process modeling and implementation of process supporting infrastructures are two challenging tasks that are not fully aligned. On the one hand, languages such as Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) exist to capture business processes at the level of domain analysis. On the other hand, programming paradigms and technologies such as Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) and web services have emerged to simplify the development of distributed web systems that underly business processes. BPMN is the most recognized language for specifying process workflows at the early design steps. However, it is rather declarative and may lead to the executable models which are incomplete or semantically erroneous. Therefore, an approach for expressing and analyzing BPMN models in a formal setting is required. In this paper we describe how BPMN diagrams can be represented by means of a semantically precise channel-based coordination language called Reo which admits formal analysis using model checking and bisimulation techniques. Moreover, since additional requirements may come from various regulatory/legislative documents, we discuss the opportunities offered by Reo and its mathematical abstractions for expressing process-related constraints such as Quality of Service (QoS) or time-aware conditions on process states.

  6. Revised health and safety compliance model for the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extraction method employed on the theoretical six factor model during the EFA was Principal Axis Factoring with Oblimin Rotation (PAF Oblimin).Findings from the study show that Total Variance Explained had fourteen factors above 1.00. Further findings show that four factors were retained from the six factor theoretical ...

  7. Achieving compliance with environmental health-related land use planning conditions in Hong Kong: perspectives from traditional motivation theories. (United States)

    Man, Rita Li Yi


    Environmental health-related land use planning conditions can enhance the environment in Hong Kong. Previous research by others has shown, however, that a lack of compliance with planning conditions often occurs. And as no direct enforcement of planning conditions exists in Hong Kong, it is of interest to understand possible ways in which to increase the motivation of land developers and property owners to comply with planning conditions. The author looked at motivation from the perspective of three traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, and incentive theory. While the majority of this article focuses on the enforcement and the legal tests in land use planning conditions, it also presents the results of the first study of the motivations behind Hong Kong land developers to comply with land use planning conditions.

  8. Anaerobic Biological Treatment of Vinasse for Environmental Compliance and Methane Production. (United States)

    Albanez, R; Chiaranda, B C; Ferreira, R G; França, A L P; Honório, C D; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M


    The energy crisis resulted in increasing awareness that alternative sources of energy should be considered. During this time, Brazil implemented ethanol production from sugarcane as biofuel. However, during this process, large amounts of residues are generated, such as vinasse. This residue can be treated anaerobically to generate methane as a source of bioenergy with the use of sequencing batch reactors operated with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR). In this work, tests were conducted in an AnSBBR laboratory-scale reactor, and the main results regarding the kinetic model fitting and performance of substrate consumption (83 %), methane content in the biogas (77 %), applied organic load (5.54 g COD L(-1) day(-1)), methane productivity (973 N-mL CH4 L(-1) day(-1)), and yield (9.47 mol CH4 kg COD(-1)) show that AnSBBR is a promising technological alternative. After tests conducted in a laboratory-scale reactor, an industrial reactor was scaled and was also operated in a sequencing batch with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) for the anaerobic treatment of vinasse with the goal of generating methane and environmental suitability to further disposal in soil. The calculations were performed based on data from a sugar and alcohol plant located in São Paulo, Brazil. This study proposes to the operation of the industrial scale reactor was the association of four AnSBBR (each one with a volume of 15849 m(3)) operating in parallel (with a feeding and discharge time of 4 h and a reaction time of 8 h), with the goal of adapting the treatment system from a discontinuous operation to a continuous operation. In this industrial scenario, the methane production was estimated at 1.65 × 10(6) mol CH4 day(-1), and the energy was approximately 17 MW, increasing the possible energy recovery contained in sugarcane from 93 to 96 %.

  9. Positive random fields for modeling material stiffness and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasofer, Abraham Michael; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob


    with material properties modeled in terms of the considered random fields.The paper addsthe gamma field, the Fisher field, the beta field, and their reciprocal fields to the catalogue. These fields are all defined on the basis of sums of squares of independent standard Gaussian random variables.All the existing......Positive random fields with known marginal properties and known correlation function are not numerous in the literature. The most prominent example is the log\\-normal field for which the complete distribution is known and for which the reciprocal field is also lognormal. It is of interest...... to supplement the catalogue of positive fields beyond the class of those obtained by simple marginal transformation of a Gaussian field, this class containing the lognormal field.As a minimum for a random field to be included in the catalogue itis required that an algorithm for simulation of realizations can...

  10. Dynamic modeling and simulation of trailer with compliance steering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Wang


    Full Text Available Stability of a vehicle and tire wear is affected by the movement inference between the tractor and the trailer when the trailer is turning. Therefore, to solve the problem, Compliant Steering (CS system is used. The system makes the rear-wheel of the trailer steer. After establishing a dynamic model of the trailer and the CS system, the simulation result shows that the system has a smaller lateral force. This smaller force at the hinge point indicates movement inference is reduced and motion response is far better. Furthermore, this paper contains the analysis of the influence of the key parameters of CS system and the speed on the moving characteristics of the trailer.

  11. 77 FR 3935 - National Environmental Policy Act Compliance for Proposed Tower Registrations; Effects of... (United States)


    ... occasions considered the impact of particular proposed construction projects on migratory birds and, in... the EA to determine whether the tower will have a significant environmental impact. This processing..., Memorandum Opinion and Order, 21 FCC Rcd 4462, 4468, para. 18 (2006). These rules apply to the processing of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Putri Larasati


    Full Text Available A business risk has been an inherent part of companies’ activities nowadays. It relates to threats and opportunities which make a majority of companies manage the risk. The business risk also has been concerned by public particularly in term of environmental risk. A failure to manage the environment may result in negative reactions from public. The negative reactions are predicaments for company’s economy. Therefore, companies have also considered the significance of the environmental risk management. An example of these companies is Shell Oil Company which suffered environmental issue in 1999. Accordingly, this paper aims to evaluate the risk management conducted by the Shell Company which focuses on company’s effort to maintain good relationship with stakeholders in its environmental risk management. There were determinant factors in the successful risk management. The first factor is an efficient and effective implementation of risk management cycle. Secondly, a practice of risk management phase. The third factor is effective social activities. The fourth factor is a significance of risk management application since the establishment of company. The fifth factor is an importance of efficient and effective communication with stakeholders. Finally, a substantial contribution from media is prominent aspect in company’s risk management.

  13. The Environmental Impact Assessment: a new tool for a new quality in ecological compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Theresa Lucarelli


    Full Text Available The growing awareness that environmental protection is a top priority in terms of ethical, social as well as economic, has been determined since the 70's the definition of tools and procedures able to ensure control of the processes of transformation of the territory and environment. Among these, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA included into the Italian legislation almost thirty years ago as a tool for knowledge and information in support of the "decision-makers" both public and private, is an effective procedure even though complex to verify, in advance, the environmental compatibility of projects and interventions of various types and dangers. This paper will highlight, through a critical analysis, the characterizing steps within a wider examination, also normative, that draws attention: on the possible relation with strategic decisions on which functions and sustainable activities in the territory are calibrated; on the aspects of the preliminary assessment, necessary for its proper application, and on the results that are intended to achieve the goals of environmental protection at the base of the same.

  14. Cable compliance (United States)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.


    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  15. Responding to compliance changes in a lung model during manual ventilation: perhaps volume, rather than pressure, should be displayed. (United States)

    Kattwinkel, John; Stewart, Corrine; Walsh, Brian; Gurka, Matthew; Paget-Brown, Alix


    The standard technique for positive-pressure ventilation is to regulate the breath size by varying the pressure applied to the bag. Investigators have argued that consistency of peak inspiratory pressure is important. However, research shows that excessive tidal volume delivered with excessive pressure injures preterm lungs, which suggests that inspiratory pressure should be varied during times of changing compliance, such as resuscitation of newborns or treatment after surfactant delivery. We modified a computerized lung model (ASL5000 [IngMar Medical, Pittsburgh, PA]) to simulate the functional residual capacity of a 3-kg neonate with apnea and programmed it to change compliance during ventilation. Forty-five professionals were blinded to randomized compliance changes while using a flow-inflating bag, a self-inflating bag, and a T-piece resuscitator. We instructed subjects to maintain a constant inflation volume, first while blinded to delivered volume and then with volume displayed, with all 3 devices. Subjects adapted to compliance changes by adjusting inflation pressure more effectively when delivered volume was displayed. When only pressure was displayed, sensing of compliance changes occurred only with the self-inflating bag. When volume was displayed, adjustments to compliance changes occurred with all 3 devices, although the self-inflating bag was superior. In this lung model, volume display permitted far better detection of compliance changes compared with display of only pressure. Devices for administration of positive-pressure ventilation should display volume rather than pressure.

  16. Using automated environmental management information systems to enable compliance: Ten questions to answer before selecting a software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.B.


    As technology invades the arena of environmental information management, hundreds of software packages have become available in the marketplace. How does the already overwhelmed environmental manager or IT professional decide what's right for the organization? Is there a software package that meets the needs of the organization, and is there a successful way to implement the system? Does this require abandoning existing systems with which users are comfortable? Can the system really save time and/or money? This paper discusses three topics: What drives the need for a system; Ten questions to aid in selecting a system that is right for your organization; and enabling technology and software systems available today, and the future application of technology to environmental data management. Motivating factors for EMIS include regulatory, business and IT drivers. Because of the ever-increasing regulatory burden, the need to demonstrate compliance often is the strongest driver. But they cannot ignore business and IT drivers from the discussion, especially with issues such as Enterprise Resource Planning and The Year 2000 impacting many systems projects. Before selecting a system, the organization should address, at a minimum, the following ten issues: (1) Organization objectives; (2) Organization readiness; (3) High-level processes to be automated; (4) Integration and interfaces; (5) User community and needs; (6) Technical requirements; (7) Degree of customization; (8) Project timing; (9) Implementation resource needs; and (10) System justification. Today, there are hundreds of EH and S software packages available too help automate daily business processes. Only a few are multimedia packages, and all require significant implementation efforts. The EMIS market is still evolving, and software vendors continue to enhance product features and usability.

  17. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...

  18. Cross compliance GAEC standards implemented in Italy: environmental effectiveness and strategic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi


    Full Text Available The debate on the future of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, which is growing at European and National level, is notably and closely linked to the choices of EU related to the financial perspectives for the period 2014-2010. A public consultation on such topic has been started off by the EU Agriculture Commissioner Dacian Cioloş, who has left for the moment the two dossiers aside, giving priority to the identification of the agricultural policy post-2013 objectives. The debate on the new CAP reform, starting from the always ancient but modern general objectives which remained unchanged with the Lisbon Treaty, is now subject to an in-depth analysis and revision to identify new specific objectives in the wider framework of the European strategy 2010 identified by the EU executive body. However, the future outlooks can not neglect the need for stocktaking and what has been learned through the present and recent past experiences. In order to focus the theme of this special issue of the Italian Journal of Agronomy, we must remember that on 26th June 2003, EU farm ministers adopted a fundamental reform of the CAP and introduced a new single payment scheme (SPS, or Single Farm Payment intended to change the way the EU supported its farm sector by removing the link between subsidies and production of specific crops. The Single Farm Payment is linked to meeting environmental, public, animal and plant health and animal welfare standards and the need to keep land in good agricultural and environmental condition. To gain funds from the SPS the Farmer has to cross comply - that is, to farm in an environmentally friendly way. COUNCIL REGULATION (EC No 1782/2003 states that: Member States shall define, at national or regional level, minimum requirements for good agricultural and environmental condition on the basis of the framework set up in Annex IV, taking into account the specific characteristics of the areas concerned, including soil and climatic

  19. Modeling of 3D crustal shear structures from compliance measurements near East Pacific Rise 9°50' (United States)

    Zha, Y.; Nooner, S. L.; Crawford, W. C.; Webb, S. C.


    Measurements of the seafloor deformation under ocean wave loading (seafloor compliance) in the infra-gravity band (0.002-0.03 Hz) reveal the distribution of melt in mid-ocean ridge magma bodies through the dependence of the compliance signal on shear modulus. We have studied the sensitivity of the compliance signal to crustal structures in three dimensions using 3-D finite element modeling. We model a series of compliance measurements near the ridge crest at 9°48'N along the East Pacific Rise from 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2007. This time series reveal significant variation in the distribution of melt in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the site from 1994 to 2007 with most of the changes occurring following the eruption in 2005-2006. We show new crustal models from beneath the EPR 9°48 site and also from the 9°08 overlapping spreading center. The new 3-D modeling replaces previous 1-D modeling for inversion of the data. The new modeling suggests that the compliance results are primarily sensitive to large scale, low velocity zones, and not to thin melt lenses of dimensions comparable to the AMC reflector. This is different from our previous predictions using 1D modeling, that suggested a narrow, 100-meter-thick zone of pure melt in the lower crust could be identified from anomalous compliance values. Previous modeling identified the compliance peak at low frequencies (5-10 mHz) with a low velocity zone in the mid to lower crust (4-6km from the seafloor). The new modeling shows this peak is consistent with a deep low velocity zone but shows it must be at least 15km wide to be as large as detected in the compliance measurements. Therefore the measurements from before 1999 indicate a wide low velocity zone beneath 9°48. The 2007 measurements reflect a significant decrease in partial melt volume both shallow and deep in the crust. In addition, we have investigated the dependence of the compliance response to ocean waves from different directions (along and across

  20. The Impact of Internet Health Information on Patient Compliance: A Research Model and an Empirical Study. (United States)

    Laugesen, John; Hassanein, Khaled; Yuan, Yufei


    Patients have been increasingly seeking and using Internet health information to become more active in managing their own health in a partnership with their physicians. This trend has both positive and negative effects on the interactions between patients and their physicians. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact that the increasing use of Internet health information has on the patient-physician relationship and patients' compliance with their treatment regimens. This study examines the impact of patients' use of Internet health information on various elements that characterize the interactions between a patient and her/his physician through a theoretical model based on principal-agent theory and the information asymmetry perspective. A survey-based study consisting of 225 participants was used to validate a model through various statistical techniques. A full assessment of the measurement model and structural model was completed in addition to relevant post hoc analyses. This research revealed that both patient-physician concordance and perceived information asymmetry have significant effects on patient compliance, with patient-physician concordance exhibiting a considerably stronger relationship. Additionally, both physician quality and Internet health information quality have significant effects on patient-physician concordance, with physician quality exhibiting a much stronger relationship. Finally, only physician quality was found to have a significant impact on perceived information asymmetry, whereas Internet health information quality had no impact on perceived information asymmetry. Overall, this study found that physicians can relax regarding their fears concerning patient use of Internet health information because physician quality has the greatest impact on patients and their physician coming to an agreement on their medical situation and recommended treatment regimen as well as patient's compliance with their physician's advice when

  1. Environmental permit tracking and compliance: Central Artery/Tunnel Project, Boston, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbush, L. (BSC Group, Boston, MA (United States))


    The Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project in Boston, Massachusetts involves the replacement of the existing I-93 interstate highway (Central Artery) and the extension of I-90 (Massachusetts Turnpike) to Logan International Airport. To date, approximately 95 environmental and related permits have been obtained for the CA/T Project. At least 200 permits from federal, state and local regulatory agencies will be acquired for the entire Project. The proposed action includes construction activities and permanent structures related to the crossing of three bodies of water: Charles River, Fort Point Channel, and Boston Inner Harbor. The Project also includes work in Massachusetts filled tidelands, relocation or construction of outfalls, disposition of construction dewatering and tunnel drainage fluids, and capping of an abandoned landfill. The number of permits, interrelationships between permits and interfaces with design and construction schedules have necessitated the development and implementation of a permit tracking system. The system tracks permit applications from preparation through public and agency review to permit issuance. The issues are discussed in detail: Phased development of the tracking system; Utilization of Project standard scheduling system software, Primavera Project Planner; How the information generated by the tracking system is used at the Project; Report format and production; Construction phase services and the multidiscipline, integrated Project schedule.

  2. The integrated environmental control model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  3. Communications systems and their models: Massachusetts parent compliance with recommended specialty care after positive cystic fibrosis newborn screening result. (United States)

    Comeau, Anne Marie; Parad, Richard; Gerstle, Robert; O'Sullivan, Brian P; Dorkin, Henry L; Dovey, Mark; Haver, Kenan; Martin, Tom; Eaton, Roger B


    To evaluate compliance with recommendations for sweat testing/specialty evaluation and genetic counseling after a positive cystic fibrosis newborn screening (CF NBS) result. All infants with positive CF NBS results require a diagnostic sweat test at a CF center. Results that were "screen positive and diagnosis negative" prompted family genetic counseling. Parent compliance with follow-up protocol recommendations was retrospectively analyzed relative to the communications model in place at a particular CF Center. At each of the 5 MA CF centers, 95% of the CF NBS-positive infants completed recommended sweat testing. In contrast, there was wide disparity in compliance (32%-90%) with completion of genetic counseling between CF centers. CF centers that escorted parents through the 2 recommended follow-up steps in 1 day had higher compliance with the second step (genetic counseling) than centers that required a return visit for genetic counseling.

  4. Patient compliance with a group model of care: the hernia clinic. (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Baukje; Vair, Brock; Porter, Geoff; Klassen, Dennis; Inglis, Karen; Bonjer, H Jaap


    In February 2006, a hernia clinic was established at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It was based on a group model of care and was established to increase effective use of resources to reduce waiting times. We conducted a survey of patients referred to the hernia clinic to determine compliance. We developed and mailed a questionnaire to all patients who had surgery after assessment at the hernia clinic. Data were analyzed for the entire study group and for 2 subgroups: patients in group I had the same surgeon for assessment and surgery, whereas patients in group II had a different surgeon for assessment and surgery. Differences between subgroups were assessed using the 2-tailed Fisher exact test. Waiting times were recorded. In all, 94 patients responded to the survey. Of these, 67% had the same surgeon for assessment and surgery, and 31% had a different surgeon; 2% were not sure. Two-thirds were comfortable having their surgery performed by a surgeon whom they met the day of surgery. Most patients had confidence in the competence of any surgeon and considered service to be better and faster in a specialized centre. Most felt that a group of surgeons providing hernia care uses resources more effectively. The waiting times from referral to initial consult decreased from 208 (standard deviation [SD] 139) days in 2007 to 59 (SD 70) days in 2009. Patient compliance with a group model of care for hernia surgery is high.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Kholifah


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB in Indonesia is still health problem and the prevalence rate is high. Discontinuing medication and lack of family support are the causalities. Numbers of strategies to overcome are seemingly not succeeded. Roles and responsibilities of family nursing are crucial to improve participation, motivation of individual, family and community in prevention, including pulmonary tuberculosis. Unfortunately, models of pulmonary tuberculosis currently unavailable. The combination of adaptation and conservation in complementarily improving family support and compliance in medication is introduced in this study. Method: This research intended to analyze Adaptive Conservation Model (ACM in extending family support and treatment compliance. Modeling steps including model analysis, expert validation, field trial, implementation and recommending the output model. Research subject involves 15 families who implement family Assistance and supervision in Medication (ASM and other 15 families with ACM. Result: The study revealed ACM is better than ASM on the case of family support and medication compliances. It supports the role of environment as influential factor on individual health belief, values and decision making. Therefore, it is advised to apply ACM in enhancing family support and compliance of pulmonary TB patients. Discussion: Social and family supports to ACM group obtained by developing interaction through communication. Family interaction necessary to improve family support to pulmonary tuberculosis patients. And social support plays as motivator to maintain compliance on medication

  6. Modeling interfacial liquid layers on environmental ices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kuo


    Full Text Available Interfacial layers on ice significantly influence air-ice chemical interactions. In solute-containing aqueous systems, a liquid brine may form upon freezing due to the exclusion of impurities from the ice crystal lattice coupled with freezing point depression in the concentrated brine. The brine may be segregated to the air-ice interface where it creates a surface layer, in micropockets, or at grain boundaries or triple junctions.

    We present a model for brines and their associated liquid layers in environmental ice systems that is valid over a wide range of temperatures and solute concentrations. The model is derived from fundamental equlibrium thermodynamics and takes into account nonideal solution behavior in the brine, partitioning of the solute into the ice matrix, and equilibration between the brine and the gas phase for volatile solutes. We find that these phenomena are important to consider when modeling brines in environmental ices, especially at low temperatures. We demonstrate its application for environmentally important volatile and nonvolatile solutes including NaCl, HCl, and HNO3. The model is compared to existing models and experimental data from literature where available. We also identify environmentally relevant regimes where brine is not predicted to exist, but the QLL may significantly impact air-ice chemical interactions. This model can be used to improve the representation of air-ice chemical interactions in polar atmospheric chemistry models.

  7. International summit on integrated environmental modeling (United States)

    Gaber, Noha; Geller, Gary; Glynn, Pierre; Laniak, Gerry; Voinov, Alexey; Whelan, Gene; Roger, Moore; Hughes, Andrew


    This report describes the International Summit on Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM), held in Reston, VA, on 7th-9th December 2010. The meeting brought together 57 scientists and managers from leading US and European government and non-governmental organizations, universities and companies together with international organizations convened over a number of years, including: the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) workshop on Collaborative Approaches to Integrated Modeling: Better Integration for Better Decisionmaking (December, 2008); the AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco (December 2009); and the International Congress on Environmental Modeling and Software (July 2010). From these meetings there is now recognition that many separate communities are involved in developing IEM. The aim of the Summit was to bring together two key groupings, the US and Europe, with the intention of creating a community open to all.

  8. Application of transtheoretical model to assess the compliance of chronic periodontitis patients to periodontal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Emani


    Full Text Available Background: The present cross-sectional survey study was conducted to assess whether the transtheoretical model for oral hygiene behavior was interrelated in theoretically consistent directions in chronic periodontitis patients and its applicability to assess the compliance of the chronic periodontitis patients to the treatment suggested. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 chronic periodontitis patients were selected for the proposed study. The selected patients were given four questionnaires that were constructed based on transtheoretical model (TTM, and the patients were divided subsequently into five different groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance groups based on their answers to the questionnaires. Then, each patient was given four appointments for their periodontal treatment spaced with a time gap of 10 days. The patients visit for each appointments scheduled to them was documented. The results obtained were assessed using TTM. Results: Higher mean pro scores of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and process of change scores was recorded in maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group, respectively, whereas higher mean cons score was recorded in precontemplation group followed by contemplation group, preparation group, action group, and maintenance group, respectively. The difference scores of TTM constructs were statistically highly significant between all the five groups. Furthermore, the number of appointment attended in were significantly more than maintenance group followed by action group, preparation group, contemplation group, and precontemplation group. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that transtheoretical model can be successfully applied to chronic periodontitis patients to assess their compliance to the suggested periodontal treatment.

  9. Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.


    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) under contract Numbers FG22-83PC60271 and AC22-87PC79864. In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model.

  10. Characterization of intrinsic material properties of a model lipoproteic emulsion gel by oscillatory and creep compliance rheometry. (United States)

    Okada, Kyle S; Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo


    The effects of varying formulation and processing parameters on rheological properties in a model lipid/protein-based emulsion gel were studied. Heat-set model lipoproteic emulsion gels were prepared with varying levels of protein, lipid, and NaCl contents and high pressure homogenization treatments. Small deformation oscillatory rheometry, creep compliance, and pore size analysis experiments were used to characterize intrinsic structural properties, matrix interactions, and microstructure. Creep compliance behavior of the gel system was successfully modeled by a four-component Burgers model. Shear storage and loss moduli and Newtonian viscosity increased while instantaneous compliance, retarded compliance, and pore size decreased with increasing protein or fat content or homogenization pressure. The data obtained in this study provide information on factors affecting protein network structure and strength, properties may be useful for creating desirable attributes in lipid/protein-based foods with a further optimization process. This research evaluates the effects of formulation and processing factors on the properties of a protein/fat-based food system. These properties may be related to sodium mobility and salty taste perception. This research provides information on strategies that can be used to control factors influencing the physical properties of protein/fat-based food systems targeting sodium reduction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 29 CFR 2520.104-48 - Alternative method of compliance for model simplified employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP. (United States)


    ... employee pensions-IRS Form 5305-SEP. 2520.104-48 Section 2520.104-48 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... compliance for model simplified employee pensions—IRS Form 5305-SEP. Under the authority of section 110 of... Security Act of 1974 in the case of a simplified employee pension (SEP) described in section 408(k) of the...

  12. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  13. A model-driven privacy compliance decision support for medical data sharing in Europe. (United States)

    Boussi Rahmouni, H; Solomonides, T; Casassa Mont, M; Shiu, S; Rahmouni, M


    Clinical practitioners and medical researchers often have to share health data with other colleagues across Europe. Privacy compliance in this context is very important but challenging. Automated privacy guidelines are a practical way of increasing users' awareness of privacy obligations and help eliminating unintentional breaches of privacy. In this paper we present an ontology-plus-rules based approach to privacy decision support for the sharing of patient data across European platforms. We use ontologies to model the required domain and context information about data sharing and privacy requirements. In addition, we use a set of Semantic Web Rule Language rules to reason about legal privacy requirements that are applicable to a specific context of data disclosure. We make the complete set invocable through the use of a semantic web application acting as an interactive privacy guideline system can then invoke the full model in order to provide decision support. When asked, the system will generate privacy reports applicable to a specific case of data disclosure described by the user. Also reports showing guidelines per Member State may be obtained. The advantage of this approach lies in the expressiveness and extensibility of the modelling and inference languages adopted and the ability they confer to reason with complex requirements interpreted from high level regulations. However, the system cannot at this stage fully simulate the role of an ethics committee or review board.

  14. Modeling and adapting production environmental stress testing


    Wilson, Simon


    PUBLISHED This study describes the production sampling environmental stress test (PSEST) process and the offline analysis conducted. Some of the key characteristics and parameters of the test are outlined. The analytical process is based on two types of regression model, each of which links a dependent variable (the log of time to failure in each dwell, or the log of the number failed in each dwell) to independent variables such as temperature and age. These two types of regres...

  15. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren


    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  16. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta


    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  17. Towards policy relevant environmental modeling: contextual validity and pragmatic models (United States)

    Miles, Scott B.


    "What makes for a good model?" In various forms, this question is a question that, undoubtedly, many people, businesses, and institutions ponder with regards to their particular domain of modeling. One particular domain that is wrestling with this question is the multidisciplinary field of environmental modeling. Examples of environmental models range from models of contaminated ground water flow to the economic impact of natural disasters, such as earthquakes. One of the distinguishing claims of the field is the relevancy of environmental modeling to policy and environment-related decision-making in general. A pervasive view by both scientists and decision-makers is that a "good" model is one that is an accurate predictor. Thus, determining whether a model is "accurate" or "correct" is done by comparing model output to empirical observations. The expected outcome of this process, usually referred to as "validation" or "ground truthing," is a stamp on the model in question of "valid" or "not valid" that serves to indicate whether or not the model will be reliable before it is put into service in a decision-making context. In this paper, I begin by elaborating on the prevailing view of model validation and why this view must change. Drawing from concepts coming out of the studies of science and technology, I go on to propose a contextual view of validity that can overcome the problems associated with "ground truthing" models as an indicator of model goodness. The problem of how we talk about and determine model validity has much to do about how we perceive the utility of environmental models. In the remainder of the paper, I argue that we should adopt ideas of pragmatism in judging what makes for a good model and, in turn, developing good models. From such a perspective of model goodness, good environmental models should facilitate communication, convey—not bury or "eliminate"—uncertainties, and, thus, afford the active building of consensus decisions, instead

  18. Hydra, a model system for environmental studies. (United States)

    Quinn, Brian; Gagné, François; Blaise, Christian


    Hydra have been extensively used for studying the teratogenic and toxic potential of numerous toxins throughout the years and are more recently growing in popularity to assess the impacts of environmental pollutants. Hydra are an appropriate bioindicator species for use in environmental assessment owing to their easily measurable physical (morphology), biochemical (xenobiotic biotransformation; oxidative stress), behavioural (feeding) and reproductive (sexual and asexual) endpoints. Hydra also possess an unparalleled ability to regenerate, allowing the assessment of teratogenic compounds and the impact of contaminants on stem cells. Importantly, Hydra are ubiquitous throughout freshwater environments and relatively easy to culture making them appropriate for use in small scale bioassay systems. Hydra have been used to assess the environmental impacts of numerous environmental pollutants including metals, organic toxicants (including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds), nanomaterials and industrial and municipal effluents. They have been found to be among the most sensitive animals tested for metals and certain effluents, comparing favourably with more standardised toxicity tests. Despite their lack of use in formalised monitoring programmes, Hydra have been extensively used and are regarded as a model organism in aquatic toxicology.

  19. Model evaluation methodology applicable to environmental assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.


    A model evaluation methodology is presented to provide a systematic framework within which the adequacy of environmental assessment models might be examined. The necessity for such a tool is motivated by the widespread use of models for predicting the environmental consequences of various human activities and by the reliance on these model predictions for deciding whether a particular activity requires the deployment of costly control measures. Consequently, the uncertainty associated with prediction must be established for the use of such models. The methodology presented here consists of six major tasks: model examination, algorithm examination, data evaluation, sensitivity analyses, validation studies, and code comparison. This methodology is presented in the form of a flowchart to show the logical interrelatedness of the various tasks. Emphasis has been placed on identifying those parameters which are most important in determining the predictive outputs of a model. Importance has been attached to the process of collecting quality data. A method has been developed for analyzing multiplicative chain models when the input parameters are statistically independent and lognormally distributed. Latin hypercube sampling has been offered as a promising candidate for doing sensitivity analyses. Several different ways of viewing the validity of a model have been presented. Criteria are presented for selecting models for environmental assessment purposes.

  20. Underwater noise modelling for environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcas, Adrian [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Thompson, Paul M. [Lighthouse Field Station, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cromarty IV11 8YL (United Kingdom); Merchant, Nathan D., E-mail: [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)


    Assessment of underwater noise is increasingly required by regulators of development projects in marine and freshwater habitats, and noise pollution can be a constraining factor in the consenting process. Noise levels arising from the proposed activity are modelled and the potential impact on species of interest within the affected area is then evaluated. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the relationship between noise levels and impacts on aquatic species, the science underlying noise modelling is well understood. Nevertheless, many environmental impact assessments (EIAs) do not reflect best practice, and stakeholders and decision makers in the EIA process are often unfamiliar with the concepts and terminology that are integral to interpreting noise exposure predictions. In this paper, we review the process of underwater noise modelling and explore the factors affecting predictions of noise exposure. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of errors and uncertainties in noise modelling, and discuss future research needs to reduce uncertainty in noise assessments.

  1. Toward a food service quality management system for compliance with the Mediterranean dietary model. (United States)

    Grigoroudis, Evangelos; Psaroudaki, Antonia; Diakaki, Christina


    The traditional diet of Cretan people in the 1960s is the basis of the Mediterranean dietary model. This article investigates the potential of this model to inspire proposals of meals by food-serving businesses, and suggests a methodology for the development of a quality management system, which will certify the delivery of food service according to this dietary model. The proposed methodology is built upon the principles and structure of the ISO 9001:2008 quality standard to enable integration with other quality, environmental, and food safety management systems.

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Summaries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Summary of compliance status each outfall and parameter for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Provides the current compliance status and overall compliance...

  3. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  4. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at The Compliance module provides...

  5. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...

  6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance New Mapping Tool for Enforcement Cases (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The new mapping tool shows facilities in the United States where the EPA concluded formal environmental enforcement actions between October 1, 2008 and September 30,...

  7. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Carolina L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 μg/L to 10 μg/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= −0.27 μg As/L, 95% (CI, -0.5, -0.05. This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= −0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03. CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67; those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4 of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

  8. Advancing an Information Model for Environmental Observations (United States)

    Horsburgh, J. S.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Schreuders, K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Zaslavsky, I.


    have been modified to support data management for the Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). This paper will present limitations of the existing information model used by the CUAHSI HIS that have been uncovered through its deployment and use, as well as new advances to the information model, including: better representation of both in situ observations from field sensors and observations derived from environmental samples, extensibility in attributes used to describe observations, and observation provenance. These advances have been developed by the HIS team and the broader scientific community and will enable the information model to accommodate and better describe wider classes of environmental observations and to better meet the needs of the hydrologic science and CZO communities.

  9. Environmental Journalism and Environmental Communication Education: Identifying an Educational Model. (United States)

    Casey, William E.

    News coverage of the environment has been the subject of intense scrutiny for some 25 years. Content analyses have suggested that environmental coverage is plagued by omission of important information in areas of economics, health, safety, and consumer concerns. Surveys of reporters show high levels of frustration and dissatisfaction with their…

  10. Environmental policy indicators: A systems model (United States)

    Cummings, Leslie Edwards; Cayer, N. Joseph


    This article describes and tests a systems theory-based policy indicators model. The framework is used to examine propositions about linkages between states' ecological-spatial characteristics and subsequent selected solid waste management (SWM) -related environmental policies. It was hypothesized that state characteristics of: (1) population density (used as a garbage-per-land area index), (2) population convergence within urban areas, and (3) percent population change in the interval 1980 1985, could jointly explain state variation in both the number and the vigor of SWM policy outputs. Greater levels of spatial pressure were proposed to be related directly to more numerous, more convincing policies. Proposals are grounded in the literature of organizational search theory, crisis stimulation, and technological pressure. Results revealed that the sociospatial model in fact could explain a reasonable proportion of policy variation across states. However, not all hypotheses are supported. Population change shows an indirect, rather than the anticipated direct, relationship with policy output levels. In addition, when used in the model as a pollution intensity index, population density failed to contribute significantly to an explanation of differences in state SWM policy levels. The analysis raises questions about changes occurring over time in the nature and direction of linkages between sociospatial measures and policy responses. This study suggests that strengthening policy indicator models may require questioning key assumptions and theoretical bases, conducting longitudinal studies, and factoring in political, economic, and other policy environment forces.

  11. An investigation into the legal performance of small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs), encompassing compliance levels, the impact and effectiveness of environmental legislation and improving SME environmental compliance control systems


    Wilson, Christopher D.H.


    There has been a great deal written about the difficulties faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) compared to larger businesses. SMEs face difficulties complying with environmental legislation, particularly because of the amount of complex law. This can result in the ‘environment’ being treated as less of a priority even though SMEs collectively have a significant environmental impact. Over the past few years, the UK has been focused towards achieving ‘better regulation’. In parti...

  12. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz


    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  13. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system (United States)

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  14. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long


    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  15. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  16. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  17. Integrated Environmental Modelling: human decisions, human challenges (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.


    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  18. 40 CFR 1507.1 - Compliance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 1507.1 Section 1507.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AGENCY COMPLIANCE § 1507.1 Compliance. All agencies of the Federal Government shall comply with these regulations. It is the intent of these...

  19. Model Fusion Tool - the Open Environmental Modelling Platform Concept (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J. R.


    The vision of an Open Environmental Modelling Platform - seamlessly linking geoscience data, concepts and models to aid decision making in times of environmental change. Governments and their executive agencies across the world are facing increasing pressure to make decisions about the management of resources in light of population growth and environmental change. In the UK for example, groundwater is becoming a scarce resource for large parts of its most densely populated areas. At the same time river and groundwater flooding resulting from high rainfall events are increasing in scale and frequency and sea level rise is threatening the defences of coastal cities. There is also a need for affordable housing, improved transport infrastructure and waste disposal as well as sources of renewable energy and sustainable food production. These challenges can only be resolved if solutions are based on sound scientific evidence. Although we have knowledge and understanding of many individual processes in the natural sciences it is clear that a single science discipline is unable to answer the questions and their inter-relationships. Modern science increasingly employs computer models to simulate the natural, economic and human system. Management and planning requires scenario modelling, forecasts and ‘predictions’. Although the outputs are often impressive in terms of apparent accuracy and visualisation, they are inherently not suited to simulate the response to feedbacks from other models of the earth system, such as the impact of human actions. Geological Survey Organisations (GSO) are increasingly employing advances in Information Technology to visualise and improve their understanding of geological systems. Instead of 2 dimensional paper maps and reports many GSOs now produce 3 dimensional geological framework models and groundwater flow models as their standard output. Additionally the British Geological Survey have developed standard routines to link geological

  20. Determination of aortic compliance from magnetic resonance images using an automatic active contour model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Roland; Boese, Jan M; Schad, Lothar R [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (dkfz), Abteilung Biophysik und Medizinische Strahlenphysik E0201, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    The possibility of monitoring changes in aortic elasticity in humans has important applications for clinical trials because it estimates the efficacy of plaque-reducing therapies. The elasticity is usually quantified by compliance measurements. Therefore, the relative temporal change in the vessel cross-sectional area throughout the cardiac cycle has to be determined. In this work we determined and compared the compliance between three magnetic resonance (MR) methods (FLASH, TrueFISP and pulse-wave). Since manual outlining of the aortic wall area is a very time-consuming process and depends on an operator's variability, an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of the artery wall from MR images through the entire heart cycle is presented. The reliable detection of the artery cross-sectional area over the whole heart cycle was possible with a relative error of about 1%. Optimizing the temporal resolution to 60 ms we obtained a relative error in compliance of about 7% from TrueFISP (1.0 x 1.0 x 10 mm{sup 3}, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 12) and FLASH (0.7 x 0.7 x 10 mm{sup 3}, SNR > 12) measurements in volunteers. Pulse-wave measurements yielded an error of more than 9%. In a study of ten volunteers, a compliance between C = 3 x 10{sup -5} Pa{sup -1} and C = 8 x 10{sup -5} Pa{sup -1} was determined, depending on age. The results of the TrueFISP and the pulse-wave measurements agreed very well with one another (confidence interval of 1 x 10{sup -5} Pa{sup -1}) while the results of the FLASH method more clearly deviated from the TrueFISP and pulse-wave (confidence interval of more than 2 x 10{sup -5} Pa{sup -1})

  1. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance


    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel


    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  2. Radiological environmental dose assessment methods and compliance dose results for 2015 operations at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report presents the environmental dose assessment methods and the estimated potential doses to the offsite public from 2015 Savannah River Site (SRS) atmospheric and liquid radioactive releases. Also documented are potential doses from special-case exposure scenarios - such as the consumption of deer meat, fish, and goat milk.

  3. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.


    The ``Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process`` includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions.

  4. Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Gene


    This report provides information about environmental programs and compliance with environmental regulations in calendar year 1998 (CY98) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The most significant information in this report is summarized in the following sections: (1) Environmental Compliance--Section 2 contains the complete Environmental Compliance information; (2) Environmental Non-Radiological Program--Section 3 contains the complete Environmental Non-Radiological information; and (3) Environmental Radiological Program--Section 4 contains the complete Environmental Radiological information.

  5. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai


    This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined......) is praised for exemplary effectiveness, but our findings reveal that the monitoring agency refrains from enforcing compliance when the probability of success is low, and the sanctioning costs are high. This results in a compliance deficit, even though the selective enforcement activities of the monitoring...

  6. Proposing an Environmental Excellence Self-Assessment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Johansen, John; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum


    This paper presents an Environmental Excellence Self-Assessment (EEA) model based on the structure of the European Foundation of Quality Management Business Excellence Framework. Four theoretical scenarios for deploying the model are presented as well as managerial implications, suggesting...

  7. Modelling consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.


    We develop a theoretical Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model that explicitly includes the environmental input in production functions and the consumers' preferences for environmental quality in utility functions. We empirically apply the model to provide some insights into the effects of the

  8. Evaluation of Uncertainty and Sensitivity in Environmental Modeling at a Radioactive Waste Management Site (United States)

    Stockton, T. B.; Black, P. K.; Catlett, K. M.; Tauxe, J. D.


    Environmental modeling is an essential component in the evaluation of regulatory compliance of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA. For those sites that are currently operating, further goals are to support integrated decision analysis for the development of acceptance criteria for future wastes, as well as site maintenance, closure, and monitoring. At these RWMSs, the principal pathways for release of contamination to the environment are upward towards the ground surface rather than downwards towards the deep water table. Biotic processes, such as burrow excavation and plant uptake and turnover, dominate this upward transport. A combined multi-pathway contaminant transport and risk assessment model was constructed using the GoldSim modeling platform. This platform facilitates probabilistic analysis of environmental systems, and is especially well suited for assessments involving radionuclide decay chains. The model employs probabilistic definitions of key parameters governing contaminant transport, with the goals of quantifying cumulative uncertainty in the estimation of performance measures and providing information necessary to perform sensitivity analyses. This modeling differs from previous radiological performance assessments (PAs) in that the modeling parameters are intended to be representative of the current knowledge, and the uncertainty in that knowledge, of parameter values rather than reflective of a conservative assessment approach. While a conservative PA may be sufficient to demonstrate regulatory compliance, a parametrically honest PA can also be used for more general site decision-making. In particular, a parametrically honest probabilistic modeling approach allows both uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to be explicitly coupled to the decision framework using a single set of model realizations. For example, sensitivity analysis provides a guide for analyzing the value of collecting more

  9. 40 CFR 61.23 - Determining compliance. (United States)


    .... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) computer code COMPLY-R. An underground uranium mine owner or operator... 61.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.23 Determining compliance. (a) Compliance with the emission...

  10. A review of mathematical models in economic environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nahorski, Z.; Ravn, H.F.


    The paper presents a review of mathematical models used,in economic analysis of environmental problems. This area of research combines macroeconomic models of growth, as dependent on capital, labour, resources, etc., with environmental models describing such phenomena like natural resources...... exhaustion or pollution accumulation and degradation. In simpler cases the models can be treated analytically and the utility function can be optimized using, e.g., such tools as the maximum principle. In more complicated cases calculation of the optimal environmental policies requires a computer solution....

  11. 40 CFR 160.12 - Statement of compliance or non-compliance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement of compliance or non-compliance. 160.12 Section 160.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... non-compliance. Any person who submits to EPA an application for a research or marketing permit and...

  12. Error modeling and sensitivity analysis of a parallel robot with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions (United States)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xinjun; Zhou, Yanhua


    Parallel robots with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions are utilized widely in the field of high speed pick-and-place manipulation. Error modeling for these robots generally simplifies the parallelogram structures included by the robots as a link. As the established error model fails to reflect the error feature of the parallelogram structures, the effect of accuracy design and kinematic calibration based on the error model come to be undermined. An error modeling methodology is proposed to establish an error model of parallel robots with parallelogram structures. The error model can embody the geometric errors of all joints, including the joints of parallelogram structures. Thus it can contain more exhaustively the factors that reduce the accuracy of the robot. Based on the error model and some sensitivity indices defined in the sense of statistics, sensitivity analysis is carried out. Accordingly, some atlases are depicted to express each geometric error's influence on the moving platform's pose errors. From these atlases, the geometric errors that have greater impact on the accuracy of the moving platform are identified, and some sensitive areas where the pose errors of the moving platform are extremely sensitive to the geometric errors are also figured out. By taking into account the error factors which are generally neglected in all existing modeling methods, the proposed modeling method can thoroughly disclose the process of error transmission and enhance the efficacy of accuracy design and calibration.

  13. Harmonizing Social and Environmental Dynamics in Earth Systems Modeling (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; McCord, P. F.; Gower, D.; Konar, M.; Baylis, K.; Waldman, K.; Blekking, J.; Schlachter, T.


    The promotion of the Anthropocene has led to new awareness of the role of complex natural-human interactions in environmental change processes. This includes efforts to find causal relationships in empirical studies as well as science to understand how best to incorporate both human and environmental dynamics in models of earth systems spanning fine scale forest ecology models to GCMs. This presentation will discuss challenges and opportunities in integrating social and environmental dynamics in models and recent advances in coupled natural-human systems modeling. The core of this presentation will focus on whether it is possible to harmonize social and environmental dynamics by considering disparities in spatial scale, spatial extent, temporal scale and temporal extent. In the process this presentation will address fundamental questions such as whether social data necessarily entail greater uncertainty than environmental data and the implications for data uncertainty and model design as they relate to the ability to make forecasts and predictions from coupled natural-human systems models. It is imperative that social scientists and environmental scientists collaborate in the development of the data and models needed to understand how environmental systems may change in the future and how human decisions result in or avert environmental degradation. This presentation will argue that the limitations do not lie with data constraints or computational constraints but rather in the tendency for models to be developed without addressing the criticality of environmental vs. social dynamics. This can lead to the somewhat tired conclusion that social scientists and environmental scientists need to collaborate more… But this has been recognized for the last 20-30 years (and arguably longer…). But this is an unsatisfying conclusion. Thus this presentation will discuss new developments in data resources and computational infrastructure that raise the potential for new

  14. Environmental Mental Models of College Students (United States)

    Wuellner, Melissa R.; Vincent, Leslie; Felts, Brandi


    Primary and secondary students in the United States are provided environmental education in their curricula due in part to national legislation, but higher education, for many U.S. citizens, is the last opportunity to educate young adults about the environment and humans' role in it in a formalized setting. Pre-college education and other life…

  15. The application of DEA model in enterprise environmental performance auditing (United States)

    Li, F.; Zhu, L. Y.; Zhang, J. D.; Liu, C. Y.; Qu, Z. G.; Xiao, M. S.


    As a part of society, enterprises have an inescapable responsibility for environmental protection and governance. This article discusses the feasibility and necessity of enterprises environmental performance auditing and uses DEA model calculate the environmental performance of Haier for example. The most of reference data are selected and sorted from Haier’s environmental reportspublished in 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2015, and some of the data from some published articles and fieldwork. All the calculation results are calculated by DEAP software andhave a high credibility. The analysis results of this article can give corporate managements an idea about using environmental performance auditing to adjust their corporate environmental investments capital quota and change their company’s environmental strategies.

  16. A simulation model of building intervention impacts on indoor environmental quality, pediatric asthma, and costs. (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Stout, Natasha Kay; Sandel, Megan; Levy, Jonathan Ian


    Although indoor environmental conditions can affect pediatric asthmatic patients, few studies have characterized the effect of building interventions on asthma-related outcomes. Simulation models can evaluate such complex systems but have not been applied in this context. We sought to evaluate the impact of building interventions on indoor environmental quality and pediatric asthma health care use, and to conduct cost comparisons between intervention and health care costs and energy savings. We applied our previously developed discrete event simulation model (DEM) to simulate the effect of environmental factors, medication compliance, seasonality, and medical history on (1) pollutant concentrations indoors and (2) asthma outcomes in low-income multifamily housing. We estimated health care use and costs at baseline and subsequent to interventions, and then compared health care costs with energy savings and intervention costs. Interventions, such as integrated pest management and repairing kitchen exhaust fans, led to 7% to 12% reductions in serious asthma events with 1- to 3-year payback periods. Weatherization efforts targeted solely toward tightening a building envelope led to 20% more serious asthma events, but bundling with repairing kitchen exhaust fans and eliminating indoor sources (eg, gas stoves or smokers) mitigated this effect. Our pediatric asthma model provides a tool to prioritize individual and bundled building interventions based on their effects on health and costs, highlighting the tradeoffs between weatherization, indoor air quality, and health. Our work bridges the gap between clinical and environmental health sciences by increasing physicians' understanding of the effect that home environmental changes can have on their patients' asthma. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Y-12 Plant - a model for environmental excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, occupies more than 800 acres and has a work force of over 4,000 employees. The Y-12 Plant is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Martin Marietta Corporation. Although mission emphases at the Y-12 Plant have evolved and changed with the easing of international tensions, the Plant continues to serve as a key manufacturing unit and technology demonstration center for the Department of Energy and the nation. The Y-12 Plant has undergone many changes in the last 14 years. One of the most dramatic changes has occurred in the environmental programs with measurable improvements in environmental quality, the development of an award-winning pollution prevention program, and the institution of an environmentally-conscious work ethic among the work force. Because the plant is committed to achieving excellence, not just compliance with laws and regulations, a highly structured, multimedia environmental management program is in place. This program, combined with a commitment to protect the environment while striving for continued improvement, has placed Y-12 in the position to reach excellence. As a result of the Y-12 Plant`s changing mission, they are now working closely with American industry through technology transfer to share their experiences and {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes}--including environmental and pollution prevention technology. To facilitate this effort, the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology has been established at the Y-12 Plant. Through the Centers, the Oak Ridge staff applies skills, capabilities, and facilities developed over a 50-year history of the Oak Ridge Complex to a variety of peacetime missions. The services found at the Centers are a key to helping America`s businesses--both small and large--compete in the global marketplace while protecting the nations environment and conserving its resources.

  18. Modeling of environmental adaptation versus pollution mitigation


    Yatsenko, Yuri; Hritonenko, Natali; Bréchet, Thierry


    The paper combines analytic and numeric tools to investigate a nonlinear optimal control problem relevant to the economics of climate change. The problem describes optimal investments into pollution mitigation and environmental adaptation at a macroeconomic level. The steady-state analysis of this problem focuses on the optimal ratio between adaptation and mitigation. In particular, we analytically prove that the long- term investments into adaptation are profitable only for economies above c...

  19. Development of mathematical models of environmental physiology (United States)

    Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.


    Selected articles concerned with mathematical or simulation models of human thermoregulation are presented. The articles presented include: (1) development and use of simulation models in medicine, (2) model of cardio-vascular adjustments during exercise, (3) effective temperature scale based on simple model of human physiological regulatory response, (4) behavioral approach to thermoregulatory set point during exercise, and (5) importance of skin temperature in sweat regulation.

  20. Environmental Management Model for Road Maintenance Operation Involving Community Participation (United States)

    Triyono, A. R. H.; Setyawan, A.; Sobriyah; Setiono, P.


    Public expectations of Central Java, which is very high on demand fulfillment, especially road infrastructure as outlined in the number of complaints and community expectations tweeter, Short Mail Massage (SMS), e-mail and public reports from various media, Highways Department of Central Java province requires development model of environmental management in the implementation of a routine way by involving the community in order to fulfill the conditions of a representative, may serve road users safely and comfortably. This study used survey method with SEM analysis and SWOT with Latent Independent Variable (X), namely; Public Participation in the regulation, development, construction and supervision of road (PSM); Public behavior in the utilization of the road (PMJ) Provincial Road Service (PJP); Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP); Integrated Management System (SMT) and latent dependent variable (Y) routine maintenance of the provincial road that is integrated with the environmental management system and involve the participation of the community (MML). The result showed the implementation of routine maintenance of road conditions in Central Java province has yet to implement an environmental management by involving the community; Therefore developed environmental management model with the results of H1: Community Participation (PSM) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML); H2: Behavior Society in Jalan Utilization (PMJ) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H3: Provincial Road Service (PJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H4: Safety in the Provincial Road (KJP) positive effect on Model Environmental Management (MML); H5: Integrated Management System (SMT) has positive influence on the Model of Environmental Management (MML). From the analysis obtained formulation model describing the relationship / influence of the independent variables PSM, PMJ, PJP, KJP, and SMT on the dependent variable

  1. PEEX Modelling Platform for Seamless Environmental Prediction (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Mahura, Alexander; Arnold, Stephen; Makkonen, Risto; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Ezau, Igor; Nuterman, Roman; Zhang, Wen; Penenko, Alexey; Gordov, Evgeny; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku


    The Pan-Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) is a multidisciplinary, multi-scale research programme stared in 2012 and aimed at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Northern Eurasian regions and in China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, chemicalization, food supply, and the use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport. The research infrastructure introduces the current state of the art modeling platform and observation systems in the Pan-Eurasian region and presents the future baselines for the coherent and coordinated research infrastructures in the PEEX domain. The PEEX modeling Platform is characterized by a complex seamless integrated Earth System Modeling (ESM) approach, in combination with specific models of different processes and elements of the system, acting on different temporal and spatial scales. The ensemble approach is taken to the integration of modeling results from different models, participants and countries. PEEX utilizes the full potential of a hierarchy of models: scenario analysis, inverse modeling, and modeling based on measurement needs and processes. The models are validated and constrained by available in-situ and remote sensing data of various spatial and temporal scales using data assimilation and top-down modeling. The analyses of the anticipated large volumes of data produced by available models and sensors will be supported by a dedicated virtual research environment developed for these purposes.

  2. Independent Environmental Modeling Research in the Undergraduate Classroom (United States)

    Whittinghill, K. A.


    Models allow scientists and others to represent features and behaviors of environmental systems in order to promote inquiry, develop insights, test hypotheses, and consider solutions to problems. Environmental modeling also offers a way to include independent research on environmental issues in undergraduate classes, especially during winter when outdoor labs are more difficult. I will present on an Environmental Studies Topics course on Environmental Modeling taught at St. Olaf College during interim, including student feedback. The class used primary literature and hands on experiences with computer models to introduce environmentally relevant modeling tools. Topics covered in readings, lectures, or student presentations included process based models of disease, climate, ice, ecosystems, ecosystem services, hydrology, predator-prey systems, and competition among species for resources. Students conducted student-designed original research projects either by developing their own environmental model or by using existing models. Students participating in the class were environmental studies, economics, biology, math, or physics majors, although the class was open to all students who were "comfortable thinking quantitatively". No prior programming experience was required as a prerequisite, although students who had previous experience with R or Matlab were able to design more complex models. The students were graded on their class participation in discussions, several modeling "checkpoint" assignments designed to monitor progress, and on 4 in-class presentations designed to foster a collaborative atmosphere and improve communication skills. While the course was taught over a month-long interim "semester", students were evenly divided in their feedback about whether they would prefer the course in that format or in a semester-long format.

  3. Frontier models for evaluating environmental efficiency: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Wall, A.


    Our aim in this paper is to provide a succinct overview of frontier-based models used to evaluate environmental efficiency, with a special emphasis on agricultural activity. We begin by providing a brief, up-to-date review of the main approaches used to measure environmental efficiency, with

  4. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  5. Advancing environmentally explicit structured population models of plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Morris, William; von Euler, Tove


    as species distributions and abundances. We searched the literature for studies that have linked abiotic and biotic environmental factors to vital rates and, using structured demographic models, population growth rates of plants. We found 136 studies that had examined the environmental drivers of plant...

  6. USGS and Engineering and Environmental Division joint compliance monitoring report for Sacramento, CA Municipal Utility District's SMUDGEO No. 1 Geothermal project. Appendix D to final decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The laws, ordinances, standards, and conditions for designing, constructing, and operating the power plant and related facilities are referenced. In addition, actions, verifications, submittals, and approvals required by the USGS, BLM, and CEC are specified to assure that the facilities are designed, constructed, and operated in compliance with air and water quality, public health and safety, environmental and such other laws, ordinances, and standards specified. (MHR)

  7. Molecular Modeling of Environmentally Important Processes: Reduction Potentials (United States)

    Lewis, Anne; Bumpus, John A.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Cramer, Christopher J.


    The increasing use of computational quantum chemistry in the modeling of environmentally important processes is described. The employment of computational quantum mechanics for the prediction of oxidation-reduction potential for solutes in an aqueous medium is discussed.

  8. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces (United States)

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  9. Advances in environmental and ecological modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, F.; Weil, A


    This book which is written by recognised specialists of ecosystems and environment modeling is dedicated to students and scientists concerned by environment questions who wish to be able to model or to understand models and to have clear insights into the different systemic approaches of ecosystems and environment modelling. Particularly, they will find pedagogic descriptions and useful references about climatic models, forest evolutions, dynamics of populations, utilisation of remote sensing for biosphere modeling, knowledge bases and reasoning mechanisms use for environment and ecosystems management, application of artificial intelligence as multi-agents simulations to try to describe ant to validate agents actions' considering parallel artificial worlds, applications of inverse methods (sentinel method) to retrieve pollutant sources. The techniques of scaling and fuzzy sets applications necessary to interpret environment data and some cautions in data manipulations due to possible ambiguities are also presented. The reader would have to realize that in a real interdisciplinary approach of environment which is considered now to be absolutely necessary to be able to respond to environment questions with a maximum of confidence in the different concerned domains, these different types of techniques and models would have to be necessary coupled and to interact in what is said complex systems modelling: these kind of models are the tools to try to represent and to imitate the real world for cognition and to give the probable evolutions of such systems which are the required evolution scenarios. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV


    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  11. An Exploratory Investigation on the Invasiveness of Environmental Modeling Frameworks (United States)

    This paper provides initial results of an exploratory investigation on the invasiveness of environmental modeling frameworks. Invasiveness is defined as the coupling between application (i.e., model) and framework code used to implement the model. By comparing the implementation of an environmenta...

  12. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C W [ed.


    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  13. Analytical model for orbital debris environmental management (United States)

    Talent, David L.


    A differential equation, also referred to as the PIB (particle-in-a-box) model, expressing the time rate of change of the number of objects in orbit, is developed, and its applicability is illustrated. The model can be used as a tool for the assessment of LEO environment stability, and as a starting point for the development of numerical evolutionary models. Within the context of the model, evolutionary scenarios are examined, and found to be sensitive to the growth rate. It is determined that the present environment is slightly unstable to catastrophic growth, and that the number of particles on orbit will continue to increase until approximately 2250-2350 AD, with a maximum of 2,000,000. The model is expandable to the more realistic (complex) case of multiple species in a multiple-tier system.

  14. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  15. Mathematical model in economic environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahorski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Systems Research Inst. (Poland); Ravn, H.F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)


    The report contains a review of basic models and mathematical tools used in economic regulation problems. It starts with presentation of basic models of capital accumulation, resource depletion, pollution accumulation, and population growth, as well as construction of utility functions. Then the one-state variable model is discussed in details. The basic mathematical methods used consist of application of the maximum principle and phase plane analysis of the differential equations obtained as the necessary conditions of optimality. A summary of basic results connected with these methods is given in appendices. (au) 13 ills.; 17 refs.

  16. A new compliance checking level for nitrate in groundwater : modelling nitrate leaching and the fate of nitrogen in the upper 5 meter of the groundwater system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Renaud, L.V.; Roelsma, J.; Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Jansen, S.; Heerdink, R.; Griffioen, J.; Grift, van der B.


    Research was conducted on the implications of a possible lowering of the sampling depth for the nitrate compliance checking level in the Netherlands. The STONE model was used to simulate nitrate concentrations and nitrogen balances for the three main sand districts (North, Central, South) and for

  17. Environmental Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP) is a dynamic long-range environmental-protection plan for SRS. The EIP communicates the current and future (five year) environmental plans from individual organizations and divisions as well as site environmental initiatives which are designed to protect the environment and meet or exceed compliance with changing environmental/ regulatory requirements. Communication with all site organizations is essential for making the site environmental planning process work. Demonstrating environmental excellence is a high priority embodied in DOE and WSRC policy. Because of your support and participation in the three EIP initiatives; Reflections, Sectional Revision, and Integrated Planning, improvements are being made to the EIP and SRS environmental protection programs. I appreciate the ``Partnership in Environmental Excellence`` formed by the environmental coordinators and professionals who work daily toward our goal of compliance and environmental excellence. I look forward to seeing continued success and improvement in our environmental protection programs through combined efforts of all site organizations to protect our employees, the public health, and the environment. Together, we will achieve our site vision for SRS to be the recognized model for Environmental Excellence in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  18. Development of an environmental tritium model; ETDOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Mariko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    ETDOSE is a simple computer code to calculate atmospheric distribution patterns of tritium for an acute and a chronic release of HT and HTO. This code calculates tritium concentrations in air, soil, plant free water and OBT, and estimates dose impact by inhalation of air and ingestion of food. Participation in IAEA`s model validation program BIOMASS has been done using this code for BIOMASS Scenario 1. This paper shows the outline of ETDOSE and preliminary results of model comparison in BIOMASS program. (author)

  19. Working Group Reports: Working Group 1 - Software Systems Design and Implementation for Environmental Modeling (United States)

    The purpose of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (ISCMEM) is to foster the exchange of information about environmental modeling tools, modeling frameworks, and environmental monitoring databases that are all in the public domain. It is compos...

  20. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) (United States)


    P064 Isocyanic acid, methyl ester P060 Isodrin P007 3(2H)-Isoxazolone, 54aminomethyl)- P092 Mercury (acetato-O)phemyl- P065 Mercur y fulminate P082...ment any class I or class 11 substance used as a (NOTE: De ,inimis releases that are associated with good faith attempts refrigerant (40 CFR to...airport de -icing operations 9. treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater treatment device or system, used in

  1. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). (United States)


    ienphos, Hinosan 2 252. 0-Ethyl S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate: Ethoprophos , Mocap, Prophos 253. Ethylene chiorohydrin: 2-chioroethanol 254. Ethyl 4...Phenylmercury acetate: PMA, PMAC 54. 0-Ethyl S.S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate: Ethoprophos . Mocap, Prophos 55. S-2-Ethylthioethyl 0.0-dimethyl


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brewery wastes are generated in liquid, gaseous, and solid form. The liquid form of waste generated from brewery consists of waste water or effluent obtained from washing raw materials, cleaning of tanks, bottles, machines and floors. These effluents also originate from disposal of solid waste products.2 Solid waste mainly ...

  3. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) (United States)


    characterize the impact of the spill. Verify that the following parameters are monitored in the receiving stream: - dissolved oxygen - fecal coliform bacteria ...or other microorganism, except viruses, bacteria or other microor- ganisms on or in living man or other living animals which the USEPA or jordani Lipstick Darter E Fundulus auroguntatus Undescribed Topminnow R Fundulus bifax Stippled Studflsh E Fundulus catenatus Northern Studfish T

  4. Validation of HEDR models. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Eslinger, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.


    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid.

  5. Clear and fuzzy fractal models of spreading dangerous environmental phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Guy


    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to investigation of possibility of widening models of spreading dangerous environmental phenomena, in particular Grassberger’s models, on the base of notion of fuzzy fractal sets introduced by one of the authors. Basic concepts from the theory of fuzzy fractals are considered.

  6. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.


    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive......Understanding how the natural world will be impacted by environmental change over the coming decades is one of the most pressing challenges facing humanity. Addressing this challenge is difficult because environmental change can generate both population level plastic and evolutionary responses...

  7. A Social Identity Model of Pro-Environmental Action (SIMPEA). (United States)

    Fritsche, Immo; Barth, Markus; Jugert, Philipp; Masson, Torsten; Reese, Gerhard


    Large-scale environmental crises are genuinely collective phenomena: they usually result from collective, rather than personal, behavior and how they are cognitively represented and appraised is determined by collectively shared interpretations (e.g., differing across ideological groups) and based on concern for collectives (e.g., humankind, future generations) rather than for individuals. Nevertheless, pro-environmental action has been primarily investigated as a personal decision-making process. We complement this research with a social identity perspective on pro-environmental action. Social identity is the human capacity to define the self in terms of "We" instead of "I," enabling people to think and act as collectives, which should be crucial given personal insufficiency to appraise and effectively respond to environmental crises. We propose a Social Identity Model of Pro-Environmental Action (SIMPEA) of how social identity processes affect both appraisal of and behavioral responses to large-scale environmental crises. We review related and pertinent research providing initial evidence for the role of 4 social identity processes hypothesized in SIMPEA. Specifically, we propose that ingroup identification, ingroup norms and goals, and collective efficacy determine environmental appraisals as well as both private and public sphere environmental action. These processes are driven by personal and collective emotions and motivations that arise from environmental appraisal and operate on both a deliberate and automatic processing level. Finally, we discuss SIMPEA's implications for the research agenda in environmental and social psychology and for interventions fostering pro-environmental action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Flexible Environmental Modeling with Python and Open - GIS (United States)

    Pryet, Alexandre; Atteia, Olivier; Delottier, Hugo; Cousquer, Yohann


    Numerical modeling now represents a prominent task of environmental studies. During the last decades, numerous commercial programs have been made available to environmental modelers. These software applications offer user-friendly graphical user interfaces that allow an efficient management of many case studies. However, they suffer from a lack of flexibility and closed-source policies impede source code reviewing and enhancement for original studies. Advanced modeling studies require flexible tools capable of managing thousands of model runs for parameter optimization, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. In addition, there is a growing need for the coupling of various numerical models associating, for instance, groundwater flow modeling to multi-species geochemical reactions. Researchers have produced hundreds of open-source powerful command line programs. However, there is a need for a flexible graphical user interface allowing an efficient processing of geospatial data that comes along any environmental study. Here, we present the advantages of using the free and open-source Qgis platform and the Python scripting language for conducting environmental modeling studies. The interactive graphical user interface is first used for the visualization and pre-processing of input geospatial datasets. Python scripting language is then employed for further input data processing, call to one or several models, and post-processing of model outputs. Model results are eventually sent back to the GIS program, processed and visualized. This approach combines the advantages of interactive graphical interfaces and the flexibility of Python scripting language for data processing and model calls. The numerous python modules available facilitate geospatial data processing and numerical analysis of model outputs. Once input data has been prepared with the graphical user interface, models may be run thousands of times from the command line with sequential or parallel calls. We

  9. Modeling the Environmental Impact of Air Traffic Operations (United States)

    Chen, Neil


    There is increased interest to understand and mitigate the impacts of air traffic on the climate, since greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, and contrails generated by air traffic can have adverse impacts on the climate. The models described in this presentation are useful for quantifying these impacts and for studying alternative environmentally aware operational concepts. These models have been developed by leveraging and building upon existing simulation and optimization techniques developed for the design of efficient traffic flow management strategies. Specific enhancements to the existing simulation and optimization techniques include new models that simulate aircraft fuel flow, emissions and contrails. To ensure that these new models are beneficial to the larger climate research community, the outputs of these new models are compatible with existing global climate modeling tools like the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool.

  10. 40 CFR 63.1545 - Compliance dates. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance dates. 63.1545 Section 63.1545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1545 Compliance dates. (a) Each owner or...

  11. 40 CFR 766.5 - Compliance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance. 766.5 Section 766.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.5 Compliance. Any person who fails or refuses to...

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Compliance (United States)

    EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) is a free, desktop computer application that estimates the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel efficiency performance of specific aspects of heavy-duty vehicles.

  13. Mammography image quality: model for predicting compliance with posterior nipple line criterion. (United States)

    Spuur, Kelly; Hung, Wai Tak; Poulos, Ann; Rickard, Mary


    To develop a model using measurements of pectoral muscle width and length together with the acceptability of the posterior nipple line criteria (PNL) to predict the acceptability of the presentation of the pectoral muscle in the mediolateral oblique view of the breast. A total of 400 mediolateral oblique mammogram images were randomly selected from BreastScreen NSW South West, Australia. Measurements of length and width of the pectoral muscle and the acceptability of the pectoral muscle position relative to the PNL were recorded. Data analysis involved logistic regression and ROC analysis to test the predictors of width and length and the performance of the model. The model was then used to predict the outcome of acceptable or unacceptable PNL criterion for each case. The estimated odds ratio for an increase of 10mm was 1.98 (CI=1.68, 2.34) for the length predictor and 2.14 (CI=1.56, 2.93) for the width predictor. A cut off point of 0.6083 was derived from the training set and applied with the developed model to the test set. The area under the ROC curve was 0.9339 demonstrating an accurate model. This paper describes a model to predict the acceptability of the PNL criterion using the width and length of the pectoral muscle. This model could be used in the automated assessment of image quality which has the potential to enhance the consistency in mammographic image quality evaluation. Optimising image quality contributes to increased accuracy in radiological interpretation, which maximises the early detection of breast cancer and potentially reduces mortality rates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach (United States)

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu


    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  15. Compliance, Resistance and Seduction: Reflections on 20 Years of the Funding Council Model of Governance (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Salter, Brian; Tapper, Ted


    Formally the new public management model of governance was introduced into British higher education with the passage of the 1988 Education Reform Act, which abolished the existing University Grants Committee (UGC) and instigated the funding councils. This article explores the relationship between the state, the funding councils and the…

  16. A comparison of different regulatory approaches, analysis of the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations (United States)

    Ghanaati, Sahar

    This paper explores the relative benefits of command and control, reflexive law and social licensing in ensuring oil industry compliance with environmentally sustainable practices and obligations. Recognizing why oil sands and their development are significant, the background and development are reviewed first, and then the focus is shifted to look at its economics including the benefits, uncertainties and environmental costs of development. This paper examines how lawmakers in Canada have failed to meet their respective obligation. Drawing on environmental provisions, case law and legal scholars’ articles, books and reports, this paper examines the very problematic issue of oil sands regulation. It proposes to provide an in depth analysis of each regulatory forms and their application to the oil sands. It concludes that in order to solve the oil sands regulation challenges, a collaborative stringent enforcement of regulation from both federal and provincial governments, oil industry and public Pressure is required.

  17. Compliance Assurance Monitoring (United States)

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  18. A risk computation model for environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.B. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W.


    A risk computation model useful in environmental restoration activities was developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This model, the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), can be used to evaluate effects of potential exposures over a broad range of regulatory issues including radioactive carcinogenic, nonradioactive carcinogenic, and noncarcinogenic effects. MEPAS integrates risk computation components. Release, transport, dispersion, deposition, exposure, and uptake computations are linked in a single system for evaluation of air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. MEPAS uses standard computation approaches. Whenever available and appropriate, US Environmental Protection Agency guidance and models were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. MEPAS is a computational tool that can be used at several phases of an environmental restoration effort. At a preliminary stage in problem characterization, potential problems can be prioritized. As more data become available, MEPAS can provide an estimate of baseline risks or evaluate environmental monitoring data. In the feasibility stage, MEPAS can compute risk from alternative remedies. However, MEPAS is not designed to replace a detailed risk assessment of the selected remedy. For major problems, it will be appropriate to use a more detailed, risk computation tool for a detailed, site-specific evaluation of the selected remedy. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgis Staniskis


    Full Text Available The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol; and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the assessment of environmental pollution of POPs, for the risk assessment, for the evaluation of new pollutants as potential candidates to be included in the POPs list of the Stokholmo or/and Aarhus Protocol, a set of different models are developed or under development. Multimedia models help describe and understand environmental processes leading to global contamination through POPs and actual risk to the environment and human health. However, there is a lack of the tools based on a systematic and integrated approach to POPs management difficulties in the region.

  20. Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) Facilities (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about 800,000 regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced,...

  1. Integrating modelling and smart sensors for environmental and human health. (United States)

    Reis, Stefan; Seto, Edmund; Northcross, Amanda; Quinn, Nigel W T; Convertino, Matteo; Jones, Rod L; Maier, Holger R; Schlink, Uwe; Steinle, Susanne; Vieno, Massimo; Wimberly, Michael C


    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life, generating data at an unprecedented rate and scale. However, models that assess impacts of human activities on environmental and human health, have typically been developed in contexts where data scarcity is the norm. Models are essential tools to understand processes, identify relationships, associations and causality, formalize stakeholder mental models, and to quantify the effects of prevention and interventions. They can help to explain data, as well as inform the deployment and location of sensors by identifying hotspots and areas of interest where data collection may achieve the best results. We identify a paradigm shift in how the integration of models and sensors can contribute to harnessing 'Big Data' and, more importantly, make the vital step from 'Big Data' to 'Big Information'. In this paper, we illustrate current developments and identify key research needs using human and environmental health challenges as an example.

  2. Modelling of Malaria Risk Areas in Ghana by using Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research sought to use GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis to produce a predictive model of malaria using eight risk factors ranging from environmental to anthropogenic. Each of the risk factors was classified into three classes of malaria risk according to how it impacts malaria prevalence. The classified risk factors ...

  3. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S


    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  4. IT Management Model for Financial Report Issuance and Regulatory and Legal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rogério Poggio Moreira


    Full Text Available The development of information systems for financial report issuance must be adherent to the demands of the law and regulations that regulate the financial market. In order to perform this task, organizations need to implement control in the Information Technology (IT area to maintain their systems´ conformity to laws and regulations. In the development of this work, it was found, through a state-of-art study, that there are no proposals contemplating the solution of this problem in its totality. In order to achieve this goal, in this paper it is presented a model for Information Technology management constituted by COBIT, ITIL and BPM management good practices, together with SOA and XBRL Technologies. This model is composed by 03 layers that aim at structuring the organization IT and business processes, besides defining a process for implementing SOA and integrating its Web services with XBRL language. One can expect this work to contribute to companies to decrease the negative impact coming from the lack of conformity with laws and regulations, through the creation of a corporative and IT environment that is flexible and more adaptable to changes, which may occur in legal demands, as well as improving the quality and reliability of financial report issuance.

  5. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: ICIS-NPDES Limit (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Limits data set for Clean Water Act permitted...

  6. Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Hayat Khan Tareen


    Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model

  7. HEDR model validation plan. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Gilbert, R.O.; Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.


    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computational ``tools`` for estimating the possible radiation dose that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the planned activities to ``validate`` these tools. In the sense of the HEDR Project, ``validation`` is a process carried out by comparing computational model predictions with field observations and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the model.

  8. Environmental Innovation Impact analysis with the GMR-Europe Model


    Varga, Attila; HAU-HORVÁTH, ORSOLYA; Szabó, Norbert; Járosi, Péter


    This study introduces and applies a modelling system that is suitable for the impact assessment of environmental innovations referred to as “Blue Economy” innovations. The paper’s contribution to the literature is threefold. First, the building of a multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which provides the theoretical framework for studying the economic impacts of using waste as a production input. Second, the creation of an empirical methodology through which new Blue Econo...

  9. Environmental sub models for a macroeconomic model: Agricultural contribution to climate change and acidification in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.S.; Jensen, J.D.; Hasler, B.


    plans, etc. In this article an integrated model system is extended to include emissions of the greenhouse gasses, CH4 and N2O and the acidifying substance, NH3, from the Danish agricultural production. The model system comprises a macroeconomic model of the Danish economy, a Danish agricultural sector...... economic model, environmental satellite models of energy and waste related emissions contributing to climate change and acidification. The model extension allows the main Danish contribution to climate change and acidification to be modelled. The existing model system is extended by environmental satellite...... for changes in the husbandry sector within the agricultural sector....

  10. Model to Evaluate Pro-Environmental Consumer Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendolyn Aguilar-Salinas


    Full Text Available The consumer plays a key role in resource conservation; therefore, it is important to know consumer behavior to identify consumer profiles and to promote pro-environmental practices in society that encourage resource conservation and reductions in waste generation. The purpose of this paper is to implement a fuzzy model to evaluate consumer behavior in relation to three pro-environmental practices that can be implemented at the household level, including reductions in resource consumption (reduce, reuse of resources (reuse, and recycling (recycle. To identify socio-demographic profiles that characterize an environmentally responsible consumer, 2831 surveys were applied on a representative sample of consumers residing in a Mexican city. Fuzzy logic and neural networks were applied using a Sugeno-type subtractive clustering to determine each profile. The model input variables were socioeconomic status, age, education level, monthly income, occupation and the type of organizations with which the consumer is affiliated. The output variables were represented by pro-environmental practices. Results show that the consumer practices are performed independently of each other, with the most frequent pro-environmental consumer practices being reduction and reuse.

  11. Integrated environmental modeling: a vision and roadmap for the future (United States)

    Laniak, Gerard F.; Olchin, Gabriel; Goodall, Jonathan; Voinov, Alexey; Hill, Mary; Glynn, Pierre; Whelan, Gene; Geller, Gary; Quinn, Nigel; Blind, Michiel; Peckham, Scott; Reaney, Sim; Gaber, Noha; Kennedy, Philip R.; Hughes, Andrew


    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) is inspired by modern environmental problems, decisions, and policies and enabled by transdisciplinary science and computer capabilities that allow the environment to be considered in a holistic way. The problems are characterized by the extent of the environmental system involved, dynamic and interdependent nature of stressors and their impacts, diversity of stakeholders, and integration of social, economic, and environmental considerations. IEM provides a science-based structure to develop and organize relevant knowledge and information and apply it to explain, explore, and predict the behavior of environmental systems in response to human and natural sources of stress. During the past several years a number of workshops were held that brought IEM practitioners together to share experiences and discuss future needs and directions. In this paper we organize and present the results of these discussions. IEM is presented as a landscape containing four interdependent elements: applications, science, technology, and community. The elements are described from the perspective of their role in the landscape, current practices, and challenges that must be addressed. Workshop participants envision a global scale IEM community that leverages modern technologies to streamline the movement of science-based knowledge from its sources in research, through its organization into databases and models, to its integration and application for problem solving purposes. Achieving this vision will require that the global community of IEM stakeholders transcend social, and organizational boundaries and pursue greater levels of collaboration. Among the highest priorities for community action are the development of standards for publishing IEM data and models in forms suitable for automated discovery, access, and integration; education of the next generation of environmental stakeholders, with a focus on transdisciplinary research, development, and

  12. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota, E-mail:; Fugiel, Agata, E-mail:; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna, E-mail:; Turek, Marian, E-mail:


    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500 years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. - Highlights: • A computational LCA model for assessment of coal mining operations • Identification of

  13. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch


    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  14. Tax compliance under tax regime changes


    Heinemann, Friedrich; Kocher, Martin G.


    In this paper we focus on the compliance effects of tax regime changes. According to the economic model of tax evasion, a tax reform should affect compliance through its impact on tax rates and incentives. Our findings demonstrate the importance of at least two further effects not covered by the traditional model: First, reform losers tend to evade more taxes after the reform. Second, a reform from a proportionate to a progressive system decreases compliance compared to a switch in the revers...

  15. Modeling impact of environmental factors on photovoltaic array performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Sun, Yize; Xu, Yang [College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University NO.2999, North Renmin Road, Shanghai (China)


    It is represented in this paper that a methodology to model and quantify the impact of the three environmental factors, the ambient temperature, the incident irradiance and the wind speed, upon the performance of photovoltaic array operating under outdoor conditions. First, A simple correlation correlating operating temperature with the three environmental variables is validated for a range of wind speed studied, 2-8, and for irradiance values between 200 and 1000. Root mean square error (RMSE) between modeled operating temperature and measured values is 1.19% and the mean bias error (MBE) is -0.09%. The environmental factors studied influence I-V curves, P-V curves, and maximum-power outputs of photovoltaic array. The cell-to-module-to-array mathematical model for photovoltaic panels is established in this paper and the method defined as segmented iteration is adopted to solve the I-V curve expression to relate model I-V curves. The model I-V curves and P-V curves are concluded to coincide well with measured data points. The RMSE between numerically calculated maximum-power outputs and experimentally measured ones is 0.2307%, while the MBE is 0.0183%. In addition, a multivariable non-linear regression equation is proposed to eliminate the difference between numerically calculated values and measured ones of maximum power outputs over the range of high ambient temperature and irradiance at noon and in the early afternoon. In conclusion, the proposed method is reasonably simple and accurate.

  16. Environmental sub models for a macroeconomic model: agricultural contribution to climate change and acidification in Denmark. (United States)

    Jensen, Trine S; Jensen, Jørgen D; Hasler, Berit; Illerup, Jytte B; Andersen, Frits M


    Integrated modelling of the interaction between environmental pressure and economic development is a useful tool to evaluate environmental consequences of policy initiatives. However, the usefulness of such models is often restricted by the fact that these models only include a limited set of environmental impacts, which are often energy-related emissions. In order to evaluate the development in the overall environmental pressure correctly, these model systems must be extended. In this article an integrated macroeconomic model system of the Danish economy with environmental modules of energy related emissions is extended to include the agricultural contribution to climate change and acidification. Next to the energy sector, the agricultural sector is the most important contributor to these environmental themes and subsequently the extended model complex calculates more than 99% of the contribution to both climate change and acidification. Environmental sub-models are developed for agriculture-related emissions of CH(4), N(2)O and NH(3). Agricultural emission sources related to the production specific activity variables are mapped and emission dependent parameters are identified in order to calculate emission coefficients. The emission coefficients are linked to the economic activity variables of the Danish agricultural production. The model system is demonstrated by projections of agriculture-related emissions in Denmark under two alternative sets of assumptions: a baseline projection of the general economic development and a policy scenario for changes in the husbandry sector within the agricultural sector.

  17. Inventory of environmental impact models related to energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Dailey, N.S.; Johnson, C.A.; Martin, F.M. (eds.)


    The purpose of this inventory is to identify and collect data on computer simulations and computational models related to the environmental effects of energy source development, energy conversion, or energy utilization. Information for 33 data fields was sought for each model reported. All of the information which could be obtained within the time alloted for completion of the project is presented for each model listed. Efforts will be continued toward acquiring the needed information. Readers who are interested in these particular models are invited to contact ESIC for assistance in locating them. In addition to the standard bibliographic information, other data fields of interest to modelers, such as computer hardware and software requirements, algorithms, applications, and existing model validation information, are included. Indexes are provided for contact person, acronym, keyword, and title. The models are grouped into the following categories: atmospheric transport, air quality, aquatic transport, terrestrial food chains, soil transport, aquatic food chains, water quality, dosimetry, and human effects, animal effects, plant effects, and generalized environmental transport. Within these categories, the models are arranged alphabetically by last name of the contact person.

  18. Development of the Integrated Environmental Control Model. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.


    The purpose of this contract is to develop and refine the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) under contract Numbers FG22-83PC60271 and AC22-87PC79864. In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The work in this contract is divided into two phases. Phase I deals with further developing the existing version of the IECM and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the model. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the effective use of the updated model.

  19. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin


    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  20. Testing a Model Linking Environmental Hope and Self-Control with Students' Positive Emotions and Environmental Behavior (United States)

    Kerret, Dorit; Orkibi, Hod; Ronen, Tammie


    This study examined a moderated mediation model with 254 Israeli junior high school students, hypothesizing that students' environmental hope would simultaneously mediate the relationship between their engagement in school-based environmental activities (green engagement) and their environmental behavior as well as their positivity ratio, but that…

  1. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek


    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA-LA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]) (TWP). This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA). This report is one of the five reports that develop input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the conceptual model and the mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters. The output of this report is used as direct input in the ''Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' and in the ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'' that calculate the values of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater and volcanic ash exposure scenarios, respectively. The purpose of this analysis was to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or in volcanic ash). The analysis

  2. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylie Rasmuson; Kurt Rautenstrauch


    This analysis is one of nine technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. It documents input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCF). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in the biosphere Technical Work Plan (TWP, BSC 2003a). It should be noted that some documents identified in Figure 1-1 may be under development and therefore not available at the time this document is issued. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003b) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters. This analysis report, ANL-MGR-MD-000006, ''Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'', is one of the five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. This report defines and justifies values for twelve parameters required in the biosphere model. These parameters are related to use of contaminated groundwater to grow crops. The parameter values recommended in this report are used in the soil, plant, and carbon-14 submodels of the ERMYN.

  3. An alternative to specious linearization of environmental models. (United States)

    McCuen, Richard H; Surbeck, Cristiane Q


    The solution of a number of environmental models is incorrectly obtained by linearizing a nonlinear analytical solution. The linearization can yield a model that includes a common variable on both sides of the equal sign (i.e., ratio analysis), which in calibration causes highly inflated goodness-of-fit statistics. These specious practices continue likely because of tradition, i.e., "that is the way it is done". Goodness-of-fit statistics that result from these erroneous practices do not accurately reflect the actual prediction accuracy of the model. Additionally, the linearly calibrated coefficients can be poor estimators of the true coefficients. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the pitfalls of models based on ratio analyses. Several environmental models are used to demonstrate the erroneous procedure. Monte Carlo simulation is used to show the distribution of the true correlation coefficient and compare it to the distribution that results from the erroneous linearization. Linearization can produce correlation coefficients above 0.9 when the actual correlation is near 0. Nonlinear least squares algorithms can be used to more accurately fit nonlinear data to nonlinear models.

  4. Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models for double bounded environmental data (United States)

    Bayer, Fábio Mariano; Bayer, Débora Missio; Pumi, Guilherme


    In this paper we introduce the Kumaraswamy autoregressive moving average models (KARMA), which is a dynamic class of models for time series taking values in the double bounded interval (a,b) following the Kumaraswamy distribution. The Kumaraswamy family of distribution is widely applied in many areas, especially hydrology and related fields. Classical examples are time series representing rates and proportions observed over time. In the proposed KARMA model, the median is modeled by a dynamic structure containing autoregressive and moving average terms, time-varying regressors, unknown parameters and a link function. We introduce the new class of models and discuss conditional maximum likelihood estimation, hypothesis testing inference, diagnostic analysis and forecasting. In particular, we provide closed-form expressions for the conditional score vector and conditional Fisher information matrix. An application to environmental real data is presented and discussed.

  5. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling (United States)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir


    The increasing pressure of climate change has inspired two normative agendas; socio-technical transitions and socio-ecological resilience, both sharing a complex-systems epistemology (Gillard et al. 2016). Socio-technical solutions include a continuous, massive data gathering exercise now underway in urban places under the guise of developing a 'smart'(er) city. This has led to the creation of data-rich environments where large data sets have become central to monitoring and forming a response to anomalies. Some have argued that these kinds of data sets can help in planning for resilient cities (Norberg and Cumming 2008; Batty 2013). In this paper, we focus on a more nuanced, ecologically based, socio-environmental perspective of resilience planning that is often given less consideration. Here, we broadly discuss (and model) the tightly linked, mutually influenced, social and biophysical subsystems that are critical for understanding urban resilience. We argue for the need to incorporate these sub system linkages into the resilience planning lexicon through the integration of systems models and planning support systems. We make our case by first providing a context for urban resilience from a socio-ecological and planning perspective. We highlight the data needs for this type of resilient planning and compare it to currently collected data streams in various smart city efforts. This helps to define an approach for operationalizing socio-environmental resilience planning using robust systems models and planning support systems. For this, we draw from our experiences in coupling a spatio-temporal land use model (the Landuse Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM)) with water quality and quantity models in Stockholm Sweden. We describe the coupling of these systems models using a robust Planning Support System (PSS) structural framework. We use the coupled model simulations and PSS to analyze the connection between urban land use transformation (social) and water

  6. Environmental Auditing Policy Statement (United States)

    EPA's policy on the use of environmental auditing by regulated entities to help achieve and maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations, as well as to help identify and correct unregulated environmental hazards.

  7. Tax Compliance over the Firm Life Course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.


    This article provides a new model of tax compliance over the firm life course, focusing on the dynamics in the underlying motivations and capacities for tax compliance. We review and structure the relevant literature on the early life course of firms: the traditional stages of growth models and a

  8. Guideline compliance in chronic heart failure patients with multiple comorbid diseases: evaluation of an individualised multidisciplinary model of care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam H Ho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of individualised, reconciled evidence-based recommendations (IRERs and multidisciplinary care in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF on clinical guideline compliance for CHF and common comorbid conditions. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective hospital clinical audit conducted between 1st July 2006 and February 2011. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 255 patients with a diagnosis of CHF who attended the Multidisciplinary Ambulatory Consulting Services (MACS clinics, at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with Australian clinical guideline recommendations for CHF, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease. RESULTS: Study participants had a median of eight medical conditions (IQR 6-10 and were on an average of 10 (±4 unique medications. Compliance with clinical guideline recommendations for pharmacological therapy for CHF, comorbid atrial fibrillation, diabetes or ischaemic heart disease was high, ranging from 86% for lipid lowering therapy to 98% anti-platelet agents. For all conditions, compliance with lifestyle recommendations was lower than pharmacological therapy, ranging from no podiatry reviews for CHF patients with comorbid diabetes to 75% for heart failure education. Concordance with many guideline recommendations was significantly associated if the patient had IRERs determined, a greater number of recommendations, more clinic visits or if patients participated in a heart failure program. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of comorbid conditions and resulting complexity of the management, high compliance to clinical guideline recommendations was associated with IRER determination in older patients with CHF. Importantly these recommendations need to be communicated to the patient's general practitioner, regularly monitored and adjusted at clinic visits.

  9. HEDR modeling approach. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.


    This report details the conceptual approaches to be used in calculating radiation doses to individuals throughout the various periods of operations at the Hanford Site. The report considers the major environmental transport pathways--atmospheric, surface water, and ground water--and projects and appropriate modeling technique for each. The modeling sequence chosen for each pathway depends on the available data on doses, the degree of confidence justified by such existing data, and the level of sophistication deemed appropriate for the particular pathway and time period being considered.

  10. AI and model management: FAW research in environmental information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radermacher, F.J.


    The paper gives a short overview of work done at the Research Institute for Application-Oriented Knowledge Processing (FAW) in Ulm, with particular emphasis on applications in the field of environmental information systems. The basic research approach followed at the FAW is one that views intelligent systems as model-oriented and model-driven. Integrating models and using operators in models is seen as the dominate paradigm for competent systems in general. The paper briefly describes the structure of the FAW, discusses to some extent the connection between artificial intelligence and modelling and, finally, describes some of the projects that the institute, together with the State of Baden-Wuerttemberg and some industrial partners, is developing for use within the Baden-Wuerttemberg environmental information system. These projects deal with fundamental questions in building such systems, with knowledge extraction from sensor images, with water analysis, the natural-language access to databases and, finally, the knowledge-based access to distributed, heterogeneous databases. (orig.).

  11. Health beliefs affect the correct replacement of daily disposable contact lenses: Predicting compliance with the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Zeri, Fabrizio; Baroni, Rossella


    To assess the compliance of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses (DDCLs) wearers with replacing lenses at a manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency. To evaluate the ability of two different Health Behavioural Theories (HBT), The Health Belief Model (HBM) and The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting compliance. A multi-centre survey was conducted using a questionnaire completed anonymously by contact lens wearers during the purchase of DDCLs. Three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males (mean age 34±12years). Twenty-three percent of respondents were non-compliant with manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency (re-using DDCLs at least once). The main reason for re-using DDCLs was "to save money" (35%). Predictions of compliance behaviour (past behaviour or future intentions) on the basis of the two HBT was investigated through logistic regression analysis: both TPB factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) were significant (pcontact-lens-related eye infection, and to underline the possibility of its prevention. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  13. A Service Oriented Approach to Modeling Interdisciplinary Environmental Systems (United States)

    Castronova, A. M.; Goodall, J. L.


    Interdisciplinary research often requires the use of multiple data sources, models, and analysis routines coupled together in a workflow to answer a single research question. Coupling these computational resources into a workflow can be accomplished using various tools, but each of these tools requires the developer to follow a specific interface protocol to ensure that all components within the system remain compliant. Unfortunately, not all of the resources required for an analysis can be easily "wrapped" into a compliant form due to platform dependencies, computer architecture requirements, or programming language incompatibilities. Therefore, a more generic, service-oriented approach is needed that enables individual models to operate as intended and interact with other models through web service calls. This work presents a method for coupling independent models using web services to meditate communication. It consists of both client and server-side software. The client-side software extends a loosely integrated modeling environment for coupling data and models into configurations. The server-side software consists of software required for exposing datasets and models as web services. We build from the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) version 2.0 standard and demonstrate how it can be used to perform service-oriented simulations. We describe the design and implementation of both server and client-side software, the application of the software as part of an urban flood warning system, and offer suggestions for future work needed to advance service-oriented modeling of interdisciplinary environmental systems.

  14. Environmental Transport Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. A. Wasiolek


    This analysis report is one of the technical reports documenting the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows relationships among the reports developed for biosphere modeling and biosphere abstraction products for the TSPA, as identified in the ''Technical Work Plan: for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (TWP) (BSC 2003 [163602]). Some documents in Figure 1-1 may be under development and not available when this report is issued. This figure provides an understanding of how this report contributes to biosphere modeling in support of the license application (LA), but access to the listed documents is not required to understand the contents of this report. This report is one of the reports that develops input parameter values for the biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [160699]) describes the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the input parameters. The purpose of this analysis is to develop biosphere model parameter values related to radionuclide transport and accumulation in the environment. These parameters support calculations of radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media (e.g., soil, crops, animal products, and air) resulting from a given radionuclide concentration at the source of contamination (i.e., either in groundwater or volcanic ash). The analysis was performed in accordance with the TWP (BSC 2003 [163602]). This analysis develops values of parameters associated with many features, events, and processes (FEPs) applicable to the reference biosphere (DTN: M00303SEPFEPS2.000 [162452]), which are addressed in the biosphere model (BSC 2003 [160699]). The treatment of these FEPs is described in BSC (2003 [160699

  15. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)


    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  16. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  17. Compliance with Tax at Household Level: The case of Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is about compliance with tax at local government level in Tanzania. A simple generic model of tax compliance is set out to determine the further specified to look on compliance with development levy in Tanzania. For simplicity and data constraints problem; logit model techniques are applied to sort out the major ...

  18. UV-visible marker confirms that environmental persistence of Clostridium difficile spores in toilets of patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea is associated with lack of compliance with cleaning protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papetti Selena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ultraviolet visible marker (UVM was used to assess the cleaning compliance of housekeeping staff for toilets in a tertiary healthcare setting. Methods The UVM was applied to the toilets of patients who were on isolation precautions due to Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD as well as for patients who were not on isolation precautions. Cleaning was visually scored using a numeric system where 0, 1, 2, and 3 represented; no, light, moderate or heavy residual UVM. Rodac plates containing CDMN selective agar were used to test for the presence of C. difficile on the surfaces of patient's toilets. Results Despite twice daily cleaning for the toilets of patients who were on CDAD isolation precautions, the average cleaning score was 1.23 whereas the average cleaning score for toilets of patients not on isolation precautions was 0.9. Even with optimal cleaning (UVM score of 0 C. difficile was detected from 33% of the samples taken from toilets of patients with CDAD (4% detection in toilet samples from patients who had diarrhea not due to CDAD. Conclusion Our data demonstrated the value of UVM for monitoring the compliance of housekeeping staff with the facility's toilet cleaning protocol. In addition to providing good physical cleaning action, agents with some sporicidal activity against C. difficile may be needed to effectively reduce the environmental reservoir.

  19. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 "Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation" and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli


    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO was evaluated the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 “Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation” and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers who support or not the cross-compliance regime. The monitoring was performed in nine experimental farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Were also evaluated the soil organic matter and some yield parameters, in a cereal monocropping (treatment counterfactual and a two-year rotation cereal-legume or forage (treatment factual. The two-years application of the standard “crop rotations” has produced contrasting results with regards to the storage of soil organic matter through crop rotation and these were not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of treatment in any of the farms considered in monitoring, only in those farms subjected to more years of monitoring was recorded only a slight effect of the standard as a trend. The variations of organic matter in soils in response to changes in the culture technique or in the management of the soil may have long lag times and two years of time are not sufficient to demonstrate the dynamics of SOM associated with the treatment, also in consideration of the large inter annual variability recorded in different monitored sites.

  20. Animal Models of Autism: An Epigenetic and Environmental Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Iwata


    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of social behavior, which is more common in males than in females. The causes of autism are unknown; there is evidence for a substantial genetic component, but it is likely that a combination of genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors contribute to its complex pathogenesis. Rodent models that mimic the behavioral deficits of autism can be useful tools for dissecting both the etiology and molecular mechanisms. This review discusses animal models of autism generated by prenatal or neonatal environmental challenges, including virus infection and exposure to valproic acid (VPA or stress. Studies of viral infection models suggest that interleukin-6 can influence fetal development and programming. Prenatal exposure to the histone deacetylase inhibitor VPA has been linked to autism in children, and male VPA-exposed rats exhibit a spectrum of autistic-like behaviors. The experience of prenatal stress produces male-specific behavioral abnormalities in rats. These effects may be mediated by epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation resulting in alterations to the transcriptome.

  1. EMC Compliance Assurance Monitoring (United States)

    The Compliance Assurance Monitoring, or CAM, rule is designed to satisfy the requirements for monitoring and compliance certification in the Part 70 operating permits program and Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

  2. Deadline Compliance Status Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  3. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann


    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way ( This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  4. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification for environmental models******

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cartailler Thomas


    Full Text Available Environmental models often involve complex dynamic and spatial inputs and outputs. This raises specific issues when performing uncertainty and sensitivity analyses (SA. Based on applications in flood risk assessment and agro-ecology, we present current research to adapt the methods of variance-based SA to such models. After recalling the basic principles, we propose a metamodelling approach of dynamic models based on a reduced-basis approximation of PDEs and we show how the error on the subsequent sensitivity indices can be quantified. We then present a mix of pragmatic and methodological solutions to perform the SA of a dynamic agro-climatic model with non standard input factors. SA is then applied to a flood risk model with spatially distributed inputs and outputs. Block sensitivity indices are defined and a precise relationship between these indices and their support size is established. Finally, we show how the whole support landscape and its key features can be incorporated in the SA of a spatial model.

  5. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System (United States)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.


    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  6. Discrete choice modeling of environmental security. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, K.S.


    The presence of overpopulation or unsustainable population growth may place pressure on the food and water supplies of countries in sensitive areas of the world. Severe air or water pollution may place additional pressure on these resources. These pressures may generate both internal and international conflict in these areas as nations struggle to provide for their citizens. Such conflicts may result in United States intervention, either unilaterally, or through the United Nations. Therefore, it is in the interests of the United States to identify potential areas of conflict in order to properly train and allocate forces. The purpose of this research is to forecast the probability of conflict in a nation as a function of it s environmental conditions. Probit, logit and ordered probit models are employed to forecast the probability of a given level of conflict. Data from 95 countries are used to estimate the models. Probability forecasts are generated for these 95 nations. Out-of sample forecasts are generated for an additional 22 nations. These probabilities are then used to rank nations from highest probability of conflict to lowest. The results indicate that the dependence of a nation`s economy on agriculture, the rate of deforestation, and the population density are important variables in forecasting the probability and level of conflict. These results indicate that environmental variables do play a role in generating or exacerbating conflict. It is unclear that the United States military has any direct role in mitigating the environmental conditions that may generate conflict. A more important role for the military is to aid in data gathering to generate better forecasts so that the troops are adequntely prepared when conflicts arises.

  7. System Identification, Environmental Modelling, and Control System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, Hugues


    System Identification, Environmetric Modelling, and Control Systems Design is dedicated to Professor Peter Young on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Professor Young has been a pioneer in systems and control, and over the past 45 years he has influenced many developments in this field. This volume is comprised of a collection of contributions by leading experts in system identification, time-series analysis, environmetric modelling and control system design – modern research in topics that reflect important areas of interest in Professor Young’s research career. Recent theoretical developments in and relevant applications of these areas are explored treating the various subjects broadly and in depth. The authoritative and up-to-date research presented here will be of interest to academic researcher in control and disciplines related to environmental research, particularly those to with water systems. The tutorial style in which many of the contributions are composed also makes the book suitable as ...

  8. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Liao


    Full Text Available Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  9. Complex Environmental Data Modelling Using Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks (United States)

    Kanevski, Mikhail


    The research deals with an adaptation and application of Adaptive General Regression Neural Networks (GRNN) to high dimensional environmental data. GRNN [1,2,3] are efficient modelling tools both for spatial and temporal data and are based on nonparametric kernel methods closely related to classical Nadaraya-Watson estimator. Adaptive GRNN, using anisotropic kernels, can be also applied for features selection tasks when working with high dimensional data [1,3]. In the present research Adaptive GRNN are used to study geospatial data predictability and relevant feature selection using both simulated and real data case studies. The original raw data were either three dimensional monthly precipitation data or monthly wind speeds embedded into 13 dimensional space constructed by geographical coordinates and geo-features calculated from digital elevation model. GRNN were applied in two different ways: 1) adaptive GRNN with the resulting list of features ordered according to their relevancy; and 2) adaptive GRNN applied to evaluate all possible models N [in case of wind fields N=(2^13 -1)=8191] and rank them according to the cross-validation error. In both cases training were carried out applying leave-one-out procedure. An important result of the study is that the set of the most relevant features depends on the month (strong seasonal effect) and year. The predictabilities of precipitation and wind field patterns, estimated using the cross-validation and testing errors of raw and shuffled data, were studied in detail. The results of both approaches were qualitatively and quantitatively compared. In conclusion, Adaptive GRNN with their ability to select features and efficient modelling of complex high dimensional data can be widely used in automatic/on-line mapping and as an integrated part of environmental decision support systems. 1. Kanevski M., Pozdnoukhov A., Timonin V. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. Theory, applications and software. EPFL Press


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovanović


    Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Hydrokinetic Turbines and their Environmental Effects (United States)

    Javaherchi, T.; Seydel, J.; Aliseda, A.


    The search for predictable renewable energy has led research into marine hydrokinetic energy. Electricity can be generated from tidally-induced currents through turbines located in regions of high current speed and relatively low secondary flow intensity. Although significant technological challenges exist, the main obstacle in the development and commercial deployment of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is the uncertainty in the environmental effect of devices. The velocity deficit in the turbulent wake of the turbine might enhance the sedimentation process of suspended particles in the water column and lead to deposition into artificial patterns that alter the benthic ecosystem. Pressure fluctuations across turbine blades and in blade tip vortices can damage internal organs of marine species as they swim through the device. These are just a few examples of the important potential environmental effects of MHK turbines that need to be addressed and investigated a priori before pilot and large scale deployment. We have developed a hierarchy of numerical models to simulate the turbulent wake behind a well characterized two bladed turbine. The results from these models (Sliding Mesh, Rotating Reference Frame, Virtual Blade Model and Actuator Disk Model) have been validated and are been used to investigate the efficiency and physical changes introduced in the environment by single or multiple MHK turbines. We will present results from sedimenting particles and model juvenile fish, with relative densities of 1.2 and 0.95, respectively. The settling velocity and terminal location on the bottom of the tidal channel is computed and compared to the simulated flow in a channel without turbines. We have observed an enhanced sedimentation, and we will quantify the degree of enhancement and the parameter range within which it is significant. For the slightly buoyant particles representing fish, the pressure history is studied statistically with particular attention to the

  12. A Relational Database Model and Tools for Environmental Sound Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Arslan


    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition (ESR has become a hot topic in recent years. ESR is mainly based on machine learning (ML and ML algorithms require first a training database. This database must comprise the sounds to be recognized and other related sounds. An ESR system needs the database during training, testing and in the production stage. In this paper, we present the design and pilot establishment of a database which will assists all researchers who want to establish an ESR system. This database employs relational database model which is not used for this task before. We explain in this paper design and implementation details of the database, data collection and load process. Besides we explain the tools and developed graphical user interface for a desktop application and for the WEB.

  13. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian


    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  14. Evaluation of environmental and economic effectiveness of the Cross Compliance 4.3 Standards "Maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sansone


    Full Text Available This paper reports the first observations made in three farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA relating to the environmental monitoring of the standard 4.3 maintenance of olive groves and vineyards in good vegetative conditions and analysis of differential of competitiveness  for both crops.

  15. Adesão às medidas de controle ambiental em lares de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos Compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children and adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nulma Souto Jentzsch


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a adesão às medidas de controle ambiental em lares de crianças asmáticas, através de visitas domiciliares. MÉTODOS: Visitas domiciliares, com observação direta e preenchimento de questionário, foram feitas em 98 lares de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos de quatro a quinze anos, antes e após 90 dias de medidas de controle ambiental serem preconizadas. Foi perguntado aos pais o porquê de não se fazer o controle ambiental. Para a análise estatística foi usado o teste de McNemar. RESULTADOS: O acréscimo na adesão aos diferentes itens pesquisados foi de 11,1%, com variação de -4,1%, para retirada de cortinas (p = 0,63 a +22,6%, para retirada de brinquedos de pelúcia (p OBJECTIVE: To determine, through home visits, the rate of compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children with asthma. METHODS: This study involved 98 asthma patients between the ages of 4 and 15. The parents of those children and adolescents received instruction in how to carry out environmental control measures and were encouraged to perform such measures continuously for a period of 90 days. Home visits, which included direct inspection of the domicile and administration of a questionnaire, were made before and after this 90-day period. In cases of noncompliance, parents were asked to explain why they did not carry out the control measures. Statistical analysis was performed using the McNemar test. RESULTS: Overall compliance with the various items studied was 11.1%, ranging from -4.1% (for curtain control, p = 0.63 to 22.6% (for stuffed toys, p < 0.001. Passive smoking was reduced to 9.7% (p = 0.02. Among the families studied, the mean monthly income was 2.5 times the national minimum wage. When asked why they had not adopted the recommended measures, noncompliant parents gave, among others, the following explanations: "economic hardship" (60.1%; "the measures were too difficult to carry out" (6.1%; "nonparticipation

  16. Integrated Modelling Frameworks for Environmental Assessment and Decision Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzoli, A.E.; Leavesley, G.; Ascough, J.C.; Argent, R.M.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Brilhante, V.; Claeys, F.H.A.; David, O.; Donatelli, M.; Gijsbers, P.; Havlik, D.; Kassahun, A.; Krause, P.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Scholten, H.; Sojda, R.S.; Villa, F.


    Modern management of environmental resources defines problems from a holistic and integrated perspective, imposing strong requirements to Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSSs) and Integrated Assessment Tools (IATs), which tend to be increasingly complex in terms of software architecture and

  17. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  18. The AgESGUI geospatial simulation system for environmental model application and evaluation (United States)

    Practical decision making in spatially-distributed environmental assessment and management is increasingly being based on environmental process-based models linked to geographical information systems (GIS). Furthermore, powerful computers and Internet-accessible assessment tools are providing much g...

  19. Using integrated environmental modeling to automate a process-based Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) organizes multidisciplinary knowledge that explains and predicts environmental-system response to stressors. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) is an approach integrating a range of disparate data (fate/transport, exposure, and human health effect...

  20. The geospatial modeling interface (GMI) framework for deploying and assessing environmental models (United States)

    Geographical information systems (GIS) software packages have been used for close to three decades as analytical tools in environmental management for geospatial data assembly, processing, storage, and visualization of input data and model output. However, with increasing availability and use of ful...

  1. Non-compliance and professional power. (United States)

    Playle, J F; Keeley, P


    . The ideological assumptions underpinning the concept of non-compliance need questioning, and a re-conceptualization of the roles of patients and professionals is required. This must involve a view of patients as active participators in their own health care. Research based on an interpretative epistemology, aimed at understanding individual action, rather than control, would seem a more appropriate model to pursue.

  2. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  3. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen


    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... compliance is constructed, challenges the explanatory reaches of today's social science approaches, arguing that an alternative approach to understanding tax compliance is worthwhile exploring. This other choice of approach, inspired by actor–network theory (ANT), adopts a more practice-oriented focus...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  4. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU


    The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors...

  5. Compliance Software for Radioactive Air Emissions (United States)

    Atmospheric dispersion and transport models that are used to assess radiation dose and risk and to demonstrate compliance with certain radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations.

  6. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Performance model for the NOXSO process. Quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalagnanam, J.R.; Rubin, E.S.


    In its current configuration, the IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results. The most recent version of the IECM, implemented on a MacIntosh II computer, was delivered to DOE/PETC at the end of the last contract in May 1991. The current contract will continue the model development effort to provide DOE/PETC with improved model capabilities, including new software developments to facilitate model use and new technical capabilities for analysis of environmental control technologies. Integrated environmental control systems involving pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion control methods will be considered. Phase I involves developing the existing modules of the IECM. Phase II deals with creating new technology modules, linking the IECM with PETC databases, and training PETC personnel on the use of the updated models. The present report summarizes recent progress on the Phase I effort during the period January 1 - March 31, 1995. A preliminary summary is given of the new performance model developed for the NOXSO process. The performance model is developed from first principles and parametrized based on experimental data from pilot plants.

  7. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features. (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N


    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  8. A python framework for environmental model uncertainty analysis (United States)

    White, Jeremy; Fienen, Michael N.; Doherty, John E.


    We have developed pyEMU, a python framework for Environmental Modeling Uncertainty analyses, open-source tool that is non-intrusive, easy-to-use, computationally efficient, and scalable to highly-parameterized inverse problems. The framework implements several types of linear (first-order, second-moment (FOSM)) and non-linear uncertainty analyses. The FOSM-based analyses can also be completed prior to parameter estimation to help inform important modeling decisions, such as parameterization and objective function formulation. Complete workflows for several types of FOSM-based and non-linear analyses are documented in example notebooks implemented using Jupyter that are available in the online pyEMU repository. Example workflows include basic parameter and forecast analyses, data worth analyses, and error-variance analyses, as well as usage of parameter ensemble generation and management capabilities. These workflows document the necessary steps and provides insights into the results, with the goal of educating users not only in how to apply pyEMU, but also in the underlying theory of applied uncertainty quantification.

  9. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad


    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  10. PER pressure: New Jersey's "Population Emissions Ratio" environmental equity screening model. (United States)

    Atlas, Mark


    In recent years, much attention has focused on how to incorporate environmental equity considerations into government permitting programs for environmentally regulated facilities. On February 4, 2002, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) became the first state environmental agency to propose a broad legally binding rule intended to guard against environmental inequity in its permitting decisions. The proposed rule centered on an innovative computerized environmental equity (EE) screening model that used "Population Emissions Ratios" to identify small geographic areas in which environmental equity concerns might exist and to simulate the effect on statewide environmental equity of increasing environmental risks in small geographic areas. The NJDEP's model examined an extensive array of ethnic groups, included a variety of environmental risks, evaluated most of those risks in terms of human health, and used an innovative simulation process designed to identify permitting decisions that would worsen statewide environmental inequity. The results of the NJDEP's efforts, however, pose substantial concerns. For example, some key provisions of the NJDEP's model were inadequately explained and some were illogical and would bias its results. The model might be susceptible to generating implausible results due to small, meaningless, and/or essentially random fluctuations in its data inputs. The model used relatively large geographic areas as the units of analysis and interpolated results between them, rather than using smaller geographic areas and avoiding interpolation errors. Finally, the environmental risks evaluated by the model were both arguably over- and underinclusive. Thus, the NJDEP's efforts, although noteworthy, raised more issues than they settled.

  11. Air Force Compliance Study (United States)


    death of the 478 deceased veterans was 61. The median age of the 200 veterans who refused for health reasons was 69. The compliance rates are relatively... compliance rate was observed for the 1997 and 2002 follow-up examinations. The number of veterans who refused for health reasons and who refused for... Compliance by Examination for AFHS Veterans Eligible To Participate Reason for Number (%) Noncompliance/ Group 1982 1985 1987 1992 1997 2002 Refusal

  12. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen


    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  13. Developing models that analyze the economic/environmental trade-offs implicit in water resource management (United States)

    Howitt, R. E.


    Hydro-economic models have been used to analyze optimal supply management and groundwater use for the past 25 years. They are characterized by an objective function that usually maximizes economic measures such as consumer and producer surplus subject to hydrologic equations of motion or water distribution systems. The hydrologic and economic components are sometimes fully integrated. Alternatively they may use an iterative interactive process. Environmental considerations have been included in hydro-economic models as inequality constraints. Representing environmental requirements as constraints is a rigid approximation of the range of management alternatives that could be used to implement environmental objectives. The next generation of hydro-economic models, currently being developed, require that the environmental alternatives be represented by continuous or semi-continuous functions which relate water resource use allocated to the environment with the probabilities of achieving environmental objectives. These functions will be generated by process models of environmental and biological systems which are now advanced to the state that they can realistically represent environmental systems and flexibility to interact with economic models. Examples are crop growth models, climate modeling, and biological models of forest, fish, and fauna systems. These process models can represent environmental outcomes in a form that is similar to economic production functions. When combined with economic models the interacting process models can reproduce a range of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, and thus optimize social value of many water and environmental resources. Some examples of this next-generation of hydro-enviro- economic models are reviewed. In these models implicit production functions for environmental goods are combined with hydrologic equations of motion and economic response functions. We discuss models that show interaction between


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee


    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose an indicator to deal with environmental problems for agricultural sectors caused by goods and services production. The aspects to calculate the real benefit of agricultural sectors and environmental cost for analyzing are natural resources materials, energy and transportation, fertilizer and pesticides, and sanitary and similar service. From the research it was found that the highest environmental cost of natural resources materials was 026: charcoal and fire-wood, while the lowest was 010 coconut. The highest environmental cost for energy and transportation was 024: agricultural services, while the highest environmental cost for fertilizer and pesticides was 011: palm oil. lastly, 017: other agricultural products was found as the highest environmental cost for sanitary and similar service. As a result, 010: coconut gained the highest real benefit, while 024: agricultural services presented as the lowest read benefit for the company. If Thailand using environmental problem indicator, especially with the agricultural sector, it can help to formulate efficient policies and strategies for the country in 3 development areas, which are social, economic, and environmental development.

  15. Site Environmental Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ronald O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baskin, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Ned [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fox, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harvey, Zachary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jelinski, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehle, Petra [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Suying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The annual Site Environmental Report documents Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s performance in reducing its environmental impacts, progress toward cleaning up groundwater contamination, and compliance with applicable Department of Energy, federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  16. Managing uncertainty in integrated environmental modelling: The UncertWeb framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastin, L.; Cornford, D.; Jones, R.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Pebesma, E.; Stasch, C.; Nativi, S.; Mazzetti, P.


    Web-based distributed modelling architectures are gaining increasing recognition as potentially useful tools to build holistic environmental models, combining individual components in complex workflows. However, existing web-based modelling frameworks currently offer no support for managing

  17. 40 CFR 205.55-2 - Compliance with standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance with standards. 205.55-2 Section 205.55-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-2 Compliance...

  18. Environmental Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M A; Sanchez, L; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Ward, R


    The chapter summaries demonstrate the breadth of the environmental activities at LLNL. There are 14 chapters in this report: 3 chapters provide general information about the LLNL sites, regulatory activities, and the structure of environmental programs at LLNL; 10 chapters provide environmental monitoring measurements and analyses; and 1 chapter describes the quality assurance program and quality control activities that ensure the validity of the data. Brief descriptions of the contents of each of the individual chapters are presented here. Chapter 1, Introduction, describes the physical setting of the two LLNL sites. The description includes information about the topography, geology, and meteorology of the sites and clearly states the differences between them despite their proximity. Chapter 2, Compliance Summary, summarizes information about LLNL's substantial compliance activities, including compliance with the major federal, state, and local environmental initiatives. The major topics covered are the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and related state programs, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and state and local hazardous waste regulations, the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and the Antiquities Act. Chapter 3, Environmental Program Information, describes the organization of LLNL's Environmental Protection Department and its divisions, giving the responsibilities of each organization for compliance and monitoring. Chapter 4, Air Effluent Monitoring, summarizes the facilities that have continuous air monitoring for their operations, including a summary of the results of the monitoring data collected for the sources. Chapter 5, Air Surveillance Monitoring, describes the purpose of the air particulate and tritium ambient air monitoring programs and provides

  19. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma


    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  20. Modeling Environmental Degradation of SiC/BN/SiC CMCs (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0308 MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF SIC/BN/SIC CMCS (PREPRINT) Craig Przybyla and Michael K Cinibulk...2017 Interim 22 July 2013 – 6 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION OF SIC/BN/SIC CMCS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT...91360 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Modeling environmental degradation of SiC/BN/SiC CMCs Triplicane A

  1. Entrepreneurial environmental management model of marketing in a political-administrative system of Ukraine


    Sadchenko Olena Vasylivna; Nosachov Ivan Yurіyovych


    The article deals with proposals for entrepreneurial model of environmental management, in particular environmental marketing in modern political and administrative systems. In the context of the complexity of the social structure, forming a dense network of communications, globalization, cultural and economic-ecological space offers new mechanisms for the relationship between the state and civil society in environmental management.

  2. Entrepreneurial environmental management model of marketing in a political-administrative system of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadchenko Olena Vasylivna


    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for entrepreneurial model of environmental management, in particular environmental marketing in modern political and administrative systems. In the context of the complexity of the social structure, forming a dense network of communications, globalization, cultural and economic-ecological space offers new mechanisms for the relationship between the state and civil society in environmental management.

  3. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari


    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  4. Demonstration of an Integrated Compliance Model for Predicting Copper Fate and Effects in DoD Harbors (United States)


    Review, Verification, and Validation 4.2. Verification and Validation Methods 4.3. Reconciliation with User Requirements C.9. ISO 14001 The...which follow the ISO 14001 International Standard. The following are five key elements on this EMS: 1. Environmental Policy at SSC Pacific: 1.1...C-4 C.8. QUALITY ASSURANCE REPORTS.......................................................................... C-5 C.9. ISO

  5. Integrating spatio-temporal environmental models for planning ski runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Karin


    The establishment of ski runs and ski lifts, the action of skiing and maintenance of ski runs may cause considerable environmental impact. Clearly, for improvements to be made in the planning of ski runs in alpine terrain a good understanding of the environmental system and the response of

  6. Privatization and environmental pollution in an international mixed Cournot model (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.


    In this paper, we consider a competition between a domestic public firm and a foreign private firm, supposing that the production processes generates environmental pollution. Introducing the residents' environmental preference into the public firm's objective function, we analyse its economic impacts. We also analyse the economic impacts of the privatization.

  7. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.


    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  8. Biotic modifiers, environmental modulation and species distribution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linder, H. Peter; Bykova, Olga; Dyke, James; Etienne, Rampal S.; Hickler, Thomas; Kuehn, Ingolf; Marion, Glenn; Ohlemueller, Ralf; Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Singer, Alexander


    The ability of species to modulate environmental conditions and resources has long been of interest. In the past three decades the impacts of these biotic modifiers have been investigated as ecosystem engineers, niche constructors, facilitators and keystone species. This environmental modulation can

  9. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  10. Online treatment compliance checking for clinical pathways. (United States)

    Huang, Zhengxing; Bao, Yurong; Dong, Wei; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong


    Compliance checking for clinical pathways (CPs) is getting increasing attention in health-care organizations due to stricter requirements for cost control and treatment excellence. Many compliance measures have been proposed for treatment behavior inspection in CPs. However, most of them look at aggregated data seen from an external perspective, e.g. length of stay, cost, infection rate, etc., which may provide only a posterior impression of the overall conformance with the established CPs such that in-depth and in near real time checking on the compliance of the essential/critical treatment behaviors of CPs is limited. To provide clinicians real time insights into violations of the established CP specification and support online compliance checking, this article presents a semantic rule-based CP compliance checking system. In detail, we construct a CP ontology (CPO) model to provide a formal grounding of CP compliance checking. Using the proposed CPO, domain treatment constraints are modeled into Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules to specify the underlying treatment behaviors and their quantified temporal structure in a CP. The established SWRL rules are integrated with the CP workflow such that a series of applicable compliance checking and evaluation can be reminded and recommended during the pathway execution. The proposed approach can, therefore, provides a comprehensive compliance checking service as a paralleling activity to the patient treatment journey of a CP rather than an afterthought. The proposed approach is illustrated with a case study on the unstable angina clinical pathway implemented in the Cardiology Department of a Chinese hospital. The results demonstrate that the approach, as a feasible solution to provide near real time conformance checking of CPs, not only enables clinicians to uncover non-compliant treatment behaviors, but also empowers clinicians with the capability to make informed decisions when dealing with treatment compliance

  11. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  12. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  13. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)


    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  14. Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET) (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.


    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.

  15. Physicians' influence on breast cancer patient compliance. (United States)

    Kostev, Karel; Waehlert, Lilia; Jockwig, Achim; Jockwig, Barbara; Hadji, Peyman


    In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates.

  16. Physicians’ influence on breast cancer patient compliance (United States)

    Kostev, Karel; Waehlert, Lilia; Jockwig, Achim; Jockwig, Barbara; Hadji, Peyman


    In recent years there have been major advances in the treatment of breast cancer. However, taking the prescribed medication for a sufficient period of time is crucial to the success of any therapy. Thus far, no database-based studies have been published in German-speaking countries empirically examining the influence of the physician on the compliance of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate, quantify, and critically discuss the effect treating physicians have on the compliance of their breast cancer patients. Patients with a confirmed breast cancer diagnosis who started therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) between January 2001 and December 2011 were selected from the representative IMS Disease Analyzer database and analyzed with regard to their compliance. Practices were grouped into two categories concerning the compliance of all treated patients. A regression model showed that a breast cancer patient who is treated in a practice with a trend toward poor compliance has a nearly 60% higher risk for treatment discontinuation than would be the case in a practice with good compliance. It shows how important it is to motivate physicians to strive toward good compliance rates. PMID:24454275

  17. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2016 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  18. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2012 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  19. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2014 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  20. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2010 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  1. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2009 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2015 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  3. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2011 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  4. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Discharge Monitoring Report Data Sets for FY2013 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data sets for Clean Water...

  5. Tax Compliance, Tax Morale, and Governance Quality


    Benno Torgler; Markus Schaffner; Alison Macintyre


    Taxpayers are more compliant than the traditional economic models predict. Why? The literature calls it the ?puzzle of tax compliance?. In this paper we use field, experimental and survey data to investigate the empirical evidence on whether presence of tax morale helps to resolve this puzzle. The results reveal a strong correlation between tax morale and tax evasion/compliance which confirms the value of taking the research a step further by looking at the determinants of tax morale. We expl...

  6. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system (United States)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.


    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  7. Modelling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.


    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape biodiversity were

  8. Modeling environmental benefits of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.H.N.; Graves, A.R.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Burgess, P.J.; Filippi, de R.; Keesman, K.J.; Keulen, van H.; Liagre, F.; Mayus, M.; Moreno, G.; Reisner, Y.; Herzog, F.


    Increased adoption of silvoarable agroforestry (SAF) systems in Europe, by integrating trees and arable crops on the same land, could offer a range of environmental benefits compared with conventional agricultural systems. Soil erosion, nitrogen leaching, carbon sequestration and landscape

  9. DOE model conference on waste management and environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Reports dealing with current topics in waste management and environmental restoration were presented at this conference in six sessions. Session 1 covered the Hot Topics'' including regulations and risk assessment. Session 2 dealt with waste reduction and minimization; session 3 dealt with waste treatment and disposal. Session 4 covered site characterization and analysis. Environmental restoration and associated technologies wee discussed in session 5 and 6. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  10. Environmental-Economic Modelling of Novel Protein Foods: A General Equilibrium Approach


    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin


    Keywords: General equilibrium modelling, Welfare programs, Non-convexities, Novel Protein Foods, Environmental life cycle assessment.Intensive animal production systems inEurope, particularly in theNetherlands, result in a series of environmental problems mainly due to manure surplus. This thesis aims to make contributions to identifying solutions to the problems related to protein production and consumption.The first contribution concerns the theoretical modelling of environmental problems. ...

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on review of dose modeling methods for demonstration of compliance with the radiological criteria for license termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, T.J.; Parrott, J.D. [eds.


    The workshop was one in a series to support NRC staff development of guidance for implementing the final rule on ``Radiological Criteria for License Termination.`` The workshop topics included discussion of: dose models used for decommissioning reviews; identification of criteria for evaluating the acceptability of dose models; and selection of parameter values for demonstrating compliance with the final rule. The 2-day public workshop was jointly organized by RES and NMSS staff responsible for reviewing dose modeling methods used in decommissioning reviews. The workshop was noticed in the Federal Register (62 FR 51706). The workshop presenters included: NMSS and RES staff, who discussed both dose modeling needs for licensing reviews, and development of guidance related to dose modeling and parameter selection needs; DOE national laboratory scientists, who provided responses to earlier NRC staff-developed questions and discussed their various Federally-sponsored dose models (i.e., DandD, RESRAD, and MEPAS codes); and an EPA scientist, who presented details on the EPA dose assessment model (i.e., PRESTO code). The workshop was formatted to provide opportunities for the attendees to observe computer demonstrations of the dose codes presented. More than 120 workshop attendees from NRC Headquarters and the Regions, Agreement States; as well as industry representatives and consultants; scientists from EPA, DOD, DNFSB, DOE, and the national laboratories; and interested members of the public participated. A complete transcript of the workshop, including viewgraphs and attendance lists, is available in the NRC Public Document Room. This NUREG/CP documents the formal presentations made during the workshop, and provides a preface outlining the workshop`s focus, objectives, background, topics and questions provided to the invited speakers, and those raised during the panel discussion. NUREG/CP-0163 also provides technical bases supporting the development of decommissioning

  12. International Research Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects, and Research Needs (United States)

    Parks, Bradley


    The 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling (GIS/EM4) was convened in Banff, Canada, September 2-8, 2000 at The Banff Centre for Conferences. The meeting's purpose, like it's predecessors was to reformulate, each three to four years, the collaborative research agenda for integrating spatio-temporal analysis with environmental simulation modeling.

  13. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik


    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  14. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.A.F.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.


    This study describes a model (MIKADO) to analyse options to reduce the environmental impact of aluminium die casting. This model will take a company perspective, so that it can be used as a decision-support tool for the environmental management of a plant. MIKADO can be used to perform scenario

  15. Using a Three-Dimensional Interactive Model To Teach Environmental Concepts to Visually Impaired Children. (United States)

    Budd, Julia M.; LaGrow, Steven J.


    A study investigated the efficacy of using the Buddy Road Kit, an interactive, wooden model, to teach environmental concepts to 4 children with visual impairments ages 7 to 11 years old. Results indicate the model was effective in teaching environmental concepts and traffic safety to the children involved. (Contains references.) (CR)

  16. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation (United States)

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  17. Towards the development of an environmental rule-based model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rule-based model was built in order to analyse the effects of environmental variables (wind stress, Ekman transport, turbulence, and sea surface temperature [SST]) on the recruitment of the Brazilian sardine Sardinella brasiliensis. The purpose of modelling was (1) to test the optimal environmental window hypothesis ...

  18. An open-source Java-based Toolbox for environmental model evaluation: The MOUSE Software Application (United States)

    A consequence of environmental model complexity is that the task of understanding how environmental models work and identifying their sensitivities/uncertainties, etc. becomes progressively more difficult. Comprehensive numerical and visual evaluation tools have been developed such as the Monte Carl...

  19. Patient compliance following isolated mandibular fracture repair. (United States)

    Radabaugh, J Paul; Horn, Adam Van; Chan, Stephen A; Shelton, Jared M; Gal, Thomas J


    Compliance with postoperative care in the maxillofacial trauma population often is considered poor. This lack of follow-up does not seem to be a function of decreased access to care but rather its anticipated lack of utilization. The goal of this study is to identify what factors are associated with increased compliance in postoperative management of mandible fractures. Retrospective cohort study. Using Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify maxillofacial injuries requiring operative repair, a subset of isolated mandibular fractures was identified. Age, gender, race, insurance type, travel distance, mandible fracture location, surgical approach, and complications were used as variables in univariate regression modeling to examine factors associated with compliance to postoperative care. Between 2010 and 2013, 344 isolated mandible fractures were identified. A total of 83.1% of patients made their first postoperative follow-up visit. Demographic data, fracture location, distance to medical center (odds ratio [OR] = 1, P = 0.75), type of repair, use of drains (OR = 1.27, P = 0.61), or nonabsorbable suture (OR = 1.44, P = 0.32) did not appear to be associated with compliance. No association between complications and postoperative compliance was observed (OR = 2.37, P = 0.17). Trends toward improved compliance were observed when evaluating insurance type and use of temporary fixation hardware. The presence of current tobacco use was found to be negatively associated with patient compliance (OR = 0.33, P compliance after surgical repair is better than what is currently represented in the literature. It appears that postoperative compliance is dependent on patient-related factors more so than what can be modified by the surgeon. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2230-2235, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Effect of dietary adherence on the body weight plateau: a mathematical model incorporating intermittent compliance with energy intake prescription. (United States)

    Thomas, Diana M; Martin, Corby K; Redman, Leanne M; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lettieri, Steven; Levine, James A; Bouchard, Claude; Schoeller, Dale A


    Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated models of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. We developed 2 mathematical models on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate plausible explanations for reaching an early weight plateau at 6 mo. The first model was an energy-expenditure adaptation model and was applied to determine the degree of metabolic adaptation required to generate this plateau. The second model was an intermittent lack-of-adherence model formulated by using a randomly fluctuating energy intake term accounting for intermittent noncompliance in dietary intake to reach this plateau. To set model variables, validate models, and compare free-living weight-loss patterns to in-residence supervised programs, we applied the following 4 different studies: The US NHANES 1999-2004, Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) weight-loss study, the Bouchard Twin overfeeding study, and the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. The metabolic adaptation model increased final weight but did not affect the predicted plateau time point. The intermittent lack-of-adherence model generated oscillating weight graphs that have been frequently observed in weight-loss studies. The model showed that a 6-mo weight-loss plateau can be attained despite what can be considered as high diet adherence. The model was programmed as a downloadable application. An intermittent lack of diet adherence, not metabolic adaptation, is a major contributor to the frequently observed early weight-loss plateau. The new weight-loss prediction software, which incorporates an intermittent lack of adherence, can be used to guide and inform patients on realistic levels of adherence on the basis of patient lifestyle. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Modeling of environmental and genetic interactions with AMBROSIA, an information-theoretic model synthesis method. (United States)

    Chanda, P; Zhang, A; Ramanathan, M


    To develop a model synthesis method for parsimoniously modeling gene-environmental interactions (GEI) associated with clinical outcomes and phenotypes. The AMBROSIA model synthesis approach utilizes the k-way interaction information (KWII), an information-theoretic metric capable of identifying variable combinations associated with GEI. For model synthesis, AMBROSIA considers relevance of combinations to the phenotype, it precludes entry of combinations with redundant information, and penalizes for unjustifiable complexity; each step is KWII based. The performance and power of AMBROSIA were evaluated with simulations and Genetic Association Workshop 15 (GAW15) data sets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AMBROSIA identified parsimonious models in data sets containing multiple interactions with linkage disequilibrium present. For the GAW15 data set containing 9187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the parsimonious AMBROSIA model identified nine RA-associated combinations with power >90%. AMBROSIA was compared with multifactor dimensionality reduction across several diverse models and had satisfactory power. Software source code is available from AMBROSIA is a promising method for GEI model synthesis.

  2. Establish the Foundation of Environmental Assessment Technique in ROK via the International Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety Managed by IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Soo; Choi, Y. H.; Keum, D. K.; Kang, H. S.; Ahn, S. S.; Chung, Y. S.; Lee, C. W.; Hwang, W. T.; Seo, K. S


    Tritiated water (HTO) released from the nuclear facilities can easily be absorbed by plants via their stomata and incorporated into organics by metabolic processes such as photosynthesis. Organically bound tritium (OBT) in plant cells is mostly inexchangeable and remains at harvest to contribute some to the ingestion radiation dose (Barry et al., 1999). In assessing the ingestion dose due to an accidental release of HTO, a dynamic model simulating its environmental behaviors is needed. Various types of dynamic HTO models have been developed in many different countries. Joint international researches have been conducted many times for model comparisons and validations (BIOMOVS II, 1996a, 1996b). In 2003, however, with the understanding of an insufficiency in the validation test, the IAEA started on a joint international research program for the validation of environmental models (EMRAS : Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) as a successor to the BIOMASS (2001). The KAERI submitted 'a scenario of an acute soybean exposure to HTO' to the Tritium Working Group (Theme 1) in the EMRAS program. It was accepted as Task 2 of the working group. This report is the result of a joint research for the KAERI scenario carried out by the EMRAS tritium working group with the KAERI playing a role of a coordinator.

  3. Architecture-based regulatory compliance argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylov, Boyan; Onea, Lucian; Hansen, Klaus Marius


    Standards and regulations are difficult to understand and map to software, which makes compliance with them challenging to argue for software products and development process. This is problematic since lack of compliance may lead to issues with security, safety, and even to economic sanctions....... An increasing number of applications (for example in healthcare) are expected to have to live up to regulatory requirements in the future, which will lead to more software development projects having to deal with such requirements. We present an approach that models regulations such that compliance arguments...... the approach on the migration of the telemedicine platform Net4Care to the cloud, where certain regulations (for example privacy) should be concerned. The approach has the potential to support simpler compliance argumentation with the eventual promise of safer and more secure applications....

  4. Inter-Neighborhood Migration, Race, and Environmental Hazards: Modeling Micro-Level Processes of Environmental Inequality (United States)

    Crowder, Kyle; Downey, Liam


    This study combines data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency to examine the extent and sources of environmental inequality at the individual level. Results indicate that profound racial and ethnic differences in proximity to industrial pollution persist when differences in individual education, household income, and other micro-level characteristics are controlled. Examination of underlying migration patterns further reveals that black and Latino householders move into neighborhoods with significantly higher hazard levels than do comparable whites, and that racial differences in proximity to neighborhood pollution are maintained more by these disparate mobility destinations than by differential effects of pollution on the decision to move. PMID:20503918

  5. Environmental protection implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.


    This Environmental Protection Implementation Plan is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California`s commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The Environmental Protection Implementation Plan helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities. SNL is committed to operating in full compliance with the letter and spirit of applicable environmental laws, regulations, and standards. Furthermore, SNL/California strives to go beyond compliance with legal requirements by making every effort practical to reduce impacts to the environment to levels as low as reasonably achievable.

  6. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan


    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  7. Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan M. Aboul Ezz


    Full Text Available Rotifers are one of the most common, abundant components of plankton in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea, which means that they can be used as bio-indicators and provide useful information on the long-term dynamics of the El-Mex Bay ecosystem. Rotifera species were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed in the El-Mex Bay, west of Alexandria at eight stations to study spatial, temporal, dominance, and abundance of the rotifer community and their relation with changes in environmental conditions. Samples were collected seasonally from autumn 2011 to autumn 2012. Ecological parameters were determined and correlated with total rotifers abundance to gain information about the forces that structure the rotifer community in this dynamic environment. A total of 38 rotifer species were identified belonging to 16 genera within 12 families and 3 orders under one class and contributed about 12.1% of the total zooplankton in the study area with an average of 1077 specimens/m3. Maximum density was observed in summer 2012 with an average of 1445 specimens/m3. During autumn 2011 rotifers appeared in low density (434 specimens/m3. The predominant species Ascomorpha saltans, Brachionus urceolaris, Synchaeta oblonga, Synchaeta okai, Synchaeta pectinata and Synchaeta tremula were recorded in all study stations of the bay. Salinity, temperature, depth, and chlorophyll-a concentration were the most important environmental factors co-related with the abundance of rotifers in the El-Mex Bay. A significant positive correlation between the total rotifer abundance and chlorophyll-a was observed during winter 2012 and summer 2012 (r = 0.763 and r = 0.694, respectively, at p ⩽ 0.05.

  8. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Parametric linear hybrid automata for complex environmental systems modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tareen, Samar Hayat Khan; Ahmad, Jamil; Roux, Olivier


    Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator–prey relationships, are dependent on a number different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult

  10. Interactions and constraints in model species response to environmental heteroscedasticity. (United States)

    Malanson, George P


    Increasing environmental variability could exacerbate the effects of climate change on ecological processes such as population dynamics, or positive and negative effects (favorable or unfavorable weather) could balance. Such a balance could depend on constraints of the processes. Biological and spatial constraints are represented in a spatially explicit individual based simulation of an ecotone reduced to two species on a single environmental gradient. The effects of climate amelioration are simulated from a plant's-eye-view by increasing the establishment and decreasing the mortality rates. Variability is introduced as a random multiplier of these rates, and the strength of the variation is increased through the period of climate change. The biological constraints limit change in the rates, and the extent of the simulation grid represents a spatial constraint. A small increase in environmental variation, multiplied through time with climate change, increases extinction rates. The biological and spatial constraints have little effect on the response of populations. Instead, competition, based on the form of the species response functions to the environmental gradient at the point where they intersect, determines differences in population responses. Positive and negative variations in the environment do not balance because the responses are hierarchical and asymmetric. Differences persist because extinction during a negative anomaly cannot be reversed by a later positive one. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Modeling the impacts of environmental policies on agricultural imports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, B.A.; Scatasta, S.


    For current policy debates in agricultural and food industries, policy analysts need to evaluate the impacts of how proposed changes in domestic environmental regulations may alter agricultural trade in the future. Given the industry-specific nature of many policies issues, analysts need sector and

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.


    The Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.


    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  14. Geo-inspired model: Agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental management (AVNG of water tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán Rojas


    Full Text Available Context: Management to care for the environment and the Earth (geo can be source of inspiration for developing models that allow addressing complexity issues; the objective of this research was to develop an additional aspect of the inspired models. The geoinspired model has two features, the first covering aspects related to environmental management and the behavior of natural resources, and the second has a component of spatial location associated with existing objects on the Earth's surface. Method: The approach developed in the research is descriptive and its main objective is the representation or characterization of a case study within a particular context. Results: The result was the design of a model to emulate the natural behavior of the water tributaries of the Amazon foothills, in order to extend the application of the inspired models and allow the use of elements such as geo-referencing and environmental management. The proposed geoinspired model is called “natural vectors agents inspired in environmental management”. Conclusions: The agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental are polyform elements that can assume the behavior of environmental entities, which makes it possible to achieve progress in other fields of environmental management (use of soil, climate, flora, fauna, and link environmental issues with the structure of the proposed model.

  15. Environment and environmental effects of pollution. Model of eco-dashboard – A tool for analysis of environmental management performances


    Martinescu (Oprea), Dana Maria/G; Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I


    This article presents some conceptual approaches to environment and pollution phenomenon, describing the main factors of pollution and their evolution in Romania. There are described the main centers of pollution from the Slatina area. There is presented a definition of eco-dashboard, the main flight specific businesses within the non-ferrous metallurgical industry of Romania and a model for analysis of environmental management performance of this specific field.

  16. Environmental risk of leptospirosis infections in the Netherlands: Spatial modelling of environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Rood, Ente J J; Goris, Marga G A; Pijnacker, Roan; Bakker, Mirjam I; Hartskeerl, Rudy A


    Leptospirosis is a globally emerging zoonotic disease, associated with various climatic, biotic and abiotic factors. Mapping and quantifying geographical variations in the occurrence of leptospirosis and the surrounding environment offer innovative methods to study disease transmission and to identify associations between the disease and the environment. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in leptospirosis incidence in the Netherlands and to identify associations with environmental factors driving the emergence of the disease. Individual case data derived over the period 1995-2012 in the Netherlands were geocoded and aggregated by municipality. Environmental covariate data were extracted for each municipality and stored in a spatial database. Spatial clusters were identified using kernel density estimations and quantified using local autocorrelation statistics. Associations between the incidence of leptospirosis and the local environment were determined using Simultaneous Autoregressive Models (SAR) explicitly modelling spatial dependence of the model residuals. Leptospirosis incidence rates were found to be spatially clustered, showing a marked spatial pattern. Fitting a spatial autoregressive model significantly improved model fit and revealed significant association between leptospirosis and the coverage of arable land, built up area, grassland and sabulous clay soils. The incidence of leptospirosis in the Netherlands could effectively be modelled using a combination of soil and land-use variables accounting for spatial dependence of incidence rates per municipality. The resulting spatially explicit risk predictions provide an important source of information which will benefit clinical awareness on potential leptospirosis infections in endemic areas.

  17. Environmental risk of leptospirosis infections in the Netherlands: Spatial modelling of environmental risk factors of leptospirosis in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ente J J Rood

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a globally emerging zoonotic disease, associated with various climatic, biotic and abiotic factors. Mapping and quantifying geographical variations in the occurrence of leptospirosis and the surrounding environment offer innovative methods to study disease transmission and to identify associations between the disease and the environment. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in leptospirosis incidence in the Netherlands and to identify associations with environmental factors driving the emergence of the disease. Individual case data derived over the period 1995-2012 in the Netherlands were geocoded and aggregated by municipality. Environmental covariate data were extracted for each municipality and stored in a spatial database. Spatial clusters were identified using kernel density estimations and quantified using local autocorrelation statistics. Associations between the incidence of leptospirosis and the local environment were determined using Simultaneous Autoregressive Models (SAR explicitly modelling spatial dependence of the model residuals. Leptospirosis incidence rates were found to be spatially clustered, showing a marked spatial pattern. Fitting a spatial autoregressive model significantly improved model fit and revealed significant association between leptospirosis and the coverage of arable land, built up area, grassland and sabulous clay soils. The incidence of leptospirosis in the Netherlands could effectively be modelled using a combination of soil and land-use variables accounting for spatial dependence of incidence rates per municipality. The resulting spatially explicit risk predictions provide an important source of information which will benefit clinical awareness on potential leptospirosis infections in endemic areas.

  18. Procedures and Compliance of a Video Modeling Applied Behavior Analysis Intervention for Brazilian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Bagaiolo, Leila F.; Mari, Jair de J.; Bordini, Daniela; Ribeiro, Tatiane C.; Martone, Maria Carolina C.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Brunoni, Decio; Brentani, Helena; Paula, Cristiane S.


    Video modeling using applied behavior analysis techniques is one of the most promising and cost-effective ways to improve social skills for parents with autism spectrum disorder children. The main objectives were: (1) To elaborate/describe videos to improve eye contact and joint attention, and to decrease disruptive behaviors of autism spectrum…

  19. Gill cell culture systems as models for aquatic environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Bury, Nic R; Schnell, Sabine; Hogstrand, Christer


    A vast number of chemicals require environmental safety assessments for market authorisation. To ensure acceptable water quality, effluents and natural waters are monitored for their potential harmful effects. Tests for market authorisation and environmental monitoring usually involve the use of large numbers of organisms and, for ethical, cost and logistic reasons, there is a drive to develop alternative methods that can predict toxicity to fish without the need to expose any animals. There is therefore a great interest in the potential to use cultured fish cells in chemical toxicity testing. This review summarises the advances made in the area and focuses in particular on a system of cultured fish gill cells grown into an epithelium that permits direct treatment with water samples.

  20. Regional Persistent Organic Pollutants' Environmental Impact Assessment and Control Model


    Jurgis Staniskis; Romanas Cesnaitis


    The sources of formation, environmental distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasingly seen as topics to be addressed and solved at the global scale. Therefore, there are already two international agreements concerning persistent organic pollutants: the Protocol of 1998 to the 1979 Convention on the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Aarhus Protocol); and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. For the as...

  1. Modeling Environmental Impacts on Cognitive Performance for Artificially Intelligent Entities (United States)


    environments that the Marine Corps currently operates in have high levels of heat and humidity. This environmental reality can adversely affect the physical...and cognitive performance of Marines who are required to operate in such conditions. Partially addressing these realities , important advances in the...avatar’s physical actions in the simulation (Curthoys, 2014). Furthermore, VBS 3 allows exercise designers to “ manipulate different weather patterns

  2. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders


    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...... the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization....

  3. Compliance with occlusion therapy for childhood amblyopia. (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R


    Explore compliance with occlusion treatment of amblyopia in the Monitored and Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Studies (MOTAS and ROTAS), using objective monitoring. Both studies had a three-phase protocol: initial assessment, refractive adaptation, and occlusion. In the occlusion phase, participants were instructed to dose for 6 hours/day (MOTAS) or randomized to 6 or 12 hour/day (ROTAS). Dose was monitored continuously using an occlusion dose monitor (ODM). One hundred and fifty-two patients (71 male, 81 female; 122 Caucasian, 30 non-Caucasian) of mean ± SD age 68 ± 18 months participated. Amblyopia was defined as an interocular acuity difference of at least 0.1 logMAR and was associated with anisometropia in 50, strabismus in 44, and both (mixed) in 58. Median duration of occlusion was 99 days (interquartile range 72 days). Mean compliance was 44%, mean proportion of days with no patch worn was 42%. Compliance was lower (39%) on weekends compared with weekdays (46%, P = 0.04), as was the likelihood of dosing at all (52% vs. 60%, P = 0.028). Compliance was lower when attendance was less frequent (P treatment duration (P amblyopia type, and severity were not associated with compliance. Mixture modeling suggested three subpopulations of patch day doses: less than 30 minutes; doses that achieve 30% to 80% compliance; and doses that achieve around 100% compliance. This study shows that compliance with patching treatment averages less than 50% and is influenced by several factors. A greater understanding of these influences should improve treatment outcome. ( number, NCT00274664).

  4. Study of Grid Code Compliance : Thanet Wind Farm


    Sjölund, Malin


    The trend towards harmonizing grid codes within Europe will increase the demands for grid code compliance. Wind power is for several reasons not comparable to conventional power generation but will, due to large installations, need to show compliance with the grid codes. This thesis is investigating grid code requirements as proposed by National Grid (UK) and ENTSO-E. Modelling work and simulations have also been performed to investigate the grid ode compliance of Thanet offshore wind farm in...

  5. Political Support and Tax Compliance: A Social Interaction Approach


    Fershtman, Chaim; Lipatov, Vilen


    People may express their political opinion by adopting different measures of civil disobedience. Tax compliance is an example of an economic decision that may be affected by anti-goverment sentiment. We consider a model in which political opinion as well as tax compliance decisions are both formed as part of a social interaction process in which individuals interact, exchange ideas and observe behavior. Tax compliance is affected by the level of government support and political opinion may be...

  6. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent


    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  7. An Analysis of Modifications to the Three-Step Guided Compliance Procedure Necessary to Achieve Compliance among Preschool Children (United States)

    Wilder, David A.; Myers, Kristin; Fischetti, Anthony; Leon, Yanerys; Nicholson, Katie; Allison, Janelle


    After a 3-step guided compliance procedure (vocal prompt, vocal plus model prompt, vocal prompt plus physical guidance) did not increase compliance, we evaluated 2 modifications with 4 preschool children who exhibited noncompliance. The first modification consisted of omission of the model prompt, and the second modification consisted of omitting…

  8. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers (United States)

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.


    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  9. 77 FR 61748 - Annual Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Multimedia Environmental Modeling (United States)


    ... noon, EST. ADDRESSES: U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, Virginia. FOR FURTHER... environmental health risk assessment. Multimedia environmental model development and simulation supports... Headquarters is located at 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA, near the Washington Dulles International...

  10. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model (United States)

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose


    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  11. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) (United States)


    Mercury fulminate ......................................... Fulminic acid, mercury (2+) salt ........................ 628-86-4 P065...Fluorine P057 Fluoroacetamide p058 Fluoroacetic acid, sodium salt p065 Fulminic acid~ mercury (2+)salt 0r.0 P059 Heptachloir P062 Hexachyl letraphosphaze...residues from RMERC) ( mercury fulminate ) Mercury (CAS 7439-97-6) NA 0.20 P065** (Low Mercury Subcategory-less than 260 mg/kg Mercury incinerator

  12. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Connecticut Supplement (United States)


    association, syndicate, company, trust, corporation, munici- pality, agency, political or administrative subdivision of the state, or other legal entity...object, or site that is significant in the history, architecture, archaeology, and culture of the state, its political subdivisions, or the nation and...Gaultheria hispidula Creeping snowberry T Diplachne maritima Saltpond grassF Gaylussacia dwnosa Dwarf huckleberry T Drosera filifonnis Thread-leaf sundew E

  13. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) (United States)


    Panthera tigris Temperate and tropical Asia Tiger, Tasmanian Thylacinus cynocephalus Australia Wallaby, banded hare Lagostrophus fasciatus Australia...giganteus Australia (Tasmania) forester tasmaniensis Kangaroo, western gray Macropus fuliginosis Australia Leopard Panthera pardus Asia Leopard, clouded...Neofelis nebulosa Southeast and south- central Asia, Taiwan Leopard, snow Panthera uncia Central Asia Lion, Asiatic Panthera leo persica Turkey Lynx

  14. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) (United States)


    persica Turkey Lynx , Spanish Felis (= Lynx ) pardina Spain, Portugal Macaque, Japanese Macaca fuscata Japan (Shikoku, Kyushu and Honshu Islands) Marsupial...Pithecophaga jefferyi Philippines Falcon, Arctic peregrine Falco peregrinus tundrius Central America Falcon, Eurasian Falco peregrinus Europe, Eurasia

  15. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin Supplement (United States)


    caroliniana No common name Anemone muluifida No common name Arenaria macrophylla Lake Cress Armoracia aquatica Purple Milkweed Asciepias purpurascens...Fern Botrychium mormo Marsh Marigold Caitha natans Wild Hyacinth Camassia scilloides No common name Carex crus-corvi No common name Carex ...lupiliformis No common name Carex media Brook Grass Catabrosa aquatica Stoneroot Collinsonia canadensis Hemlock-parsley Conioselinum chinense Beak Grass

  16. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Japan Settlement (United States)


    Plans, Training, Mobilization, and Security (DPTMSEC) (13) Engineering, Plans. & Services (EP&S) (14) Wastewater Treatment Plant Supervisor (O&M) (15... seaweed , or other animals or plants within these areas, is maintained in an excellent condition, and which are of a size exceeding that stipulated by...will discharge wastewater or sewage int lakes, marshes, damp fields, or waier basins or water courses that lead reuining water to said lakes, marshes, or

  17. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon Supplement (United States)


    facilities, recreation. amusement, sports , and entertainment facilities, airports, office and government buildings. apartments and mobile homes...containment during sandblasting or other similar opera- tions - covering, at all times when in motion, open-bodied trucks tran- sporting materials...substantial particulate remo - val by physical and ’iological mechanisms 4. Diatomaceous Earth Filtration- a process resulting in substantial particulate

  18. 7 CFR 773.9 - Environmental compliance. (United States)


    ... environment and cultural resources. Loan applicants will provide all information necessary for the Agency to... cooperative which deals with the production, processing or marketing of apples; and (6) Payment of loan...

  19. Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (United States)


    grading of roads, or the clearing of land - application of asphalt , water, or suitable chemicals on roads, material stockpiles, and other surfaces... isocyanate 624839 Methyl methacrylate 80626 Methyl tert butyl ether 1634044 4,4-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) 101144 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane... asphaltic pavement, steel, plaster, glass, and minor amounts of other metals, such as copper. Construc- tion and demolition waste does not include


    I. Remote Sensing Basics A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors. B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often. 1. Sp...

  1. Environmental Radiation Effects on Mammals A Dynamical Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Olga A


    This text is devoted to the theoretical studies of radiation effects on mammals. It uses the framework of developed deterministic mathematical models to investigate the effects of both acute and chronic irradiation in a wide range of doses and dose rates on vital body systems including hematopoiesis, small intestine and humoral immunity, as well as on the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus, these models can contribute to the development of the system and quantitative approaches in radiation biology and ecology. This text is also of practical use. Its modeling studies of the dynamics of granulocytopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis in humans testify to the efficiency of employment of the developed models in the investigation and prediction of radiation effects on these hematopoietic lines. These models, as well as the properly identified models of other vital body systems, could provide a better understanding of the radiation risks to health. The modeling predictions will enable the implementation of more ef...

  2. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Simonds


    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, admin facility, weigh scale, decon building, treatment systems, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and are being constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the central Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facilityyy for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams. This compliance demonstration document discusses the conceptual site model for the ICDF Complex area. Within this conceptual site model, the selection of the area for the ICDF Complex is discussed. Also, the subsurface stratigraphy in the ICDF Complex area is discussed along with the existing contamination beneath the ICDF Complex area. The designs for the various ICDF Complex facilities are also included in this compliance demonstration document. These design discussions are a summary of the design as presented in the Remedial Design/Construction Work Plans for the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond and the Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility. Each of the major facilities or systems is described including the design criteria.

  3. Environmental implications of rural policies in China: a multi-agent model at the level of agricultural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, S.; Qu, Hong Juan; Luan, S.; Kroeze, C.


    We analyzed the socioeconomic and environmental changes in rural China from the perspective of agricultural households and developed a multi-agent agricultural household model for rural environmental management (MAREM). The MAREM model consists of four submodules: the agricultural household

  4. Multilevel grouped regression for analyzing self-reported health in relation to environmental factors: the model and its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.M.


    A method for modeling the relationship of polychotomous health ratings with predictors such as area characteristics, the distance to a source of environmental contamination, or exposure to environmental pollutants is presented. The model combines elements of grouped regression and multilevel

  5. Multilevel Grouped Regression for Analyzing Self-reported Health in Relation to Environmental Factors: the Model and its Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Miedema, Henk M.E.


    A method for modeling the relationship of polychotomous health ratings with predictors such as area characteristics, the distance to a source of environmental contamination, or exposure to environmental pollutants is presented. The model combines elements of grouped regression and multilevel

  6. How important is diversity for capturing environmental-change responses in ecosystem models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowe, Friederike; Pahlow, M.; Dutkiewicz, S.


    Marine ecosystem models used to investigate how global change affects ocean ecosystems and their functioning typically omit pelagic plankton diversity. Diversity, however, may affect functions such as primary production and their sensitivity to environmental changes. Here we use a global ocean...... ecosystem model that explicitly resolves phytoplankton diversity by defining subtypes within four phytoplankton functional types (PFTs). We investigate the model's ability to capture diversity effects on primary production under environmental change. An idealized scenario with a sudden reduction in vertical...... in the model, for example via trade-offs or different PFTs, thus determines the diversity effects on ecosystem functioning captured in ocean ecosystem models....

  7. NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Local Model Runs in the Environmental Modeling System (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.


    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.

  8. Environmental assessment of a city on the model of energy-ecological efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzovkina Tat’yana Vladimirovna

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the analytical methodology for assessing the environmental safety in construction, the existing government programs in energy saving, and the analysis of the actual state of the investigated problem, proposed a method of assessment of environmental safety efficiency criteria of a city. The analysis is based on the data on housing and communal services of the City of Moscow. As a result of the consideration of the government programs and methods of assessing the environmental security in construction the conclusion was made that none of the programs reviewed and non of the methods include consideration of the relationship between environmental parameters of environmental security and energy efficiency (indicators of them are considered separately from each other. In order to determine the actual state of environmental safety analytical review was performed of energy efficiency programs of the government in Moscow and the methods of assessing the environmental safety of a construction. After considering a methodology for assessing the environmental safety of a construction, the author proposes to use the model for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city to ensure the environmental safety of the processes of life-support of the city, which takes into account the dependence of the parameters of environmental safety and energy efficiency. The author describes the criteria for selecting thr data on energy and environmental efficiency of the city. The article shows the sequence to identify the criteria for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city. In the article the author presents the results of ecological assessment of Moscow on the energy-ecological efficiency model, using the model defined performance indicators of the city to ensure environmental safety processes of life support of the city. The model takes into account the dependence of environmental safety parameters, environmental and

  9. Feasibility Study for an Air Force Environmental Model and Data Exchange. Volume 1. Model and Data Requirements with Recommendations. (United States)


    ls Date Base Management. Mathematical Models Environmental Environmental Management ABSTRACT (Continue an tov~e Ofd necessary, aid Iden Ifil by blOc... Mathematical equations representing the physical and chemical processes of air and water are the most common, but there are also models of such...Armaments Division/ Comuter Systems D/KRESS ____ [IQ Air Force Systems ConmandSac/~v Pjan Iso/wJ Air Weather Service hleadquiarters 3rd Weather


    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  11. Environmental enrichment extends photoreceptor survival and visual function in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barone, Ilaria; Novelli, Elena; Piano, Ilaria; Gargini, Claudia; Strettoi, Enrica


    .... Environmental enrichment (EE), a novel neuroprotective strategy based on enhanced motor, sensory and social stimulation, has already been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of various disorders of the CNS...

  12. Using Remote Sensing and Radar Meteorological Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (United States)

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) traditionally have been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations, although these data may not be the most appropriate for adequate spatial and temporal resolution...

  13. Environmental Models as a Service: Enabling Interoperability through RESTful Endpoints and API Documentation (presentation) (United States)

    Achieving interoperability in environmental modeling has evolved as software technology has progressed. The recent rise of cloud computing and proliferation of web services initiated a new stage for creating interoperable systems. Scientific programmers increasingly take advantag...

  14. Environmental Models as a Service: Enabling Interoperability through RESTful Endpoints and API Documentation. (United States)

    Achieving interoperability in environmental modeling has evolved as software technology has progressed. The recent rise of cloud computing and proliferation of web services initiated a new stage for creating interoperable systems. Scientific programmers increasingly take advantag...

  15. An exploration of scenarios to support sustainable land management using integrated environmental socio-economic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Nainggolan, D.; Stringer, L.C.


    Scenario analysis constitutes a valuable deployment method for scientific models to inform environmental decision-making, particularly for evaluating land degradation mitigation options, which are rarely based on formal analysis. In this paper we demonstrate such an assessment using the

  16. Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective Use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model (United States)

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of documents that address conceptual site models (CSMs). This fact sheet summarizes how environmental practitioners can use CSMs to achieve, communicate, and maintain stakeholder consensus.

  17. Business Model for the Security of a Large-Scale PACS, Compliance with ISO/27002:2013 Standard. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Josefina; Núñez-Gaona, Marco Antonio; Aguirre-Meneses, Heriberto


    Data security is a critical issue in an organization; a proper information security management (ISM) is an ongoing process that seeks to build and maintain programs, policies, and controls for protecting information. A hospital is one of the most complex organizations, where patient information has not only legal and economic implications but, more importantly, an impact on the patient's health. Imaging studies include medical images, patient identification data, and proprietary information of the study; these data are contained in the storage device of a PACS. This system must preserve the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of patient information. There are techniques such as firewalls, encryption, and data encapsulation that contribute to the protection of information. In addition, the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations are also used to protect the patient clinical data. However, these techniques are not systematically applied to the picture and archiving and communication system (PACS) in most cases and are not sufficient to ensure the integrity of the images and associated data during transmission. The ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard has been developed to improve the ISM. Currently, health institutions lack effective ISM processes that enable reliable interorganizational activities. In this paper, we present a business model that accomplishes the controls of ISO/IEC 27002:2013 standard and criteria of security and privacy from DICOM and HIPAA to improve the ISM of a large-scale PACS. The methodology associated with the model can monitor the flow of data in a PACS, facilitating the detection of unauthorized access to images and other abnormal activities.

  18. An Interactive Environmental Economy Model for Energy Cycle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafie-Pour Motlagh, MM Farsiabi, HR Kamalan


    Full Text Available The growing world economy calls for saving natural resources with sustainable development framework. This paper intends to look at the environment-energy interface (impacts on the environment stemming form the energy sector and to propose measures for reducing this impact without trying to impede economic development. In addition, this paper estimates the amounts of energy subsidies about 20% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in 2019 if the conditions do not change. Meanwhile, environmental damage from air pollution has been assessed by scaling according to GDP per capita measured in purchase power parity (PPP terms. Using this approach, the total damage from air pollution in 2001 was assessed about $7billion; equivalent to 8.4% of nominal GDP. Lacking price reform and control policies, the authors estimate that damage in Iran will grow to 10.9% of GDP by 2019. In line with difficulties of eliminating subsidies, a list of 25 measures has been analyzed, using the environmental cost-benefit analysis and based on cost-effectiveness of the policies to verify which ones would be implemented. Finally the financial effects of implementing different combinations of price reform and carrying out those policies on the state budget, damage costs and subsidies have been calculated.

  19. [Compliance in medicine and dentistry]. (United States)

    Graehn, G; Bähre, C; Schikora, W


    Since 1953 systematic compliance-research received an enormous impetus. There is a change in its content too: Compliance depends equally on the attitudes of the doctor or dentist as of the patient. Methods to measure compliance, consequences of poor compliance, and non-compliance are investigated. In stomatology Compliance is important in order to secure progress and results of the therapy, but especially so as to motivate the patient's preventive behaviour. This is demonstrated and also given as a reason for the demand of the patient's expectations on the part of the dentist.

  20. Study of environmental sound source identification based on hidden Markov model for robust speech recognition (United States)

    Nishiura, Takanobu; Nakamura, Satoshi


    Humans communicate with each other through speech by focusing on the target speech among environmental sounds in real acoustic environments. We can easily identify the target sound from other environmental sounds. For hands-free speech recognition, the identification of the target speech from environmental sounds is imperative. This mechanism may also be important for a self-moving robot to sense the acoustic environments and communicate with humans. Therefore, this paper first proposes hidden Markov model (HMM)-based environmental sound source identification. Environmental sounds are modeled by three states of HMMs and evaluated using 92 kinds of environmental sounds. The identification accuracy was 95.4%. This paper also proposes a new HMM composition method that composes speech HMMs and an HMM of categorized environmental sounds for robust environmental sound-added speech recognition. As a result of the evaluation experiments, we confirmed that the proposed HMM composition outperforms the conventional HMM composition with speech HMMs and a noise (environmental sound) HMM trained using noise periods prior to the target speech in a captured signal. [Work supported by Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications of Japan.

  1. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains all Certificates of Compliance for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory.

  2. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment. (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen


    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing a system dynamics model to analyse environmental problem in construction site (United States)

    Haron, Fatin Fasehah; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah


    This study aims to develop a system dynamics model at a construction site to analyse the impact of environmental problem. Construction sites may cause damages to the environment, and interference in the daily lives of residents. A proper environmental management system must be used to reduce pollution, enhance bio-diversity, conserve water, respect people and their local environment, measure performance and set targets for the environment and sustainability. This study investigates the damaging impact normally occur during the construction stage. Environmental problem will cause costly mistake in project implementation, either because of the environmental damages that are likely to arise during project implementation, or because of modification that may be required subsequently in order to make the action environmentally acceptable. Thus, findings from this study has helped in significantly reducing the damaging impact towards environment, and improve the environmental management system performance at construction site.

  4. Prospective modelling of environmental dynamics. A methodological comparison applied to mountain land cover changes


    Paegelow, Martin; Camacho Olmedo, Maria,; Ferraty, Frédéric; Ferré, Louis; Sarda, Pascal; Villa, Nathalie


    During the last 10 years, scientists performed significant advances in modelling environmental dynamics. A wide range of new methodological approaches in geomatics - such as neural networks, multi-agent systems or fuzzy logics - was developed. Despite these progresses, the modelling softwares available have to be considered as experimental tools rather than as improved procedures able to work for environmental management or decision support. Particularly, the authors consider that a large num...

  5. Potential of Geographic Information Systems to Create a Municipal Environmental Model


    Adrian Juan Espinosa


    Geographic information systems are used internationally to acquire information about the characteristics of the global surface and digitalize it to facilitate georeferencing, statistical analysis, virtual scenarios and mitigation of disasters. In Cuba, they are inserted in the design of Environmental Models, along with other applications. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the potential offered by Geographic Information Systems to establish an Environmental Model in the municipality of ...

  6. Improving environmental assessments by integrating Species Sensitivity Distributions into environmental modeling: examples with two hypothetical oil spills. (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Mearns, Alan J


    A three dimensional (3D) trajectory model was used to simulate oil mass balance and environmental concentrations of two 795,000 L hypothetical oil spills modeled under physical and chemical dispersion scenarios. Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD) for Total Hydrocarbon Concentrations (THCs) were developed, and Hazard Concentrations (HC) used as levels of concern. Potential consequences to entrained water column organisms were characterized by comparing model outputs with SSDs, and obtaining the proportion of species affected (PSA) and areas with oil concentrations exceeding HC5s (Area ⩾ HC5). Under the physically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 77% of the oil remains on the water surface and strands on shorelines, while with the chemically-dispersed oil scenario ⩽ 67% of the oil is entrained in the water column. For every 10% increase in chemical dispersion effectiveness, the average PSA and Area ⩾ HC5 increases (range: 0.01-0.06 and 0.50-2.9 km(2), respectively), while shoreline oiling decreases (⩽ 2919 L/km). Integrating SSDs into modeling may improve understanding of scales of potential impacts to water column organisms, while providing net environmental benefit comparison of oil spill response options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A strategy for “constraint-based” parameter specification for environmental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gharari, S.; Shafiei, M.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gupta, H.V.; Savenije, H.H.G.


    Many environmental systems models, such as conceptual rainfall-runoff models, rely on model calibration for parameter identification. For this, an observed output time series (such as runoff) is needed, but frequently not available. Here, we explore another way to constrain the parameter values of

  8. Comparison of three models predicting developmental milestones given environmental and individual variation (United States)

    Estella Gilbert; James A. Powell; Jesse A. Logan; Barbara J. Bentz


    In all organisms, phenotypic variability is an evolutionary stipulation. Because the development of poikilothermic organisms depends directly on the temperature of their habitat, environmental variability is also an integral factor in models of their phenology. In this paper we present two existing phenology models, the distributed delay model and the Sharpe and...

  9. Description of selected global models for scenario studies on environmentally sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes JA; Grosskurt J; Ienburg AM; Rothman DS; Vuuren DP van; OECD; ICIS; MNV; ICIS; LAE


    This report provides a survey of past and present integrated models that have been used for the generation and analysis of global scenarios. It examines the usefulness of the models for scenario studies on environmentally sustainable development. It does so by evaluating the models in terms of inter

  10. Applicability of mathematical modeling to problems of environmental physiology (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini


    The paper traces the evolution of mathematical modeling and systems analysis from terrestrial research to research related to space biomedicine and back again to terrestrial research. Topics covered include: power spectral analysis of physiological signals; pattern recognition models for detection of disease processes; and, computer-aided diagnosis programs used in conjunction with a special on-line biomedical computer library.

  11. An Environmentally Oriented Constructive Cost Model In Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model was designed to assist software developers in Nigeria to estimate software effort, duration and cost as a result of the difficulties in understanding the parameters of the traditional Constructive Cost Model II (COCOMO II) , which was designed for a specif ic environment, using Source Lines of Code (SLOC) . Results ...

  12. Online Higher Education Instruction to Foster Critical Thinking When Assessing Environmental Issues - the Brownfield Action Model (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Liddicoat, Joseph; Dittrick, Diane; Maenza-Gmelch, Terryanne; Kelsey, Ryan


    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are presently over half a million brownfields in the United States, but this number only includes sites for which an Environmental Site Assessment has been conducted. The actual number of brownfields is certainly into the millions and constitutes one of the major environmental issues confronting all communities today. Taught in part online for more than a decade in environmental science courses at over a dozen colleges, universities, and high schools in the United States, Brownfield Action (BA) is an interactive, web-based simulation that combines scientific expertise, constructivist education philosophy, and multimedia to advance the teaching of environmental science (Bower et al., 2011). In the online simulation and classroom, students form geotechnical consulting companies, conduct environmental site assessment investigations, and work collaboratively to solve a problem in environmental forensics. The BA model contains interdisciplinary scientific and social information that are integrated within a digital learning environment that encourages students to construct their knowledge as they learn by doing. As such, the approach improves the depth and coherence of students understanding of the course material. Like real-world environmental consultants, students are required to develop and apply expertise from a wide range of fields, including environmental science and engineering as well as journalism, medicine, public health, law, civics, economics, and business management. The overall objective is for students to gain an unprecedented appreciation of the complexity, ambiguity, and risk involved in any environmental issue or crisis.

  13. Multi-objective optimization model of CNC machining to minimize processing time and environmental impact (United States)

    Hamada, Aulia; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad


    Minimizing processing time in a production system can increase the efficiency of a manufacturing company. Processing time are influenced by application of modern technology and machining parameter. Application of modern technology can be apply by use of CNC machining, one of the machining process can be done with a CNC machining is turning. However, the machining parameters not only affect the processing time but also affect the environmental impact. Hence, optimization model is needed to optimize the machining parameters to minimize the processing time and environmental impact. This research developed a multi-objective optimization to minimize the processing time and environmental impact in CNC turning process which will result in optimal decision variables of cutting speed and feed rate. Environmental impact is converted from environmental burden through the use of eco-indicator 99. The model were solved by using OptQuest optimization software from Oracle Crystal Ball.

  14. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo


    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  15. Measured and modeled personal and environmental NO2 exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Emilie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposure in a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison with measured individual levels, and also combined modeled levels for each subject’s workplace with the levels at their residence to investigate the influence of living and working in different places on individual exposure levels. Methods A GIS-based dispersion model and an emissions database were used to model concentrations of NO2 at the subject’s residence. Modeled levels were then compared with measured levels of NO2. Personal exposure was also modeled based on levels of NO2 at the subject’s residence in combination with levels of NO2 at their workplace during working hours. Results There was a good agreement between measured façade levels and modeled residential NO2 levels (rs = 0.8, p > 0.001; however, the agreement between measured and modeled outdoor levels and measured personal exposure was poor with overestimations at low levels and underestimation at high levels (rs = 0.5, p > 0.001 and rs = 0.4, p > 0.001 even when compensating for workplace location (rs = 0.4, p > 0.001. Conclusion Modeling residential levels of NO2 proved to be a useful method of estimating façade concentrations. However, the agreement between outdoor levels (both modeled and measured and personal exposure was, although significant, rather poor even when compensating for workplace location. These results indicate that personal exposure cannot be fully approximated by outdoor levels and that differences in personal activity patterns or household characteristics should be carefully considered when conducting exposure studies. This is an important finding that may help to correct substantial bias in epidemiological studies.

  16. Measured and modeled personal and environmental NO2 exposure. (United States)

    Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Oudin, Anna; Ardö, Jonas; Jakobsson, Kristina; Björk, Jonas; Tinnerberg, Håkan


    Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposure in a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison with measured individual levels, and also combined modeled levels for each subject's workplace with the levels at their residence to investigate the influence of living and working in different places on individual exposure levels. A GIS-based dispersion model and an emissions database were used to model concentrations of NO2 at the subject's residence. Modeled levels were then compared with measured levels of NO2. Personal exposure was also modeled based on levels of NO2 at the subject's residence in combination with levels of NO2 at their workplace during working hours. There was a good agreement between measured façade levels and modeled residential NO2 levels (rs = 0.8, p > 0.001); however, the agreement between measured and modeled outdoor levels and measured personal exposure was poor with overestimations at low levels and underestimation at high levels (rs = 0.5, p > 0.001 and rs = 0.4, p > 0.001) even when compensating for workplace location (rs = 0.4, p > 0.001). Modeling residential levels of NO2 proved to be a useful method of estimating façade concentrations. However, the agreement between outdoor levels (both modeled and measured) and personal exposure was, although significant, rather poor even when compensating for workplace location. These results indicate that personal exposure cannot be fully approximated by outdoor levels and that differences in personal activity patterns or household characteristics should be carefully considered when conducting exposure studies. This is an important finding that may help to correct substantial bias in epidemiological studies.

  17. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  18. Parameter uncertainty in CGE Modeling of the environmental impacts of economic policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abler, D.G.; Shortle, J.S. [Agricultural Economics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Rodriguez, A.G. [University of Costa Rica, San Jose (Costa Rica)


    This study explores the role of parameter uncertainty in Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) modeling of the environmental impacts of macroeconomic and sectoral policies, using Costa Rica as a case for study. A CGE model is constructed which includes eight environmental indicators covering deforestation, pesticides, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gases, and air pollution. The parameters are treated as random variables drawn from prespecified distributions. Evaluation of each policy option consists of a Monte Carlo experiment. The impacts of the policy options on the environmental indicators are relatively robust to different parameter values, in spite of the wide range of parameter values employed. 33 refs.

  19. Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA (United States)

    Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.


    Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.

  20. ERMYN: Environmental Radiation Model for the Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Wu; M.A. Wasiolek; J.J. Tappen; K.R. Rautenstrauch; A.J. Smith


    This paper briefly describes a new biosphere model, ERMYN, that was developed to characterize biosphere processes for radionuclides released from the proposed high-level radioactive waste geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Biosphere modeling for YM is conducted independently for two radionuclide release modes and resulting exposure scenarios, groundwater release and volcanic release. This paper focuses on the model for groundwater release. The groundwater release exposure scenario addresses the case in which the geosphere-biosphere interface is well extraction of contaminated groundwater.

  1. Modelling the impact of ISO 14001 on environmental performance: a comparative approach. (United States)

    Boiral, Olivier; Henri, Jean-François


    Studies analyzing the effects of ISO 14001 certification and determinants of environmental performance tend to be based on a traditional and instrumental model of efficiency. Using structural equation modelling developed through a survey of 303 organizations, this paper compares the validity of this instrumental model with two alternatives models: the legitimacy-based model and the hybrid model. The findings question the efficiency of ISO 14001 and show that the traditional model does not explain the environmental performance of the surveyed organizations. Study results show that the legitimacy-based model, which questions the efficiency of ISO 14001 certification, is more pertinent in explaining the environmental performance but leads to a rather critical view of management practices. The development of a hybrid model based on the principal hypotheses of the legitimacy-based model, but integrating certain managerial and operational practices distinct from ISO 14001 certification, results in a less critical and more pertinent view of the determinants of environmental performance. Study results suggest that this hybrid model provides the best data fit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental niche models for riverine desert fishes and their similarity according to phylogeny and functionality (United States)

    Whitney, James E.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, Craig


    Environmental filtering and competitive exclusion are hypotheses frequently invoked in explaining species' environmental niches (i.e., geographic distributions). A key assumption in both hypotheses is that the functional niche (i.e., species traits) governs the environmental niche, but few studies have rigorously evaluated this assumption. Furthermore, phylogeny could be associated with these hypotheses if it is predictive of functional niche similarity via phylogenetic signal or convergent evolution, or of environmental niche similarity through phylogenetic attraction or repulsion. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships between environmental niches, functional niches, and phylogenies of fishes of the Upper (UCRB) and Lower (LCRB) Colorado River Basins of southwestern North America. We predicted that functionally similar species would have similar environmental niches (i.e., environmental filtering) and that closely related species would be functionally similar (i.e., phylogenetic signal) and possess similar environmental niches (i.e., phylogenetic attraction). Environmental niches were quantified using environmental niche modeling, and functional similarity was determined using functional trait data. Nonnatives in the UCRB provided the only support for environmental filtering, which resulted from several warmwater nonnatives having dam number as a common predictor of their distributions, whereas several cool- and coldwater nonnatives shared mean annual air temperature as an important distributional predictor. Phylogenetic signal was supported for both natives and nonnatives in both basins. Lastly, phylogenetic attraction was only supported for native fishes in the LCRB and for nonnative fishes in the UCRB. Our results indicated that functional similarity was heavily influenced by evolutionary history, but that phylogenetic relationships and functional traits may not always predict the environmental distribution of species. However, the

  3. Using Rasch models to develop and validate an environmental thinking learning progression (United States)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.

    Environmental understanding is highly relevant in today's global society. Social, economic, and political structures are connected to the state of environmental degradation and exploitation, and disproportionately affect those in poor or urban communities (Brulle & Pellow, 2006; Executive Order No. 12898, 1994). Environmental education must challenge the way we live, and our social and ecological quality of life, with the goal of responsible action. The development of a learning progression in environmental thinking, along with a corresponding assessment, could provide a tool that could be used across environmental education programs to help evaluate and guide programmatic decisions. This study sought to determine if a scale could be constructed that allowed individuals to be ordered along a continuum of environmental thinking. First, I developed the Environmental Thinking Learning Progression, a scale of environmental thinking from novice to advanced, based on the current available research and literature. The scale consisted of four subscales, each measuring a different aspect of environmental thinking: place consciousness, human connection, agency, and science concepts. Second, a measurement instrument was developed, so that the data appropriately fit the model using Rasch analysis. A Rasch analysis of the data placed respondents along a continuum, given the range of item difficulty for each subscale. Across three iterations of instrument revision and data collection, findings indicated that the items were ordered in a hierarchical way that corresponded to the construct of environmental thinking. Comparisons between groups showed that the average score of respondents who had participated in environmental education programs was significantly higher than those who had not. A comparison between males and females showed no significant difference in average measure, however, there were varied significant differences between how racial/ethnic groups performed. Overall

  4. Centrifuge Modelling of Two Civil-Environmental Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodings, Deborah


    Research Problem 1: Frost heave and thaw induced settlement in silt and silty clay developing over a year have been modelled correctly using a geotechnical centrifuge with tests requiring less than a day...

  5. Wall compliance and violin cavity modes. (United States)

    Bissinger, George


    Violin corpus wall compliance, which has a substantial effect on cavity mode frequencies, was added to Shaw's two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) network model for A0 ("main air") and A1 (lowest length mode included in "main wood") cavity modes. The 2DOF model predicts a V(-0.25) volume dependence for A0 for rigid violin-shaped cavities, to which a semiempirical compliance correction term, V(-x(c)) (optimization parameter x(c)) consistent with cavity acoustical compliance and violin-based scaling was added. Optimizing x(c) over A0 and A1 frequencies measured for a Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet yielded x(c) approximately 0.08. This markedly improved A0 and A1 frequency predictions to within approximately +/- 10% of experiment over a range of about 4.5:1 in length, 10:1 in f-hole area, 3:1 in top plate thickness, and 128:1 in volume. Compliance is a plausible explanation for A1 falling close to the "main wood" resonance, not increasingly higher for the larger instruments, which were scaled successively shorter compared to the violin for ergonomic and practical reasons. Similarly incorporating compliance for A2 and A4 (lowest lower-/upper-bout modes, respectively) improves frequency predictions within +/-20% over the octet.

  6. Coupling a high resolution soil erosion model with an agro-ecosystem model of SOC dynamics. An approach to assess the potential environmental effect of the new Common Agricultural Policy on soil degradation (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasqualle; Paustian, Keith; Panagos, Panos; Jones, Arwyn; Schütt, Brigitta; Lugato, Emanuele


    At the European Union level, the main mechanisms to promote a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture was introduced by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform in 2003, through the Cross-compliance. According to this new regulation, the farmer support payments were regulated with respect to environmental, animal welfare and food safety standards. This brought to the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC), firstly established by Council Regulation No. 1782/2003 and subsequently Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2009. The prevention of soil erosion and maintenance of soil organic matter were two of GAEC requirements, which each Member State was obliged to address through national standards such as: i) minimal soil cover maintenance (GAEC 4); ii) minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil loss (GAEC 5) and iii) maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices including ban on burning arable stubbles (GAEC 6). Although Member States are required to verify whether the farmers are compliant with the regulations (Cross-compliance), the environmental effect of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC) applications on erosion and carbon budgets are still little known and studied. To investigate the potential impacts of the GAEC, we coupled a high resolution erosion model based on Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with the CENTURY biogeochemical model (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421; 2016). The Italian arable land was selected as a study area, since it is well-known to be highly sensitive to soil erosion. Multi scenario modelling approach was undertaken, i.e., i) a baseline scenario without scenario excluding GAEC (pre 2003 period); ii) a present scenario including the current GAEC standards (post 2003 period), and iii) a technical potential scenario assuming that the GAEC standards were applied to the entire Italian arable land. The results show a 10.8% decrease, from

  7. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 1.1c ‘Maintenance of farm channel networks and field convexity’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi


    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the monitoring carried out in three farms of the project MO.NA.CO. in order to verify the effectiveness of the cross-compliance standard 1.1c which obliges the farmer to the ‘Maintenance of farm channel networks and field convexity’ in order to ensure its efficiency and functionality in draining water. It was also examined the competitiveness gap induced to the agricultural enterprise by the application of the standard, that is to say the additional costs borne by the beneficiary of the single payment determined by cleaning farm collector channels. Effectiveness was determined by evaluating the degradation of soil structure at the end of winter, on flat fields  sown in autumn with winter wheat, in the two cases: a Factual (channels along the field edges not clogged and no waterlogging present on the cultivated soil b Counterfactual (channels clogged and waterlogging present on the cultivated soil. The monitoring confirmed a positive effect of the adoption of this standard on predisposing soil to the ideal conditions for the maintenance of the structure. Despite the statistical evidence found, it must be said that the change in the surface roughness factor was so small as not to take any practical significance in order to affirm that the functional maintenance of collectors channels have been effective in reducing erosion. Overall, the soils were unstructured and crusted at the end of the observation period. Indexes Icli, NTU, and DS show a structural fragility from medium to high for soils of the three monitoring farms. This explains the lack of appreciable differences in the soil roughness parameter, especially in relation to   heavy rains and long waterlogging periods in the cropping years of monitoring. The competitiveness gap induced by the application of this standard, amounted to 19.89±€ 6.35 ha-1 year-1. Atmospheric emission of CO2, was equal to 14.53±6.62 kg ha-1 year-1. It is considered

  8. Coordinate Reference System Metadata in Interdisciplinary Environmental Modeling (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Arctur, D. K.; Hnilo, J.; Danko, D. M.; Rutledge, G. K.


    For global climate modeling based on a unit sphere, the positional accuracy of transformations between "real earth" coordinates and the spherical earth coordinates is practically irrelevant due to the coarse grid and precision of global models. Consequently, many climate models are driven by data using real-earth coordinates without transforming them to the shape of the model grid. Additionally, metadata to describe the earth shape and its relationship to latitude longitude demarcations, or datum, used for model output is often left unspecified or ambiguous. Studies of weather and climate effects on coastal zones, water resources, agriculture, biodiversity, and other critical domains typically require positional accuracy on the order of several meters or less. This precision requires that a precise datum be used and accounted for in metadata. While it may be understood that climate model results using spherical earth coordinates could not possibly approach this level of accuracy, precise coordinate reference system metadata is nevertheless required by users and applications integrating climate and geographic information. For this reason, data publishers should provide guidance regarding the appropriate datum to assume for their data. Without some guidance, analysts must make assumptions they are uncomfortable or unwilling to make and may spend inordinate amounts of time researching the correct assumption to make. A consequence of the (practically justified for global climate modeling) disregard for datums is that datums are also neglected when publishing regional or local scale climate and weather data where datum information may be important. For example, observed data, like precipitation and temperature measurements, used in downscaling climate model results are georeferenced precisely. If coordinate reference system metadata are disregarded in cases like this, systematic biases in geolocation can result. Additionally, if no datum transformation was applied to

  9. Firms' Compliance with Complex Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendoza Rodriguez, J.P.; Dekker, H.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.


    This study addresses the question of what explains compliance with complex regulations, which are technical, extensive, and often subject to modifications. Based on official (anonymized) data of financial intermediaries in the Netherlands (N = 602), we examined the association between compliance

  10. GCR Environmental Models I: Sensitivity Analysis for GCR Environments (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.


    Accurate galactic cosmic ray (GCR) models are required to assess crew exposure during long-duration missions to the Moon or Mars. Many of these models have been developed and compared to available measurements, with uncertainty estimates usually stated to be less than 15%. However, when the models are evaluated over a common epoch and propagated through to effective dose, relative differences exceeding 50% are observed. This indicates that the metrics used to communicate GCR model uncertainty can be better tied to exposure quantities of interest for shielding applications. This is the first of three papers focused on addressing this need. In this work, the focus is on quantifying the extent to which each GCR ion and energy group, prior to entering any shielding material or body tissue, contributes to effective dose behind shielding. Results can be used to more accurately calibrate model-free parameters and provide a mechanism for refocusing validation efforts on measurements taken over important energy regions. Results can also be used as references to guide future nuclear cross-section measurements and radiobiology experiments. It is found that GCR with Z>2 and boundary energies below 500 MeV/n induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This finding is important given that most of the GCR models are developed and validated against Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/CRIS) measurements taken below 500 MeV/n. It is therefore possible for two models to very accurately reproduce the ACE/CRIS data while inducing very different effective dose values behind shielding.

  11. An investigation of the factors which influence and deter the compliance behaviour of Australian individual taxpayers


    Devos, Ken Neil Harry


    The tax compliance literature indicates that many factors, including economic, social, psychological and demographic factors, have an impact on the compliance behaviour of taxpayers. Of the two main compliance theories, the economic deterrence theory model and social/fiscal psychology theory model, this study has adopted the latter. The aim of this study was to examine whether or not a relationship exists between selected tax compliance variables (both economic and non-economic) and the attit...

  12. Financial Markets and Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, T.A.H.M.; Bleker, Sylvie; Houben, Raf


    This chapter will focus on the goals of financial market regulation through the rules of economics, the strategies financial regulation employs to achieve these goals and the insights this provides for the compliance profession. For an overview of the goals and strategies of financial regulation

  13. Ethical Approaches to Compliance (United States)

    Buzo, Carina


    This article explores the role that higher education has in ethical compliance to Title IX and the Clery Act. The discussion includes a curious look at common practices as potential future approaches to consent and sexual assault education. Articles and research are included to ground understanding in the current context, while examples from a…

  14. Strategisk compliance og regulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühn Pedersen, Mogens


    Denne artikel introducerer strategisk compliance og påpeger dens samspil med klassiske og nyere former for reguleringer i digital værdiskabelse. Konteksten er den digitale økonomi, som vokser frem imellem den materielle økonomis bærepiller: Virksomheder og markeder, men består af en helt ny...... materialitet, som er det digitale univers og dets modsvarighed i nye krav til compliance. Den nye materialitet stiller nye krav, hvad angår digitale processer og transaktioner. Klassisk regulering, som aktører ikke selv kan ændre, støder på egenregulering, hvor aktørerne selv opsætter regler for at skabe...... digital værdi. Dette kalder på strategisk compliance. Med digitalisering er strategisk compliance sat på dagsordnen i reguleringsdebatten. Vi hævder, at regulering og egenregulering kan komme til at virke komplementært i det post-industrielle, digitaliserede samfund....

  15. Pass to Compliance. (United States)

    Robb, Sam


    Offers advice on washroom compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act Title III (ADA) regulations during school construction and renovation projects. Critical issues concerning bathroom accessibility and practical solutions in washroom design are discussed. Other recommended, non-ADA restroom design guidelines for elementary schools are…

  16. Real-time GIS data model and sensor web service platform for environmental data management. (United States)

    Gong, Jianya; Geng, Jing; Chen, Zeqiang


    Effective environmental data management is meaningful for human health. In the past, environmental data management involved developing a specific environmental data management system, but this method often lacks real-time data retrieving and sharing/interoperating capability. With the development of information technology, a Geospatial Service Web method is proposed that can be employed for environmental data management. The purpose of this study is to determine a method to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework. A real-time GIS (Geographic Information System) data model and a Sensor Web service platform to realize environmental data management under the Geospatial Service Web framework are proposed in this study. The real-time GIS data model manages real-time data. The Sensor Web service platform is applied to support the realization of the real-time GIS data model based on the Sensor Web technologies. To support the realization of the proposed real-time GIS data model, a Sensor Web service platform is implemented. Real-time environmental data, such as meteorological data, air quality data, soil moisture data, soil temperature data, and landslide data, are managed in the Sensor Web service platform. In addition, two use cases of real-time air quality monitoring and real-time soil moisture monitoring based on the real-time GIS data model in the Sensor Web service platform are realized and demonstrated. The total time efficiency of the two experiments is 3.7 s and 9.2 s. The experimental results show that the method integrating real-time GIS data model and Sensor Web Service Platform is an effective way to manage environmental data under the Geospatial Service Web framework.

  17. EASETECH – A LCA model for assessment of environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Baumeister, Hubert; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard


    with different kinds of material flows, such as sludge, wastewater, biomass for energy production and treatment of contaminated soil. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The main novelties of the model compared to other...... LCA software are as follows. The focus is put on material flow modelling. This means that each material flow is characterized as a mix of material fractions with different properties. Flows in terms of mass and composition are computed throughout the integrated system including rejects, slags, ashes...... different materials have different chemical compositions, and the optimal treatment for one material fraction might be suboptimal for another fraction. It is therefore critical that the starting point of the modelling process is a composition matrix where each material fraction is specified in terms...

  18. Modelling of Electrokinetic Processes in Civil and Environmental Engineering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    -Nernst-Planck system of equations, accounting for ionic migration, chemical diffusion and advection is used for modeling the transport process. The advection term contributor is studied by including in the system the water transport through the porous media, mainly due to electroosmosis. The pore solution filling...... consist of the mobilization of species within the pore solution of porous materials induced by an externally applied electric field. Many physicochemical aspects have to be taken into account when modeling this strongly coupled reactive transport process. A finite element integration of the Poisson...... along the domain arising from the reactivity of the solid matrix have been taken into account. These changes affect significantly to the transport process of both aqueous species and the water, since the effective transport coefficients depends on the porosity of the media. The model described here...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore a nonlinear mathematical model to study the spread of asthma due to inhaled pollutants from industry as well as tobacco smoke from smokers in a variable size population. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. It is shown that with an increase in the level of air pollutants concentration, the asthmatic (diseased population increases. It is also shown that along with pollutants present in the environment, smoking (active or passive also helps in the spread of asthma. Moreover, with the increase in the rate of interaction between susceptibles and smokers, the persistence of the spread of asthma is higher. A numerical study of the model is also performed to see the role of certain key parameters on the spread of asthma and to support the analytical results.

  20. Aggregation of Environmental Model Data for Decision Support (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.


    Weather forecasts and warnings must be prepared and then delivered so as to reach their intended audience in good time to enable effective decision-making. An effort to mitigate these difficulties was studied at a Workshop, 'Sustaining National Meteorological Services - Strengthening WMO Regional and Global Centers' convened, June , 2013, by the World Bank, WMO and the US National Weather Service (NWS). The skill and accuracy of atmospheric forecasts from deterministic models have increased and there are now ensembles of such models that improve decisions to protect life, property and commerce. The NWS production of numerical weather prediction products result in model output from global and high resolution regional ensemble forecasts. Ensembles are constructed by changing the initial conditions to make a 'cloud' of forecasts that attempt to span the space of possible atmospheric realizations which can quantify not only the most likely forecast, but also the uncertainty. This has led to an unprecedented increase in data production and information content from higher resolution, multi-model output and secondary calculations. One difficulty is to obtain the needed subset of data required to estimate the probability of events, and report the information. The calibration required to reliably estimate the probability of events, and honing of threshold adjustments to reduce false alarms for decision makers is also needed. To meet the future needs of the ever-broadening user community and address these issues on a national and international basis, the weather service implemented the NOAA Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS). NOMADS provides real-time and retrospective format independent access to climate, ocean and weather model data and delivers high availability content services as part of NOAA's official real time data dissemination at its new NCWCP web operations center. An important aspect of the server's abilities is to aggregate the matrix of

  1. Annual Site Environmental Report. Calendar Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1997. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

  2. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard


    emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). A calculation procedure to estimate the newly designated Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), which is under development at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), is included in the model. Different ship design parameters have been varied to see the influence...

  3. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan


    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  4. 76 FR 3825 - Regulatory Compliance (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Compliance Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... accessible to the public, information concerning their regulatory compliance and enforcement activities, such... enforcement actions). Greater disclosure of regulatory compliance information fosters fair and consistent...

  5. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling. (United States)

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Bylaska, Eric J; Weber, Eric J


    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for "in silico environmental chemical science" are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  6. 'spup' - an R package for uncertainty propagation analysis in spatial environmental modelling (United States)

    Sawicka, Kasia; Heuvelink, Gerard


    Computer models have become a crucial tool in engineering and environmental sciences for simulating the behaviour of complex static and dynamic systems. However, while many models are deterministic, the uncertainty in their predictions needs to be estimated before they are used for decision support. Currently, advances in uncertainty propagation and assessment have been paralleled by a growing number of software tools for uncertainty analysis, but none has gained recognition for a universal applicability and being able to deal with case studies with spatial models and spatial model inputs. Due to the growing popularity and applicability of the open source R programming language we undertook a project to develop an R package that facilitates uncertainty propagation analysis in spatial environmental modelling. In particular, the 'spup' package provides functions for examining the uncertainty propagation starting from input data and model parameters, via the environmental model onto model predictions. The functions include uncertainty model specification, stochastic simulation and propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo (MC) techniques, as well as several uncertainty visualization functions. Uncertain environmental variables are represented in the package as objects whose attribute values may be uncertain and described by probability distributions. Both numerical and categorical data types are handled. Spatial auto-correlation within an attribute and cross-correlation between attributes is also accommodated for. For uncertainty propagation the package has implemented the MC approach with efficient sampling algorithms, i.e. stratified random sampling and Latin hypercube sampling. The design includes facilitation of parallel computing to speed up MC computation. The MC realizations may be used as an input to the environmental models called from R, or externally. Selected visualization methods that are understandable by non-experts with limited background in

  7. Application of computer simulated persons in indoor environmental modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, C.; Nielsen, P. V.; Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft


    Computer simulated persons are often applied when the indoor environment is modeled by computational fluid dynamics. The computer simulated persons differ in size, shape, and level of geometrical complexity, ranging from simple box or cylinder shaped heat sources to more humanlike models. Little...... effort, however, has been focused on the influence of the geometry. This work provides an investigation of geometrically different computer simulated persons with respect to both local and global airflow distribution. The results show that a simple geometry is sufficient when the global airflow...... of a ventilated enclosure is considered, as little or no influence of geometry was observed at some distance from the computer simulated person. For local flow conditions, though, a more detailed geometry should be applied in order to assess thermal and atmospheric comfort....

  8. Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; 7th International Conference, SOCO’12


    This volume of Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing contains accepted papers presented at SOCO 2012, held in the beautiful and historic city of Ostrava (Czech Republic), in September 2012.   Soft computing represents a collection or set of computational techniques in machine learning, computer science and some engineering disciplines, which investigate, simulate, and analyze very complex issues and phenomena.   After a through peer-review process, the SOCO 2012 International Program Committee selected 75 papers which are published in these conference proceedings, and represents an acceptance rate of 38%. In this relevant edition a special emphasis was put on the organization of special sessions. Three special sessions were organized related to relevant topics as: Soft computing models for Control Theory & Applications in Electrical Engineering, Soft computing models for biomedical signals and data processing and Advanced Soft Computing Methods in Computer Vision and Data Processing.   The selecti...

  9. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.


    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external

  10. Non-compliance in contact lens wear. (United States)

    Claydon, B E; Efron, N


    Non-compliance is emerging as a critical issue in the contact lens field. This problem has been studied at depth in general health care situations and is seen as the responsibility of both practitioner and patient (client) working in a health care partnership. The contact lens practitioner and patient present a specific case for the study of non-compliance in areas such as hygiene, solution use, appointment attendance and wearing times. From 40 to 91% of contact lens patients have been reported as non-complaint in the use of recommended care and maintenance regimens and many of these are confused or ignorant about their behaviour. In order to arrive at a general set of conclusions from the studies published to date, it is important to understand the methodology of each study, it purpose, the definition of non-compliance used and the way the results were analysed and described. This review summarizes the research into non-compliance in the contact lens field to data. A set of general conclusions is drawn and a model for compliance in the context of contact lens practice is proposed.

  11. Random regret minimization : Exploration of a new choice model for environmental and resource economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiene, M.; Boeri, M.; Chorus, C.G.


    This paper introduces the discrete choice model-paradigm of Random Regret Minimization (RRM) to the field of environmental and resource economics. The RRM-approach has been very recently developed in the context of travel demand modelling and presents a tractable, regret-based alternative to the

  12. The IMAGE model suite used for the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kram, T.; Stehfest, E.


    In the Environmental Outlook to 2050 from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) a number of scenarios and projection are used which are calculated with the IMAGE model suite. This document describes the models and modules used and their interconnections.

  13. 'spup' - An R package for uncertainty propagation in spatial environmental modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawicka, K.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.


    Computer models are crucial tools in engineering and environmental sciences for simulating the behaviour of complex systems. While many models are deterministic, the uncertainty in their predictions needs to be estimated before they are used for decision support. Advances in uncertainty analysis

  14. Illustrating sensitivity in environmental fate models using partitioning maps - application to selected contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wania, F. [Univ. of Toronto at Scarborough - DPES, Toronto (Canada)


    Generic environmental multimedia fate models are important tools in the assessment of the impact of organic pollutants. Because of limited possibilities to evaluate generic models by comparison with measured data and the increasing regulatory use of such models, uncertainties of model input and output are of considerable concern. This led to a demand for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for the outputs of environmental fate models. Usually, variations of model predictions of the environmental fate of organic contaminants are analyzed for only one or at most a few selected chemicals, even though parameter sensitivity and contribution to uncertainty are widely different for different chemicals. We recently presented a graphical method that allows for the comprehensive investigation of model sensitivity and uncertainty for all neutral organic chemicals simultaneously. This is achieved by defining a two-dimensional hypothetical ''chemical space'' as a function of the equilibrium partition coefficients between air, water, and octanol (K{sub OW}, K{sub AW}, K{sub OA}), and plotting sensitivity and/or uncertainty of a specific model result to each input parameter as function of this chemical space. Here we show how such sensitivity maps can be used to quickly identify the variables with the highest influence on the environmental fate of selected, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and brominated flame retardents (BFRs).

  15. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler


    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  16. A model of Dutch agriculture based on Positive Mathematical Programming with regional and environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.


    The purpose of this thesis is to describe the current state-of-the-art of the Dutch Regionalized Agricultural Model (DRAM). DRAM can be defined as a comparative static, partial equilibrium, mathematical programming and regionalized model of the Dutch agricultural sector with environmental aspects.

  17. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior? (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang


    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on processes or…

  18. The virtual machine (VM) scaler: an infrastructure manager supporting environmental modeling on IaaS clouds (United States)

    Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds provide a new medium for deployment of environmental modeling applications. Harnessing advancements in virtualization, IaaS clouds can provide dynamic scalable infrastructure to better support scientific modeling computational demands. Providing scientific m...

  19. [Assessment model of townlet eco-environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network]. (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Hai-tao


    Aiming at the problems in the townlet eco-environmental quality assessment in China, a comprehensive assessment model of townlet ecological environmental quality based on BP-artificial neural network was set up, which contained 20 cryptic layer nodes and 3 layers. The rank classification criterion of eco-environmental quality's assessment indicator system were chosen as the training sample of the model, the 10% of training sample as well as the middle and critical values were regarded as examining sample, and the monitoring values of assessment region were treated as test sample. Choosing the Dushan Town in Ezhou City as an example, the training and prediction were made by using MATLAB software. The results showed that BP-artificial neural network was not only feasible and dependable, but also couldprovide acceptable results in accord with the regional realistic eco-environmental feature.

  20. Invited review: A position on the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). (United States)

    MacLeod, M J; Vellinga, T; Opio, C; Falcucci, A; Tempio, G; Henderson, B; Makkar, H; Mottet, A; Robinson, T; Steinfeld, H; Gerber, P J


    The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, Ted M.; Hanf, Robert W.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Morasch, Launa F.


    This report is published each year by DOE to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and highlight major environmental programs and efforts.

  2. An inventory location routing model with environmental considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerhlaly Sanaa


    Full Text Available In this work we consider an integrated Inventory Location Routing problem ILRP. The objective is to select depots to open, the routes to perform distribution from the capacitated depots to the clients by a homogeneous fleet of vehicles and over a multi-period planning horizon. To solve the problem, an exact model is designed in order to minimize the total cost (location, routing and inventory and the routing CO2 emissions, while respecting transport and storage constraints for a hazardous material. We have also studied an industrial real case to illustrate the problem.

  3. SeSBench - An initiative to benchmark reactive transport models for environmental subsurface processes (United States)

    Jacques, Diederik


    As soil functions are governed by a multitude of interacting hydrological, geochemical and biological processes, simulation tools coupling mathematical models for interacting processes are needed. Coupled reactive transport models are a typical example of such coupled tools mainly focusing on hydrological and geochemical coupling (see e.g. Steefel et al., 2015). Mathematical and numerical complexity for both the tool itself or of the specific conceptual model can increase rapidly. Therefore, numerical verification of such type of models is a prerequisite for guaranteeing reliability and confidence and qualifying simulation tools and approaches for any further model application. In 2011, a first SeSBench -Subsurface Environmental Simulation Benchmarking- workshop was held in Berkeley (USA) followed by four other ones. The objective is to benchmark subsurface environmental simulation models and methods with a current focus on reactive transport processes. The final outcome was a special issue in Computational Geosciences (2015, issue 3 - Reactive transport benchmarks for subsurface environmental simulation) with a collection of 11 benchmarks. Benchmarks, proposed by the participants of the workshops, should be relevant for environmental or geo-engineering applications; the latter were mostly related to radioactive waste disposal issues - excluding benchmarks defined for pure mathematical reasons. Another important feature is the tiered approach within a benchmark with the definition of a single principle problem and different sub problems. The latter typically benchmarked individual or simplified processes (e.g. inert solute transport, simplified geochemical conceptual model) or geometries (e.g. batch or one-dimensional, homogeneous). Finally, three codes should be involved into a benchmark. The SeSBench initiative contributes to confidence building for applying reactive transport codes. Furthermore, it illustrates the use of those type of models for different

  4. Purpose, Processes, Partnerships, and Products: 4Ps to advance Participatory Socio-Environmental Modeling (United States)

    Gray, S. G.; Voinov, A. A.; Jordan, R.; Paolisso, M.


    Model-based reasoning is a basic part of human understanding, decision-making, and communication. Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding environmental change since stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and since collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study. We suggest a four dimensional framework that includes reporting on dimensions of: (1) the Purpose for selecting a PM approach (the why); (2) the Process by which the public was involved in model building or evaluation (the how); (3) the Partnerships formed (the who); and (4) the Products that resulted from these efforts (the what). We highlight four case studies that use common PM software-based approaches (fuzzy cognitive mapping, agent-based modeling, system dynamics, and participatory geospatial modeling) to understand human-environment interactions and the consequences of environmental changes, including bushmeat hunting in Tanzania and Cameroon, agricultural production and deforestation in Zambia, and groundwater management in India. We demonstrate how standardizing communication about PM case studies can lead to innovation and new insights about model-based reasoning in support of environmental policy development. We suggest that our 4P framework and reporting approach provides a way for new hypotheses to be identified and tested in the growing field of PM.

  5. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles. (United States)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Meesters, Johannes A J; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; van de Meent, Dik; van der Voet, Hilko


    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To deal with uncertainty in the risk assessment effectively, probabilistic methods are advantageous. In the present study, the authors developed a method to model both the variability and the uncertainty in environmental risk assessment of ENPs. This method is based on the concentration ratio and the ratio of the exposure concentration to the critical effect concentration, both considered to be random. In this method, variability and uncertainty are modeled separately so as to allow the user to see which part of the total variation in the concentration ratio is attributable to uncertainty and which part is attributable to variability. The authors illustrate the use of the method with a simplified aquatic risk assessment of nano-titanium dioxide. The authors' method allows a more transparent risk assessment and can also direct further environmental and toxicological research to the areas in which it is most needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2958-2967. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.



    Al-Amin,Abul Quasem; Jaafar, Abdul Hamid; Siwar, Chamhuri


    Environmental pollution is now a serious problem in many developing countries. One approach to mitigate the problem is to implement various pollution control policies. However, due to a lack of adequate quantitative models, the economic impacts and effectiveness of many pollution control policies are still unknown. Therefore, there is a greater need to know whether economic liberalization, trade, environment and social welfare can be joined in one direction under environmental taxation and po...

  7. Positive multi-criteria models in agriculture for energy and environmental policy analysis


    Stelios Rozakis


    Environmental consciousness and accompanying actions have been paralleled by the evolution of multi-criteria methods which have provided tools to assist policy makers in discovering compromises in order to muddle through. This paper recalls the development of multi-criteria methods in agriculture, focusing on their contribution to produce input or output functions useful for environmental and/or energy policy. Response curves generated by MC models can more accurately predict farmers’ respons...

  8. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.


    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  9. Robust optimization modelling with applications to industry and environmental problems (United States)

    Chaerani, Diah; Dewanto, Stanley P.; Lesmana, Eman


    Robust Optimization (RO) modeling is one of the existing methodology for handling data uncertainty in optimization problem. The main challenge in this RO methodology is how and when we can reformulate the robust counterpart of uncertain problems as a computationally tractable optimization problem or at least approximate the robust counterpart by a tractable problem. Due to its definition the robust counterpart highly depends on how we choose the uncertainty set. As a consequence we can meet this challenge only if this set is chosen in a suitable way. The development on RO grows fast, since 2004, a new approach of RO called Adjustable Robust Optimization (ARO) is introduced to handle uncertain problems when the decision variables must be decided as a ”wait and see” decision variables. Different than the classic Robust Optimization (RO) that models decision variables as ”here and now”. In ARO, the uncertain problems can be considered as a multistage decision problem, thus decision variables involved are now become the wait and see decision variables. In this paper we present the applications of both RO and ARO. We present briefly all results to strengthen the importance of RO and ARO in many real life problems.

  10. Sharing the floodplain: Mediated modeling for environmental management (United States)

    Metcalf, S.S.; Wheeler, E.; BenDor, T.K.; Lubinski, S.J.; Hannon, B.M.


    Complex ecosystems, such as the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), present major management challenges. Such systems often provide a range of ecosystem services that are differentially valued by stakeholders representing distinct interests (e.g., agriculture, conservation, navigation) or institutions (e.g., federal and state agencies). When no single entity has the knowledge or authority to resolve conflicts over shared resource use, stakeholders may struggle to jointly understand the scope of the problem and to reach reasonable compromises. This paper explores mediated modeling as a group consensus building process for understanding relationships between ecological, economic and cultural well-being in the UMR floodplain. We describe a workshop structure used to engage UMR stakeholders that may be extended to resource use conflicts in other complex ecosystems. We provide recommendations for improving on these participatory methods in structuring future efforts. In conclusion, we suggest that tools which facilitate collaborative learning, such as mediated modeling, need to be incorporated at an institutional level as a vital element of integrated ecosystem management. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello


    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  12. Environmental Fiscal Reform and the Double Dividend: Evidence from a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Freire-González


    Full Text Available An environmental fiscal reform (EFR represents a transition of a taxation system toward one based in environmental taxation, rather than on taxation of capital, labor, or consumption. It differs from an environmental tax reform (ETR in that an EFR also includes a reform of subsidies which counteract environmental policy. This research details different ways in which an EFR is not only possible but also a good option that provides economic and environmental benefits. We have developed a detailed dynamic CGE model examining 101 industries and commodities in Spain, with an energy and an environmental extension comprising 31 pollutant emissions, in order to simulate the economic and environmental effects of an EFR. The reform focuses on 39 industries related to the energy, water, transport and waste sectors. We simulate an increase in taxes and a reduction on subsidies for these industries and at the same time we use new revenues to reduce labor, capital and consumption taxes. All revenue recycling options provide both economic and environmental benefits, suggesting that the “double dividend” hypothesis can be achieved. After three to four years after implementing an EFR, GDP is higher than the base case, hydrocarbons consumption declines and all analyzed pollutants show a reduction.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment. (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W


    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determinants of Consumers’ Pro-Environmental Behavior – Toward an Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei


    Full Text Available This paper aims at constructing a model which will explain consumers’ pro-environmental behavior by analyzing its direct and indirect predictors. To achieve this, variables from wellestablished models and theories were employed, such as Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT, Stern’s Value-belief-norms Theory (VBN and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Important variables like perceived behavioral control, normative beliefs, awareness of the consequences of environmental problems, Compatibility with a pro-environmental behaviour, attitude towards a proenvironmental behavior and intention to behave in a pro-environmental manner are considered to be determinants of consumers’ pro-environmental behavior. All these variables were discussed and assembled in an integrated research model which can be validated through a quantitative survey. Each variable was described at a conceptual and operational level, items and scales being proposed for each one The proposed model will offer to organizations a valuable green marketing tool which can be used in the fight for environment protection. The proposed model is unique can be used as a solid based for future research.

  15. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 1.1a (temporary ditches and 1.2g (permanent grass cover of set-aside in reducing soil erosion and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bazzoffi


    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the monitoring carried out in three hilly farms of the MONACO project in order to verify the effectiveness of the Standard 1.1 (commitment a (temporary ditches and Standard 1.2 (commitment g (Vegetation cover throughout the year in set-aside land in the reduction in soil erosion, contained in Rule 1: ‘minimum land management that meets specific conditions’ of the decree Mipaaf 2009 and following modifications, until the recent decree No. 180 of January 23, 2015. In addition, the assessment of the competitiveness gap was done. That is the evaluation of the additional costs borne by the beneficiary of the single payment determined from agronomic commitments. Monitoring has also compared the erosion actually observed in the field with that predicted by RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Renard et al., 1997 in the two situations: with and without the presence of temporary ditches, i.e. assuming Factual (compliance rules and in that Counterfactual (infringement. This comparison was made in view of the fact that the RUSLE model was chosen by the 'European Evaluation Network for Rural Development (EEN, 2013 as a forecasting tool for the quantification of' Common Indicator ‘soil erosion by water’. The results of soil erosion survey carried out by using a new  UAV-GIS methodology  on two monitoring farms in two years of observations have shown that temporary ditches were effective in decreasing erosion, on average, by 42.5%, from 36. 59 t ha-1 to 21.05 t ha-1 during the monitoring period. It was also evaluated the effectiveness of grass strips (at variance with the commitment of temporary ditches. The results showed a strong, highly significant, reduction in erosion by about 35% times respect soil erosion observed in bare soil and also a significant reduction in the volume of runoff water.  With regard to Standard 1.2 (commitment g the statistical analysis shows a strong and highly significant

  16. Effects of `Environmental Chemistry' Elective Course Via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry Model on Some Variables (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Özsevgeç, Tuncay; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Artun, Hüseyin; Küçük, Zeynel


    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of `environmental chemistry' elective course via Technology-Embedded Scientific Inquiry (TESI) model on senior science student teachers' (SSSTs) conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) levels. Within one group pre-test-post-test design, the study was conducted with 117 SSSTs (68 females and 49 males—aged 21-23 years) enrolled in an `environmental chemistry' elective course in the spring semester of 2011-2012 academic-years. Instruments for data collection comprised of Environmental Chemistry Conceptual Understanding Questionnaire, TPACK survey, and Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire. Significant increases in the SSSTs' conceptions of environmental chemistry concepts/issues, attitudes toward chemistry, and TPACK levels are attributed to the SSSTs learning how to use the innovative technologies in the contexts of the `environmental chemistry' elective course and teaching practicum. The study implies that the TESI model may serve a useful purpose in experimental science courses that use the innovative technologies. However, to generalize feasibility of the TESI model, it should be evaluated with SSSTs in diverse learning contexts.

  17. Incorporating temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth model (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.


    Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth model to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing models. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth models were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.

  18. Environmental Effects On Galaxy Evolution In Semi-analytic Models (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Jung, I.; Yi, S.


    We have investigated the evolution of galaxy morphology and its mixture in various halo environments by taking advantages of N-body simulations and semi-analytic approach. Dark matter halos have different growth histories depending on the long-range density (voids vs clusters). Since dynamical properties of dark matter halos decide their merger timescales and galaxy properties residing in the halos, different dark matter halo assemblies make different galaxy merger histories. Thus, it is expected that galaxies in voids and clusters may show different evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures because galaxy mergers play a pivotal role in the galaxy morphology transformation. To examine it, dark matter halo merger trees in various density regions are extracted from N-body simulations, and the evolutionary histories of galaxies are computed with our semi-analytic model code based on the N-body backbones. We present the difference of evolutionary histories and morphology mixtures of galaxies that reside in voids and dense regions.

  19. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS (United States)

    Baarsma, Rein; Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek


    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however, not to mention the computational demand of a model itself. We developed GEMS (Global Environmental Modelling System), an online application to run environmental models on various scales directly in your browser and share the results with other researchers. GEMS is open-source and uses open-source platforms including Flask, Leaflet, GDAL, MapServer and the PCRaster-Python modelling framework to process spatio-temporal models in real time. With GEMS, users can write, run, and visualize the results of dynamic PCRaster-Python models in a browser. GEMS uses freely available global data to feed the models, and automatically converts the data to the relevant model extent and data format. Currently available data includes the SRTM elevation model, a selection of monthly vegetation data from MODIS, land use classifications from GlobCover, historical climate data from WorldClim, HWSD soil information from WorldGrids, population density from SEDAC and near real-time weather forecasts, most with a ±100m resolution. Furthermore, users can add other or their own datasets using a web coverage service or a custom data provider script. With easy access to a wide range of base datasets and without the data preparation that is usually necessary to run environmental models, building and running a model becomes a matter hours. Furthermore, it is easy to share the resulting maps, timeseries data or model scenarios with other researchers through a web mapping service (WMS). GEMS can be used to provide open access to model results. Additionally, environmental models in GEMS can be employed by users with no extensive experience with writing code, which is for example valuable for using models


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao FENG


    Full Text Available Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization