WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental chemical contaminants

  1. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  2. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... asthma, eczema, and wheeze. We applied principal components analysis (PCA) to sixteen contaminants in maternal serum sampled during pregnancy, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), metabolites of diethylhexyl (DEHP) and diisononyl (DiNP) phthalates, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE. Scores of five principal...... components (PCs) explaining 70% of the variance were included in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis that included both populations, the PC2 score, reflecting exposure to DiNP, was negatively associated with current eczema (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). Other associations were...

  3. Biological and chemical tests of contaminated soils to determine bioavailability and environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.R.; Menzie, C.A.; Pauwells, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    The understanding of the concept of bioavailability of soil contaminants to receptors and its use in supporting the development of EAE is growing but still incomplete. Nonetheless, there is increased awareness of the importance of such data to determine acceptable cleanup levels and achieve timely site closures. This presentation discusses a framework for biological and chemical testing of contaminated soils developed as part of a Gas Research Institute (GRI) project entitled ''Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Soil Using a Risk Based Approach to Contaminated Site Management Based on Bioavailability of Chemicals in Soil.'' The presentation reviews the GRI program, and summarizes the findings of the biological and chemical testing section published in the GRI report. The three primary components of the presentation are: (1) defining the concept of bioavailability within the existing risk assessment paradigm, (2) assessing the usefulness of the existing tests to measure bioavailability and test frameworks used to interpret these measurements, and (3) suggesting how a small selection of relevant tests could be incorporated into a flexible testing scheme for soils to address this issue

  4. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  6. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  7. Environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra Cardeno, William

    2000-01-01

    The association among hypersensibility to the inhaled allergens and the asthma in children, it is recognized. There is enough evidence about the nature of the exposed allergen and the immune inflammatory answer of the lung; sustained with a direct relationship among the exhibition to these allergens and the asthma. This association becomes evident in the children, until after the three years of age, what suggests that other factors have bigger importance in the precipitation of the sibilance in the childhood and the early childhood. This answer is limited those children that develop answer of antibodies IgE. Every year, in the world, figures of more morbid-mortality are reported for asthma, what could be explained by the increase in the exhibition to the allergens, and it is probable that the increase of the heat and the humidity in our houses improve the environmental conditions significantly for the growth of the acarus. The children have also increased the permanency in the houses, exposed to these pollutants, due to diverse attractions like the television, the Nintendo and games in the home. The paper includes some intra-domiciliary allergens

  8. Indoor Environmental Contaminants in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide range of environmental contaminants can affect the health and safety of a school environment. This page covers the basics on issues your school may face, including asbestos, chemicals, formaldehyde, lead, mercury, PCBs and radon.

  9. Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Lam, Paul K. S

    2012-01-01

    "Composed by a diverse group of experts, this reference covers the history, present status, and projected future trends of environmental contamination from highly toxic synthetic chemical pollutants...

  10. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPARα and γ activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resis...

  11. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  12. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  13. Some problems of risk assessment in cases of environmental radioactive and chemical contamination in regions of the Ural radioactive trail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Isaeva, L.N.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    A methodology of risk assessment if being developed to permit the analysis of possible consequences of radioactive and chemical environment contamination on the territory of the Urals radioactive trail. The assessment of hazards from radioactive contamination of the Techa river (Muslyumovo) has been carried out. A comparison of radioactive and chemical risks for the population of Kasli has been made

  14. Health risk from radioactive and chemical environmental contamination: common basis for assessment and safety decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.

    2004-01-01

    To meet the growing practical need in risk analysis in Russia health risk assessment tools and regulations have been developed in the frame of few federal research programs. RRC Kurchatov Institute is involved in R and D on risk analysis activity in these programs. One of the objectives of this development is to produce a common, unified basis of health risk analysis for different sources of risk. Current specific and different approaches in risk assessment and establishing safety standards developed for chemicals and ionising radiation are analysed. Some recommendations are given to produce the common approach. A specific risk index R has been proposed for safety decision-making (establishing safety standards and other levels of protective actions, comparison of various sources of risk, etc.). The index R is defined as the partial mathematical expectation of lost years of healthy life (LLE) due to exposure during a year to a risk source considered. The more concrete determinations of this index for different risk sources derived from the common definition of R are given. Generic safety standards (GSS) for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index. Secondary specific safety standards have been derived from GSS for ionizing radiation and a number of other risk sources including environmental chemical pollutants. Other general and derived levels for decision-making have also been proposed including the e-minimum level. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data is shortly considered. Recommendations are given on methods and criteria for comparison of various sources of risk. Some examples of risk comparison are demonstrated in the frame of different comparison tasks. The paper has been prepared on the basis of the research work supported by International Science and Technology Centre, Moscow (project no. 2558). (author)

  15. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  16. Chemical Mixtures Health Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants: Concepts, Methods, And Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This problems-based, introductory workshop focuses on methods to assess health risks posed by exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment. Chemical mixtures health risk assessment methods continue to be developed and evolve to address concerns over health risks from multic...

  17. Environmental Application of Reporter-Genes Based Biosensors for Chemical Contamination Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejczyk Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research concerning possibilities of applications of reporter-genes based microorganisms, including the selective presentation of defects and advantages of different new scientific achievements of methodical solutions in genetic system constructions of biosensing elements for environmental research. The most robust and popular genetic fusion and new trends in reporter genes technology – such as LacZ (β-galactosidase, xylE (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, gfp (green fluorescent proteins and its mutated forms, lux (prokaryotic luciferase, luc (eukaryotic luciferase, phoA (alkaline phosphatase, gusA and gurA (β-glucuronidase, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance are described. Reporter-genes based biosensors with use of genetically modified bacteria and yeast successfully work for genotoxicity, bioavailability and oxidative stress assessment for detection and monitoring of toxic compounds in drinking water and different environmental samples, surface water, soil, sediments.

  18. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment--forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-06-01

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs.

  19. Environmental radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, Edgardo

    2000-01-01

    The environmental radioactive contamination with the scientific and technological advances can produce big benefits or damages to the human beings or the environment. The approval of national or international laws in the population's education so that it can face the topic critically and the scientific formation of human resources and ethically for application of the ionizing radiations, they are the best road to take advantage to the maximum of benefits of these radiations, reducing to the minimum the risks on the man and the environment

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as an Antibody Substitution in Pseudo-immunoassays for Chemical Contaminants in Food and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaochao; Luo, Jiaxun; Li, Chenglong; Ma, Mingfang; Yu, Wenbo; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Zhanhui

    2018-03-21

    The chemical contaminants in food and the environment are quite harmful to food safety and human health. Rapid, accurate, and cheap detection can effectively control the potential risks derived from these chemical contaminants. Among all detection methods, the immunoassay based on the specific interaction of antibody-analyte is one of the most widely used techniques in the field. However, biological antibodies employed in the immunoassay usually cannot tolerate extreme conditions, resulting in an unstable state in both physical and chemical profiles. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymers with specific molecular recognition abilities, which are highly robust, showing excellent operational stability under a wide variety of conditions. Recently, MIPs have been used in biomimetic immunoassays for chemical contaminants as an antibody substitute in food and the environment. Here, we reviewed these applications of MIPs incorporated in different analytical platforms, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescent immunoassay, chemiluminescent immunoassay, electrochemical immunoassay, microfluidic paper-based immunoassay, and homogeneous immunoassay, and discussed current challenges and future trends in the use of MIPs in biomimetic immunoassays.

  1. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  2. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  3. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara, E-mail: B.Kasprzyk-Hordern@hud.ac.u [University of Huddersfield, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J. [University of Glamorgan, Sustainable Environment Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, Pontypridd CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This manuscript is part two of a two-part study aiming to provide a better understanding and application of environmental data not only for environmental aims but also to meet forensic objectives. In this paper pharmaceuticals were investigated as potential chemical indicators of water contamination with sewage. The monitoring program carried out in Wales revealed that some pharmaceuticals are particularly persistent and/or ubiquitous in contaminated river water and therefore might be considered as potential conservative or labile wastewater indicators. In particular, these include some anti-inflammatory/analgesics, antiepileptics, beta-blockers, some H2-receptor antagonists and antibacterial drugs. - Wastewater as an indicative source of information can be used in forensic applications.

  4. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  6. Environmental analysis of contaminated sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sunahara, G.I; Renoux, A; Thellen, C; Gaudet, C.L; Pilon, A

    2002-01-01

    .... Topics addressed include: the integration of terrestrial ecotoxicity testing with respect to a chemical's behaviour in soil, developments in contaminated soil risk assessment, and the use of advanced scientific data...

  7. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  8. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  9. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Rieberger, Kevin J.; Aggelen, Graham van; Meays, Cynthia L.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  10. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications

  11. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  12. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  13. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  14. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Walton, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The merit of using small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants was assessed using data from the published literature. Information was located on 35 species of small mammals from 7 families used to monitor heavy metals, radionuclides, and organic chemicals at mine sites, industrial areas, hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites, and agricultural and forested land. To document foodchain transfer of chemicals, concentrations in soil, vegetation, and invertebrates, where available, were included. The most commonly trapped North American species were Peromyscus leucopus, Blarina brevicauda, and Microtus pennsylvanicus. In these species, exposure to chemicals was determined from tissue residue analyses, biochemical assays, and cytogenetic assays. Where enough information was available, suitable target tissues, or biological assays for specific chemicals were noted. In general, there was a relationship between concentrations of contaminants in the soil or food, and concentrations in target tissues of several species. This relationship was most obvious for the nonessential heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury and for fluoride. Kidney was the single best tissue for residue analyses of inorganic contaminants. However, bone should be the tissue of choice for both lead and fluorine. Exposure to lead was also successfully documented using biochemical and histopathological endpoints. Bone was the tissue of choice for exposure to 90Sr, whereas muscle was an appropriate tissue for 137Cs. For organic contaminants, exposure endpoints depended on the chemical(s) of concern. Liver and whole-body residue analyses, as well as enzyme changes, organ histology, genotoxicity, and, in one case, population dynamics, were successfully used to document exposure to these contaminants

  15. Risk from environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E [Environmental Health Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ontario

    1982-01-01

    The elements of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management, are described with respect to the control of environmental chemicals. The methodology of risk estimation is outlined and examples given of its application to regulatory decision-making for a number of chemicals in Canada. Finally, the extent and limitations of the process of risk evaluation are considered together with the need to recognize the importance of the public's perception of the level of risk.

  16. Chemical-gene interaction networks and causal reasoning for biological effects prediction and prioritization of contaminants for environmental monitoring and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the potential human health and ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the environment is one of the main challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrat...

  17. Estimating chemical footprint: Contamination with mercury and its compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasova, Natalia; Makarova, Anna; Fantke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -SETAC scientific consensus model USEtox, which is recommended for and widely applied in life cycle impact assessment. Our approach was tested using the example of mercury, which has been shown to be a hazardous pollutant at regional and global scales. Results show that the main contribution to the overall chemical......Chemical pollution is a problem of global importance. However, there are currently no agreed approaches for integrated environmental impact assessment (EIA) of chemical effects at global scale. We present a new systems-based approach to EIA of chemicals. Our methodology considers propagation...... of chemical pollutants in the environment, in conjunction with the approach followed in the Russian regulatory system. To estimate chemical footprints related to environmental contamination by potentially toxic substances, measured environmental concentrations were combined with results from the UNEP...

  18. Chemical barriers for controlling groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical barriers are being explored as a low-cost means of controlling groundwater contamination. The barrier can intercept a contaminant plume and prevent migration by transferring contaminants from the groundwater to immobile solids. A chemical barrier can be emplaced in a landfill liner or in an aquifer cutoff wall or can be injected into a contaminant plume. Chemical barriers can be classified as either precipitation barriers or sorption barriers depending upon the dominant mode of contaminant extraction. In a precipitation barrier, contaminants are bound in the structures of newly formed phases; whereas, in a sorption barrier, contaminants attach to the surfaces of preexisting solids by adsorption or some other surface mechanism. Sorption of contaminants is pH dependent. A precipitation barrier can control the pH of the system, but alkaline groundwater may dominate the pH in a sorption barrier. A comparison is made of the characteristics of precipitation and sorption barriers. Experimental data on the extraction of uranium and molybdenum from simulated groundwater are used to demonstrate these concepts. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Retrospective biomonitoring of chemical contamination in the marine coastal environment of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) by environmental specimen banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Pizzini, Sarah; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Cozzi, Giulio; Piazza, Rossano; Soggia, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Antarctica offers a good opportunity to investigate planetary-scale pollution and climate change, and provides baseline values for contaminants such as Trace Elements (TEs) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Literature data on contaminant levels in the Antarctic environment indicate that long-range atmospheric transport is the primary pathway by which pollutants from surrounding continents are carried to this pristine environment. However, local contamination sources represented by the scientific stations are also not negligible. Climate change and global warming are altering the global budget of anthropogenic contaminants and their monitoring in Antarctica ecosystems is very important to protect the global environment. In this work, eighty specimens of Adamussium colbecki (Smith, 1902), a benthic Antarctic scallop, collected from 1996 to 2009 and stored in the Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank, were analyzed to quantify TEs and POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Metals concentrations were not affected by anthropogenic contributions, highlighting a natural accumulation with the age of the organism. Similarly, no temporal trend was found for PCNs, PCBs and PAHs. However, specimens collected during the summer 1997-98 showed enhanced concentration levels of PCBs and PAHs that could refer to a local anthropogenic source of contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  2. Chemical speciation and transformation of mercury in contaminated sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Drott, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Biomagnification of mercury (Hg) in aquatic food webs occurs almost exclusively as mono-methyl Hg (MeHg). In this thesis, the influence of chemical speciation and environmental conditions on transformations of inorganic Hg (HgII) and MeHg was studied at eight sites in Sweden with Hg contaminated sediments. The source of contamination was either Hg0(l) or phenyl-Hg, and total Hg concentrations ranged between 1.0-1100 nmol g-1. The environmental conditions, e.g. salinity, temperature climate, p...

  3. Environmental contaminants: assessment and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallero, Daniel A

    2004-01-01

    ... Understanding Policy by Understanding Science Connections and Interrelationships of Environmental Science Environmental Assessment and Intervention Engineering Technical Note: Cleaning up a Hazardous Waste Site Social Aspects of Environmental Science Introduction to Environmental Policy The National Environmental Policy Act Issues in Environmental Science: Co...

  4. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  5. Contaminant mixtures and repoductive health: Developmental toxicity effects in rats after mixed exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals, with focus on effects in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    proposed that a similar syndrome, called the ovarian dysgenesis syndrome (ODS), exists for females. This syndrome encompasses alterations in reproductive development caused by chemical exposure in sensitive windows of development that may result in fecundity impairments, gravid diseases, gynecological...... disorders or later onset adult diseases. However, experimental evidence on the effects of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals in females has been missing attention. Since chemical exposure can affect female reproductive development it is important to investigate......, mixtures were modeled based on high end human intakes, and the project involved two developmental mixture studies in rats, called Contamed 1 and 2. In these studies 13 chemicals where data on in vivo endocrine disrupting effects and information on human exposures was available, were selected. The tested...

  6. Chemical Contaminants in Raw and Pasteurized Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Cohen, Ronald S; Sakamoto, Pauline; Barr, Dana Boyd; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2018-05-01

    Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA). Human milk was analyzed raw and pasteurized for these chemicals using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the POPs and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for non-POPs. Within the different chemical classes, PBDE47, PCB153, ppDDE, and MEHHP (phthalate metabolite) had the highest median concentrations and were observed in all samples. We also observed chlorpyrifos and BPA in all samples and permethrin in 90% of the samples tested. Only two chemicals, chlorpyrifos and permethrin, were susceptible to substantial degradation from pasteurization, a standard method for processing donated human milk. We detected 19 of 23 chemicals in all of our prepasteurized milk and 18 of 23 chemicals in all of our pasteurized milk. Pasteurization did not affect the presence of most of the chemicals. Future research should continue to explore human milk for potential chemical contamination and as a means to surveil exposures among women and children.

  7. Food Safety and Chemical Contaminants: An Overview a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major consumer’s concern worldwide. Although several incidences of food poisoning have placed microbial contamination on the forefront during recent years, health risks due to chemical contamination still remain high. The most often cited chemical contaminants are derived from a variety of sources such as pesticides, environmental chemicals (PCBs. dioxin, heavy metals including lead, mercury, chemical contaminants as a result of food processing (acrylamide, nitrosamines etc., naturally occurring toxicants (glycoalkaloids, mycotoxins, antinutritives etc, chemicals migrating from packaging materials, veterinary drugs and other chemical residues. In addition to the presence of unintentional contaminants, the quality and safety of foods could also be compromised by the addition of certain food additives, phytonutrients, exposure to irradiation and other substances. Food processors and the regulatory and enforcement agencies are facing an ever-increasing challenge to meet the consumer’s demands for safe foods that do not pose health risks or alter their lifestyle. As the food trade expands throughout the world, food safety has become a shared concern among both the developed and developing countries. Although food control systems do exist in the countries of Gulf region, in most of the cases they are not in line with national and international needs and are not able to cope with the new challenges of the modern era. The most appropriate methods to ensure the safety of food supplies are the strengthening of regular surveillance systems, developing methods for the systematic application of risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management strategies, and timely communication of information to develop and enforce the appropriate food safety laws globally as well as the development of international and national cooperation. This paper reviews issues, challenges and solutions to achieve food safety with respect to chemical

  8. Owls as biomonitors of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven R. Sheffield

    1997-01-01

    Much like the caged canary used by miners, a plethora of wildlife species have been promoted as biomonitors of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants in the environment. Species promoted as useful biomonitors share many common life history characters, such as wide distribution, territorial, non-...

  9. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  11. Levels of chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U. S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, J.W.; Hammons, A.S.

    1978-08-01

    Data are presented on the levels of all chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissues including blood, urine, breast milk, and tissue samples obtained at autopsy. Most data results from specific surveys to determine health hazards. The roles of trace elements and recognition of the need to determine baseline levels of chemicals introduced into the environment are factors which have motivated surveys by individual investigators. Thus, most data on chemicals in human tissues record levels of pesticides (e.g., DDT and metabolites), levels of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, or levels of nutritionally essential elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and fluoride. Data available on iron and calcium are not presented as their presence in the environment is generally not considered hazardous. Data on several uncommon chemicals, such as indium and ytterbium, are included basically as items of interest and to further document their presence in healthy individuals. Baseline data were presented where available to provide perspective as to chemical levels which might be expected under conditions where exposure could be considered normal or not directly related to a pollutant source. Nearly 600 cited surveys or investigations, most of which were reported within the past decade, are listed. Ninety-four different chemical contaminants, primarily trace metals and organochlorine pesticides, are reported. It is estimated that over 75% of the data published during the past 30 years on chemical contaminants derived from environmental pollution and found in human tissue in the United States are represented in this report.

  12. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  13. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  14. Chemical Alterations of Pb using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) in two contaminated soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data include chemical composition of Pb contaminated soils by adding FGDG as an amendment. The data shows the changes in Pb speciation to sulfur based minerals....

  15. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  16. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  17. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...

  18. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  19. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    . There is substantial evidence that polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans cause hypothyroidism in exposed animals and that environmentally occurring doses affect human thyroid homeostasis. Similarly, flame retardants reduce peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) levels in rodents, but human studies are scarce. Studies...... also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic...

  20. Using model-based screening to help discover unknown environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Kierkegaard, Amelie; Radke, Michael; Sobek, Anna; Malmvärn, Anna; Alsberg, Tomas; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; Wania, Frank; Breivik, Knut; Xu, Shihe

    2014-07-01

    Of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use, only a small fraction have been analyzed in environmental samples. To effectively identify environmental contaminants, methods to prioritize chemicals for analytical method development are required. We used a high-throughput model of chemical emissions, fate, and bioaccumulation to identify chemicals likely to have high concentrations in specific environmental media, and we prioritized these for target analysis. This model-based screening was applied to 215 organosilicon chemicals culled from industrial chemical production statistics. The model-based screening prioritized several recognized organosilicon contaminants and generated hypotheses leading to the selection of three chemicals that have not previously been identified as potential environmental contaminants for target analysis. Trace analytical methods were developed, and the chemicals were analyzed in air, sewage sludge, and sediment. All three substances were found to be environmental contaminants. Phenyl-tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane was present in all samples analyzed, with concentrations of ∼50 pg m(-3) in Stockholm air and ∼0.5 ng g(-1) dw in sediment from the Stockholm archipelago. Tris(trifluoropropyl)trimethyl-cyclotrisiloxane and tetrakis(trifluoropropyl)tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane were found in sediments from Lake Mjøsa at ∼1 ng g(-1) dw. The discovery of three novel environmental contaminants shows that models can be useful for prioritizing chemicals for exploratory assessment.

  1. Environmental contaminant mixtures modulate in vitro influenza infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Bandoro, Christopher; Shehata, Laila

    2018-01-01

    Environmental chemicals, particularly organochlorinated contaminants (OCs), are associated with a ranged of adverse health effects, including impairment of the immune system and antiviral immunity. Influenza A virus (IAV) is an infectious disease of major global public health concern and exposure...... studies such as ours can shed light on the complex processes underlying host-pathogen-pollutant interactions....... to OCs can increase the susceptibility, morbidity, and mortality to disease. It is however unclear how pollutants are interacting and affecting the outcome of viral infections at the cellular level. In this study, we investigated the effects of a mixture of environmentally relevant OCs on IAV infectivity...

  2. Chemical-gene interaction networks and causal reasoning for biological effects prediction and prioritization of contaminants for environmental monitoring and surveillance (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description:Evaluation of the potential effects of complex mixtures of chemicals in the environment is challenged by the lack of extensive toxicity data for many chemicals. However, there are growing sources of online information that curate and compile literature reports...

  3. Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinlan Xu,; Pancras, T.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical

  4. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  5. Chapter 7. Monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojak, L.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter deals with the monitoring of chemical contamination of the environment and analytical-chemical monitoring. There are presented: the concept o monitoring of the environment of the Slovak Republic; unified monitoring system and complex information about state and development of the environment; analytical methods determination of chemical contaminants in the environment

  6. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  7. Prioritization of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharges using Chemical:Gene Interactions in Caged Fish.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We examined whether contaminants present in surface waters could be prioritized for further assessment by linking the presence of specific chemicals to gene...

  8. Technical guidelines for environmental dredging of contaminated sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    This report provides technical guidelines for evaluating : environmental dredging as a sediment remedy component. This document : supports the Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for : Hazardous Waste Sites, released by the U.S. Environmental ...

  9. How to develop scientific literacy on environmental contamination?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge and data on the environmental contamination should be smoothly communicated for environmental risk literacy. In this paper, the issues for environmental risk literacy are raised by referring the case of the environmental contamination with radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. It is discussed that literacy for experts should be the capacity to explain the environmental contamination system with the global and long-term viewpoint and that the network between experts like SRA Japan should be necessary. (author)

  10. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site

  11. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

  12. Feasibility study to combine the evaluation of radiological and chemical-toxicological effects of old contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Proehl, G.

    1997-01-01

    The uranium mining regions of the German Federal States Saxony, Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt are contaminated by radionuclides and by chemical substances. For both, ionizing radiations and chemicals, concepts and models exists to assess possible health effects for the population living in such areas. However, these assessment models were developed independently for both kinds of contaminants. Therefore, the 9 th Conference of the State Ministers for Environmental Protection have claimed that for the evaluation of contaminated sites the radiological and chemical contaminants should be integrated into a joint assessment. This feasibility study describes the state of the art of the concepts and models used for the evaluation of radiological and chemical contaminants. The similarities and differences of these evaluation methods are identified and discussed. Suggestions are made for an integrated assessment to standardize the evaluation of sites contaminated by radionuclides or chemicals. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  14. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Environmental restoration and biological contamination: ecological and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Reis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental restoration is a pressing current need. However, protected areas have been exposed to biological contamination risks because the traditional techniques of restoration frequently use exotic species. This causes some concern, since biological contamination is the second major cause of species extinction in the world. It is important to use only native species in restoration projects in order to promote an effective environmental restoration without the risk of contamination. This paper discusses some issues concerning environmental restoration, biological contamination and the need for clearer laws.

  16. Chemical and biological factors affecting bioavailability of contaminants in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses the influence that salinity has on the bioavailability of the two largest classes of contaminants, trace metals and organic compounds will be discussed. Although data on contaminant toxicity will be used to draw inferences about chemical availability, this discussion will focus on the properties that contaminants are likely to exhibit in waters of varying salinities. In addition, information on physiological changes that are affected by salinity will be used to illustrate how biological effects can alter the apparent availability of contaminants

  17. Arsenic and dichlorvos: Possible interaction between two environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S

    2016-05-01

    Metals are ubiquitously present in the environment and pesticides are widely used throughout the world. Environmental and occupational exposure to metal along with pesticide is an area of great concern to both the public and regulatory authorities. Our major concern is that combination of these toxicant present in environment may elicit toxicity either due to additive or synergistic interactions or 'joint toxic actions' among these toxicants. It poses a rising threat to human health. Water contamination particularly ground water contamination with arsenic is a serious problem in today's scenario since arsenic is associated with several kinds of health problems, such arsenic associated health anomalies are commonly called as 'Arsenism'. Uncontrolled use and spillage of pesticides into the environment has resulted in alarming situation. Moreover serious concerns are being addressed due to their persistence in the environmental matrices such as air, soil and surface water runoff resulting in continuous exposure of these harmful chemicals to human beings and animals. Bio-availability of these environmental toxicants has been enhanced much due to anthropological activities. Dreadfully very few studies are available on combined exposures to these toxicants on the animal or human system. Studies on the acute and chronic exposure to arsenic and DDVP are well reported and well defined. Arsenic is a common global ground water contaminant while dichlorvos is one of the most commonly and widely employed organophosphate based insecticide used in agriculture, horticulture etc. There is thus a real situation where a human may get exposed to these toxicants while working in a field. This review highlights the individual and combined exposure to arsenic and dichlorvos on health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M; Coleman, H M; Le-Clech, P; Khan, S J

    2012-01-01

    Emerging wastewater treatment processes such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have attracted a significant amount of interest internationally due to their ability to produce high quality effluent suitable for water recycling. It is therefore important that their efficiency in removing hazardous trace organic contaminants be assessed. Accordingly, this study investigated the removal of trace organic chemical contaminants through a full-scale, package MBR in New South Wales, Australia. This study was unique in the context of MBR research because it characterised the removal of 48 trace organic chemical contaminants, which included steroidal hormones, xenoestrogens, pesticides, caffeine, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Results showed that the removal of most trace organic chemical contaminants through the MBR was high (above 90%). However, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, omeprazole, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were only partially removed through the MBR with the removal efficiencies of 24-68%. These are potential indicators for assessing MBR performance as these chemicals are usually sensitive to changes in the treatment systems. The trace organic chemical contaminants detected in the MBR permeate were 1 to 6 orders of magnitude lower than guideline values reported in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. The outcomes of this study enhanced our understanding of the levels and removal of trace organic contaminants by MBRs.

  19. Use of isotopic tracers in pesticide and environmental contamination research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casida, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The era of synthetic organic pesticides, starting with DDT and the herbicide 2,4-D about 1940, coincides with that of rapid advances in radiotracer applications. This is indeed fortunate since isotopic experiments are an essential step in evaluating each new pesticide and in continually reassessing older compounds for safety and most efficient utilization. This research is carried out in all developed nations with important supplementation on local problems or use conditions from investigations in the developing countries. Several slides will help illustrate the sequence of studies for establishing the disposition and fate of pesticides and other environmental contaminants.It is clear that very little of the pesticide ever contacts the pest. Pesticide chemicals are generally applied at dosages of 0.2 to 2 kilogram per hectare from one to five or more times per crop season. Less than 0.01% of an insecticide is absorbed or ingested by the pest insect. The remaining amount, more than 99.99%, is an environmental contaminant, a portion of which is a potential residue in food, feed and fibre. Isotopic research is critical in understanding or solving several aspects of the problem. The isotopic label is introduced into the chemical by synthesis in a commercial or university laboratory or in a national or regional atomic research centre. The most common radioisotopes used are tritium, 14carbon, 32phosphorus, 35sulphur and 36chlorine. Stable isotopes are becoming increasingly important in pesticide research, particularly carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and oxygen 18. The initial studies usually involve administration of the 14 carbon-labelled pesticide to rats, which are then held in metabolism cages that allow separate collection of expired gases, urine and faeces. The products in the excreta are identified by various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The persistence of the chemical and its metabolites in various tissues is also determined to make sure that the material

  20. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  1. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valles Adrian

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC. Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no

  2. Chemical Safety Alert: First Responders’ Environmental Liability Due To Mass Decontamination Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERCLA's good Samaritan provisions protect responders such as the Chemical Weapons Improved Response Team during lifesaving actions. Once imminent threats are addressed, responders should contain contamination and avoid/mitigate environmental consequences.

  3. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  4. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  5. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Esther Sørensen; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U...... and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends....... Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl...

  6. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  8. Assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardos, R.P.; Kearney, T.E.; Nathanail, C.P.; Weenk, A.; Martin, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider qualitative and quantitative approaches for assessing the wider environmental value of remediating land contamination. In terms of the environmental element of sustainable development, a remediation project's overall environmental performance is the sum of the

  9. Geochemical induced degradation of environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlar, H

    1984-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the concentration of organic chemicals in the environment with their production figures have resulted in a large deficit; this includes environmental chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has been assumed that analytical errors accounted for this deficit. Another explanation, however, allows for reactions of compounds under biotic and abiotic conditions. Because of the biostability of many organic chemicals biological transformation mechanisms can bring about slight change only. By contrast, abiotic environmental factors such as the UV-irradiation or decomposition on natural surfaces contribute considerably to the transformation of this substance class. An investigation of such abiotic charges of organic chemicals must therefore pay particular attention to dynamic and catalytic effects primarily attributable to the respective molecular state and interactions with the environment. This paper deals with the photoinduced reactions of organic substances adsorbed on natural surfaces and their significance for the degradability of environmental chemicals.

  10. Structural damage and chemical contaminants on reprocessed arthroscopic shaver blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    In response to socioeconomic pressure to cut budgets in medicine, single-use surgical instruments are often reprocessed despite potential biological hazard. To evaluate the quality and contaminants of reprocessed shaver blades. Reprocessed shaver blades have mechanical damage and chemical contamination. Controlled laboratory study. Seven blades and 3 abraders were reprocessed 1 time or 3 times and then were assessed. In the first part of the study, structural damage on the blades after 3 reprocessings was compared to that after 1 reprocessing using optical microscopy. In the second part, surface damage was observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy; elemental and chemical analyses of contaminants found by the microscopy were performed using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical microscopic examination revealed abrasion on the surface of the inner blade and cracks on the inner tube after 1 reprocessing. These changes were more evident after 3 reprocessings. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the blade reprocessed once showed contaminants containing calcium, carbon, oxygen, and silicon, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated biological protein consisting mainly of collagen, some type of salts, and polycarbonate used in plastic molding. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of the inner cutter of the reprocessed abrader revealed contaminants containing carbon, calcium, phosphorous, and oxygen, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed H2O, hydroxyapatite, and hydroxyl proteins. Scanning Auger microscopy showed that the tin-nickel plating on the moving blade and abrader was missing in some locations. This is the first study to evaluate both mechanical damage and chemical contaminants containing collagen, hydroxyapatite, and salts

  11. Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

  12. Environmental simulation testing of solar cell contamination by hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Test results for thermal vacuum and radiation environment simulation of hydrazine contamination are discussed. Solar cell performance degradation, measured by short circuit current, is presented in correlation with the variations used in environmental parameters.

  13. Addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to the prevailing view that the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) law, which amended the US Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), is the 'gold standard' for chemical regulation, the central premise of this article is that the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety Act for the ...

  14. Toxicity assessment of chemical contaminants;transition from in vitromethods to novel in vitro methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Farshad

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there areapproximately 80, 000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from ethical, economical and scientific perspectives. Therefore, increasing the number of available industrial chemicals andnew products has created a demand for alternatives to animal methods for better safety evaluation. Recent toxicity studies have demonstrated that in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemical contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of  more recent test methods developed for toxicity testing of chemical contaminants are discussed. Although  to be considered more broadly for risk assessment of human chemical exposures. In vitro methods,in vitro toxicology methods cannot exactly mimic the biodynamics of the whole body, in vitro  relationships (QSARs and physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK models have a potentialtest systems in combination with the knowledge of quantitative structure activity.

  15. Archaeological recording and chemical stratigraphy applied to contaminated land studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photos-Jones, Effie; Hall, Allan J

    2011-11-15

    The method used by archaeologists for excavation and recording of the stratigraphic evidence, within trenches with or without archaeological remains, can potentially be useful to contaminated land consultants (CLCs). The implementation of archaeological practice in contaminated land assessments (CLAs) is not meant to be an exercise in data overkill; neither should it increase costs. Rather, we suggest, that if the excavation and recording, by a trained archaeologist, of the stratigraphy is followed by in-situ chemical characterisation then it is possible that much uncertainty associated with current field sampling practices, may be removed. This is because built into the chemical stratigraphy is the temporal and spatial relationship between different parts of the site reflecting the logic behind the distribution of contamination. An archaeological recording with chemical stratigraphy approach to sampling may possibly provide 'one method fits all' for potentially contaminated land sites (CLSs), just as archaeological characterisation of the stratigraphic record provides 'one method fits all' for all archaeological sites irrespective of period (prehistoric to modern) or type (rural, urban or industrial). We also suggest that there may be practical and financial benefits to be gained by pulling together expertise and resources stemming from different disciplines, not simply at the assessment phase, but also subsequent phases, in contaminated land improvement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  17. Environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    A new era of university-industry-government partnership is required to address the intertwined problems of industrial economic competitiveness and environmental quality. Chemicals that go up the stacks and down the drains are simultaneously a serious detriment to the environment, a waste of natural resources, and a threat to industrial profitability. Recently, the NSF Divisions of Chemistry and chemical and Thermal Systems have joined with the Council for Chemical research in a new grant program to reduce pollution at the source by underwriting research aimed at environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing. Part of a broader NSF initiative on environmental science research, this new program serves as a model for university-industry-government joint action and technology transfer. Other features of this program and related activities will be described in this paper

  18. A comparative assessment of chemical contaminant removal by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at modifying the design of, constructing, evaluating and comparing chemical contaminant removal efficiency by, 3 household water treatment filters. The filters were: 1) biosand filter (BSF); 2) the ceramic candle filter (CCF); 3) bucket filter (BF). The filters were evaluated for their efficiency in removal of ...

  19. Chemical speciation and behaviour of cyanide in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is present as a contaminant of the soil on several hundred (former) industrial sites in the Netherlands. The risk for the occurrence of adverse effects on human health and the environment strongly depends on the chemical form in which cyanide is present and on the behaviour of this

  20. Prioritizing Environmental Chemicals for Obesity and Diabetes ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Diabetes and obesity are major threats to public health in the US and abroad. Understanding the role chemicals in our environment play in the development of these conditions is an emerging issue in environmental health, although identifying and prioritizing chemicals for testing beyond those already implicated in the literature is a challenge. This review is intended to help researchers generate hypotheses about chemicals potentially contributing to diabetes and obesity-related health outcomes by summarizing relevant findings from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) program. Objectives: To develop new hypotheses around environmental chemicals of potential interest for diabetes- or obesity-related outcomes using high throughput screening data. Methods: Identify ToxCast assay targets relevant to several biological processes related to diabetes and obesity (insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue, pancreatic islet and beta cell function, adipocyte dierentiation, and feeding behavior) and present chemical screening data against those assay targets to identify chemicals of potential interest. Discussion: Results of this screening-level analysis suggest that the spectrum of environmental chemicals to consider in research related to diabetes and obesity is much broader than indicated from research papers and reviews published in the peer-reviewed literature. Testing of hypotheses based on ToxCast data will a

  1. USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. William D. Bostick

    2003-05-01

    Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

  2. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE`s Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  3. Organic contaminants in environmental atmospheres and waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez González, Noelia

    2011-01-01

    This Doctoral Thesis focuses on the development of efficient and highly sensitive analytical methods for determining organic contaminants in atmospheric, aquatic and house dust samples. The proposed analytical methods are based on single and comprehensive gas chromatography followed by different detectors (including mass spectrometry and nitrogen chemiluminiscence detection) and different sample preparation methods that have the aim of minimising the consumption of organic solvents in the who...

  4. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability, Small Items of Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    contaminated with CWAs. May cause hardening or swelling of the sealant, which may weaken the seal. Rivet Stainless steel Not expected to have any effect...fallout, and nuclear survivability, which covers initial nu- clear weapon effects including Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). Combat Developer . A...EA environmental assessment ECBC Edgewood Chemical Biological Center EMP electromagnetic pulse FD/SC Failure Definition/Scoring Criteria FM

  5. Metamorphosis alters contaminants and chemical tracers in insects: implications for food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M; Wesner, Jeff S; Stricker, Craig A; Schmidt, Travis S; Zuellig, Robert E

    2014-09-16

    Insects are integral to most freshwater and terrestrial food webs, but due to their accumulation of environmental pollutants they are also contaminant vectors that threaten reproduction, development, and survival of consumers. Metamorphosis from larvae to adult can cause large chemical changes in insects, altering contaminant concentrations and fractionation of chemical tracers used to establish contaminant biomagnification in food webs, but no framework exists for predicting and managing these effects. We analyzed data from 39 studies of 68 analytes (stable isotopes and contaminants), and found that metamorphosis effects varied greatly. δ(15)N, widely used to estimate relative trophic position in biomagnification studies, was enriched by ∼ 1‰ during metamorphosis, while δ(13)C used to estimate diet, was similar in larvae and adults. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were predominantly lost during metamorphosis leading to ∼ 2 to 125-fold higher larval concentrations and higher exposure risks for predators of larvae compared to predators of adults. In contrast, manufactured organic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls) were retained and concentrated in adults, causing up to ∼ 3-fold higher adult concentrations and higher exposure risks to predators of adult insects. Both food web studies and contaminant management and mitigation strategies need to consider how metamorphosis affects the movement of materials between habitats and ecosystems, with special regard for aquatic-terrestrial linkages.

  6. Bringing together raptor collections in Europe for contaminant research and monitoring in relation to chemicals regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movalli, Paola; Dekker, René; Koschorreck, Jan; Treu, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Raptors are good sentinels of environmental contamination and there is good capability for raptor biomonitoring in Europe. Raptor biomonitoring can benefit from natural history museums (NHMs), environmental specimen banks (ESBs) and other collections (e.g. specialist raptor specimen collections). Europe's NHMs, ESBs and other collections hold large numbers of raptor specimens and samples, covering long periods of time. These collections are potentially a valuable resource for contaminant studies over time and space. There are strong needs to monitor contaminants in the environment to support EU and national chemical management. However, data on raptor specimens in NHMs, ESBs and other collections are dispersed, few are digitised, and they are thus not easy to access. Specimen coverage is patchy in terms of species, space and time. Contaminant research with raptors would be facilitated by creating a framework to link relevant collections, digitising all collections, developing a searchable meta-database covering all existing collections, making them more visible and accessible for contaminant research. This would also help identify gaps in coverage and stimulate specimen collection to fill gaps in support of prioritised contaminant monitoring. Collections can further support raptor biomonitoring by making samples available for analysis on request.

  7. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do; Melo, Jessica V. de

    2013-01-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  8. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: jessica_clorofila@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  9. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H 2 S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol R sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. Applications of micro-spectroscopy and chemical imaging to delineate contaminant associations in heterogeneous mineral environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chemical speciation of a contaminant in the environment controls its mobility, bioavailability and ultimately its toxicity to organisms, including man. Transport models for environmental contaminants have continually failed because of an incomplete understanding of the physicochemical controls regulating the chemical speciation of both inorganic and organic contaminants. One of the greatest analytical difficulties to studying contaminant behavior in the subsurface is the inherent heterogeneity of mineral and organic constituents. Added to the multiplicity, of geological component surfaces that contaminants can interact with is the synergistic (both positive and negative) effects that occur due to non-conservative interactions between these components. Modern spectroscopic techniques can provide detailed quantitative and qualitative information on how contaminants behave within a specific mineral's surface-water interface. In general, the information is so rich as to be un interpretable in heterogeneous systems where multiple binding environments exist on competing multi-mineralic surfaces. None-the-less, it is the behaviour of contaminants in complex heterogeneous environments that is tantamount to understanding and predicting transport behaviour under field conditions. One solution is micro-spot spectroscopy. In micro-spot spectroscopy, chemical composition is determined by dispersing light absorbed or emitted from a highly localized spatial position within a heterogeneous sample. Such examples include FT-IR, Raman, fluorescence, and X-Ray absorption spectroscopies where spatial resolutions of 1 to 10 μm can be achieved. This scale can be still far too large to fully spectroscopically probe binding behaviour that is heterogeneous on colloidal scales ranging down to nanometers. However, it can provide a bridge to established characterization techniques such as optical petrography, since the challenge lies not only in identifying the speciation and

  11. addressing environmental contamination through market regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Safety Act for the 21st Century provides unique opportunities for preventing ... Toxics. ** A student at Florida A&M College of Law, Juris Doctor candidate, class of 2017. ... evaluates pre-manufacturing notifications (PMNs) for new chemical substances ..... 65 World Health Organization,GLP Guideline Handbook(World Health.

  12. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  13. The toll of toxics: investigating environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Donald W.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Barclay, John S.

    2010-01-01

    On Earth Day of this year, the British Petroleum-operated Deepwater Horizon oil drilling rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, 41 miles off the Louisiana coast. The blast killed 11 workers, injured 17, launched a massive oil spill, and triggered an environmental catastrophe—the full impact of which may not be realized for years.

  14. Toxicity challenges in environmental chemicals: Prediction of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models bridge the gap between in vitro assays and in vivo effects by accounting for the adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics, which is especially useful in the assessment of human toxicity. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) serve as a vital tool for the high-throughput prediction of chemical-specific PBPK parameters, such as the fraction of a chemical unbound by plasma protein (Fub). The presented work explores the merit of utilizing experimental pharmaceutical Fub data for the construction of a universal QSAR model, in order to compensate for the limited range of high-quality experimental Fub data for environmentally relevant chemicals, such as pollutants, pesticides, and consumer products. Independent QSAR models were constructed with three machine-learning algorithms, k nearest neighbors (kNN), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) regression, from a large pharmaceutical training set (~1000) and assessed with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (~200) and environmentally relevant chemicals in the ToxCast program (~400). Small descriptor sets yielded the optimal balance of model complexity and performance, providing insight into the biochemical factors of plasma protein binding, while preventing over fitting to the training set. Overlaps in chemical space between pharmaceutical and environmental compounds were considered through applicability of do

  15. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  16. Levels of chemical contaminants in nonoccupationally exposed U.S. residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleman, J.W.; Hammons, A.S.

    1978-08-01

    Data are presented on the levels of all chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissues including blood, urine, breast milk, and tissue samples obtained at autopsy. Most data results from specific surveys to determine health hazards. The roles of trace elements and recognition of the need to determine baseline levels of chemicals introduced into the environment are factors which have motivated surveys by individual investigators. Thus, most data on chemicals in human tissues record levels of pesticides (e.g., DDT and metabolites), levels of trace metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, or levels of nutritionally essential elements such as zinc, copper, manganese, and fluoride. Data available on iron and calcium are not presented as their presence in the environment is generally not considered hazardous. Data on several uncommon chemicals, such as indium and ytterbium, are included basically as items of interest and to further document their presence in healthy individuals. Baseline data were presented where available to provide perspective as to chemical levels which might be expected under conditions where exposure could be considered normal or not directly related to a pollutant source. Nearly 600 cited surveys or investigations, most of which were reported within the past decade, are listed. Ninety-four different chemical contaminants, primarily trace metals and organochlorine pesticides, are reported. It is estimated that over 75% of the data published during the past 30 years on chemical contaminants derived from environmental pollution and found in human tissue in the United States are represented in this report

  17. Environmental Systems Microbiology of Contaminated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hazen, Terry C. [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Systems Microbiology is well positioned to move forward in dynamic complex system analysis probing new questions and developing new insight into the function, robustness and resilience in response to anthropogenic perturbations. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural bacterial communities can be used as quantitative biosensors in both groundwater and deep ocean water, predicting oil concentration from the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon spill and from groundwater at nuclear production waste sites (16, 17, 25). Since the first demonstration of catabolic gene expression in soil remediation (34) it has been clear that extension beyond organismal abundance to process and function of microbial communities as a whole using the whole suite of omic tools available to the post genomic era. Metatranscriptomics have been highlighted as a prime vehicle for understanding responses to environmental drivers (35) in complex systems and with rapidly developing metabolomics, full functional understanding of complex community biogeochemical cycling is an achievable goal. Perhaps more exciting is the dynamic nature of these systems and their complex adaptive strategies that may lead to new control paradigms and emergence of new states and function in the course of a changing environment.

  18. Molybdenum Dichalcogenides for Environmental Chemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Zappa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 2D transition metal dichalcogenides are attracting a strong interest following the popularity of graphene and other carbon-based materials. In the field of chemical sensors, they offer some interesting features that could potentially overcome the limitation of graphene and metal oxides, such as the possibility of operating at room temperature. Molybdenum-based dichalcogenides in particular are among the most studied materials, thanks to their facile preparation techniques and promising performances. The present review summarizes the advances in the exploitation of these MoX2 materials as chemical sensors for the detection of typical environmental pollutants, such as NO2, NH3, CO and volatile organic compounds.

  19. Immunotoxicological effects of environmental contaminants on marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, T

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas are complex environments frequently contaminated by numerous pollutants that represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences. Although effects of different environmental contaminants on the immune system in marine bivalves have been already reported, a few of reviews summarizes these effects. The main purpose of this chapter relies on summarizing recent body of data on immunotoxicity in bivalves subjected to contaminants. Immune effects of heavy metals, pesticides, HAP, PCB and pharmaceuticals are presented and discussed and a particular section is devoted to nanoparticle effects. A large body of literature is now available on this topic. Finally, the urgent need of a better understanding of complex interactions between contaminants, marine bivalves and infectious diseases is noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Izacar; Grifoll, Jordi; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists, were selected according to the availability of experimental property data to minimize the influence of predicted information in model development. Chemicals were emitted in air or water in a fixed geographical scenario representing the Netherlands and characterized by five compartments (air, water, sediments, soil and vegetation). Quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models to predict mass ratios in different compartments were developed with support vector regression algorithms. A set of molecular descriptors, including the molecular weight and 38 counts of molecular constituents were adopted to characterize the chemical space. Out of the 455 chemicals, 375 were used for training and testing the QSFR models, while 80 were excluded from model development and were used as an external validation set. Training and test chemicals were selected and the domain of applicability (DOA) of the QSFRs established by means of self-organizing maps according to structural similarity. Best results were obtained with QSFR models developed for chemicals belonging to either the class [C] and [C; O], or the class with at least one heteroatom different than oxygen in the structure. These two class-specific models, with respectively 146 and 229 chemicals, showed a predictive squared coefficient of q 2 ≥ 0.90 both for air and water, which respectively dropped to q 2 ∼ 0.70 and 0.40 for outlying chemicals. Prediction errors were of the same order of magnitude as the deviations associated to the uncertainty of the

  1. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  2. The effect of environmental parameters on contaminant uptake by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was also no discernable relationship between pH and contaminants uptake by the sampling devices as was expected with non polar, non-ioniseable solutes. The uptake of compounds with lower molar volumes was most susceptible to the presence oh humic materials. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental ...

  3. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  4. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  5. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Anne Thobo; McKnight, Ursula S.; Rønde, Vinni

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production......, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical...... stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality...

  6. Microarray technology for major chemical contaminants analysis in food: current status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Chemical contaminants in food have caused serious health issues in both humans and animals. Microarray technology is an advanced technique suitable for the analysis of chemical contaminates. In particular, immuno-microarray approach is one of the most promising methods for chemical contaminants analysis. The use of microarrays for the analysis of chemical contaminants is the subject of this review. Fabrication strategies and detection methods for chemical contaminants are discussed in detail. Application to the analysis of mycotoxins, biotoxins, pesticide residues, and pharmaceutical residues is also described. Finally, future challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  7. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood - European database on contaminant levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment...... to seafood.So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus...... potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data...

  8. Microsynthesis of C-14 labelled environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, A.; Bieniek, D.; Klein, W.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    Intention of these studies was to produce C-14 labelled environmental chemicals by means of optimizing the reaction conditions of any individual known synthesis step and to reduce the portion of not usable side-products to a minimum. By means of appropriate working techniques it was possible to largely avoid losses during preparation analysis (extraction, evaporation of diluting solutions, dehydration of reaction products etc.). (orig./HBr) [de

  9. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  10. A combined chemical and biological assessment of industrial contamination in an estuarine system in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Sujatha, C H; Akhil, P S; Soman, Kunjupilai; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate

  11. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J.; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  12. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood – European database on contaminant levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeersch, Griet, E-mail: griet.vandermeersch@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Lourenço, Helena Maria [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Cunha, Sara [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Diogène, Jorge [Institute of Research and Technology in Food and Agriculture (IRTA), Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Cano-Sancho, German [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Rovirai Virgili University (URV), Reus (Spain); Sloth, Jens J. [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU Food), Søborg (Denmark); Kwadijk, Christiaan [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies (IMARES), Wageningen University and Research Center, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Barcelo, Damia [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Girona (Spain); Water and Soil Quality Research Group, Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Animal Sciences Unit – Fisheries, Ankerstraat 1, 8400 Oostende (Belgium); Fernandes, José Oliveira [LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Hydrology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge de Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Marques, Antonio [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), Lisboa (Portugal); and others

    2015-11-15

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called “contaminants of emerging concern” are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database ( (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu)), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. - Highlights: • Development of a European database regarding contaminants of emerging concern. • Current status on knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation. • Review on the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood.

  13. Antarctic environmental specimen bank. A tool for chemical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soggia, F.; Dalla Riva, S.; Abelmoschi, M.L.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale

    2000-02-01

    The work illustrates the project on Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank (BCAA), which is an integral part of the Italian project on the micropollutants chemistry (sector on chemical contamination of the Italian Antarctic Research program, PNRA), begun in 1994 when the BCAA was installed in the department of chemistry and industrial chemistry (Genoa University, Italy). Its objective underlines an emphasis on environmental chemistry and the establishment of baselines similar to the approaches followed by the other environmental specimen banks, begun at the end of Sixties with the aim of long-term storage of representative environmental specimens in order to study the presence and the evolution of dangerous substances, but focus on the chemical characterization of samples. [Italian] Il lavoro illustra le finalita' del Progetto su una Banca Campioni Ambientali Antartici (BCAA), che e' parte integrante del progetto Chmica dei microinquinannti del Settore Contaminazione chimica del Programma Nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (ONRA), nata nel 1994 presso il dipartimento di chimicia e chimica industriale dell'universita' di Genova. A differenza di altri progetti internazionali che enfatizzano gli aspetti biologici, ecologici e medici, il progetto BCAA enfatizza la chimica ambientale.

  14. An emergency decision-making on a regional environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    When an environmental contamination occurs in a wide area, it is necessary to estimate the future influence by emergent environmental monitoring and rapidly take measures for it. This study aimed to support an emergency decision-making by constructing practical schemes with regards to the following three items in the dose limitation system recommended by ICRP; validity of intervention actions, optimization of protection and dose limitation. A framework of decision-making process was constructed to make clear the corresponding responsibility and the principle of intervention, to introduce stochastic techniques for estimating the environmental radiation shift and to reduce the social burden for the contamination. The results obtained by using this method were variable depending on the characteristics of subjects and regions applied. Therefore, it is needed to select an appropriate evaluation model and specific parameters suitable for the respective cases. (M.N.)

  15. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  16. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  17. Assessing the chemical contamination dynamics in a mixed land use stream system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Anne Th; McKnight, Ursula S; Rønde, Vinni; Bjerg, Poul L

    2017-11-15

    Traditionally, the monitoring of streams for chemical and ecological status has been limited to surface water concentrations, where the dominant focus has been on general water quality and the risk for eutrophication. Mixed land use stream systems, comprising urban areas and agricultural production, are challenging to assess with multiple chemical stressors impacting stream corridors. New approaches are urgently needed for identifying relevant sources, pathways and potential impacts for implementation of suitable source management and remedial measures. We developed a method for risk assessing chemical stressors in these systems and applied the approach to a 16-km groundwater-fed stream corridor (Grindsted, Denmark). Three methods were combined: (i) in-stream contaminant mass discharge for source quantification, (ii) Toxic Units and (iii) environmental standards. An evaluation of the chemical quality of all three stream compartments - stream water, hyporheic zone, streambed sediment - made it possible to link chemical stressors to their respective sources and obtain new knowledge about source composition and origin. Moreover, toxic unit estimation and comparison to environmental standards revealed the stream water quality was substantially impaired by both geogenic and diffuse anthropogenic sources of metals along the entire corridor, while the streambed was less impacted. Quantification of the contaminant mass discharge originating from a former pharmaceutical factory revealed that several 100 kgs of chlorinated ethenes and pharmaceutical compounds discharge into the stream every year. The strongly reduced redox conditions in the plume result in high concentrations of dissolved iron and additionally release arsenic, generating the complex contaminant mixture found in the narrow discharge zone. The fingerprint of the plume was observed in the stream several km downgradient, while nutrients, inorganics and pesticides played a minor role for the stream health. The

  18. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  19. Human Environmental Disease Network: A computational model to assess toxicology of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants associated with diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure rarely have been studied by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration of systems biology and chemical toxicology using information on chemical contaminants and their disease relationships reported in the TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships, allowing inclusion of some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such a network can be used to identify uncharacterized connections between diseases. Examples are discussed for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Additionally, this computational model allows confirmation of already known links between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between bisphenol A and behavioral disorders) and also reveals unexpected associations between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between chlordane and olfactory alteration), thus predicting which chemicals may be risk factors to human health. The proposed human EDN model allows exploration of common biological mechanisms of diseases associated with chemical exposure, helping us to gain insight into disease etiology and comorbidity. This computational approach is an alternative to animal testing supporting the 3R concept.

  20. Bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Cabrera; Queiroz, Sonia Claudia do Nascimento; da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes Pinto; Porto, Rafael Silveira; Rath, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Honeybees and bee products are potential bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, enabling monitoring of large areas due to the long distances travelled by bees. This work evaluates the use of bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides. A GC-MS/MS analytical method for multiresidue determination of 26 different pesticides in pollen was developed and validated in accordance with the recommendations of the European Union SANCO guide. Environmental monitoring was conducted using the analysis of 145 pollen samples collected from ten beehives in the experimental apiary of Embrapa in Jaguariúna (São Paulo State, Brazil). Bioallethrin and pendimethalin were identified in four and eighteen samples, respectively, at concentrations below the LOQ of the method (25 ng g(-1)). Passive sampling with polyurethane foam discs was used as a control, and no pesticides were found. The detection of pesticide residues in seven samples (33%) from commercial apiaries in Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo State) confirmed the efficiency of the analytical method and the need for environmental monitoring for the presence of pesticide residues. The results demonstrated the potential of bee pollen as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  2. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  3. Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus under Hg environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Cátia; Galvão, Petrus; Longo, Renan; Malm, Olaf; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    The native species Ruditapes decussatus and the invasive species Ruditapes philippinarum have an important ecological role and socio-economic value, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean to the Indo-Pacific region. In the aquatic environment, they are subjected to the presence of different contaminants, such as mercury (Hg) and its methylated form, methylmercury (MeHg). However, few studies have assessed the impacts of Hg on bivalves under environmental conditions, and little is known on bivalve oxidative stress patterns due to Hg contamination. Therefore, this study aims to assess the Hg contamination in sediments as well as the concentration of Hg and MeHg in R. decussatus and R. philippinarum, and to identify the detoxification strategies of both species living in sympatry, in an aquatic system with historical Hg contamination. The risk to human health due to the consumption of clams was also evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated that total Hg concentration found in sediments from the most contaminated area was higher than the maximum levels established by Sediment Quality Guidelines. This study further revealed that the total Hg and MeHg accumulation in both species was strongly correlated with the total Hg contamination of the sediments. Nonetheless, the THg concentration in both species was lower than maximum permissible limits (MPLs) of THg defined by international organizations. R. decussatus and R. philippinarum showed an increase in lipid peroxidation levels along with the increase of THg accumulation by clams. Nevertheless, for both species, no clear trend was obtained regarding the activity of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase) and biotransformation (glutathione S-transferase) enzymes and metallothioneins with the increase of THg in clams. Overall, the present work demonstrated that both species can be used as sentinel species of contamination and that the consumption of these clams does not constitute a risk for human health.

  4. Method of and apparatus for cleaning garments and soft goods contaminated with nuclear, chemical and/or biological contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for decontaminating garments, soft good or mixtures thereof contaminated with radioactive particulates, toxin, chemical, and biological contaminants comprising the steps of: (a) depositing contaminated garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof in a cleaning drum; (b) charging the drum with a cleaning solvent in which the chemical contaminants are soluble; (c) agitating the drum during a wash cycle to separate radioactive, toxin, biological particulate matter of mixtures thereof from the garments; (d) draining the drum of the dry cleaning solvent which contains suspended particulate contaminants and dissolved chemical contaminants; (e) contacting the drained solvent with both a neutralizing agent and an oxidizing agent, the neutralizing agent being selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof and having a concentration greater than one (1.0) normal; (f) rinsing the garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof by circulating clean solvent from a solvent tank through the drum thereby effecting additional removal and flushing of particulate and chemical contaminants; (g) filtering the circulated solvent to remove the particulate material suspended in the solvent prior to addition to the drum; and (h) preferentially adsorbing the chemical contaminants dissolved in the circulated solvent prior to addition to the drum

  5. Ecological aspects of environmental assessment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1990-04-01

    When large landscapes are contaminated by radionuclides released from nuclear activities, physical processes, such as atmospheric and hydrological transport may move the radioactive materials over large distances resulting in direct external exposure of man and organisms. This paper provides an overview of the modeling of radionuclide movement through defined ecological pathways, describes some ecological problems at remediated sites, and briefly reviews effects of environmental radiation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. This paper describes pathways that should be considered when conducting environmental dose assessments for radionuclides released to the environment. 4 refs

  6. Chemical contamination of groundwater at gas processing plants - the past, the present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrubleski, R.M.; Drury, C.R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre; Sevigny, J.H. [Komex Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The chemicals used to remove the sour gas components (primarily H{sub 2}S) from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes were discussed. The chemicals, mainly amines and physical absorbents, have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the behaviour of some of these chemicals. In particular, the contamination by sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA) which originate from the Sulfinol{sup R} sweetening process, was discussed. Prior to the mid 1970s wastes from these processes were disposed of on site in landfills that were not engineered for groundwater protection. By the mid 1970s the landfills were closed by capping. Many of the gas plant sites were located on elevated terrain where hydraulic gradient was available for downward movement of groundwater and any chemicals contained within. Contaminant movement in fractured bedrock has also affected drinking water. Ground water monitoring began in the mid 1980s to address environmental concerns, focusing on monitoring for potability, metals and organics. It was discovered that most of the plants using the Sulfinol process had groundwater contaminated with sulfolane levels ranging from 1 ppm to over 800 ppm. A research project was developed to determine the soil interaction parameters and biodegradation behaviour of pure sulfolane and DIPA to provide data in order to predict plume migration. Ecotoxicity tests were also performed to verify toxicity effects of sulfolane, DIPA, reclaimer bottoms and observed biodegradation metabolites to bio-organisms and aquatic life in aquatic receptors. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  7. A Novel Open Tubular Capillary Electrochromatographic Method for Differentiating the DNA Interaction Affinity of Environmental Contaminants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia D'Ulivo

    Full Text Available The interaction of chemicals with DNA may lead to genotoxicity, mutation or carcinogenicity. A simple open tubular capillary electrochromatographic method is proposed to rapidly assess the interaction affinity of three environmental contaminants (1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene to DNA by measuring their retention in the capillaries coated with DNA probes. DNA oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on the inner wall of a fused silica capillary that was first derivatized with 3-(aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES. The difference in retention times and factors was considered as the difference in interaction affinity of the contaminants to the DNA probes. The interaction of the contaminants with both double-stranded (dsDNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA coatings was compared. Retention factors of 1,4-phenylenediamine, pyridine and 2,4-diaminotoluene in the capillary coated with ssDNA probe were 0.29, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively. A similar trend was observed in the capillary coated with dsDNA, indicating that 2,4-diaminotoluene has the highest affinity among the three contaminants. The relative standard deviation (RSD for the retention factors was in the range of 0.05-0.69% (n = 3. The results demonstrated that the developed technique could be applied for preliminary screening purpose to provide DNA interaction affinity information of various environmental contaminants.

  8. Environmental contaminants in the food chain, NWS Seal Beach and Seal Beach NWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Byron, E.R. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States); Freas, K.E. [CH2M Hill, San Jose, CA (United States); Casados, E.M.; Kidwell, J.J. [Naval Facilities Engineering Command, San Diego, CA (United States). SW Division

    1994-12-31

    The authors conducted a study to determine whether environmental contaminants occurred in fish and invertebrates at concentrations that could be harmful to birds feeding in the estuarine salt marsh at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), which is part of Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Seal Beach. Management of the refuge is focused primarily on endangered species, especially the light-footed clapper rail and the California least tern. Important food-chain organisms taken by rails (e.g., crabs and snails) and least terns (small fish) were sampled and analyzed for inorganic and organic contaminants that might be related to Navy activities at the Station. Results indicated that those contaminants are not likely to have lethal effects on rails or terns, although some chemicals (including cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, zinc and DDE) occurred at elevated concentrations in portions of the marsh. Possible sublethal effects also were evaluated and will be discussed.

  9. Illustrating sensitivity in environmental fate models using partitioning maps - application to selected contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wania, F. [Univ. of Toronto at Scarborough - DPES, Toronto (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    Generic environmental multimedia fate models are important tools in the assessment of the impact of organic pollutants. Because of limited possibilities to evaluate generic models by comparison with measured data and the increasing regulatory use of such models, uncertainties of model input and output are of considerable concern. This led to a demand for sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for the outputs of environmental fate models. Usually, variations of model predictions of the environmental fate of organic contaminants are analyzed for only one or at most a few selected chemicals, even though parameter sensitivity and contribution to uncertainty are widely different for different chemicals. We recently presented a graphical method that allows for the comprehensive investigation of model sensitivity and uncertainty for all neutral organic chemicals simultaneously. This is achieved by defining a two-dimensional hypothetical ''chemical space'' as a function of the equilibrium partition coefficients between air, water, and octanol (K{sub OW}, K{sub AW}, K{sub OA}), and plotting sensitivity and/or uncertainty of a specific model result to each input parameter as function of this chemical space. Here we show how such sensitivity maps can be used to quickly identify the variables with the highest influence on the environmental fate of selected, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and brominated flame retardents (BFRs).

  10. Environmental contaminants of emerging concern in seafood--European database on contaminant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeersch, Griet; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Alvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Cunha, Sara; Diogène, Jorge; Cano-Sancho, German; Sloth, Jens J; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Barcelo, Damia; Allegaert, Wim; Bekaert, Karen; Fernandes, José Oliveira; Marques, Antonio; Robbens, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Marine pollution gives rise to concern not only about the environment itself but also about the impact on food safety and consequently on public health. European authorities and consumers have therefore become increasingly worried about the transfer of contaminants from the marine environment to seafood. So-called "contaminants of emerging concern" are chemical substances for which no maximum levels have been laid down in EU legislation, or substances for which maximum levels have been provided but which require revision. Adequate information on their presence in seafood is often lacking and thus potential risks cannot be excluded. Assessment of food safety issues related to these contaminants has thus become urgent and imperative. A database (www.ecsafeseafooddbase.eu), containing available information on the levels of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood and providing the most recent data to scientists and regulatory authorities, was developed. The present paper reviews a selection of contaminants of emerging concern in seafood including toxic elements, endocrine disruptors, brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and derivatives, microplastics and marine toxins. Current status on the knowledge of human exposure, toxicity and legislation are briefly presented and the outcome from scientific publications reporting on the levels of these compounds in seafood is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Balancing the risks of habitat alteration and environmental contamination in a contaminated forested wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiler, J.A.; Daukas, G.; Richardson, N.

    1994-01-01

    The North Lawrence Oil Dump Site (NLODS) is an inactive hazardous waste site located adjacent to an extensive palustrine forested wetland in upstate New York. Waste oil and oil sludge were disposed of in a lagoon adjacent to the wetland during the 1960s. During periods of high water, oils escaped from the lagoon and were transported into the wetlands. High concentrations of lead and PCBs were detected in NLODS wetland sediments, and contaminants from the site were present in wetland's plant and animal tissues. However, contaminated portions of the wetlands appear to be physically undisturbed and provide high quality wildlife habitat. The results of an ecological risk assessment indicated that lead and PCB contamination in NLODS sediment may be impacting some components of the wetlands community. The risk management process considered both the toxicological risks associated with lead and PCB contamination, as well as the significant habitat destruction risks associated with remediation. Six potential PCB target cleanup levels were evaluated. Following removal of sediments with PCB contamination greater than 0.5 mg/kg, 3.5 acres of sediment with lead contamination in excess of 250 mg/kg (the New York State ''Severe Effect Level'') would remain. More than 1.5 of these acres would contain lead concentrations in excess of 1,000 mg/kg. Reducing lead levels to background concentrations would require more than 50 acres of wetlands alteration. The Record of Decision at the NLODS recognized the high quality habitat provided by the site's wetlands, and attempted to balance the risks from habitat alteration with the risks of environmental contamination

  12. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Mench, Matthew M; Manahan, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities. (paper)

  13. Insecticide Usage and Chemical Contamination Assessment in Asiatic Pennywort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumroongsook, S.

    2017-07-01

    The insecticide usage in commercially grown asiatic pennywort plantations in Nakhonpatum and Nonthaburi province, Thailand was surveyed during January-June, 2016. The results showed that asiatic pennywort cuttworms was leaf destructive and caused the most damge to the production. The growers used organophosphate insecticides to control the caterpillars the most, followed by pyrethoid, abamectin, carbamate and organochlorine, respectively. The chemical contaminants of pennywort from 9 fresh markets in Bangkok was monitored, the result indicated that lead was not detected in the samples. The amount of arsenic was less than 0.075 mg / kg. The insecticide residue measurement of dicofol, chlorpyrifos and methidathion was 0.98, 2.84 and 0.46 mg / kg, respectively.

  14. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  15. Environmental geophysics and geochemistry for contamination mapping and monitoring 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai Sup; Lee, Sang Kyu; Hong, Young Kook [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    This study aims to provide the technologies which can be practically used for contamination mapping and monitoring. To accomplish this goal, the geophysical and geochemical expertise and techniques commonly used in the mineral resources exploration are employed. In the first year of the three-year-long project, the purpose of the study is to introduce the optimum methodologies among the geophysical and geochemical techniques to tackle the various cases of environmental contamination. To achieve the purpose, case studies of the developed countries were surveyed and analyzed through the various kinds of literatures. The followings are categorized to be solved by geophysical methods: 1) delineation of water system pollution by acid mine drainage and distributions of waste rocks in the closed mine area, 2) defining boundaries of subsurface contamination due to oil seepage, 3) zoning of sea water intrusion in the seashore or subsurface geology highly containing salt, 4) locating of buried metallic wastes such as pipes and drums which can cause the secondary pollution by corrosion, and 5) outlining of the subsurface area polluted by leachate from the landfill. To experiment the above items, various geophysical methods were applied to the corresponding test sites. From these experiments, the applicabilities of the respective geophysical method were analyzed, and the optimum methods were derived for the various pollution types. Furthermore, electric and electromagnetic surveys data processing software were developed to quantitatively interpret and highly resolve the geology. The environmental assignments which can be solved by geochemical methods include: 1) drainage pollution by coal mine effluents, 2)subsurface contamination of oil-spill, 3) sea water intrusion, 4) dispersion of toxic heavy metallic elements in the metal mines, and 5) radon environmental geochemistry. The appropriate test sites for applying the geochemical methods were selected. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Global warming and environmental contaminants in aquatic organisms: the need of the etho-toxicology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciocco, Arianna; Calamandrei, Gemma; Alleva, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Environmental contaminants are associated with a wide spectrum of pathological effects. Temperature increase affects ambient distribution and toxicity of these chemicals in the water environment, representing a potentially emerging problem for aquatic species with short-, medium- and long-term repercussions on human health through the food chain. We assessed peer-reviewed literature, including primary studies, review articles and organizational reports available. We focused on studies concerning toxicity of environmental pollutants within a global warming scenario. Existing knowledge on the effects that the increase of water temperature in a contaminated situation has on physiological mechanisms of aquatic organisms is presented. Altogether we consider the potential consequences for the human beings due to fish and shellfish consumption. Finally, we propose an etho-toxicological approach to study the effects of toxicants in conditions of thermal increase, using aquatic organisms as experimental models under laboratory controlled conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro screening of environmental chemicals for targeted testing prioritization: the ToxCast project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Richard S; Houck, Keith A; Kavlock, Robert J; Knudsen, Thomas B; Martin, Matthew T; Mortensen, Holly M; Reif, David M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M; Dix, David J

    2010-04-01

    Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the types of molecular and pathway perturbations caused by environmental chemicals and to build initial prioritization models of in vivo toxicity. We tested 309 mostly pesticide active chemicals in 467 assays across nine technologies, including high-throughput cell-free assays and cell-based assays, in multiple human primary cells and cell lines plus rat primary hepatocytes. Both individual and composite scores for effects on genes and pathways were analyzed. Chemicals displayed a broad spectrum of activity at the molecular and pathway levels. We saw many expected interactions, including endocrine and xenobiotic metabolism enzyme activity. Chemicals ranged in promiscuity across pathways, from no activity to affecting dozens of pathways. We found a statistically significant inverse association between the number of pathways perturbed by a chemical at low in vitro concentrations and the lowest in vivo dose at which a chemical causes toxicity. We also found associations between a small set of in vitro assays and rodent liver lesion formation. This approach promises to provide meaningful data on the thousands of untested environmental chemicals and to guide targeted testing of environmental contaminants.

  18. Occurrence and bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in lettuce grown in peri-urban horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras, Núria; Comas, Jordi; Bayona, Josep M

    2018-05-14

    Peri-urban horticulture performs environmental and socio-economic functions and provides ecological services to nearby urban areas. Nevertheless, industrialization and water pollution have led to an increase in the exposure of peri-urban vegetables to contaminants such as trace elements (TEs) and organic microcontaminants (OMCs). In this study, the occurrence of chemical contaminants (i.e., 16 TEs, 33 OMCs) in soil and lettuce leaves from 4 farm fields in the peri-urban area of the city of Barcelona was assessed. A rural site, outside the peri-urban area of influence, was selected for comparison. The concentration of TEs and OMCs ranged from non-detectable to 803 mg/kg dw and from non-detectable to 397 μg/kg dw respectively in the peri-urban soil, and from 6 · 10 -5 to 4.91 mg/kg fw and from non-detectable to 193 μg/kg fw respectively in lettuce leaves. Although the concentration of Mo, Ni, Pb, and As in the soil of the peri-urban area exceeded the environmental quality guidelines, their occurrence in lettuce complied with human food standards (except for Pb). The many fungicides (carbendazim, dimetomorph, and methylparaben) and chemicals released by plastic pipelines (tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate, bisphenol F, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole) used in agriculture were prevalent in the soil and the edible parts of the lettuce. The occurrence of these chemical pollutants in the peri-urban area did not affect the chlorophyll, lipid, or carbohydrate content of the lettuce leaves. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) showed that soil pollution, fungicide application, and irrigation water quality are the most relevant factors determining the presence of contaminants in crops. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance To Diagnose Hazardous Chemicals in Multiple Contaminated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Gunold, Roman; Mothes, Sibylle; Paschke, Albrecht; Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-08-18

    Aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated with large numbers of chemicals, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by chemical target analyses. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) enables the identification of toxicants in complex contaminated environmental samples. This study suggests pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a confirmation tool for EDA to identify contaminants which actually impact on local communities. The effects of three phytotoxic compounds local periphyton communities, cultivated at a reference (R-site) and a polluted site (P-site), were assessed to confirm the findings of a former EDA study on sediments. The sensitivities of R- and P-communities to prometryn, tributyltin (TBT) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) were quantified in short-term toxicity tests and exposure concentrations were determined. Prometryn and PNA concentrations were significantly higher at the P-site, whereas TBT concentrations were in the same range at both sites. Periphyton communities differed in biomass, but algal class composition and diatom diversity were similar. Community tolerance of P-communities was significantly enhanced for prometryn, but not for PNA and TBT, confirming site-specific effects on local periphyton for prometryn only. Thus, PICT enables in situ effect confirmation of phytotoxic compounds at the community level and seems to be suitable to support confirmation and enhance ecological realism of EDA.

  20. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  1. Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

    2004-08-01

    Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing.

  2. Regional risk assessment of environmental contamination from oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelmulder, S.D.; Eguchi, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the risk of environmental contamination from oil pipeline leaks due to earthquakes. Risk is measured both as volume of oil released and remediation cost. The methodology was developed for use on a regional scale and thus relies on a limited amount of input data. Monte Carlo techniques are used to simulate earthquake events, while a deterministic model is used to estimate the volume of oil released at a particular site. A library of cost models is used to estimate the contamination and resulting remediation cost based on the volume of oil released and the general site conditions. This methodology has been implemented in a computer program, OILOSS, and the results are presented as annual frequency of exceedence curves for volume of oil released and cost of remediation

  3. Effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The literature relating to the effects of environmental contaminants on reptiles is reviewed and certain generalizations based on studies of other kinds of vertebrates are presented. Reports of reptilian mortality from pesticide applications are numerous enough to establish the sensitivity of reptiles to these materials. Reports of residue analyses demonstrate the ability of reptiles to accumulate various contaminants. but the significance of the residues to reptilian populations is unknown. A few authors have reported the distribution of residues in reptilian tissues; others have investigated uptake or loss rates. Physiological studies have shown that organochlorines may inhibit enzymes involved in active transport and have correlated the activity of potential detoxifying enzymes with residue levels. There is some suggestion that pesticide residues may interfere with reproduction in oviparous snakes. Needs for future research are discussed.

  4. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  5. Toxicity assessment of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants: transition from in vivo to in vitro test methods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakand, S; Winder, C; Khalil, C; Hayes, A

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to occupational and environmental contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. Inhalation of gases, vapors, aerosols, and mixtures of these can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for industrial chemicals, remains limited. Considering there are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commerce, and an extremely large number of chemical mixtures, in vivo testing of this large number is unachievable from both economical and practical perspectives. While in vitro methods are capable of rapidly providing toxicity information, regulatory agencies in general are still cautious about the replacement of whole-animal methods with new in vitro techniques. Although studying the toxic effects of inhaled chemicals is a complex subject, recent studies demonstrate that in vitro methods may have significant potential for assessing the toxicity of airborne contaminants. In this review, current toxicity test methods for risk evaluation of industrial chemicals and airborne contaminants are presented. To evaluate the potential applications of in vitro methods for studying respiratory toxicity, more recent models developed for toxicity testing of airborne contaminants are discussed.

  6. Pathway analysis and exposure assessment: MEPAS modeling for nonradiological chemical contaminants at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Dirkes, R.; Buck, J.; Cooper, A.; Castieton, K.; Glantz, C.

    1995-01-01

    A Chemical Pathway Analysis and Exposure Assessment was performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The SESP monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife in order to assess onsite of offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health risk at the Hanford Site. The objectives of this study are (1) determine if a nonradiological chemical monitoring program is warranted for the Hanford Site, (2) ensure that the selection of surveillance parameters such as media, sampling location, and analytes are chosen in a manner that is scientifically sound and cost-efficient, and (3) identify specific nonradiological chemicals of concern (COC) for the Hanford Site. The basis for identification of COC for the Hanford Site was an extensive literature review. The model was also used to predict COC concentrations required onsite to achieve an offsite cancer incidence of 1 E-6 and a hazard quotient of 1.0. This study indicated that nonradiological chemical contamination occurring onsite does not pose a significant offsite human health risk. The highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual from COC was from arsenic (1.76E-1 0); the highest hazard quotient was chromium VI (1.48E-04)

  7. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Road A Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Road A Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant was closed and backfilled in 1973. It received miscellaneous radioactive and chemical aqueous waste. Four groundwater monitoring wells indicate no elevated levels of analytes in the groundwater. The closure options considered for this waste site are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Maximum health risk due to radioactive materials ( 238 U) is about 8.0E-06 excess health effects per year, for the no action option. The no waste removal and closure and waste removal and closure options reduce the calculated risk to about 1.2E-06 and 1.2E-08 HE/yr, respectively. The maximum calculated impact due to noncarcinogenic materials (lead) is 0.54 ADI fraction. The maximum calculated ADI fraction for lead after the period of institutional control is 4.1 E-04 for the reclaimed-farmland pathway for the no action option. Public risk attributable to atmospheric releases of chemical and radioactive constituents is minimal. For all years and options modeled, the noncarcinogenic risks calculated were zero except for the year of excavation, which had an ADI fraction of 1.41E-09. The maximum individual radiological health risk for the waste removal and closure option is small (6.97E-12 HE/yr). The radiological health effects for the no waste removal and closure and no action options are zero. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive ($4,000,000). 41 refs., 13 figs., 41 tabs

  9. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  10. Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Vargas, Gustavo; Sosa-Hernández, Juan Eduardo; Saldarriaga-Hernandez, Sara; Villalba-Rodríguez, Angel M; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-03-24

    The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio)-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies.

  11. Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hernandez-Vargas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies.

  12. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  13. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm. Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health.

  14. Dicofol (Kelthane) as an environmental contaminant: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donlad R.

    1990-01-01

    Dicofol is persistent in soil and on plants. No compelling evidence exists that dicofol breaks down or is metabolized to DDTr in nature. Dicofol does not accumulate in birds as rapidly as DDE, and it has reproductive effects that are less harmful than DDE. Fish, birds, and mammals are reproductively sensitive to dicofol products, but levels presently found in wildlife are below levels shown experimentally to cause significant harm. Eggs of fish-eating wild birds from citrus, cotton, and apple-growing areas should be analyzed for dicofol residues. Nest success of fish-eating birds in the most contaminated populations should be studied to evaluate the environmental effects of dicofol.

  15. Secondary environmental impacts of remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongju; Thompson, Jay M; Lin, Diana; Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ismail, Niveen S; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-03-05

    This study evaluates secondary environmental impacts of various remedial alternatives for sediment contaminated with hydrophobic organic contaminants using life cycle assessment (LCA). Three alternatives including two conventional methods, dredge-and-fill and capping, and an innovative sediment treatment technique, in-situ activated carbon (AC) amendment, are compared for secondary environmental impacts by a case study for a site at Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA. The LCA results show that capping generates substantially smaller impacts than dredge-and-fill and in-situ amendment using coal-based virgin AC. The secondary impacts from in-situ AC amendment can be reduced effectively by using recycled or wood-based virgin AC as production of these materials causes much smaller impacts than coal-based virgin AC. The secondary environmental impacts are highly sensitive to the dredged amount and the distance to a disposal site for dredging, the capping thickness and the distance to the cap materials for capping, and the AC dose for in-situ AC amendment. Based on the analysis, this study identifies strategies to minimize secondary impacts caused by different remediation activities: optimize the dredged amount, the capping thickness, or the AC dose by extensive site assessments, obtain source materials from local sites, and use recycled or bio-based AC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A holistic passive integrative sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential impacts of waterborne environmental contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brumbaugh, W. G.; Cranor, W.L.; Gale, R.W.; Rastall, A.C.; Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Leiker, T.J.; Rostad, C. E.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipermeable membrane device has gained widespread use for sampling hydrophobic chemicals from water and air, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler is applicable for sequestering waterborne hydrophilic organic chemicals, the stabilized liquid membrane device is used to integratively sample waterborne ionic metals, and the passive integrative mercury sampler is applicable for sampling vapor phase or dissolved neutral mercury species. This suite of integrative samplers forms the basis for a new passive sampling approach for assessing the presence and potential toxicological significance of a broad spectrum of environmental contaminants. In a proof-of-concept study, three of our four passive integrative samplers were used to assess the presence of a wide variety of contaminants in the waters of a constructed wetland, and to determine the effectiveness of the constructed wetland in removing contaminants. The wetland is used for final polishing of secondary-treatment municipal wastewater and the effluent is used as a source of water for a state wildlife area. Numerous contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphate pesticides, and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g., ibuprofen, oxindole, etc.) were detected in the wastewater. Herein we summarize the results of the analysis of the field-deployed samplers and demonstrate the utility of this holistic approach.

  17. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  18. Environmental contamination and its impact on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornescu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl, site of the worst accident in the history of peaceful use of atomic energy, remain, a huge danger for Europe in the overall levels of exposure to ionizing radiation continues to increase, which is demonstrated by recording new information on biological effects of exposure to radiation (Regional and global aspects of Radiation Protection, IRPA 2007). Criteria fundamental radiation, which is necessary today as result of various practical applications of nuclear energy, obliges us to carefully analyze environmental issue as a result of the presence of radioactive isotopes into the environment. This is due to the fact that the study of correlated environmental contamination and transmission vectors of radionuclides to humans is a primary means to protect public health. (authors)

  19. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference

  20. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    disruption of the developing fetus may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Evidence is reviewed for the following groups of chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, flame retardants, pesticides, perfluorinated chemicals, phthalates, bisphenol A and ultraviolet filters. Chemicals may exert...

  1. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  2. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  3. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  4. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  5. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Joya, I.E.

    1990-07-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Environmental Decontamination of a Chemical Warfare Simulant Utilizing a Membrane Vesicle-Encapsulated Phosphotriesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nathan J; Moore, Martin; Johnson, Brandy J; Dean, Scott N; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2018-05-09

    While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples. We also carried out remediation assays on solid surfaces, including glass, painted metal, and fabric, that were selected as representative materials, which could potentially be contaminated with a CWA.

  7. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  8. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  9. Radioactive contamination in metal recycling industry - an environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Metal recycling has become an important industrial activity worldwide; it is seen as being socially and environmentally beneficial because it conserves natural ore resources and saves energy. However, there have been several accidents over the past decades involving orphan radioactive sources or other radioactive material that were inadvertently collected as metal scrap that was destined for recycling. The consequences of these accidents have been serious with regard to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation as well as from an economic point of view. India produces and exports steel products to various countries. In the recent years there were rejection and return of steel products as they were found to be contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials. During investigation of incidents of radioactive contamination in steel products exported from India, it was observed that steel products are contaminated with low level radioactivity. Though radioactivity level in steel products is found to be too low to pose any significant hazards to the handling personnel or to the users or the public at large, its presence is undesirable and need to be probed as to how it has entered in the steel products. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) has investigated the incidents of such nature in the recent past and it is gathered that the steel products are made out of steel produced in a foundry where metal scrap containing radioactive material has been used. In this talk, incidents of radioactive contamination, its roots cause, and its radiological impact on person, property and environment, lessons learnt, remedial measures and international concerns will be discussed

  10. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our studies was to examine (1 the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow, and (2 whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants. It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53 and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA. Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release. The obtained data suggest that (1 the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2 FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

  11. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  12. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A.; Koh, Wee Yin; Paek, Woon K.; Lim, Jeongheui

    2017-01-01

    Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed. PMID:29204118

  13. The Sources of Chemical Contaminants in Food and Their Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination is a matter of serious concern, as the high concentration of chemicals present in the edibles poses serious health risks. Protecting the public from the degrees of the harmfulness of contaminated foods has become a daunting task. This article highlights the causes, types, and health implications of chemical contamination in food. The food contamination could be due to naturally occurring contaminants in the environment or artificially introduced by the human. The phases of food processing, packaging, transportation, and storage are also significant contributors to food contamination. The implications of these chemical contaminants on human health are grave, ranging from mild gastroenteritis to fatal cases of hepatic, renal, and neurological syndromes. Although, the government regulates such chemicals in the eatables by prescribing minimum limits that are safe for human consumption yet measures still need to be taken to curb food contamination entirely. Therefore, a variety of food needs to be inspected and measured for the presence of chemical contaminants. The preventative measures pertaining about the food contaminants problems are pointed out and discussed.

  14. Restoration projects for decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Lumley, T.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Payette, P.; Laframboise, D.; Best, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Krishnan, J.; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed studies that identified better decontamination methods for chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks. In particular, it reviewed aspects of 3 projects in which procedures were tested and validated for site restoration. Cleanup targets or standards for decontaminating buildings and materials after a CBRN attack were also developed. The projects were based on physicochemical and toxicological knowledge of potential terrorist agents and selected surface matrices. The projects also involved modeling and assessing environmental and health risks. The first multi-agent project involved gathering information on known procedures for restoration of areas including interiors and exteriors of buildings, contents, parking lots, lawn, and vehicles. Air inside the building was included. The efficacy of some of the proposed concepts was tested. Results included the determination of appropriate surrogates for anthrax and tests of liquid and gaseous biocides on the surrogates. The development of new contamination procedures using peroxyacetic acid were also discussed. The second project involved decontamination tests on CBRN using specially-constructed buildings at the Counter-terrorism Technology Centre at Defence Research and Development Canada in Suffield. The buildings will be contaminated with chemical and biological agents and with short-lived radionuclides. They will be decontaminated using the best-performing technologies known. Information collected will include fate of the contaminant and decontamination products, effectiveness of the restoration methods, cost and duration of cleanup and logistical problems. The third project is aimed at developing cleanup standards for decontaminating buildings and construction materials after a chemical or biological attack. It will create as many as 12 algorithms for the development of 50 standards which will help cleanup personnel and first-responders to gauge whether proposed methods can achieve

  15. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

    2007-03-27

    This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching

  17. Simulating Mobility of Chemical Contaminants from Unconventional Gas Development for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, C.; Edlin, D.; Borrillo-Hutter, T.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Potential contamination of ground water and surface water supplies from chemical contaminants in hydraulic fracturing fluids or in natural gas is of high public concern. However, quantitative assessments have rarely been conducted at specific energy-producing locations so that the true risk of contamination can be evaluated. The most likely pathways for contamination are surface spills and faulty well bores that leak production fluids directly into an aquifer. This study conducts fate and transport simulations of the most mobile chemical contaminants, based on reactivity to subsurface soils, degradation potential, and source concentration, to better understand which chemicals are most likely to contaminate water resources, and to provide information to planners who wish to be prepared for accidental releases. The simulations are intended to be most relevant to the Niobrara shale formation.

  18. New trends in the analytical determination of emerging contaminants and their transformation products in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Ana; Martínez Bueno, María Jesús; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2013-06-01

    Since the so-called emerging contaminants were established as a new group of pollutants of environmental concern, a great effort has been devoted to the knowledge of their distribution, fate and effects in the environment. After more than 20 years of work, a significant improvement in knowledge about these contaminants has been achieved, but there is still a large gap of information on the growing number of new potential contaminants that are appearing and especially of their unpredictable transformation products. Although the environmental problem arising from emerging contaminants must be addressed from an interdisciplinary point of view, it is obvious that analytical chemistry plays an important role as the first step of the study, as it allows establishing the presence of chemicals in the environment, estimate their concentration levels, identify sources and determine their degradation pathways. These tasks involve serious difficulties requiring different analytical solutions adjusted to purpose. Thus, the complexity of the matrices requires highly selective analytical methods; the large number and variety of compounds potentially present in the samples demands the application of wide scope methods; the low concentrations at which these contaminants are present in the samples require a high detection sensitivity, and high demands on the confirmation and high structural information are needed for the characterisation of unknowns. New developments on analytical instrumentation have been applied to solve these difficulties. Furthermore and not less important has been the development of new specific software packages intended for data acquisition and, in particular, for post-run analysis. Thus, the use of sophisticated software tools has allowed successful screening analysis, determining several hundreds of analytes, and assisted in the structural elucidation of unknown compounds in a timely manner.

  19. Review of chemical and electrokinetic remediation of PCBs contaminated soils and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangping; Wang, Yu; Fang, Guodong; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-09-14

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are manmade organic compounds, and pollution due to PCBs has been a global environmental problem because of their persistence, long-range atmospheric transport and bioaccumulation. Many physical, chemical and biological technologies have been utilized to remediate PCBs contaminated soils and sediments, and there are some emerging new technologies and combined methods that may provide cost-effective alternatives to the existing remediation practice. This review provides a general overview on the recent developments in chemical treatment and electrokinetic remediation (EK) technologies related to PCBs remediation. In particular, four technologies including photocatalytic degradation of PCBs combined with soil washing, Fe-based reductive dechlorination, advanced oxidation process, and EK/integrated EK technology (e.g., EK coupled with chemical oxidation, nanotechnology and bioremediation) are reviewed in detail. We focus on the fundamental principles and governing factors of chemical technologies, and EK/integrated EK technologies. Comparative analysis of these technologies including their major advantages and disadvantages is summarized. The existing problems and future prospects of these technologies regarding PCBs remediation are further highlighted.

  20. Spills of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals on Agricultural Topsoil: Biodegradation, Sorption, and Co-contaminant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Molly C; Borch, Thomas; Blotevogel, Jens

    2016-06-07

    Hydraulic fracturing frequently occurs on agricultural land. Yet the extent of sorption, transformation, and interactions among the numerous organic frac fluid and oil and gas wastewater constituents upon environmental release is hardly known. Thus, this study aims to advance our current understanding of processes that control the environmental fate and toxicity of commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals. Poly(ethylene glycol) surfactants were completely biodegraded in agricultural topsoil within 42-71 days, but their transformation was impeded in the presence of the biocide glutaraldehyde and was completely inhibited by salt at concentrations typical for oil and gas wastewater. At the same time, aqueous glutaraldehyde concentrations decreased due to sorption to soil and were completely biodegraded within 33-57 days. While no aqueous removal of polyacrylamide friction reducer was observed over a period of 6 months, it cross-linked with glutaraldehyde, further lowering the biocide's aqueous concentration. These findings highlight the necessity to consider co-contaminant effects when we evaluate the risk of frac fluid additives and oil and gas wastewater constituents in agricultural soils in order to fully understand their human health impacts, likelihood for crop uptake, and potential for groundwater contamination.

  1. An insight of environmental contamination of arsenic on animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Mandal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Although adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues and is even increasing in some areas. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce arsenic exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. Animal are being exposed to arsenic through contaminated drinking water, feedstuff, grasses, vegetables and different leaves. Arsenic has been the most common causes of inorganic chemical poisoning in farm animals. Although, sub-chronic and chronic exposure of arsenic do not generally reveal external signs or symptoms in farm animals but arsenic (or metabolites concentrations in blood, hair, hoofs and urine are remained high in animals of arsenic contaminated zones. So it is assumed that concentration of arsenic in blood, urine, hair or milk have been used as biomarkers of arsenic exposure in field animals.

  2. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  3. 4. International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Symposium Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Fourth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe was part of an on-going series of symposia which focus on the environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. The presentations concerned radiological contamination, hazardous waste management, environmental monitoring, modeling and computer applications for environmental studies, site remediation. Many works presented human health effects of environmental pollution by heavy metals, radionuclides and other xenobiotics

  4. Criteria and actions facing a radiological environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Montero, Milagros

    2008-01-01

    An approach to improve the management of the radiological risk due to an environmental contamination is presented. The experience gained in emergency response has clearly demonstrated the importance to have an efficient emergency system including planning, procedures and operational internally consistent criteria. The lack of these components in the emergency system could lead to important radiological and non radiological consequences. The setting of internationally agreed criteria and guides is very important in the anticipated emergency response plan. The paper firstly reviews the approaches proposed by international recommendations and norms. From this review, a substantial coincidence on the basic principles is stated, in spite of small differences in its formulation. Also, a need for harmonization is endorsed. So, generic levels, in terms of imparted dose or avoided dose due to intervention, and, in some cases, derived levels, in terms of activity concentration, are proposed. Numerical values for emergency actions are also identified. The second part deals with the adaptation of the existing prediction and decision systems to the above radiological criteria. Relations among deposition, activity concentrations and annual doses for different scenarios, exposure pathways and age groups are established. Also, the sensibility of the radiological impact against different characteristics of the intervention scenarios is stated. This makes easy to assess the radiological significance of different contamination situations by comparison to the existing action generic levels. Furthermore, the radiological impact can be numerically incorporated in a decision system which includes non radiological aspects of the applicable intervention options. Agricultural, urban and mixed scenarios are presented and solved for a 137 Cs contamination. The results can be further used to develop a methodology guide for setting action generic levels in post-accidental interventions and

  5. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  6. Environmental mercury contamination in China: Sources and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L; Wong, M H [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-01-15

    This review article focused on the current status of mercury (Hg) contamination in different ecological compartments in China, and their possible environmental and health impacts, focusing on some major cities. Mercury emission from non-ferrous metals smelting (especially zinc smelting), coal combustion and miscellaneous activities (of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest), contributed about 45%, 38% and 17%, respectively, to the total Hg emission based on the data of 1999. Mercury contamination is widespread in different ecological compartments such as atmosphere, soil and water. There is evidence showing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of Hg in aquatic food chains, with higher concentrations detected in carnivorous fish. In terms of human exposure to Hg, fish consumption is the major exposure pathway for residents living in coastal cities such as Hong Kong, but inhalation may be another major source, affecting human health in areas with severe atmospheric Hg, such as Guiyang City (Guizhou Province). There is also increasing evidence showing that skin disorders and autism in Hong Kong children are related to their high Hg body loadings (hair, blood and urine), through prenatal methyl Hg exposure. There seems to be an urgent need to identify the sources of Hg, speciation and concentrations in different ecological compartments, which may lead to high body loadings in human beings.

  7. Environmental contamination in the K eban Mining District, Eastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolucek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present research is focused on the contribution of base-metal mining to heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mining wastes and unworked ore-mineral concentrations present in the Keban region (eastern Turkey) are the main sources of environmental contamination in the area via leaching of the potentially toxic elements. Total-element concentrations of several different sampling media, such as sediment, waters and plants were measured. Analyses of metal and metalloid concentrations of sediment samples indicate high As, F, Mo and Zn contents, which decrease exponentially with distance from the mine and mineralized zones, mainly due to dilution by water and barren material. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ta in the water samples are higher than the average natural background values for these heavy metals. The most significant components of water samples under study are (>1 mg/1) Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn and S and (1 mg/1) Ba, Fe and Mo; these samples are also enriched in some toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Sb. Red algae have a higher capacity for absorption of Cr, Cu, Mn,Ni, Pb and S, whereas green algae are enriched in Co, Hg, La, Se and V. However, the highest heavy-metal and toxic element contents are found in moss collected at the mine adit. (author)

  8. Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  9. A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.K.; Foley, R.D.; Tiner, P.F.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Uziel, M.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiological and chemical investigation of the 7500 Area Contamination Site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted intermittently from February 1992 through May 1992. The investigation was performed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL at the request of the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office and the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program. Results of this investigation indicate that the source of radioactive contamination at the point of the contamination incident is from one of the underground abandoned lines. The contamination in soil is likely the result of residual contamination from years of waste transport and maintenance operations (e.g., replacement of degraded joints, upgrading or replacement of entire pipelines, and associated landscaping activities). However, because (1) there is currently an active LLW line positioned in the same subsurface trench with the abandoned lines and (2) the physical condition of the abandoned lines may be brittle, this inquiry could not determine which abandoned line was responsible for the subsurface contamination. Soil sampling at the location of the contamination incident and along the pipeline route was performed in a manner so as not to damage the active LLW line and abandoned lines. Recommendations for corrective actions are included

  10. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  11. Ecotoxicological Effects of Chemical Contaminants Adsorbed to Microplastics in the Clam Scrobicularia plana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit O'Donovan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although microplastics (MPs are distributed globally in the marine environment, a great deal of unknowns relating to their ecotoxicological effects on the marine biota remains. Due to their lipophilic nature, microplastics have the potential to adsorb persistent organic pollutants present in contaminated regions, which may increase their detrimental impact once assimilated by organisms. This study investigates the ecotoxicological effects of exposure to low-density polyethylene (LDPE microplastics (11–13 μm, with and without adsorbed contaminants (benzo[a]pyrene—BaP and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid—PFOS, in the peppery furrow shell clam, Scrobicularia plana. Environmentally relevant concentrations of contaminants (BaP−16.87 ± 0.22 μg g−1 and PFOS−70.22 ± 12.41 μg g−1 were adsorbed to microplastics to evaluate the potential role of plastic particles as a source of chemical contamination once ingested. S. plana were exposed to microplastics, at a concentration of 1 mg L−1, in a water-sediment exposure setup for 14 days. Clams were sampled at the beginning of the experiment (day 0 and after 3, 7, and 14 days. BaP accumulation, in whole clam tissues, was analyzed. A multi-biomarker assessment was conducted in the gills, digestive gland, and haemolymph of clams to clarify the effects of exposure. This included the quantification of antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases enzyme activities, oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation levels, genotoxicity (single and double strand DNA breaks, and neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest a potential mechanical injury of gills caused by ingestion of microplastics that may also affect the analyzed biomarkers. The digestive gland seems less affected by mechanical damage caused by virgin microplastic exposure, with the MPs-adsorbed BaP and PFOS exerting a negative influence over the assessed

  12. Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: Selection of washing chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tomoyuki; Sugahara, Kazuo; Sakurai, Yasuhiro; Takano, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Takashi; Sasaki, Kouta; Itou, Tadashi; Sekiya, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The efficiencies of neutral salts, strong acids, and chelates were tested for extracting cadmium (Cd) from three paddy soils. The higher the selectivity of the cations of the added neutral salts toward soil adsorption sites, the lower the pH in the extracts and the more soil Cd could be extracted. In addition, soil carbon and nitrogen contents and mineral composition were closely associated with the amount of Cd extracted. Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were selected as wash chemicals to restore Cd-contaminated paddy soils in situ. Washing with calcium chloride led to the formation of Cd chloride complexes, enhancing Cd extraction from the soils. The washing also substantially decreased soil levels of exchangeable and acid-soluble Cd, which are the major forms of bioavailable Cd for rice (Oryza sativa L.). The optimum conditions for in situ soil washing were also determined for calcium chloride. - Calcium chloride and iron(III) chloride were useful for the in situ washing of Cd-contaminated paddy soils

  13. Effects of chemical contamination on HDPE - thermo-mechanical and characterisation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, G.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE is an important precursor in recycling of plastic packaging and polymer reprocessing. This research involves and discusses the results of an in-depth investigation into the effects of chemically contaminating, using various acids, commercial grade high density polyethylene (HDPE) used commonly in packaging applications. An extensive formulation study was conducted and it became obvious that in some cases degradation had occurred to HDPE when chemically contaminated with particular functional group types. The functional groups in contaminated HDPE were successfully identified. A variety of analytical techniques such as Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray Florescence, x-ray photo electron spectroscopy could identify compounds such as HCl acid, HNO/sub 3/ acid and other related contaminants. Some chemical additives had effects on the mechanical and thermal properties when added in the most appropriate concentration. The results have shown lower tensile modulus and strength tensile elongation, lower modular weight, melt flow index and crystallinity. The amount of contaminant concentration, the type of chemical functional groups used and the type of test selected to affect degradation are important factors in proving the effects of chemical contamination on HDPE in the melt state. (author)

  14. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  15. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  16. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in public parks and playground sandpits of Greater Lisbon, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otero, David; Alho, Ana M.; Nijsse, Rolf; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Overgaauw, Paul; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from companion animals to humans. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered to be the main source of human infections. In Portugal, knowledge regarding the current situation, including density, distribution and environmental

  17. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  18. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  19. Sources and contamination rate of port sediments: evidences from dimensional, mineralogical, and chemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Gabriella; Cutroneo, Laura; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Canepa, Giuseppe; Capello, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Ports are complex environments due to their complicated geometry (quays, channels, and piers), the presence of human activities (vessel traffic, yards, industries, and discharges), and natural factors (stream and torrent inputs, sea action, and currents). Due to the many activities that take place in a port, sediments and waters are often contaminated by different kinds of chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, dioxins, pesticides, nutrients, and metals. The contamination rate of a port basin is site specific and depends on the sources of contamination in the nearby urban system as well as the port system itself, such as city discharges and sewers, river intake, vessel traffic, factories (Taylor and Owens, 2009). Moreover, two important sources and vehicles of contaminants are: a) anthropogenic road deposited sediments derived from the runoff of the port and city area, and natural road deposited sediments derived from rivers and torrents, and b) airborne particulate matter and sediments (Taylor and Owens, 2009). The Port of Genoa is situated at the apex of the Ligurian Sea in the north western Mediterranean Sea and is characterised by the presence of several commercial activities that have contributed, over the years, and still contribute today, to the contaminant accumulation in both the water column and the bottom sediments. This port basin includes the mouth of several streams and the mouth of the Bisagno and the Polcevera Torrents, along the banks of which can be found several small towns, quarries, factories, and the suburbs of the city of Genoa, a ferry terminal, different container terminals, marinas, dry docks, the coal power plant of Genoa, and different wastewater treatment plant discharges. Starting from these considerations, we have examined the marine environment of a port from the point of view of the water mass circulation, hydrological characteristics, distribution of the sediment grain size, mineralogical characteristics, and metal concentrations of the

  20. Chemical Agents: Personal Cleaning and Disposal of Contaminated Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Personal Cleaning and Disposal of ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks may cause you to come ...

  1. Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Contaminant Hydrology in Cold Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... The chemical thermodynamics of geochemical solutions below 0 deg C is then reviewed. Particular attention is placed on the physical-chemical properties of ice and liquid water at subzero temperatures...

  2. Heavy metal recovery from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching, bioleaching and biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirker, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ashes from biomass combustion plants contain plant nutrients which makes their application as fertilizers economically interesting. The possibility of recycling the ash can be looked upon as a contribution to obtain a sustainable energy utilization from biomass. The ash contains heavy metals which have to be removed. The possibility of decontaminating the ash by chemical and biological leaching was investigated. The leaching capacity of commercially available organic and inorganic acids and of citric acid produced by the fungus Penicillium simplicissimus were determined. A process for heavy metal recovery from biomass ashes consisting of four steps was designed. All environmentally relevant heavy metals (except lead) were removed from contaminated biomass ashes by chemical leaching. The heavy metals were recovered and enriched by precipitation and subsequent biosorption. Inactivated bacteria and fungi were used as biosorbents. The overall costs and the washing-out of plant nutrients from the ashes by chemical leaching were drawbacks of the metal recovering process. Biosorption in combination with existing processes of waste water treatment would offer another promising possibility for achieving the low Austrian limiting values for heavy metals in waste water. (author)

  3. A laboratory manual for the determination of inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients in sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to a brief discussion on sewage sludge disposal, sludge contaminants, and the potential beneficial and adverse effects of the various inorganic chemical contaminants and nutrients commonly present in sewage sludge, this technical guide presents a scheme of analysis for the determination of the major inorganic contaminants and nutrients. Safety and simplicity were the main criteria considered in the selection of the various sample pretreatment procedures and analytical techniques

  4. American Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 161 papers of this divisional meeting for the US Department of Energy's Database. Main topics discussed included: acid rain mitigation - liming technologies and environmental considerations; biotechnology for wastewater treatment; environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs and pollution prevention and process analytical chemistry

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  6. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  7. Raman spectroscopy-based detection of chemical contaminants in food powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy technique has proven to be a reliable method for qualitative detection of chemical contaminants in food ingredients and products. For quantitative imaging-based detection, each contaminant particle in a food sample must be detected and it is important to determine the necessary sp...

  8. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  9. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  10. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  11. Predicting soil, water and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally; multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results. We consider the advantages of multimedia models relative to environmental monitoring data. (au)

  12. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  13. Environmental Chemicals and Human Neurotoxicity: Magnitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    metals such as lead and arsenic in drinking water. This article ..... adequate supply of energy, oxygen and essential nutrients but ... vitamins and minerals such as vitamins C and E balance the ... Chemicals may interact with the DNA molecule ...

  14. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  15. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  16. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Mehdi [Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Shiraz, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hempel, Stefan, E-mail: hempel.stefan@googlemail.co [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Biologie, Okologie der Pflanzen, Altensteinstrasse 6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wubet, Tesfaye; Schaefer, Tina [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Savaghebi, Gholamreza [Department of Soil Science Engineering, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam [Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), P.O. Box 31535-1897, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buscot, Francois [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. - The molecular diversity of AMF was found to be influenced by a combination of soil heavy metal and other soil chemical parameters.

  17. Review of chemical and radiotoxicological properties of polonium for internal contamination purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoborlo, Eric; Berard, Philippe; Den Auwer, Christophe; Leggett, Rich; Menetrier, Florence; Younes, Ali; Montavon, Gilles; Moisy, Philippe

    2012-08-20

    The discovery of polonium (Po) was first published in July, 1898 by P. Curie and M. Curie. It was the first element to be discovered by the radiochemical method. Polonium can be considered as a famous but neglected element: only a few studies of polonium chemistry have been published, mostly between 1950 and 1990. The recent (2006) event in which (210)Po evidently was used as a poison to kill A. Litvinenko has raised new interest in polonium. 2011 being the 100th anniversary of the Marie Curie Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the aim of this review is to look at the several aspects of polonium linked to its chemical properties and its radiotoxicity, including (i) its radiochemistry and interaction with matter; (ii) its main sources and uses; (iii) its physicochemical properties; (iv) its main analytical methods; (v) its background exposure risk in water, food, and other environmental media; (vi) its biokinetics and distribution following inhalation, ingestion, and wound contamination; (vii) its dosimetry; and (viii) treatments available (decorporation) in case of internal contamination.

  18. Global styrene oligomers monitoring as new chemical contamination from polystyrene plastic marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bum Gun; Koizumi, Koshiro; Chung, Seon-Yong; Kodera, Yoichi; Kim, Jong-Oh; Saido, Katsuhiko

    2015-12-30

    Polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution is an environmental concern. However, a reliable and objective assessment of the scope of this problem, which can lead to persistent organic contaminants, has yet to be performed. Here, we show that anthropogenic styrene oligomers (SOs), a possible indicator of PS pollution in the ocean, are found globally at concentrations that are higher than those expected based on the stability of PS. SOs appear to persist to varying degrees in the seawater and sand samples collected from beaches around the world. The most persistent forms are styrene monomer, styrene dimer, and styrene trimer. Sand samples from beaches, which are commonly recreation sites, are particularly polluted with these high SOs concentrations. This finding is of interest from both scientific and public perspectives because SOs may pose potential long-term risks to the environment in combination with other endocrine disrupting chemicals. From SOs monitoring results, this study proposes a flow diagram for SOs leaching from PS cycle. Using this flow diagram, we conclude that SOs are global contaminants in sandy beaches around the world due to their broad spatial distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental chemicals and autoimmune disease: cause and effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Evelyn V.

    2002-01-01

    Many important clues have been provided by the relationship of certain medications to lupus and other autoimmune syndromes. These are temporary conditions that resolve when the medication is removed. There are now over 70 such medications which have been reported related to these autoimmune conditions. Interest continues to grow in the potential for environmental substances to cause these syndromes. Among those under suspicion are hydrazines, tartrazines, hair dyes, trichloroethylene, industrial emissions and hazardous wastes. Other possible associations include silica, mercury, cadmium, gold and L canavanine. Two recognised outbreaks include 'toxic oil syndrome' related to contaminated rape seed oil in Spain in 1981 and exposure to a contaminated environmental substance associated with an autoimmune attack on muscle tissue in 1989. Recently, there have been proposals made for the definition and identification of environmentally associated immune disorders. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also provided recent publications for other environmentally related problems. All these aspects will be presented and reviewed in detail

  20. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  1. Novel approaches for 90Sr analyses in contaminated environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasi, N.; Sahoot, S.K.; Area, H.; Aono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive strontium isotopes are generated with high cumulative fission yield (5-6 %) during thermal neutron fission in a nuclear reactor. The physical half-life of 89 Sr (50.52 d) is short but that of 90 Sr (28.8 y) is long enough to generate radioecological repercussions. 90 Sr has a long-lasting biological half-life (∼18 y) in the human body, due to its chemical similarity to calcium the importance of 90 Sr analysis is emphasized in case of a nuclear disaster. The world-wide spread of 90 Sr, as a background, is derived from the global atmospheric fallout contributed by large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted from 1945. In case of local contamination, nuclear accidents are not the only source of 90 Sr isotope, misconducted underground nuclear weapon tests; improper handling of by-products of nuclear weapon production or normal operation of nuclear facilities (e.g. reprocessing plants) can be taken into account

  2. Uncertainties in human health risk assessment of environmental contaminants: A review and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Duan, Luchun; Bekele, Dawit; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Addressing uncertainties in human health risk assessment is a critical issue when evaluating the effects of contaminants on public health. A range of uncertainties exist through the source-to-outcome continuum, including exposure assessment, hazard and risk characterisation. While various strategies have been applied to characterising uncertainty, classical approaches largely rely on how to maximise the available resources. Expert judgement, defaults and tools for characterising quantitative uncertainty attempt to fill the gap between data and regulation requirements. The experiences of researching 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) illustrated uncertainty sources and how to maximise available information to determine uncertainties, and thereby provide an 'adequate' protection to contaminant exposure. As regulatory requirements and recurring issues increase, the assessment of complex scenarios involving a large number of chemicals requires more sophisticated tools. Recent advances in exposure and toxicology science provide a large data set for environmental contaminants and public health. In particular, biomonitoring information, in vitro data streams and computational toxicology are the crucial factors in the NexGen risk assessment, as well as uncertainties minimisation. Although in this review we cannot yet predict how the exposure science and modern toxicology will develop in the long-term, current techniques from emerging science can be integrated to improve decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Game animals as bioindicators of environmental contamination by mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparova, Katarina

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with determination of Hg in the biological materials (furred game), which comes from 9 districts in Slovak Republic. In the fur there were determined the mercury contents, in μg·kg -1 , as follows: roe deer game - Lucenec District, 12.3; Poltar Dis., 12.8; Prievidza Dis., 42.6; Revuca Dis., 23.5; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 16.7; Spisska Nova Ves Dis., 262.5; Veliky Krtis Dis., 20.3; Zarnovica Dis., 11.5; Ziar nad Hronom Dis., 15.5; red deer game - Lucenec Dis., 13.6; Poltar Dis., 16.2; Rimavska Sobota Dis., 22.1; Zarnovica Dis., 9.6; fallow deer game - Poltar Dis., 41.9; boar game - Prievidza Dis., 257.6. The measurements were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA 254 instrument. The investigated animals were hunted during the hunting period in the year 1999. The biological samples were taken from healthy game without any strange changes of its behavior or colour. High mercury content in fur of roe deer game in Spisska Nova Ves District and also in fur of boar game in Prievidza District shows big air pollution in these districts, caused mainly by intensive industry, mining, reprocessing and energy technologies used in these districts. We can suppose that because of the environmental contamination there is also a high content of mercury in game internal organs. It would be useful to continue with analyzing the content of Hg in the biological material and environmental as well. (author)

  4. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  5. Chemical Contaminants as Stratigraphic Markers for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Thousands and even millions of years from now, widespread anthropogenic contaminants in sediments would likely persist, incorporated into the geological record. They would inadvertently preserve evidence of our present era (informally designated as the Anthropocene Epoch) characterized by large human populations engaged in intensive industrial and agricultural activities. Hypothetical geologists in the distant future would likely find unusually high concentrations of a wide variety of contaminants at stratigraphic levels corresponding to our present time, analogous to the iridium anomaly marking the bolide impact event at the close of the Cretaceous Period. These would include both organic and inorganic substances, such as industrially-derived heavy metals (e.g., Hg, Pb, Cr, Zn) and hydrocarbons, both petrogenic (derived directly from petroleum) and pyrogenic (combustion products). While there are natural sources for these materials, such as volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and oil seeps, their co-occurrence would provide a signature characteristic of human activity. Diagnostic assemblages of organic compounds would carry an anthropogenic imprint. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment sample could distinguish between natural and human sources. Stable isotopic signatures would provide additional evidence. Concentrations of contaminants in the sedimentary record would increase exponentially with increasing proximity to urban source areas, where at present billions of people are collectively consuming vast quantities of fossil fuels and generating large amounts of waste. Aolian and marine transport prior to deposition has been seen at present to globally redistribute detectable amounts of contaminants including Hg and PAHs, even at great distances from principal source areas. For organic contaminants, deposition in an anoxic sedimentary environment could insure their preservation, increasing the likelihood of their inclusion in the

  6. Environmental contamination due to release of a large amount of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Tritium release incidents have occurred many times in the Savannah Rever Plant in the U.S. A tritium release incident also took place in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The present article outlines the reports by the plant and laboratory on these incidents and makes some comments on environmental contamination that may results from release of a large amount of tritium from nuclear fusion facilities. Tritium is normally released in the form of a combination of chemical compounds such as HT, DT and T 2 and oxides such as HTO, DTO and T 2 O. The percentage of the oxides is given in the reports by the plant. Oxides, which can be absorbed through the skin, are considered to be nearly a thousand times more toxic than the other type of tritium compounds. The HT type compounds (HT, DT and T 2 ) can be oxidized by microorganisms in soil into oxides (HTO, DTO and T 2 O) and therefore, great care should also given to this type of compounds. After each accidental tritium release, the health physics group of the plant collected various environmental samples, including ground surface water, milk, leaves of plants, soil and human urine, in leeward areas. Results on the contamination of surface water, fish and underground water are outlined and discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, Line Diana

    1999-01-01

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  8. Environmental Chemicals and Human Neurotoxicity: Magnitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    altered neurocthemical, electrophysiological or behavioural functions. The adverse effects of neurotoxicity are among the most feared ill health in humans ... chemicals through air, food, or drinking water. The infamous ..... environment can disrupt the neurological control .... that perception and memory gradually fade,.

  9. Assessing the risks of nuclear and chemical contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the first four chapters the focus is on risk assessment and the role of various segments of the society in defining risk criteria. In Chapter 2, the interface between science, policymaking, and environmental law is addressed. In chapter 3, the importance of including organizational and human factors in risk assessments is discussed. It is noted that risk assessment is also a matter for an informed public. Chapter 4 focuses on the specific application of technology to hazardous waste disposal. The most expensive high-tech equipment may not always be the best to solve a particular disposal problem. In Chapter 5 international efforts to determine the effects of nuclear testing are examined, moving on to question the methods used to define risk criteria. The last four chapters of the book focus on risk assessment and the role of various segments of the society in defining risk criteria. Chapter 6 is an introduction to the work done to assess the environmental and health affects of the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. Also the Ukrainian government's effort to assess additional natural and anthropogenic sources of radioactive contamination is discussed. In chapter 7, the efforts by the International Atomic Energy Agency and other organizations to assess the effects of Chernobyl are examined. The eighth chapter introduces the means by which nongovernmental environmental groups (NGO), e.g. Greenpeace, collect information on environmental threats and the role they play in informing the larger public about them. In this case, the dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara and Barents Seas is examined in detail. In Chapter 9 it is examined how interdisciplinary groups are required to assess the environmental and health effects of the dumping in the Kara and Barents Seas. The issues of reliable data and determining risk in the absence of data are discussed. In the final chapter, the major themes and results of the workshop are summarized, including a set of recommendations for

  10. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  11. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  12. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Breitwieser

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  13. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  14. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

  15. Improved Understanding of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Contaminant Oxidation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    natural oxidant demand •OH hydroxide radical Ox oxidant O3 ozone PCE perchloroethylene HSO5− peroxymonosulfate PNDA p...properties (e.g., soil mineralogy , natural carbon content) affect oxidant mobility and stability in the subsurface, and develop a standardized natural...chlorinated ethenes For contaminant oxidation by activated S2O82−, it is more difficult to develop a general description of kobs vs. T because there are

  16. Shuttle on-orbit contamination and environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, L. J.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.; Miller, E.

    1985-01-01

    Ensuring the compatibility of the space shuttle system with payloads and payload measurements is discussed. An extensive set of quantitative requirements and goals was developed and implemented by the space shuttle program management. The performance of the Shuttle system as measured by these requirements and goals was assessed partly through the use of the induced environment contamination monitor on Shuttle flights 2, 3, and 4. Contamination levels are low and generally within the requirements and goals established. Additional data from near-term payloads and already planned contamination measurements will complete the environment definition and allow for the development of contamination avoidance procedures as necessary for any payload.

  17. Biological monitoring of environmental contaminants (plants). Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of contaminant concentrations does not necessarily indicate their significance to plant populations and communities within ecosystems. Accumulation within plants facilitates analysis of contaminants which may be present at very low levels in the environment and may show the spatial distribution and changes in the level of contamination with time. Effects on species distribution within plant communities and visible injury to foliage may also be related to contamination. Species can be selected appropriate to the area and the contaminant to be monitored. Species used to investigate the input of contaminants from atmospheric deposition, for example, may differ from those used to assess transfer through food webs. Mosses and lichens have been particularly widely used in many countries to show distribution of metals and radionuclides on local and regional scales and of pesticide contamination. Visible injury to foliage of higher plant species may reflect atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants and monitoring networks of transplanted sensitive species can provide information on contaminant levels on a regional scale. Changes in species composition, especially of lichens, have also been related to the degree of contamination.

  18. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  19. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabukhin, Yu S [ed.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods.

  20. Sequential chemical extraction for a phosphogypsum environmental impact evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2013-05-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is gypsum generated during phosphoric acid production. PG is stocked in large stacks or accumulated in lakes; it contains heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements. The metal contamination may affect the functionality, sustainability and biodiversity of ecosystems. In this work, PG samples were analyzed by Plasma Spectrometry. Total metal content and in the extractable fraction of chemical elements were determined. For K, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U, the results obtained are lower than those obtained in a Idaho plant are including and also lower than those found in the soil, indicating this PG sample analyzed probably will not cause any additional metal neither natural radiation contamination.

  1. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratnyek, P. G.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weber, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with “in silico” results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for “in silico environmental chemical science” are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  2. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Bylaska, Eric J; Weber, Eric J

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for "in silico environmental chemical science" are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  3. PIXE analysis of hilar gland for the evaluation of personal history of exposure to environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo; Sasa, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Kunihiko.

    1992-01-01

    Seven autopsied cases were studied for the evaluation of individual history of exposure to environmental contaminants based on the elemental profile of hilar gland by PIXE and lung tissue by AAS. The results well characterized their occupational history, especially from Cr, Al, Si and As detection. Moreover, it might be possible that these analyses would provide data to suspect the chemical form of each element in deposited particles of lung parenchyma, since the solubility could reflect the different profile of element between hilar gland and lung parenchyma. In addition to these retrospective analyses using the materials obtained from autopsies, it is possible to assess the individual risk using small quantity of hilar gland or lung tissue obtained by biopsy or surgical resection. (author)

  4. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function

  5. Development of Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination Near the Carcass Burial Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Choi, J.; Kim, M.; Choi, J.; Lee, M.; Lee, H.; Jeon, S.; Bang, S.; Noh, H.; Yoo, J.; Park, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Lee, Y.; Han, J.

    2011-12-01

    A serious outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) and avian influenza (AI) led to the culling of millions of livestock in South Korea from late 2010 to earlier 2011. Because of the scale of FMD and AI epidemic in Korea and rapid spread of the diseases, mass burial for the disposal of carcass was conducted to halt the outbreak. The improper construction of the burial site or inappropriate management of the carcass burial facility can cause the contamination of groundwater mainly due to the discharges of leachate through the base of disposal pit. The leachate from carcass burial contains by products of carcass decay such as amino acids, nitrate, ammonia and chloride. The presence of these chemical components in groundwater can be used as indicators demonstrating contamination of groundwater with leachate from carcass. The major concern about using these chemical indicators is that other sources including manures, fertilizers and waste waters from human or animal activities already exist in farming area. However, we lack the understanding of how groundwater contamination due to mass burial of carcass can be differentiated from the contamination due to livestock manures which shows similar chemical characteristics. The chemical compositions of the leachate from carcass burial site and the wastewater from livestock manure treatment facilities were compared. The chemical compositions considered include total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, organic nitrogen (Organic nitrogen =TN-Ammonium Nitrogen- Nitrate nitrogen), ammonia, chloride, sodium, potassium and amino acids (20 analytes). The ratios of concentrations of the chemical compositions as indicators of contamination were determined to distinguish the sources of contamination in groundwater. Indicators which showed a linear relationship between two factors and revealed a distinct difference between the carcass leachate and livestock manure were chosen. In addition, the background level of the

  6. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  7. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  8. Estimating risk at a Superfund site contaminated with radiological and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temeshy, A.; Liedle, J.M.; Sims, L.M.; Efird, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the method and results for estimating carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects at a Superfund site that is radiologically and chemically contaminated. Risk to receptors from disposal of waste in soil and resulting contamination of groundwater, air, surface water, and sediment is quantified. Specific risk assessment components which are addressed are the exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and the resulting risk characterization. In the exposure assessment, potential exposure pathways are identified using waste disposal inventory information for soil and modeled information for other media. Models are used to calculate future radionuclide concentrations in groundwater, soil, surface water and air. Chemical exposure concentrations are quantified using site characterization data. Models are used to determine concentrations of chemicals in surface water and in air. Toxicity parameters used to quantify the dose-response relationship associated with the carcinogenic contaminants are slope factors and with noncarcinogenic contaminants are reference doses. In the risk characterization step, results from the exposure assessment and toxicity assessment are summarized and integrated into quantitative risk estimates for carcinogens and hazard induces for noncarcinogens. Calculated risks for carcinogenic contaminants are compared with EPA's target risk range. At WAG 6, the risk from radionuclides and chemicals for an on-WAG homesteader exceeds EPA's target risk range. Hazard indices are compared to unity for noncarcinogenic contaminants. At WAG 6, the total pathway hazard index for the on-WAG homesteader exceeds unity

  9. Radiochemical and chemical contamination of unimproved ecosystems in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, S.; Dragovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we investigated the contamination of the following mountain ecosystems: Sinjajevina, Durmitor, Bjelasica, Selicevica, Tara and Kopaonik, by analyzing the activity levels of 137 Cs and content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd) in bioindicator organisms (lichens, mosses and mushrooms). High activity levels of 137 Cs remained in all bioindicator species, although the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl happened 15 years ago in 1986. Heavy metals contents were low in nearly all samples of lichens, mosses and mushrooms. Only one high result was found for the content of lead in moss originating from Kopaonik mountain. (author)

  10. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Lyons, Brett P.; Thain, John E.; Law, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed ‘legacy contaminants’; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however, the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent

  11. Predicting soil, water, and air concentrations of environmental contaminants locally and regionally: Multimedia transport and transformation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.

    1991-10-01

    Environmental scientists recognize that the environment functions as a complex, interconnected system. A realistic risk-management strategy for many contaminants requires a comprehensive and integrated assessment of local and regional transport and transformation processes. In response to this need, we have developed multimedia models that simulate the movement and transformation of chemicals as they spread through air, water, biota, soils, sediments, surface water, and ground water. Each component of the environment is treated as a homogeneous subsystem that can exchange water, nutrients, and chemical contaminants with other adjacent compartments. In this paper, we illustrate the use of multimedia models and measurements as tools for screening the potential risks of contaminants released to air and deposited onto soil and plants. The contaminant list includes the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), the semi-volatile organic compound benzo(a)pyrene, and the radionuclides tritium and uranium-238. We examine how chemical properties effect both the ultimate route and quantity of human and ecosystem contact and identify sensitivities and uncertainties in the model results

  12. Benthic diatom community response to environmental variables and metal concentrations in a contaminated bay adjacent to Casey Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Laura; Snape, Ian; Stark, Jonathan S.; Riddle, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of anthropogenic contaminants and environmental variables on the composition of benthic diatom communities within a contaminated bay adjacent to an abandoned waste disposal site in Antarctica. The combination of geographical, environmental and chemical data included in the study explained all of the variation observed within the diatom communities. The chemical data, particularly metal concentrations, explained 45.9% of variation in the diatom communities, once the effects of grain-size and spatial structure had been excluded. Of the metals, tin explained the greatest proportion of variation in the diatom communities (28%). Tin was very highly correlated (R 2 > 0.95) with several other variables (copper, iron, lead, and sum of metals), all of which explained similarly high proportions of total variation. Grain-size data explained 23% of variation once the effects of spatial structure and the chemical data had been excluded. The pure spatial component explained only 1.8% of the total variance. The study demonstrates that much of the compositional variability observed in the bay can be explained by concentrations of metal contaminants

  13. A review of the role of emerging environmental contaminants in the development of breast cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Siddique

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of breast cancer is on a rise worldwide; it is a disease having a complex etiology. Besides genetics, environmental and other lifestyle factors play a role in the development of the disease. There has been a keen interest in studying associations between breast cancer and exposures to emerging environmental chemicals, which mimic estrogens or influence estrogen levels and signaling in the human body. The common consequence of an endocrine disrupting chemical exposure is that it may have an impact on breast cancer etiology by stimulating formation as well as progression of breast cancer. Exposures to selected emerging environmental contaminants such as alkylphenols (APs, bisphenol A (BPA, parabens, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs, phthalates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, synthetic musks and triclosan, and their probable role in breast cancer development are reviewed. Studies evaluated include the experimental in vitro and in vivo studies as well as human population based studies. In vitro and in vivo evidences indicate that a number of emerging environmental contaminants may play a role in the initiation and/or progression of breast cancer. Although exposures have been assessed in some human populations, breast and other cancer risks associated with these exposures are largely unknown. Efforts should be focussed on the evaluation of these environmental exposures in human populations and their interactions with each other and other genetic and lifestyle risk factors.

  14. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  15. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  16. Microarray applications to understand the impact of exposure to environmental contaminants in wild dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Abelli, Luigi; Kucklick, John R; Rowles, Teresa K; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Hohn, Aleta A; Baatz, John E; Ryan, James C

    2015-02-01

    It is increasingly common to monitor the marine environment and establish geographic trends of environmental contamination by measuring contaminant levels in animals from higher trophic levels. The health of an ecosystem is largely reflected in the health of its inhabitants. As an apex predator, the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) can reflect the health of near shore marine ecosystems, and reflect coastal threats that pose risk to human health, such as legacy contaminants or marine toxins, e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brevetoxins. Major advances in the understanding of dolphin biology and the unique adaptations of these animals in response to the marine environment are being made as a result of the development of cell-lines for use in in vitro experiments, the production of monoclonal antibodies to recognize dolphin proteins, the development of dolphin DNA microarrays to measure global gene expression and the sequencing of the dolphin genome. These advances may play a central role in understanding the complex and specialized biology of the dolphin with regard to how this species responds to an array of environmental insults. This work presents the creation, characterization and application of a new molecular tool to better understand the complex and unique biology of the common bottlenose dolphin and its response to environmental stress and infection. A dolphin oligo microarray representing 24,418 unigene sequences was developed and used to analyze blood samples collected from 69 dolphins during capture-release health assessments at five geographic locations (Beaufort, NC, Sarasota Bay, FL, Saint Joseph Bay, FL, Sapelo Island, GA and Brunswick, GA). The microarray was validated and tested for its ability to: 1) distinguish male from female dolphins; 2) differentiate dolphins inhabiting different geographic locations (Atlantic coasts vs the Gulf of Mexico); and 3) study in detail dolphins resident in one site, the Georgia coast, known to

  17. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  18. Survey of chemical contaminants in the Hanalei River, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazio, Carl E.; May, Thomas W.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Echols, Kathy R.; Steiner, William W.M.; Berg, Carl J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanalei River on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i was designated an American Heritage River in 1998, providing special attention to natural resource protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. Agricultural, urban, and tourism-related activities are potential sources of contamination within the Hanalei River watershed. The objective of this study was to measure certain persistent organic chemicals and elements in the Hanalei River.During a relatively low-flow period in December of 2001, samples of native Akupa sleeper fish (Eleotris sandwicensis), freshwater Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), giant mud crab (Scylla serrata), surface water, and stream bed sediment were collected from a lower estuarine reach of the river near its mouth at Hanalei Bay and from an upper reach at the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge. Samples were analyzed for residues of urban and agricultural chemicals including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and elements (including mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium). Organic contaminants were extracted from the samples with solvent, enriched, and then analyzed by gas chromatographic analysis with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. Samples were acid-digested for semi-quantitative analysis for elements by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in biota, surface water, and bed sediment sampled from the Hanalei River ranged from nondetectable to very low levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls were below detection in all samples. Dieldrin, the only compound detected in the water samples, was present at very low concentrations of 1-2 nanograms per liter. Akupa sleeper fish and giant mud crabs from the lower reach ranged from 1 to 5 nanograms per gram (wet weight

  19. Physical and Chemical Environmental Abstraction Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, E.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a), Task 1, an overall conceptualization of the physical and chemical environment (P/CE) in the emplacement drift is documented in this Analysis/Model Report (AMR). Included are the physical components of the engineered barrier system (EBS). The intended use of this descriptive conceptualization is to assist the Performance Assessment Department (PAD) in modeling the physical and chemical environment within a repository drift. It is also intended to assist PAD in providing a more integrated and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues raised in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). EBS-related features, events, and processes (FEPs) have been assembled and discussed in ''EBS FEPs/Degradation Modes Abstraction'' (CRWMS M and O 2000a). Reference AMRs listed in Section 6 address FEPs that have not been screened out. This conceptualization does not directly address those FEPs. Additional tasks described in the written development plan are recommended for future work in Section 7.3. To achieve the stated purpose, the scope of this document includes: (1) the role of in-drift physical and chemical environments in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) (Section 6.1); (2) the configuration of engineered components (features) and critical locations in drifts (Sections 6.2.1 and 6.3, portions taken from EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction (CRWMS M and O 2000b)); (3) overview and critical locations of processes that can affect P/CE (Section 6.3); (4) couplings and relationships among features and processes in the drifts (Section 6.4); and (5) identities and uses of parameters transmitted to TSPA by some of the reference AMRs (Section 6.5). This AMR originally considered a design with backfill, and is now being updated (REV 00 ICN1) to address

  20. Environmental Management Plan for the Chemical Engineering Laboratory (LIQ of the National University of Colombia, Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gama Chávez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An Enviromental Management Plan was formulated with the objective of improving the environmental performance of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory (LIQ. The plan was supported on the principles established by the ISO 140001 standard. In a first step, an environmental politic was proposed. Next, by means of an initial review of the laboratory, the most significant impacts related to the activities developed in the Laboratory were identified: dangerous chemical wastes accumulation, water contamination by effusions generation and air contamination. These impacts were the base for formulating following and control programs, furthermire, a training an communication program was done. All the programs, including the requiered documents and procedures, were published in the Environmental Management Plan and the Environmental Procedures Manual.

  1. Food safety. [chemical contaminants and human toxic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, S. M.; Valentine, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Illness induced by unsafe food is a problem of great public health significance. This study relates exclusively to the occurrence of chemical agents which will result in food unsafe for human consumption since the matter of food safety is of paramount importance in the mission and operation of the manned spacecraft program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E.; Slavin, P.; Guerin, D.

    1998-06-01

    During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill

  3. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  4. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation

  5. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  6. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous sources of different radioactive substances, irradiating installations are used in many manufacturing, transportation, industrial, oil-producing, nuclear energy, sterilization and multi-purpose scientific research enterprises of Azerbaijan and the storage of radioactive waste and nuclear materials is built in the territory of special plant of the Ministry of Emergency Situations.Control of safety of operational procedures of the radioactive sources and samples of nuclear materials is carried out by the State Agency on Settlement of Nuclear and Radiological Activity at the Ministry of Emergency Situations. An increase in the concentration of inorganic and organic xenobiotics was observed in water samples taken from the transcontinental Araz River.The territory of Azerbaijan and Armenia is characterized by high seismic activity. Therefore, the occurrence of cases of anthropogenic catastrophe, the spread of radioactive substances, nuclear materials and waste on the territory of environmental objects, disturbance of tightness of installations on electricity generation from nuclear fuel in the Metsamor NPP, emission of radioactive fuel on the environment, pollution of grounds and water reservoirs by radioactive isotopes isn't excluded in case of natural disasters.Complex studies were conducted to determine the radioactive background, exposure dose rate, the radiation intensity of all types of radioactive radiation (α, β, γ, UV and X-rays) for purification of contaminated areas of the environment, soil, water reservoirs from radioisotopes. Complex organoleptic, radiochemical, analytical-chemical, physical-chemical and microbiological studies were carried out to study the chemical composition and degree of contamination of soil, water sources, vegetation by inorganic and organic xenobiotics and radioisotopes in all regions of the republic.Mineralization of water samples /evaporation/, soil /extraction with distilled water in a ratio of 1: 4, filtration

  7. Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on sediment-associated biota: 1994 Revision. Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, R.N.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-06-01

    Because a hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a Screening Assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, more analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. This report briefly describes three categories of approaches to the development of sediment quality benchmarks. These approaches are based on analytical chemistry, toxicity test and field survey data. A fourth integrative approach incorporates all three types of data. The equilibrium partitioning approach is recommended for screening nonpolar organic contaminants of concern in sediments. For inorganics, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has developed benchmarks that may be used for screening. There are supplemental benchmarks from the province of Ontario, the state of Wisconsin, and US Environmental Protection Agency Region V. Pore water analysis is recommended for polar organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of a prior report. It contains revised ER-L and ER-M values, the five EPA proposed sediment quality criteria, and benchmarks calculated for several nonionic organic chemicals using equilibrium partitioning

  8. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Violina R. Angelova; Sava G. Tabakov; Aleksander B. Peltekov; Krasimir I. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on ...

  10. The Physic-chemical and Bacteriological Contamination of Water in Sitnica, Iber and Lushta rivers

    OpenAIRE

    , Flora Zabërgja; , Mihone Kerolli; , Asllan Vitaku; , Afete Musliu

    2016-01-01

    The study on the physic-chemical and bacteriological contamination of water was carried out in three rivers of Mitrovica town, in Kosova. Water quality in the lowland rivers (like Sitnica which crosses central Kosova), Iber and Lushta is very poor owing to a lack of waste water treatment and waste disposal. According to the effluents received, six sampling station were selected. The results obtained shows that bacterial contamination is very frequent, particularly with the pressure of colifor...

  11. Response of rainbow trout transcriptome to model chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, Heikki; Pehkonen, Petri; Vehniaeinen, Eeva; Krasnov, Aleksei; Rexroad, Caird; Afanasyev, Sergey; Moelsa, Hannu; Oikari, Aimo

    2004-01-01

    We used high-density cDNA microarray in studies of responses of rainbow trout fry at sublethal ranges of β-naphthoflavone, cadmium, carbon tetrachloride, and pyrene. The differentially expressed genes were grouped by the functional categories of Gene Ontology. Significantly different response to the studied compounds was shown by a number of classes, such as cell cycle, apoptosis, signal transduction, oxidative stress, subcellular and extracellular structures, protein biosynthesis, and modification. Cluster analysis separated responses to the contaminants at low and medium doses, whereas at high levels the adaptive reactions were masked with general unspecific response to toxicity. We found enhanced expression of many mitochondrial proteins as well as genes involved in metabolism of metal ions and protein biosynthesis. In parallel, genes related to stress and immune response, signal transduction, and nucleotide metabolism were down-regulated. We performed computer-assisted analyses of Medline abstracts retrieved for each compound, which helped us to indicate the expected and novel findings

  12. Effect of Particle-size Distribution on Chemical Washing Experiment of Uranium Contaminated Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan Suk; Kim, Gye Nam; Shon, Dong Bin; Park, Hye Min; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Kun Woo; Lee, Ki Won; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Taken down of nuclear institution was radioactive contaminated concrete over 70% of whole waste. Advanced countries have realized the importance of waste processing. Nuclear institutions keep a lot of radioactive contaminated concrete in internal waste storage. Therefore radioactive contaminated concrete disport to whole waste and reduce for self-processing standard concentration may be disposed of inexpensive more than radioactive waste storage. This study uses mechanical and thermal technology for a uranium contaminated concrete process in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's radioactive waste storage. Mechanical and thermal technologies are divided based on particle size. Each particles-sized concrete analyzed for uranium contamination using an MCA instrument. A chemical washing experiment was carried out

  13. High sensitivity detection and characterization of the chemical state of trace element contamination on silicon wafers

    CERN Document Server

    Pianetta, Piero A; Baur, K; Brennan, S; Homma, T; Kubo, N

    2003-01-01

    Increasing the speed and complexity of semiconductor integrated circuits requires advanced processes that put extreme constraints on the level of metal contamination allowed on the surfaces of silicon wafers. Such contamination degrades the performance of the ultrathin SiO sub 2 gate dielectrics that form the heart of the individual transistors. Ultimately, reliability and yield are reduced to levels that must be improved before new processes can be put into production. It should be noted that much of this metal contamination occurs during the wet chemical etching and rinsing steps required for the manufacture of integrated circuits and industry is actively developing new processes that have already brought the metal contamination to levels beyond the measurement capabilities of conventional analytical techniques. The measurement of these extremely low contamination levels has required the use of synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) where sensitivities 100 times better than conv...

  14. Recent advances in chemical imaging technology for the detection of contaminants for food safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Ryan J.; Olkhovyk, Oksana; Drauch, Amy; Treado, Patrick; Kim, Moon; Chao, Kaunglin

    2009-05-01

    The need for routine, non-destructive chemical screening of agricultural products is increasing due to the health hazards to animals and humans associated with intentional and unintentional contamination of foods. Melamine, an industrial additive used to increase flame retardation in the resin industry, has recently been used to increase the apparent protein content of animal feed, of infant formula, as well as powdered and liquid milk in the dairy industry. Such contaminants, even at regulated levels, pose serious health risks. Chemical imaging technology provides the ability to evaluate large volumes of agricultural products before reaching the consumer. In this presentation, recent advances in chemical imaging technology that exploit Raman, fluorescence and near-infrared (NIR) are presented for the detection of contaminants in agricultural products.

  15. Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR) Contamination Survivability: Large Item Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    CWAs. May cause hardening or swelling of the sealant, which may weaken the seal. Rivet Stainless steel Not expected to have any effect. Not... Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). TOP 08-2-509 22 June 2012 A-2 APPENDIX A. EXPLANATION OF TERMS. Combat Developer. A category of sponsor...Edgewood Chemical Biological Center EMP electromagnetic pulse FD/SC Failure Definition/Scoring Criteria FM Field Manual FP fluorescent particle

  16. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  18. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  19. The Industrial Toxics Project: Targeting chemicals for environmental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    In September, 1990, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency committed the Agency to a program of targeting chemicals for multi-media risk reduction activities through pollution prevention. The Industrial Toxics Project will place emphasis on obtaining voluntary commitments from industry to reduce releases of toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land with a goal of reducing releases nationwide by 33% by 1992 and 50% by 1995. An initial list of 18 chemicals have been selected based on recommendations from each Agency program. The chemicals selected are subject to reporting under the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Program which will provide the basis for tracking progress. The chemicals are characterized by high production volume, toxicity and releases and present the potential for significant risk reduction through pollution prevention. This presentation will discuss the focus and direction of this new initiative

  20. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore......, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater...... and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels...

  1. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2006-01-01

    ... from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  2. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2005-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CND transmission...

  3. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Lewis, Randolf V; Raisbeck, Merl F; Cook, Walter W

    2004-01-01

    ...) from orally infected mule and white-tailed deer and elk. Finally these techniques will be applied to investigating the nature of environmental contamination that may be associated with CWD transmission...

  4. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  5. L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  6. CMP [Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides] Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.C.; Kolb, N.L.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  7. Ecological risk assessment for radiological and chemical contaminants at a site with historical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Janes, A.; Peters, R.

    2010-01-01

    An Ecological Risk Assessment was carried out for a uranium conversion facility in Ontario, located on a site with a history of contamination. The ERA assessed risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota from exposure to radionuclides and non-radionuclides in soil and groundwater associated with the site. The results indicated no undue risk to aquatic biota from radionuclides. Small potential risks were identified for terrestrial biota at limited locations associated with this industrial site. Recommendations are provided for follow-up risk-informed activities. (author)

  8. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  9. Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a purification system at Dhruva to treat oil contaminated and chemically impure heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttraway, S.K.; Mishra, V.; Bitla, S.V.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Dhruva, a 100 MW (thermal) Research reactor uses Heavy Water as moderator, reflector and coolant. Normally during plant operation, the Heavy water from the system gets removed during operational and maintenance activities and this collected heavy water gets degraded and contaminated in the process. The degraded heavy water meeting the chemical specification requirement of the up gradation plant is sent for up gradation. Part of the Heavy water collected is contaminated with various organic and inorganic impurities and therefore cannot be sent for IP up gradation as it does not meet the chemical specification of the up gradation plant. This contaminated Heavy water was being stored in SS drums. Over the years of Reactor operation reasonable amount of contaminated Heavy water got collected in the plant. This Heavy water collected from leakages, during routine maintenance, operational activities and fuelling operation had tritium activity and variety of contamination including oil, chlorides, turbidity due to which the specific conductivity was very high. It was decided to purify this Heavy water in house to bring it up to up gradation plant chemical specification requirement. There were number of challenges in formulating a scheme to purify this Heavy water. The scheme needed to be simple and compact in design which could be set up in the plant itself. It should not pose radiological hazards due to radioactive Heavy water during its purification and handling. The contaminated Heavy water collected in drums had varying chemistry and IP. The purification plant should be able to do batch processing so that the different IP and chemical quality of Heavy water stored in different drums are not mixed during purification. It should be capable of removing the oil, chlorides, turbidity and decrease the conductivity to acceptable limits of the Up gradation plant. A purification plant was developed and commissioned after detail laboratory studies and trials. This paper explains

  11. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  12. Chemical removal of radionuclides in contaminated spinach derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined a simple and effective removal method for contaminated farm products to ensure the relief of farmers and the security of consumers. Removal of radionuclides from spinach by chemical methods was investigated. The result of chemical removal showed that antioxidant agents removed radionuclides from spinach by 70–80% for 131 I and more than 80% for radiocesium. In particular, ascorbic acid is promising as a safe and versatile option. (author)

  13. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  14. Reducing drinking water supply chemical contamination: risks from underground storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Hanumara, R Choudary; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Gagnon, Ronald N; Park, Eugene; Vallot, Christopher; Genovesi, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Drinking water supplies are at risk of contamination from a variety of physical, chemical, and biological sources. Ranked among these threats are hazardous material releases from leaking or improperly managed underground storage tanks located at municipal, commercial, and industrial facilities. To reduce human health and environmental risks associated with the subsurface storage of hazardous materials, government agencies have taken a variety of legislative and regulatory actions--which date back more than 25 years and include the establishment of rigorous equipment/technology/operational requirements and facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs. Given a history of more than 470,000 underground storage tank releases nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency continues to report that 7,300 new leaks were found in federal fiscal year 2008, while nearly 103,000 old leaks remain to be cleaned up. In this article, we report on an alternate evidence-based intervention approach for reducing potential releases from the storage of petroleum products (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, heating/fuel oil, and waste oil) in underground tanks at commercial facilities located in Rhode Island. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a new regulatory model can be used as a cost-effective alternative to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs for underground storage tanks. We conclude that the alternative model, using an emphasis on technical assistance tools, can produce measurable improvements in compliance performance, is a cost-effective adjunct to traditional facility-by-facility inspection and enforcement programs, and has the potential to allow regulatory agencies to decrease their frequency of inspections among low risk facilities without sacrificing compliance performance or increasing public health risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Emerging Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-ug/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  16. Air contamination control as an element of state environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of air contamination control on the base of gamma and beta radioactivity of aerosols collected on filters and in precipitation samples have been shown. The data have been gathered from 12 monitoring stations in Poland during 1993. No significant differences between actual results and those obtained in previous years have been noticed. 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of catfish from Asejire Lake (located at the outskirt of Ibadan, a major city in Oyo State of South-West Nigeria) was carried out to assess the level of contamination due to effluents from various industries in Ibadan, Oyo State particularly the Nigerian Bottling Company, Plc (NBC). The industrial site is located close to ...

  18. Molecular contamination mitigation in EUVL by environmental control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, N.; Mertens, B.; Jansen, R.; van de Runstraat, A.; Stietz, F.; Wedowski, M.; Meiling, H.; Klein, R.; Gottwald, A.; Scholze, F.; Visser, M.; Kurt, R.; Zalm, P.; E. Louis,; Yakshin, A.

    2002-01-01

    EUVL tools operate under vacuum conditions to avoid absorption losses. Under these conditions, the MoSi multilayer mirrors are contaminated, resulting in reduced reflection and thus throughput. We report on experiments on MoSi mirrors exposed to EUV radiation from a synchrotron. To mimic the effects

  19. Consumer perceptions of risks of chemical and microbiological contaminants associated with food chains: A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kher, S.V.; Jonge, de J.; Wentholt, M.T.A.; Deliza, R.; Cunha de Andrade, J.; Cnossen, H.J.; Lucas Luijckx, N.B.; Frewer, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of effective systems to identify vulnerabilities in food chains to chemical and microbiological contaminants must take account of consumer priorities and preferences. The present investigation attempted to understand consumer perceptions associated with chemical

  20. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  2. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  3. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  4. Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S

    2003-01-31

    The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates.

  5. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  6. Levels and risk assessment of chemical contaminants in byproducts for animal feed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Granby, Kit; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2014-01-01

    With aim to provide information on chemical contaminants in byproducts in animal feed, the data from an official control by the Danish Plant Directorate during 1998-2009, were reviewed and several samples of citrus pulp and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) were additionally collected ...

  7. Chemical and microbial properties in contaminated soils around a magnesite mine in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Yang; D-H Zeng; J Zhang; L-J Li; R. Mao

    2012-01-01

    We measured soil chemical and microbial properties at a depth of 0–20 cm among mine tailings, abandoned mined land, contaminated cropland, and uncontaminated cropland around a magnesite mine near Haicheng City, Liaoning Province, China. The objective was to clarify the impact of Mg on the soils. We found that soluble Mg2+ concentration and pH...

  8. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  9. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  10. Study of grape contamination at the time of harvest using stable chemical substances analyzed by activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miribel, J.; Delmas, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the sixties the SERE, in conjunction with the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), conducted experiments on the contamination of wine produced from vines contaminated at the roots. The contamination must be carried out via the leaves and at different stages of growth so as to come as close as possible to the conditions of fall-out. An initial study of grape contamination at the time of the harvest was carried out using stable chemical substances which were analysed by activation. This technique makes it possible to use a large number of substances at the same time and is harmless for the environment. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory, and the method will be used next year for studies at other stages in the ripening of grapes [fr

  11. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  12. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  13. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  14. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  16. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  17. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  18. Molecular epidemiology and environmental contamination during an outbreak of parainfluenza virus 3 in a haematology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T; Jin, C E; Sung, H; Koo, B; Park, J; Kim, S-M; Kim, J Y; Chong, Y P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, K-H; Shin, Y; Kim, S-H

    2017-12-01

    Although fomites or contaminated surfaces have been considered as transmission routes, the role of environmental contamination by human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) in healthcare settings is not established. To describe an hPIV-3 nosocomial outbreak and the results of environmental sampling to elucidate the source of nosocomial transmission and the role of environmental contamination. During an hPIV-3 outbreak between May and June 2016, environmental surfaces in contact with clustered patients were swabbed and respiratory specimens used from infected patients and epidemiologically unlinked controls. The epidemiologic relatedness of hPIV-3 strains was investigated by sequencing of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes. Of 19 hPIV-3-infected patients, eight were haematopoietic stem cell recipients and one was a healthcare worker. In addition, four had upper and 12 had lower respiratory tract infections. Of the 19 patients, six (32%) were community-onset infections (symptom onset within environmental swabs up to 12 days after negative respiratory polymerase chain reaction conversion. At least one-third of a peak season nosocomial hPIV-3 outbreak originated from nosocomial transmission, with multiple importations of hPIV-3 from the community, providing experimental evidence for extensive environmental hPIV-3 contamination. Direct contact with the contaminated surfaces and fomites or indirect transmission from infected healthcare workers could be responsible for nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on terrestrial plants. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Will, M.E.; Evans, C.

    1993-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessment for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as ``contaminants of potential concern.`` This process is termed ``contaminant screening.`` It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to plants. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose (phytotoxicity benchmarks), a set of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil or soil solution on plants, and a set of phytotoxicity benchmarks for 34 chemicals potentially associated with US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the phytotoxicity benchmark and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern. The purpose of this report is to present plant toxicity data and discuss their utility as benchmarks for determining the hazard to terrestrial plants caused by contaminants in soil. Benchmarks are provided for soils and solutions.

  1. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  2. Environmental management: Integrating ecological evaluation, remediation, restoration, natural resource damage assessment and long-term stewardship on contaminated lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Ecological evaluation is essential for remediation, restoration, and Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA), and forms the basis for many management practices. These include determining status and trends of biological, physical, or chemical/radiological conditions, conducting environmental impact assessments, performing remedial actions should remediation fail, managing ecosystems and wildlife, and assessing the efficacy of remediation, restoration, and long-term stewardship. The objective of this paper is to explore the meanings of these assessments, examine the relationships among them, and suggest methods of integration that will move environmental management forward. While remediation, restoration, and NRDA, among others, are often conducted separately, it is important to integrate them for contaminated land where the risks to ecoreceptors (including humans) can be high, and the potential damage to functioning ecosystems great. Ecological evaluations can range from inventories of local plants and animals, determinations of reproductive success of particular species, levels of contaminants in organisms, kinds and levels of effects, and environmental impact assessments, to very formal ecological risk assessments for a chemical or other stressor. Such evaluations can range from the individual species to populations, communities, ecosystems or the landscape scale. Ecological evaluations serve as the basis for making decisions about the levels and kinds of remediation, the levels and kinds of restoration possible, and the degree and kinds of natural resource injuries that have occurred because of contamination. Many different disciplines are involved in ecological evaluation, including biologists, conservationists, foresters, restoration ecologists, ecological engineers, economists, hydrologist, and geologists. Since ecological evaluation forms the basis for so many different types of environmental management, it seems reasonable to integrate management options

  3. Environmental and body contamination from cleaning vomitus in a health care setting: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Linh; Su, Yu-Min; Weber, Rachel; Fritzen-Pedicini, Charissa; Edomwande, Osayuwamen; Jones, Rachael M

    2018-04-01

    Environmental service workers may be exposed to pathogens during the cleaning of pathogen-containing bodily fluids. Participants with experience cleaning hospital environments were asked to clean simulated, fluorescein-containing vomitus using normal practices in a simulated patient room. Fluorescein was visualized in the environment and on participants under black lights. Fluorescein was quantitatively measured on the floor, in the air, and on gloves and shoe covers. In all 21 trials involving 7 participants, fluorescein was found on the floor after cleaning and on participants' gloves. Lower levels of floor contamination were associated with the use of towels to remove bulk fluid (ρ = -0.56, P = .01). Glove contamination was not associated with the number or frequency of contacts with environmental surfaces, suggesting contamination occurs with specific events, such as picking up contaminated towels. Fluorescein contamination on shoe covers was measured in 19 trials. Fluorescein was not observed on participants' facial personal protective equipment, if worn, or faces. Contamination on other body parts, primarily the legs, was observed in 8 trials. Fluorescein was infrequently quantified in the air. Using towels to remove bulk fluid prior to mopping is part of the recommended cleaning protocol and should be used to minimize residual contamination. Contamination on shoes and the floor may serve as reservoirs for pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease.

  5. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  6. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  7. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  8. Assessment Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils to Petroleum Compounds and Role of Chemical Fertilizers in the Decomposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Parvizi Mosaed; S. Sobhan Ardakani; M. Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Today oil removal from contaminated soil by new methods such as bioremediation is necessary.  In this paper, the effect of chemical fertilizers and aeration on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil has been investigated. Also the control group, (bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil without treatment by chemical fertilizers and aeration treatment was examined. The condition of experiment is as following: those were treated 70 days in glass columns (30×30×30cm dimensi...

  9. Inventory and systematization of data on radiation-chemical contamination of rivers running along Bryansk-Belarusian 'cesium spot'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Bakarykava, Zh.; Popova, E.; Gorbatova, G.

    2005-01-01

    Inventory and systematization of the data on radioactive-chemical contamination of rivers are made. Systematization of the data on chemical and radiation contamination component of rivers was made with using the index of integrated radiation-chemical surface waters contamination (IRCCI=WCI+RCI). Chemical contamination of surface water has been estimated using water contamination index (WCI). It constitutes an integrated magnitude considering ratios of six more significant pollutants to their maximum concentration limits. In dependence on WCI surface water can be attributed to one of seven classes: from 'clean' (with WCI≤1) to 'extremely dirty' (with WCI>10). At present for estimation of radioactive contamination of surface water only comparison with Republican permissible levels are used. But it is not enough for complex estimation of water quality because it does not enable to estimate the extent of radionuclide exceeding over their permissible levels. Therefore for estimation of radioactive pollution level, water radioactive contamination index (RCI) was applied. It is a sum of ratios of main radionuclide concentrations to their permissible levels. Application of RCI enabled to compare radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl accident. Application of the index of integrated radiation-chemical surface water contamination enabled to obtain the most complete and impartial estimate of surface water quality of some rivers. Retrospective estimation of the water quality shows that in 1990 surface waters of some rivers should be considered as belonging to more contaminated category of quality if radiation component would have been considered. (authors)

  10. Determination of solute organic concentration in contaminated soils using a chemical-equilibrium soil column system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Jesper; Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    using two soils with different content of organic carbon (f(oc) of 1.5 and 6.5%, respectively). A quadruple blind test of the ER-V system using glass beads in stead of soil showed an acceptable recovery (65-85%) of all of the 11 VOCs tested. Only for the most volatile compound (heptane, K-H similar...... to 80) an unacceptable recovery was found (9%). The contact time needed for obtaining chemical equilibrium was tested in the ER-H system by performing five test with different duration (1, 2, 4, 7 and 19 days) using the low organic carbon soil. Seven days of contact time appeared sufficient...... for determination of solute concentration in a contaminated soil were developed; (1) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Volatile organic chemicals (ER-V) and (2) a chemical Equilibrium and Recirculation column test for Hydrophobic organic chemicals (ER-H). The two test systems were evaluated...

  11. Metal resistant plants and phytoremediation of environmental contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; Li, Yujing; Dhankher, Om P.

    2010-04-20

    The present disclosure provides a method of producing transgenic plants which are resistant to at least one metal ion by transforming the plant with a recombinant DNA comprising a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenic reductase under the control of a plant expressible promoter, and a nucleic acid encoding a nucleotide sequence encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme under the control of a plant expressible promoter. The invention also relates a method of phytoremediation of a contaminated site by growing in the site a transgenic plant expressing a nucleic acid encoding a bacterial arsenate reductase and a nucleic acid encoding a phytochelatin biosynthetic enzyme.

  12. Surface contamination effects on leaf chemical composition in the Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.A.; Franca, E.J.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The exogenous material that adheres to the leaf surface affects the elemental composition of the plant itself, thereby constituting one of the major error sources in plant analysis. The present work investigated the surface contamination of leaves from the Atlantic Forest. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess the efficiency of leaf EDTA-washing. Chemical element concentrations were corrected using Sc (soil tracer) since resuspended soil is the main source of contamination in leaves. As a result, EDTA-washing should be used mainly for the evaluation of terrigenous elements, while the Sc-corrected concentrations are considered satisfactory for the other elements. (author)

  13. Sources to environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear activities in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikarpov, G.G.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Cheliabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent

  14. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  15. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  16. Chemical-assisted phytoremediation of CD-PAHs contaminated soils using Solanum nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanjie; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Hu, Yahu; Bao, Yanyu

    2011-09-01

    A well-characterized cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulating plant Solanum nigrum was grown in Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) co-contaminated soil that was repeatedly amended with chemicals, including EDTA, cysteine (CY), salicylic acid (Sa), and Tween 80 (TW80), to test individual and combined treatment effects on phytoremediation of Cd-PAHs contaminated soils. Plant growth was negatively affected by exogenous chemicals except for EDTA. S. nigrum could accumulate Cd in tissues without assistant chemicals, while there was no visible effect on the degradation of PAHs. Cysteine had significant effects on phytoextraction of Cd and the highest metal extraction ratio (1.27%) was observed in 0.9 mmol/kg CY treatment. Both salicylic acid and Tween 80 had stimulative effects on the degradation of PAHs and there was the maximal degradation rate (52.6%) of total PAHs while 0.9 mmol/kg Sa was applied. Furthermore, the combined treatment T(0.1EDTA+0.9CY+0.5TW80) and T(0.5EDTA+0.9CY+03Sa) could not only increase the accumulation of Cd in plant tissues, but also promote the degradation of PAHs. These results indicated that S. nigrum might be effective in phytoextracting Cd and enhancing the biodegradation of PAHs in the co-contaminated soils with assistant chemicals.

  17. The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R ampersand D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry

  18. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations. A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched. Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided. It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European

  19. Impact of urine preservation methods and duration of storage on measured levels of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; Calafat, Antonia M; Barr, Dana B; Baker, Susan V; Meltzer, Helle M; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2006-01-01

    Collection of urine samples in human studies involves choices regarding shipping, sample preservation, and storage that may ultimately influence future analysis. As more studies collect and archive urine samples to evaluate environmental exposures in the future, we were interested in assessing the impact of urine preservative, storage temperature, and time since collection on nonpersistent contaminants in urine samples. In spiked urine samples stored in three types of urine vacutainers (no preservative, boric acid, and chlorhexidine), we measured five groups of contaminants to assess the levels of these analytes at five time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 1 week) and at two temperatures (room temperature and 4 degrees C). The target chemicals were bisphenol A (BPA), metabolites of organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, chlorinated phenols, and phthalate monoesters, and were measured using five different mass spectrometry-based methods. Three samples were analyzed at each time point, with the exception of BPA. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate effects of storage time, temperature, and preservative. Stability was summarized with percent change in mean concentration from time 0. In general, most analytes were stable under all conditions with changes in mean concentration over time, temperature, and preservative being generally less than 20%, with the exception of the OP metabolites in the presence of boric acid. The effect of storage temperature was less important than time since collection. The precision of the laboratory measurements was high allowing us to observe small differences, which may not be important when categorizing individuals into broader exposure groups.

  20. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeault, A.; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g dry wt −1 , reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g −1 at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L −1 . Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain the bioaccumulation

  1. Monitoring PAH contamination in water: Comparison of biological and physico-chemical tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeault, A., E-mail: bourgeault@ensil.unilim.fr; Gourlay-Francé, C.

    2013-06-01

    The suitability of biological methods and chemical-based passive samplers to determine exposure to PAHs was tested by deploying zebra mussels and SPMDs along the Seine River over 11 months. The concentration of 13 PAHs was analyzed every month in both water and mussels. The sum of the PAH concentrations in mussels, initially at 299 ng g{sub dry} {sub wt}{sup −1}, reached 2654, 3972 and 3727 ng g{sup −1} at the end of exposure in the three sampling points taken through the river. The respective SPMD-available concentrations of TPAHs reached 9, 52 and 34 ng L{sup −1}. Results showed seasonal variations of total PAH concentrations in the mussels, characterized by a decrease during spawning. The non-achievement of steady state concentration that was observed in mussels may be accounted for by the temporal variation of environmental concentrations. Thus, a bioaccumulation model based on kinetic rather than simple equilibrium partitioning was found to be more appropriate to describe PAH content in mussels. Moreover, biodynamic kinetic modeling proved useful to better understand the uptake and loss processes of pyrene. It clearly shows that these processes are markedly influenced by the biological state of the zebra mussels. The most realistic hypothesis is that the temporal variation of the biodynamic parameters may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolization of PAHs during spawning. Since SPMD passive samplers cannot integrate such biological factors, they are poor predictors of PAH bioavailability in mussels. - Highlights: • PAH contamination was monitored by deploying mussels and SPMDs over 11 months along the Seine River. • 5–6 ring PAHs which could not be quantified in spot samples, were measured in SPMDs. • PAH concentrations in the mussels decreased during spawning. • Temporal variation of bioaccumulated PAH may originate from a decrease of the mussels' metabolism during spawning. • Biodynamic model was allowed to explain

  2. RI Mapping System for Identification of Radiological Contamination in Environmental Water Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Teresa W.; Lee, Rena [Ewha Womans Univ., Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The interest of radiation protection has risen due to accidents of the Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear terrorism, and the radiological contamination in the city, In this respect, the development of environmental radiation monitoring for the radiological contaminants has been studied. In this study, the experiment for the radiological contamination in the water supply pipe line system has been simulated and preliminarily tested. The CsI(Tl)-PIN diode detectors were used and the preliminary test of radiation monitoring system was performed as multi detection system. The 2D image reconstruction algorithm was also developed for feasibility of the constructed multi-detection system.

  3. Assessment of the environmental radioactive contamination levels by depleted uranium after NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.; Markovic, S; Plecas, I.

    2001-01-01

    During NATO aggression on FR Yugoslavia various ammunition have been used, some of them for the first time. Among others, 30 mm bullets with depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been used. Radioactivity contamination surveys have started during the war due to indications that DU is used in cruise missiles. Besides that, there were a lot of radioactivity analysis of food, drinking water etc. Some of the obtained results are presented in this paper. Depleted uranium ammunition can permanently contaminate environment and so produce effects on population. Relation of the international radiation and environmental protection standards and contamination levels are discussed as well. (author)

  4. Mercapturic acids as biomarkers of exposure to electrophilic chemicals: applications to environmental and industrial chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The use of mercapturic acids (N-acetyl-L-cysteine S-conjugates, MAs) in the biological monitoring of human exposure to environmental and industrial chemicals is receiving more and more attention. Mercapturic acids (MAs) are formed from glutathione (GSH) S-conjugates via the MA-pathway. Although this

  5. Aquatic Environmental Contamination: The fate of Asejire Lake in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titi_aladesanmi

    In Nigeria major cities face serious water pollution crises, in which lack of environmental control of ... stocks are at the upper end of the food chains and are vital food supplies to local ... massive fish kills and loss of aquatic life and habitats in.

  6. Combined Contamination and Space Environmental Effects on Solar Cells and Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Bruckner, Eric J.; Scheiman, David A.; Stidham, Curtis R.

    1994-01-01

    For spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO), contamination can occur from thruster fuel, sputter contamination products and from products of silicone degradation. This paper describes laboratory testing in which solar cell materials and thermal control surfaces were exposed to simulated spacecraft environmental effects including contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. The objective of these experiments was to determine how the interaction of the natural LEO environmental effects with contaminated spacecraft surfaces impacts the performance of these materials. Optical properties of samples were measured and solar cell performance data was obtained. In general, exposure to contamination by thruster fuel resulted in degradation of solar absorptance for fused silica and various thermal control surfaces and degradation of solar cell performance. Fused silica samples which were subsequently exposed to an atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet radiation environment showed reversal of this degradation. These results imply that solar cells and thermal control surfaces which are susceptible to thruster fuel contamination and which also receive atomic oxygen exposure may not undergo significant performance degradation. Materials which were exposed to only vacuum ultraviolet radiation subsequent to contamination showed slight additional degradation in solar absorptance.

  7. Chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems using the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae as biomonitor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Rubí, Javier R; Luna-Acosta, Andrea; Etxebarría, Nestor; Soto, Manu; Espinoza, Félix; Ahrens, Michael J; Marigómez, Ionan

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the use of mangrove cupped oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, as a biomonitor species for chemical contamination assessment in mangrove-lined Caribbean coastal systems. Sampling was carried out in eight localities (three in Nicaragua and five in Colombia) with different types and levels of contamination. Oysters were collected during the rainy and dry seasons of 2012-2013 and the tissue concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined. Low tissue concentrations of metals (except Hg) and PAHs; moderate-to-high tissue concentrations of Hg, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs); detectable levels of chlorpyrifos, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (mainly CB28, CB118, CB138 and CB 153) and brominated diphenyl ethers 85 (BDE85); and negligible levels of musks were recorded in Nicaraguan oysters. A distinct profile of POPs was identified in Colombia, where the tissue concentrations of PCBs and synthetic musk fragrances were low to moderate, and Ag, As, Cd, Pb, and PAHs ranged from moderate to extremely high. Overall, the values recorded for HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in Nicaraguan mangrove cupped oysters greatly exceeded the reference values in tissues of C. rhizophorae from the Wider Caribbean Region, whereas only the levels of PCBs were occasionally surpassed in Colombia. Different contaminant profiles were distinguished between oysters from Nicaragua and Colombia in radar plots constructed using the main groups of contaminants (metals, PAHs, musks, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)). Likewise, integrated pollution indices revealed differences in the levels of contaminants. Moreover, the profiles and levels in oyster tissues also varied with season. Thus, principal component analysis clearly discriminated Nicaraguan and Colombian localities and, especially in Colombia, seasonal trends in chemical contamination and differences

  8. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  9. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  10. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  11. Honey As A Bioindicator Of Environmental Radioactive Contamination In Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Petrinec, B.; Marovic, G.

    2015-01-01

    Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).

  12. Environmental viral contamination in a pediatric hospital outpatient waiting area: implications for infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Nikki; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Klein, Nigel; Spratt, David A

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of viral etiology are costly and can have a major impact on patient care. Many viruses are known to persist in the inanimate environment and may pose a risk to patients and health care workers. We investigate the frequency of environmental contamination with common health care-associated viruses and explore the use of torque-teno virus as a marker of environmental contamination. Environmental screening for a variety of clinically relevant viruses was carried out over 3 months in a UK pediatric hospital using air sampling and surface swabbing. Swabs were tested for the presence of virus nucleic acid by quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Viral nucleic acid was found on surfaces and in the air throughout the screening period, with adenovirus DNA being the most frequent. Door handles were frequently contaminated. Torque-teno virus was also found at numerous sites. Evidence of environmental contamination with viral pathogens is present in health care environments and may be indicative of an infectious virus being present. Screening for viruses should be included in infection control strategies. Torque-teno virus may provide a better marker of contamination and reduce time and cost of screening for individual viruses. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  14. The Use of Phosphate Amendments for Chemical Immobilization of Uranium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M.; Coutelot, F.; Seaman, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Past Department of Energy (DOE) production of nuclear materials has resulted in uranium (U) contaminated soil and groundwater posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. In situ remediation strategies are typically less expensive and rely on the introduction of chemical additives in order to reduce contaminant migration and ultimately the associated exposure hazard. Phosphate addition to U-contaminated subsurface environments has been proposed as a U remediation strategy. Saturated and unsaturated batch experiments were performed to investigate the ability of three different phosphate source treatments: hydroxyapatite (HA), phytic acid (IP6) and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to chemically immobilize U in contaminated Savannah River Site (SRS) soil (2,040 mg U/kg soil). Amendment treatments ranged from 925 to 4620 mg P /kg soil. Unsaturated test samples were equilibrated for 3 weeks at 60% of the soil's field capacity, followed by pore-water extraction by centrifugation to provide an indication of the remaining mobile U fraction. Saturated batch experiments were equilibrated on an orbital shaker for 30 days under both oxic and anoxic conditions, with aliquots taken at specific intervals for chemical analysis. In the saturated microcosms, HA decreased the mobile U concentration by 98% in both redox environments and at all treatment levels. IP6 and TPP were able to decrease the soluble U concentration at low treatment levels, but tended to release U at higher treatment levels compared to the control. Unsaturated microcosms also showed HA to be the most effective treatment for immobilizing U, but IP6 and TPP were as effective as HA at the lowest treatment level. The limited contaminant immobilization following TPP and IP6 amendments correlated with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids. For both experiment types, TPP and IP6 samples showed a very limited ortho-phosphate (PO4-) in the solution, indicating the slow mineralization

  15. Microbiological and chemical contamination in different types of food of non-European origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the markets of the European Union (EU the presence of food imported from non-European countries such as Asia, Africa and America is increasingly more widespread. Non-European countries, indeed, are much more competitive in terms of prices compared to European countries. For these reasons, EU has issued important laws. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of these regulations, estimating the levels of microbiological and chemical contamination of food samples of 91 different matrices imported from third countries. The microbiological methods used are those required by the UNI EN ISO, while for the determination of chemical parameters validated methods according to the Standard UNI EN ISO 16140:2003 were used. Our investigation revealed qualitative or quantitative microbial contamination in 23 out of 91 samples analysed (25.2%. We found high total microbial loads in alimentary conserves, multiple bacterial contamination (Salmonella thiphymurium, Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus and viral contamination (Norovirus in shellfish of the species Cassostrea gigas, and the presence of other pathogens in various products such as hamburgers (Yersinia enterocolitica, frozen fish (Listeria monocytogenes and honey (Bacillus cereus. With regard to chemical contamination, 24 samples of different food products were analysed. In 9 samples (37.5%, the levels of the following substances exceeded the permitted limits: histamine (fish conserves, mercury (crab meat, cadmium (crab meat and fish conserves, lead (cheese and honey and polyphosphates (chicken meat. Despite the limited number of samples analysed, these data prompt reflection on the need to implement a more detailed and rigorous activity of monitoring and control in order to guarantee adequate levels of safety with regard to the consumption of foodstuffs imported into the EU from non-European countries.

  16. A new mask to prevent environmental contamination during radio aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Francisco Jose Hossri Nogueira.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental contamination is frequent during labelled aerosol mouth-piece inhalation procedures. Previous personnel data showed that in 18/18 situations air background activity has increased after inhalation and this may create serious routine and economical problems. We have tested a new adherent mask made of 3 M's TEGADERM in sixty 99 m Tc-DTPA inhalation studies and the results indicates that the use of such a mask may eliminate the problem of environmental contamination. The device is useful but not entirely efficient in cases when good skin adherence cannot be obtained. 48 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy W. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Guyn, Lindsay [Department of Information and Evaluation Unit, Mental Health and Psychiatric Services, Calgary Health Region (Canada); Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-09-15

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current

  18. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-01-01

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  19. Technical Guidelines for Environmental Dredging of Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    material from barges to adjacent rehandling facilities or to move material relatively short distances. Conveyors can also be used to transfer ...by direct dumping or unloading into a chute or conveyor . Truck transport of treated material to landfills may also be considered. The material...environmental dredging for purposes of a feasibility study, remedial design , and implementation. The scope of this document is limited to the technical

  20. Efficiency of modified chemical remediation techniques for soil contaminated by organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, S. N.; Kopytko, M.; Avila, S.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the optimization of innovation chemical techniques in order to improve the remediation of soils contaminated with organochloride pesticides. The techniques used for remediation were dehalogenation and chemical oxidation in soil contaminated by pesticides. These techniques were applied sequentially and combined to evaluate the design optimize the concentration and contact time variables. The soil of this study was collect in cotton crop zone in Agustin Codazzi municipality, Colombia, and its physical properties was measure. The modified dehalogenation technique of EPA was applied on the contaminated soil by adding Sodium Bicarbonate solution at different concentrations and rates during 4, 7 and 14 days, subsequently oxidation technique was implemented by applying a solution of KMnO4 at different concentration and reaction times. Organochlorine were detected by Gas Chromatography analysis coupled Mass Spectrometry and its removals were between 85.4- 90.0% of compounds such as 4, 4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4-DDE, trans-Clordane y Endrin. These results demonstrate that the technique of dehalogenation with oxidation chemistry can be used for remediation soils contaminated by organochloride pesticides.

  1. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  2. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  3. The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative--Performance Monitoring for DOE Environmental Remediation and Contaminant Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W. J.; Venedam, R. J.; Lohrstorfer, C. F.; Weeks, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Monitoring System Initiative (AMSI) is a new approach to accelerate the development and application of advanced sensors and monitoring systems in support of Department of Energy needs in monitoring the performance of environmental remediation and contaminant containment activities. The Nevada Site Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Bechtel Nevada manage AMSI, with funding provided by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM). AMSI has easy access to unique facilities and capabilities available at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), including the Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Spill Center, a one-of-a-kind facility built and permitted for releases of hazardous materials for training purposes, field-test detection, plume dispersion experimentation, and equipment and materials testing under controlled conditions. AMSI also has easy access to the facilities and considerable capabilities of the DOE and NNSA National Laboratories, the Special Technologies Laboratory, Remote Sensing Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, and Nevada Universities. AMSI provides rapid prototyping, systems integration, and field-testing, including assistance during initial site deployment. The emphasis is on application. Important features of the AMSI approach are: (1) customer investment, involvement and commitment to use - including definition of needs, desired mode of operation, and performance requirements; and (2) employment of a complete systems engineering approach, which allows the developer to focus maximum attention on the essential new sensing element or elements while AMSI assumes principal responsibility for infrastructure support elements such as power, packaging, and general data acquisition, control, communication, visualization and analysis software for support of decisions. This presentation describes: (1) the needs for sensors and performance monitoring for environmental systems as seen by the DOE Long Term Stewardship Science and

  4. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  5. Food Adulteration and Bio-magnification of Environmental Contaminants: A Comprehensive Risk Framework for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehreen eMajed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article thoroughly investigates the severity of the prevailing environmental conditions and evaluates the resulting threats to food intake and public health in Bangladesh by establishing relationship among different contaminant transfer mechanisms to human. It describes the potential of certain contaminants to get bio-magnified through the food chain. A database was prepared on a number of contaminants in the study area that are responsible for rendering different foods vulnerable to produce long term or short-term health effects. Contaminants that have been identified in the food sources were categorized in a continuum based on their allowable daily intake. A protocol has been developed which will enable the assessment of the potential of a contaminant to bio-magnify through food chain to understand the contribution of a contaminant on different levels of food chain. The study also provides a detailed assessment of the public health risks associated with direct ingestion of adulterated foods and intake of contaminants through food chain or water intake. Their intake to human body was quantified, which provides an indication of the toxicity level of the contaminants and possible impact on human health. The traditional four steps of risk assessment technique have been employed for some model contaminants (including metals, organic contaminants and food adulterants. Additionally, existing rules and regulations of Bangladesh were identified with possible limitations that can play significant role in controlling the food adulteration practices and concentration of contaminants in the environment and human body. Finally, a holistic approach to necessary interventions has been prescribed at policy, treatment and evaluation level to prevent the water pollution and food adulteration. Thus, a much-needed comprehensive framework is prescribed in this study to promote safety in food handling, preserve environment and improve health-based strategies in

  6. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  7. Chemical disinfection of non-porous inanimate surfaces experimentally contaminated with four human pathogenic viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, S. A.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Karim, Y.; Loro, P.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical disinfection of virus-contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces was investigated using coxsackievirus B3, adenovirus type 5, parainfluenza virus type 3 and coronavirus 229E as representatives of important nosocomial viral pathogens. A 10 microliter amount of the test virus, suspended in either faeces or mucin, was placed onto each stainless steel disk (about 1 cm in diameter) and the inoculum allowed to dry for 1 h under ambient conditions. Sixteen disinfectant formulations were...

  8. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  9. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  10. Iodine radiotherapy without water contamination: A contribution to environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, I.; Heinzel, F.; Mueller-Duysing, W.

    1976-01-01

    Radiotherapy with 131 I and in some instances with 125 I has been used in thyroid disease. Several millicuries up to hundreds of millicuries are administered as single dose or fractionated doses. A considerable amount (50-90%) of the administered radioiodide is excreted in the urine during the first 2-3 days, depending on the retention of iodine in the thyroidal or metastatic tissue. High doses therefore present the problem of very active urine accumulation and disposal. Only few hospitals have ''ideal'' conditions with a special canalisation for radioactive waste into storage tanks. Usually, the excreted radioactivity is stored in individual containers in a specified storage room for at least 10 half-lives. This can present contamination problems of both personnel and rooms, and tedious collection of excreted material. A semi-automated system has been installed for this unpleasant and hazardous job: separation of highly active urine from fairly inactive feces by an adapter to the toilet seat. Radioiodide is precipitated as the silver salt and separated by a filtration unit as a very small volume. More than 99.5% of the iodine radioactivity were separated out. The inactive urine can then be directed into the public canalisation

  11. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomaterial based detection and degradation of biological and chemical contaminants in a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan

    Monitoring and remediation of environmental contaminants (biological and chemical) form the crux of global water resource management. There is an extant need to develop point-of-use, low-power, low-cost tools that can address this problem effectively with minimal environmental impact. Nanotechnology and microfluidics have made enormous advances during the past decade in the area of biosensing and environmental remediation. The "marriage" of these two technologies can effectively address some of the above-mentioned needs. In this dissertation, nanomaterials were used in conjunction with microfluidic techniques to detect and degrade biological and chemical pollutants. In the first project, a point-of-use sensor was developed for detection of trichloroethylene (TCE) from water. A self-organizing nanotubular titanium dioxide (TNA) synthesized by electrochemical anodization and functionalized with photocatalytically deposited platinum (Pt/TNA) was applied to the detection. The morphology and crystallinity of the Pt/TNA sensor was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dis- persive x-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor could detect TCE in the concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ppm. The room-temperature operation capability of the sensor makes it less power intensive and can potentially be incorporated into a field-based sensor. In the second part, TNA synthesized on a foil was incorporated into a flow-based microfluidic format and applied to degradation of a model pollutant, methylene blue. The system was demonstrated to have enhanced photocatalytic performance at higher flow rates (50-200 muL/min) over the same microfluidic format with TiO2 nanoparticulate (commercial P25) catalyst. The microfluidic format with TNA catalyst was able to achieve 82% fractional conversion of 18 mM methylene blue in comparison to 55% in the case of the TiO2 nanoparticulate layer at a flow rate of 200 L/min. The microfluidic device was

  13. NSF-RANN trace contaminants abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Harnden, D.S.

    1976-10-01

    Specific areas of interest of the Environmental Aspects of Trace Contaminants Program are organic chemicals of commerce, metals and organometallic compounds, air-borne contaminants, and environmental assay methodology. Fifty-three abstracts of literature on trace contaminants are presented. Author, keyword, and permuted title indexes are included

  14. Emerging contaminants in Indian environmental matrices - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jeeva M; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of issues related to environment from ECs is a topic under serious discussions worldwide in recent years. Indian scenario is not an exception as it is tremendously growing in its rate of production and consumption of compounds belongs to ECs categories. However, a comprehensive documentation on the occurrence of ECs and consequent ARGs as well as their toxic effects on vertebrates on Indian context is still lacking. In the present study, an extensive literature survey was carried out to get an idea on the geographical distribution of ECs in various environmental matrices (water, air, soil, sediment and sludge) and biological samples by dividing the entire subcontinent into six zones based on climatic, geographical and cultural features. A comprehensive assessment of the toxicological effects of ECs and the consequent antibiotic resistant genes has been included. It is found that studies on the screening of ECs are scarce and concentrated in certain geological locations. A total of 166 individual compounds belonging to 36 categories have been reported so far. Pharmaceuticals and drugs occupy the major share in these compounds followed by PFASs, EDCs, PCPs, ASWs and flame retardants. This review throws light on the alarming situation in India where the highest ever reported values of concentrations of some of these compounds are from India. This necessitates a national level monitoring system for ECs in order to assess the magnitude of environmental risks posed by these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental health: an analysis of available and proposed remedies for victims of toxic waste contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Past and present residents of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, New York, fear that they and their homes have been contaminated by toxic wastes seeping out from nearby chemical disposal sites. Hundreds of landfills nationwide are as potentially dangerous as Love Canal. In the absence of a statutory remedy, victims of contamination must rely upon common law theories of lability in order to recover damages for injuries suffered as a result of toxic waste contamination. This Note examines the merits and deficiencies of four common law theories: negligence, strict liability, nuisance and trespass. The Note concludes that none of these remedies is adequate to assure recovery to a person injured by toxic waste disposal, and recommends that legislation be adopted to ensure that victims of toxic waste contamination can be compensated for their injuries

  16. Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Concomitant Contamination of Air and Environmental Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Masuda, Eriko; Sfeir, Maroun; Berbel Caban, Ana; Bueno, Maria X; dePascale, Dennise; Spychala, Caressa N; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Doi, Yohei; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To concomitantly determine the differential degrees of air and environmental contamination by Acinetobacter baumannii based on anatomic source of colonization and type of ICU layout (single-occupancy vs open layout). DESIGN Longitudinal prospective surveillance study of air and environmental surfaces in patient rooms. SETTING A 1,500-bed public teaching hospital in Miami, Florida. PATIENTS Consecutive A. baumannii-colonized patients admitted to our ICUs between October 2013 and February 2014. METHODS Air and environmental surfaces of the rooms of A. baumannii-colonized patients were sampled daily for up to 10 days. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to type and match the matching air, environmental, and clinical A. baumannii isolates. RESULTS A total of 25 A. baumannii-colonized patients were identified during the study period; 17 were colonized in the respiratory tract and 8 were colonized in the rectum. In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 38.3% of air samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 13.1% of air samples were positive (P=.0001). In rooms with rectally colonized patients, 15.5% of environmental samples were positive for A. baumannii; in rooms of patients with respiratory colonization, 9.5% of environmental samples were positive (P=.02). The rates of air contamination in the open-layout and single-occupancy ICUs were 17.9% and 21.8%, respectively (P=.5). Environmental surfaces were positive in 9.5% of instances in open-layout ICUs versus 13.4% in single-occupancy ICUs (P=.09). CONCLUSIONS Air and environmental surface contaminations were significantly greater among rectally colonized patients; however, ICU layout did not influence the rate of contamination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:777-781.

  17. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  18. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  19. Environmental policies, politics, and community risk perception: case study of community contamination in Casper, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Gottlieb, Karen; Lowndes, Nita; Stewart, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    We identify and explain factors that affected a community's perception of risk due to extensive industrial contamination and people's distrust of government agencies regarding the environmental investigations. Intrinsic bounded case study methodology was used to conduct research about extensive environmental contaminations due to activities of an oil refinery in North Casper, Wyoming, and the citizens' response. Data were collected from multiple sources that included public testimonies, observations, public hearings and meetings minutes, newspaper articles, archived records obtained from federal and state environmental and health agencies, as well as industry records obtained through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. The overarching theme that emerged was lack of trust due to several critical events and factors such as no response or delay in response time to community concerns, lack of transparency, perceived cover up, vague and fragmented communication by government and state officials, perception of pro-industry stance, and perceived unfair treatment. People's perception of environmental risks and their willingness to accept official explanations and outcomes of environmental investigations are strongly affected by their direct experiences with government agencies and the evidence of influence the powerful industries exert over relevant investigations. The government cannot successfully address public and community concerns about environmental health impacts of contaminations and in turn the public perception of risk unless it adopts and implements policies, procedures, and protocols that are clear, timely, transparent, and free from industry influence.

  20. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must

  1. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  2. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  3. Reduction in Clostridium difficile environmental contamination by hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, J S; Patel, A; Otter, J A; Wade, P; Newsholme, W; van Kleef, E; Goldenberg, S D

    2015-07-01

    Fidaxomicin is sporicidal and may be associated with a reduced time to resolution of diarrhoea when used to treat patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This study investigated whether fidaxomicin for treatment of all patients with CDI reduced C. difficile environmental contamination. Surfaces in the rooms of 66 hospitalized patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin and 68 hospitalized patients treated with fidaxomicin were sampled. Patients treated with fidaxomicin were less likely to contaminate their environment (25/68, 36.8%) than patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin (38/66 57.6%) (P = 0.02). Treatment with fidaxomicin was associated with reduced environmental contamination with C. difficile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C; Fernandes, José O; Rasmussen, Rie R; Sloth, Jens J; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-02-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater temperatures (Δ = + 4°C) and lower pH levels (Δ = - 0.4 pH units), acting alone or combined, on the bioaccumulation and elimination of emerging FRs (dechloranes 602, 603 and 604, and TBBPA), inorganic arsenic (iAs), and PFCs (PFOA and PFOS) in two estuarine bivalve species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels of dechloranes, as well as enhanced iAs, PFOA and PFOS elimination. Data also suggests that, when both abiotic stressors are combined, bivalves' capacity to accumulate contaminants may be time-dependent, considering significantly drastic increase observed with Dec 602 and TBBPA, during the last 10 days of exposure, when compared to reference conditions. Such changes in contaminants' bioaccumulation/elimination patterns also suggest a potential increase of human health risks of some compounds, if the climate continues changing as forecasted. Therefore, this first study pointed out the urgent need for further research on the effects of abiotic conditions on emerging contaminants kinetics, to adequately estimate the potential toxicological hazards associated to these compounds and

  5. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  6. Assessment of Environmental Contamination with Pathogenic Bacteria at a Hospital Laundry Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Karen E; No, David; Daniell, William E; Seixas, Noah S; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2017-11-10

    Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Voluntary participation of 23 employees consisted of nasal swabs for detection of MRSA, observations during work, and questionnaires. Contamination with all three pathogens was observed in both dirty (laundry handling prior to washing) and clean areas (subsequent to washing). The dirty area had higher odds of overall contamination (≥1 pathogen) than the clean area (odds ratio, OR = 18.0, 95% confidence interval 8.9-36.5, P contamination were high for each individual pathogen: C. difficile, OR = 15.5; MRSA, OR = 14.8; and VRE, OR = 12.6 (each, P contamination occurred in the primary and secondary sort areas where soiled linens were manually sorted by employees (OR = 63.0, P contaminated by soiled linens. Workers who handle soiled linen may have a higher risk of exposure to C. difficile, MRSA, and VRE than those who handle clean linens. Improved protocols for prevention and reduction of environmental contamination were implemented because of this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  7. Patient Hand Colonization With MDROs Is Associated with Environmental Contamination in Post-Acute Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal K; Mantey, Julia; Mody, Lona

    2017-09-01

    We assessed multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) patient hand colonization in relation to the environment in post-acute care to determine risk factors for MDRO hand colonization. Patient hand colonization was significantly associated with environmental contamination. Risk factors for hand colonization included disability, urinary catheter, recent antibiotic use, and prolonged hospital stay. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1110-1113.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND POTENTIAL HUMAN RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SELECTED BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest...

  9. 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialties. Topic 6: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document includes 10 papers presented at the 6. Seminar of the IIE-ININ-IMP on technological specialities in the field of environmental contamination (Topic 6). From these, 6 papers were in INIS subject scope and a separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  10. Virtual Issue #1: Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  11. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  12. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  13. HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR ASSESSING THE PRESENCE AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF WATERBORNE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As an integral part of our continuing research in environmental quality assessment approaches, we have developed a variety of passive integrative sampling devices widely applicable for use in defining the presence and potential impacts of a broad array of contaminants. The semipe...

  14. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  15. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential areas around Romanian mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary co...

  16. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  17. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  18. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  19. Radioactive contamination of the environmental samples in Hanoi in 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Huy Uyen; Bui Van Loat; Dang Phuong Nam; Cao Anh Duc; Pham Quang Dien; Nguyen Hao Quang

    1990-01-01

    More than 30 environmental samples from soil, paddy, rice, fruits, vegetables and beans, sesame, tea, bananas, fishes at Hanoi markets in 1989 were analysed by gamma ray spectrometry with the low background system for studying natural and artificial radioactive elements. Among several samples from Hanoi in such kind as cultivated soils, tea, dried bamboo shoots, isotope Cs 137 that used be generated from nuclear explosives was found with contents (30 - 1000) x 10 -5 Bq/g; Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice (0.4 - 3) x 10 -5 Bq/g. Cs 137 is radioactive so Cs 137 contents in Vietnamese rice are 300 times higher than Cs 137 contents in Japanese rice but they are hundred times lower than international standard. Among vegetables, fruits, shrimps, fishes in Hanoi markets, artificial isotopes were not found and natural isotopes were few. Even radioactive daughter and granddaughter in uranium series in potatoes were not found. In some samples K 40 was also appeared, for example in cultivated soils (0.78 Bq/g), in dried bamboo shoots (0.73 Bq/g). (author). 2 refs., 3 figs

  20. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity

  1. Characterization of the Environmentally Induced Chemical Transformations of Uranium Tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellons, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    A key challenge with nuclear safeguards environmental sampling is identification of the materials post release due to subsequent chemical reactions with ambient water and oxygen. Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF4) is of interest as an intermediate in both the upstream and downstream portions of uranium feedstock and metal production processes used in nuclear fuel production; however minimal published research exists relating to UF4 hydrolysis. FY16 efforts were dedicated to in-situ Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of UF4 during exposure to various relative humidity conditions. This effort mapped several hydrolysis reaction pathways and identified both intermediate, and terminal progeny species.

  2. Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Lampa, Erik; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Lind, P Monica

    2015-02-01

    Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population. Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models. A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor. Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing environmental quality status by integrating chemical and biological effect data: The Cartagena coastal zone as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, Beatriz; Robinson, Craig D; Campillo, J Antonio; León, Víctor M; Benedicto, José; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    Cartagena coastal zone (W Mediterranean) was chosen for a practical case study to investigate the suitability of an integrated indicator framework for marine monitoring and assessment of chemicals and their effects, which was developed by ICES and OSPAR. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were selected as target species. Concentrations of contaminants in sediment and biota, and contaminant-related biomarkers were analysed. To assess environmental quality in the Cartagena coastal zone with respect to chemical pollution, data were assessed using available assessment criteria, and then integrated for different environmental matrices. A qualitative scoring method was used to rank the overall assessments into selected categories and to evaluate the confidence level of the final integrated assessment. The ICES/OSPAR integrated assessment framework, originally designed for the North Atlantic, was found to be applicable for Mediterranean species and environmental matrices. Further development of assessment criteria of chemical and biological parameters in sediments and target species from the Mediterranean will, however, be required before this framework can be fully applied for determining Good Environmental Status (GES) of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in these regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Camacho, Carolina; Barbosa, Vera; Alves, Ricardo; Anacleto, Patrícia; Fogaça, Fabiola; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Kotterman, Michiel; Cunha, Sara C.; Fernandes, José O.; Rasmussen, Rie R.; Sloth, Jens J.; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Marques, António

    2018-01-01

    Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the

  5. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  6. Improvement of radiological consequence estimation methodologies for NPP accidents in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems through consideration of contaminant physico-chemical forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roos, P. [Technical University of Denmark - DTU (Denmark); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD - NMBU (Norway); Bujan, A.; Duranova, T. [VUJE, Inc. (Slovakia); Ikonomopoulos, A.; Andronopoulos, S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    The European standard computerized decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS, which are integrated in the operational nuclear emergency preparedness in practically all European countries, as well as in a range of non-European countries, are highly valuable tools for radiological consequence estimation, e.g., in connection with planning and exercising as well as in justification and optimization of intervention strategies. Differences between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accident atmospheric release source terms have demonstrated that differences in release conditions and processes may lead to very different degrees of volatilization of some radionuclides. Also the physico-chemical properties of radionuclides released can depend strongly on the release process. An example from the Chernobyl accident of the significance of this is that strontium particles released in the fire were oxidized and thus generally physico-chemically different from those released during the preceding explosion. This is reflected in the very different environmental mobility of the two groups of particles. The initial elemental matrix characteristics of the contaminants, as well as environmental parameters like pH, determine for instance the particle dissolution time functions, and thus the environmental mobility and potential for uptake in living organisms. As ICRP recommends optimization of intervention according to residual dose, it is crucial to estimate long term dose contributions adequately. In the EURATOM FP7 project PREPARE, an effort is made to integrate physico-chemical forms of contaminants in scenario-specific source term determination, thereby enabling consideration of influences on atmospheric dispersion/deposition, post-deposition migration, and effectiveness of countermeasure implementation. The first step in this context was to investigate, based on available experience, the important physico-chemical properties of radio-contaminants that might potentially be released to the

  7. Occurrence of chemical contaminants in peri-urban agricultural irrigation waters and assessment of their phytotoxicity and crop productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Margenat, Anna; Matamoros Mercadal, Víctor; Díez, Sergi; Cañameras Riba, Núria; Comas Angelet, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep Maria

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution have increased the pressure on water resources worldwide. This pressure is particularly important in highly populated areaswherewater demand exceeds the available natural resources. In this regard, water reuse has emerged as an excellent water source alternative for peri-urban agriculture. Nevertheless, itmust copewith the occurrence of chemical contaminants, ranging fromtrace elements (TEs) to organic microcontaminants. In this study, chemical contaminants ...

  8. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  9. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  10. Modern, PC based, high resolution portable EDXRF analyzer offers laboratory performance for field, in-situ analysis of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piorek, Stanislaw

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of a new, high resolution, portable probe that has improved the sensitivity of the conventional field portable X-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) by up to an order of magnitude had been reported earlier [S. Piorek and J.R. Pasmore, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals, Las Vegas, 1991, p. 737]. A high resolution Si(Li) detector probe operates connected to a multichannel X-ray analyzer (2048 channels) which is housed in a portable, battery powered industrial computer. An improved energy resolution of the detector allows the implementation of more sophisticated data treatment methods to convert the measured intensities into mass concentrations of the analytes. A backscatter with a fundamental parameters approach (BFP) is one of the best methods, specifically for metallic contaminants in soil. A program has been written based on the BFP method for use with the new probe. The new software/probe combination enables one to quickly assess levels of contaminants on the site without the need of analyzed samples for instrument calibration. The performance of the EDXRF system in application to analysis of metals in contaminated soil is discussed in this paper. Also discussed is the extension of this method in the analysis of other types of environmental samples such as air particulates collected on filter paper. ((orig.))

  11. Estimation of sport fish harvest for risk and hazard assessment of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Strenge, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated fish flesh can be a significant route of human exposure to hazardous chemicals. Estimation of exposure resulting from the consumption of fish requires knowledge of fish consumption and contaminant levels in the edible portion of fish. Realistic figures of sport fish harvest are needed to estimate consumption. Estimates of freshwater sport fish harvest were developed from a review of 72 articles and reports. Descriptive statistics based on fishing pressure were derived from harvest data for four distinct groups of freshwater sport fish in three water types: streams, lakes, and reservoirs. Regression equations were developed to relate harvest to surface area fished where data bases were sufficiently large. Other aspects of estimating human exposure to contaminants in fish flesh that are discussed include use of bioaccumulation factors for trace metals and organic compounds. Using the bioaccumulation factor and the concentration of contaminants in water as variables in the exposure equation may also lead to less precise estimates of tissue concentration. For instance, muscle levels of contaminants may not increase proportionately with increases in water concentrations, leading to overestimation of risk. In addition, estimates of water concentration may be variable or expressed in a manner that does not truly represent biological availability of the contaminant. These factors are discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  12. Marine environmental contamination: public awareness, concern and perceived effectiveness in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; De Henauw, Stefaan; Rosseel, Yves; Calis, Tanja; Tediosi, Alice; Nadal, Martí; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-11-01

    Given the potential of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness (PCE) in shaping pro-environmental behavior, the relationships between PCE, awareness of causes of contaminants in the marine environment, and concern about marine environmental contamination were investigated using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). PCE is the belief that an individual has in being able to make a difference when acting alone. A web-based survey was performed in one western European country (Belgium), one northern European country (Ireland) and three southern European countries (Italy, Portugal and Spain), resulting in a total sample size of 2824 participants. The analyses confirm that European citizens are concerned about marine environmental problems. Participants from the southern countries reported the highest concern. In addition, the study participants did not have a strong belief in themselves in being capable of making a difference in tackling marine environmental problems. However, a higher awareness, which was associated with a higher degree of concern, enhanced the belief that an individual can make a difference in tackling marine environmental problems, though only when a concrete action was proposed. Consequently, information campaigns focusing on pro-environmental behavior are recommended to raise public awareness about marine environmental problems and at the same time explicitly refer to concrete possible actions. The findings indicate that when only awareness and concern are raised without mentioning a concrete action, PCE might even decrease and render the communication effort ineffective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  14. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hlimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck. Study design: Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q. Methods: Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n = 262 responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a Do you eat game? (b How often do you eat game? (c How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany, 2005 (Peawanuck, 2006 (Attawapiskat, 2007 (Moose Factory and 2009 (Kashechewan. Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results: Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion: The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  15. Glyphosate: environmental contamination, toxicity and potential risks to human health via food contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Ogbourne, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as 'practically non-toxic and not an irritant' under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment, and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high-rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.

  16. Toxicological and chemical assessment of arsenic-contaminated groundwater after electrochemical and advanced oxidation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Sandra; Crnojević, Helena; Vujčić, Valerija; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Cvetković, Želimira; Petra, Cvjetko; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Oreščanin, Višnja

    2016-02-01

    Owing to its proven toxicity and mutagenicity, arsenic is regarded a principal pollutant in water used for drinking. The objective of this study was the toxicological and chemical evaluation of groundwater samples obtained from arsenic enriched drinking water wells before and after electrochemical and ozone-UV-H2O2-based advanced oxidation processes (EAOP). For this purpose, acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna and chronic toxicity test with Lemna minor L. were employed as well as in vitro bioassays using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs). Several oxidative stress parameters were estimated in L.minor. Physicochemical analysis showed that EAOP treatment was highly efficient in arsenic but also in ammonia and organic compound removal from contaminated groundwater. Untreated groundwater caused only slight toxicity to HPBLs and D. magna in acute experiments. However, 7-day exposure of L. minor to raw groundwater elicited genotoxicity, a significant growth inhibition and oxidative stress injury. The observed genotoxicity and toxicity of raw groundwater samples was almost completely eliminated by EAOP treatment. Generally, the results obtained with L. minor were in agreement with those obtained in the chemical analysis suggesting the sensitivity of the model organism in monitoring of arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In parallel to chemical analysis, the implementation of chronic toxicity bioassays in a battery is recommended in the assessment of the toxic and genotoxic potential of such complex mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  18. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  19. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to soil chemical properties and heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Hempel, Stefan; Wubet, Tesfaye; Schäfer, Tina; Savaghebi, Gholamreza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Buscot, François

    2010-08-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with dominant plant species were studied along a transect from highly lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) polluted to non-polluted soil at the Anguran open pit mine in Iran. Using an established primer set for AMF in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, nine different AMF sequence types were distinguished after phylogenetic analyses, showing remarkable differences in their distribution patterns along the transect. With decreasing Pb and Zn concentration, the number of AMF sequence types increased, however one sequence type was only found in the highly contaminated area. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that further factors than HM soil concentration affect the AMF community at contaminated sites. Specifically, the soils' calcium carbonate equivalent and available P proved to be of importance, which illustrates that field studies on AMF distribution should also consider important environmental factors and their possible interactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  1. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Biological Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Moslemi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the consequences of discharging industrial wastes to land and water bodies, is the widespread accumulation and migration of toxic chemical mixtures in soil and groundwater resources. It is believed that the accumulation of contaminants in the environment constitutes a serious threat to ecological and human health. Bioremediation is an effective measure in dealing with such contaminations particularly those from petroleum hydrocarbon sources; moreover bioremediation is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. Therefore the goal of this study is discussing the theory and practice of biological remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils and assessing the effects of operational conditions and parameters such as: temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and  pH on the removal rate of the target contaminant which is handled in the designed reactor. Due to large production and consumption rate of diesel fuel inIran and many other countries, diesel fuel has been selected as target contaminant. In this study TOC and COD testing methods have been used to measure and assess the removal rate of the contaminant in the reactor. The experimental results indicate that, considering the operational conditions the indigenous microorganisms which have been separated from the soil are able to remove 50 to 83 percent of the contaminant after 30 days. Thereafter on the base of the results and considering the laboratorial specifications and conditions applied in this project, the optimum values of temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration andpH were respectively determined as 35°C, 4mg/L and 7.

  2. Multimedia contaminant environmental exposure assessment methodology as applied to Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Thompson, F.L.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    The MCEA (Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment) methodology assesses exposures to air, water, soil, and plants from contaminants released into the environment by simulating dominant mechanisms of contaminant migration and fate. The methodology encompasses five different pathways (i.e., atmospheric, terrestrial, overland, subsurface, and surface water) and combines them into a highly flexible tool. The flexibility of the MCEA methodology is demonstrated by encompassing two of the pathways (i.e., overland and surface water) into an effective tool for simulating the migration and fate of radionuclides released into the Los Alamos, New Mexico region. The study revealed that: (a) the 239 Pu inventory in lower Los Alamos Canyon increased by approximately 1.1 times for the 50-y flood event; (b) the average contaminant 239 Pu concentrations (i.e., weighted according to the depth of the respective bed layer) in lower Los Alamos Canyon for the 50-y flood event decreased by 5.4%; (c) approx. 27% of the total 239 Pu contamination resuspended from the entire bed (based on the assumed cross sections) for the 50-y flood event originated from lower Pueblo Canyon; (d) an increase in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed the general deposition patterns experienced by the sediment in Pueblo-lower Los Alamos Canyon; likewise, a decrease in the 239 Pu contamination of the bed followed general sediment resuspension patterns in the canyon; (e) 55% of the 239 Pu reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon originated from lower Los Alamos Canyon; and (f) 56% of the 239 Pu contamination reaching the San Ildefonso Pueblo in lower Los Alamos Canyon was carried through towards the Rio Grande. 47 references, 41 figures, 29 tables

  3. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  4. Chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in surface water using passive samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Perkins, S.D.; Clark, R.C.; Smith, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    Passive sampling methodologies were used to conduct a chemical and toxicologic assessment of organic contaminants in the surface waters of three geographically distinct agricultural watersheds. A selection of current-use agrochemicals and persistent organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, were targeted using the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and the semipermeable membrane device passive samplers. In addition to the chemical analysis, the Microtox assay for acute toxicity and the yeast estrogen screen (YES) were conducted as potential assessment tools in combination with the passive samplers. During the spring of 2004, the passive samplers were deployed for 29 to 65 d at Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Morgan Creek, MD; and DR2 Drain, WA. Chemical analysis of the sampler extracts identified the agrochemicals predominantly used in those areas, including atrazine, simazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor. Other chemicals identified included deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, trifluralin, fluoranthene, pyrene, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and pentachloroanisole. Screening using Microtox resulted in no acutely toxic samples. POCIS samples screened by the YES assay failed to elicit a positive estrogenic response. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  6. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  7. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-01-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System

  8. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  9. Development of KMnO(4)-releasing composites for in situ chemical oxidation of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, S H; Chen, K F; Wu, C S; Lin, Y H; Kao, C M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a controlled-oxidant-release technology combining in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concepts to remediate trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. In this study, a potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-releasing composite (PRC) was designed for KMnO4 release. The components of this PRC included polycaprolactone (PCL), KMnO4, and starch with a weight ratio of 1.14:2:0.96. Approximately 64% (w/w) of the KMnO4 was released from the PRC after 76 days of operation in a batch system. The results indicate that the released KMnO4 could oxidize TCE effectively. The results from a column study show that the KMnO4 released from 200 g of PRC could effectively remediate 101 pore volumes (PV) of TCE-contaminated groundwater (initial TCE concentration = 0.5 mg/L) and achieve up to 95% TCE removal. The effectiveness of the PRC system was verified by the following characteristics of the effluents collected after the PRC columns (barrier): (1) decreased TCE concentrations, (2) increased ORP and pH values, and (3) increased MnO2 and KMnO4 concentrations. The results of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) analysis show that the PCL and starch completely filled up the pore spaces of the PRC, creating a composite with low porosity. Secondary micro-scale capillary permeability causes the KMnO4 release, mainly through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. The PRC developed could be used as an ISCO-based passive barrier system for plume control, and it has the potential to become a cost-effective alternative for the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  11. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents. PMID:28961188

  12. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  13. The extent of environmental and body contamination through aerosols by hydro-surgical debridement in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, David; Lechner, Ricarda; Coraca-Huber, Debora; Mayr, Astrid; Nogler, Michael; Thaler, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Surgical site infections occur in 1-6% of spinal surgeries. Effective treatment includes early diagnosis, parenteral antibiotics and early surgical debridement of the wound surface. On a human cadaver, we executed a complete hydro-surgery debridement including a full surgical setup such as draping. The irrigation fluid was artificially contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538). Surveillance cultures were used to detect environmental and body contamination of the surgical team. For both test setups, environmental contamination was observed in an area of 6 × 8 m. Both test setups caused contamination of all personnel present during the procedure and of the whole operating theatre. However, the concentration of contamination for the surgical staff and the environment was lower when an additional disposable draping device was used. The study showed that during hydro-surgery debridement, contaminated aerosols spread over the whole surgical room and contaminate the theatre and all personnel.

  14. Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant Dinitrotoluene (DNT) including physical and chemical properties.

  15. Chemically enhanced mixed region vapor stripping of TCE-contaminated saturated peat and silty clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Cameron, P.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct further testing of MRVS, chemically enhanced with calcium oxide conditioning, on field- contaminated soils collected from beneath the NASA Michoud Rinsewater Impoundment. In this study, residual soil VOC levels as a function of vapor stripping time were measured to quantify VOC removal rates. Physical and chemical soil parameters expected to affect MRVS efficiency were measures. The effects of varying the calcium oxide loadings as well as varying the vapor stripping flow rates on VOC removal were also evaluated. The results of this study will be used to determine whether acceptable removals can be achieved within reasonable treatment times, remediation costs being directly proportional to the latter. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental results of this study, as well as to address issues that were raised after completion of the previous Michoud treatability work

  16. Multicenter study of environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in 48 Canadian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupeau, Céline; Tanguay, Cynthia; Caron, Nicolas J; Bussières, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Context Oncology workers are occupationally exposed to antineoplastic drugs. This exposure can induce adverse health effects. In order to reduce their exposure, contamination on surfaces should be kept as low as possible. Objectives To monitor environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in oncology pharmacy and patient care areas in Canadian hospitals. To describe the impact of some factors that may limit contamination. Methods This is a descriptive study. Twelve standardized sites were sampled in each participating center (six in the pharmacy and six in patient care areas). Samples were analyzed for the presence of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and methotrexate by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry technology. Descriptive statistical analyses were done and results were compared with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent samples. Results In 2015, 48 hospitals participated in this study (48/202, 24%). Overall, 34% (181/525) of the samples were positive for cyclophosphamide, 8% (41/525) for ifosfamide, and 6% (31/525) for methotrexate. The 75th percentile value of cyclophosphamide surface concentration was 6.9 pg/cm 2 . For ifosfamide and methotrexate, they were lower than the limit of detection. Centers who prepared more antineoplastic drugs per year and centers who used more cyclophosphamide per year showed significantly higher surface contamination ( p contamination. Conclusion In comparison with other multicenter studies that were conducted in Canada, the concentration of antineoplastic drugs measured on surfaces is decreasing. Regular environmental monitoring is a good practice in order to maintain contamination as low as reasonably achievable.

  17. Italian multicentre study on microbial environmental contamination in dental clinics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Masia, Maria Dolores; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Tinteri, Carola; Tanzi, Marialuisa

    2010-09-01

    The dental practice is associated with a high risk of infections, both for patients and healthcare operators, and the environment may play an important role in the transmission of infectious diseases. A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in six dental clinics as a pilot study for a larger multicentre study that will be performed by the Italian SItI (Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health) working group "Hygiene in Dentistry". Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days of the week, before and during treatments. Air and surfaces were also examined at the end of the daily activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and relative to the different sampling times. Microbial water contamination in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWS) reached values of up to 26x10(4)cfu/mL (colony forming units per millilitre). P. aeruginosa was found in 33% of the sampled DUWS and Legionella spp. in 50%. A significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) was recorded during the activity. Microbial air contamination showed the highest levels during dental treatments and tended to decrease at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). Microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. As these findings point out, research on microbial environmental contamination and the related risk factors in dental clinics should be expanded and should also be based on larger collections of data, in order to provide the essential knowledge aimed at targeted preventive interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ways of adaptation of the plant populations to chemical and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozolotina, V.; Bezel', V.; Zhuykova, T.; Severu'Khina, O.; Ulyanova, E.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical agents (heavy metals, acids, etc.) and radiation render their influence upon biota being clearly distinct in primary mechanisms of action. However, lively organisms demonstrate one and the same set [arsenal] of response reactions, and thus it is important to reveal the ways of their realization caused by different types of techno-genic impacts. Our work was intended to examine the seed progeny of the dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, from radionuclides-contaminated coeno-populations (grown at the territories influenced by Eastern-Ural radioactive trace, in the Techa-river flood plain) and those situated in the nearest impact zone affected by a large metallurgical plant in the Urals. Plots, differently distanced from the enterprise, showed heavy metal contamination loads 8-33 times higher than the control site did. Radionuclides concentrations ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) within the contaminated zone exceeded the background values 4-40 times. The study allowed estimation of the seed progeny vitality level for different coeno-populations, comparison of their adaptive potential in regard to heavy metals tolerance and gamma radiation resistance, estimation of abnormal seedlings [sprouts] frequency values. It was shown [found] that under techno-genic pollution the dandelion coeno-populations usually demonstrate wider variations of different characteristics (vitality, mutability, root and leaf growth rates) as compared to those in the background zone. As a general regularity one can regard the phenomenon, that negative effects were not marked to be increased by heavier pollution loads, irrespectively of the agents nature. (author)

  19. Studies on the remediation of environment contaminated with radioactive pollutants using the chemical separation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurotaki, Katsumi; Yonehara, Hidenori; Sahoo, S.K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ishii, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    Remediation of soil and drinking water contaminated with radioactive nuclides is important for the mitigation of radiation exposure. Then we attempted to construct the remediation system including the dose estimation system using the chemical separation technique to remove pollutants from the environment. The information on air dose rate is important for assessment of risk from the radiation exposure. Then we measured the air dose rate and analysed the relationship between air dose rate and the contamination of soil at the area in Russia (Bryansk district) contaminated by Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Moreover, we analysed the soil of Bryansk district on the concentration of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium and on the isotope ratio of strontium. On the other hand, we tried to develop the rapid measurement method of radioactivity of Sr-90 which is one of the dangerous radionuclides, because the method of radioactivity measurement in the literature is too time-consuming. It was reported recently that the molecules containing SH group form the covalent bond with gold atoms at the surface of gold plate and that crown ether compounds have strong affinity to strontium. Then we attempted to synthesize the crown ether containing SH group. In addition, we search the inorganic elements accumulated to special organisms of fishes and other animals in sea in order to find out new reagent for trace elements. Transition metal such as Co, Fe, Ni, Ti, V and Zn were detected from the intracellular granules in the bronchial heart of octopus. (author)

  20. Spatial screening methods for evaluating environmental contaminant hazards and exposure vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    Human and biotic communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to sea-level rise and severe storms due to climate change. These events enhance the dispersion and concentration of natural and anthropogenic chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms, which could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems in coming years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed spatial screening methods to identify and map contaminant sources and potential exposure pathways for human and ecological receptors. These methods have been applied within the northeastern U.S. to document contaminants of emerging concern, highlight vulnerable communities, and prioritize locations for future sampling campaigns. Integration of this information provides a means to better assess the baseline status of a complex system and the significance of changes in contaminant hazards due to storm-induced (episodic) and sea-level rise (incremental) disturbances. This presentation will provide an overview of a decision support tool developed by the USGS to document contaminants in the environment relative to key receptor populations and historic storm vulnerabilities. The support tool is designed to accommodate a broad array of geologic, land-use, and climatic variables and utilizes public, nationally available data sources to define contaminant sources and storm vulnerabilities. By employing a flexible and adaptable strategy built upon publicly available data, the method can readily be applied to other site selection or landscape evaluation efforts. Examples will be presented including the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response pilot study (see http://toxics.usgs.gov/scorr/), and investigations of endocrine disruption in the Chesapeake Bay. Key limitations and future applications will be discussed in addition to ongoing method developments to accommodate non-coastal disaster scenarios and more refined contaminant definitions.

  1. Fluorographene as a Mass Spectrometry Probe for High-Throughput Identification and Screening of Emerging Chemical Contaminants in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Nie, Zhou; Ruan, Ting; Du, Yuguo; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-17

    Mass spectrometry techniques for high-throughput analysis of complex samples are of profound importance in many areas such as food safety, omics studies, and environmental health science. Here we report the use of fluorographene (FG) as a new mass spectrometry probe for high-throughput identification and screening of emerging chemical contaminants in complex samples. FG was facilely synthesized by one-step exfoliation of fluorographite. With FG as a matrix or probe in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI- or SELDI-TOF MS), higher sensitivity (detection limits at ppt or subppt levels), and better reproducibility were achieved than with other graphene-based materials due to the unique chemical structure and self-assembly properties of FG. The method was validated with different types of real complex samples. By using FG as a SELDI probe, we could easily detect trace amount of bisphenol S in paper products and high-fat canned food samples. Furthermore, we have successfully identified and screened as many as 28 quaternary ammonium halides in sewage sludge samples collected from municipal wastewater treatment plants. These results demonstrate that FG probe is a powerful tool for high-throughput analysis of complex samples by MS.

  2. Bio-chemical remediation of under-ground water contaminated by uranium in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingliang; Li Qian; Zhang Hongcan; Hu Eming; Chen Yongbo

    2014-01-01

    In the process of uranium in-situ leaching, it was serious that strong acid, uranium and heavy metals, and SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- could contaminate underground water. To remedy these pollutants, conventional methods are high-cost and low-efficient, so a bio-chemical remediation method was proposed to cope with the under-ground water pollution in this study. The results showed, in the chemical treatment with Ca(OH)_2 neutralization, pH went up from 2.0 to 7.0, the removal rates of U, Mn"2"+, Zn"2"+, Pb"2"+, SO_4"2"-, NO_3"- were 91.5%, 78.3%, 85.1%, 100%, 71.4% and 2.6% respectively, SO_4"2"- and NO_3"- need to be treated again by bio-method. In the biological process, the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of bioreactor was controlled at 42 h, and 100% NO_3"- and 70% SO_4"2"- in the contaminated water were removed; Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. f) liquid to H_2S showed better absorption effect, can fully meet the process requirements of H_2S removal. (authors)

  3. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  4. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  5. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-01-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  6. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  7. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, P H; Sileo, L; Mulhern, B M

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the freshwater areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolatility, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicated physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  8. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Sileo, L.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) were collected from a brackish-water and a nearly freshwater area in the contaminated Hackensack Meadowlands of New Jersey and an uncontaminated freshwater area in Maryland to determine the effects of environmental contaminants on a resident wetland species. No turtles were observed or caught in the Meadowlands at two trapping sites that were the most heavily contaminated by metals. Snapping turtles from the brackish-water area had an unusually low lipid content of body fat and reduced growth compared to turtles from the fresh-water areas in New Jersey and Maryland. Despite the serious metal contamination of the Hackensack Meadowlands, the metal content of kidneys and livers from New Jersey turtles was low and not greatly different from that of the Maryland turtles. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in body fat were generally low at all three study areas. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in fat were highest in male turtles from the New Jersey brackish-water area. Analysis of blood for amino-levulinic acid dehydratase, albumin, glucose, hemoglobin, osmolality, packed cell volume, total protein, triglycerides, and uric acid failed to reveal any differences among groups that would indicate physiological impairment related to contaminants.

  9. Three-dimensional data interpolation for environmental purpose: lead in contaminated soils in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Tales Campos; Melo, Vander Freitas; Souza, Luiz Cláudio Paula; Dieckow, Jeferson

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring of heavy metal contamination plume in soils can be helpful in establishing strategies to minimize its hazardous impacts to the environment. The objective of this study was to apply a new approach of visualization, based on tridimensional (3D) images, of pseudo-total (extracted with concentrated acids) and exchangeable (extracted with 0.5 mol L(-1) Ca(NO3)2) lead (Pb) concentrations in soils of a mining and metallurgy area to determine the spatial distribution of this pollutant and to estimate the most contaminated soil volumes. Tridimensional images were obtained after interpolation of Pb concentrations of 171 soil samples (57 points × 3 depths) with regularized spline with tension in a 3D function version. The tridimensional visualization showed great potential of use in environmental studies and allowed to determine the spatial 3D distribution of Pb contamination plume in the area and to establish relationships with soil characteristics, landscape, and pollution sources. The most contaminated soil volumes (10,001 to 52,000 mg Pb kg(-1)) occurred near the metallurgy factory. The main contamination sources were attributed to atmospheric emissions of particulate Pb through chimneys. The large soil volume estimated to be removed to industrial landfills or co-processing evidenced the difficulties related to this practice as a remediation strategy.

  10. Aerospace use of nuclear energy and current biological problems of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Verde, R; Conte, L

    1982-08-25

    An examination of the danger to man which could result from accidents caused by the use of nuclear energy for space purposes leads to the presentation of parameters establishing levels of environmental contamination by radionucleids from the stratotroposphere. The factors affecting the transport of radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere are indicated and the importance of their deposition and absorption by man through the alimentary canal is emphasised.

  11. Fowl play? Forensic environmental assessment of alleged discharge of highly contaminated effluent from a chicken slaughterhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.; Taylor, M. P.; Handley, H. K.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple lines of geochemical and biological evidence are applied to identify and fingerprint the nature and source of alleged contamination emanating from a chicken slaughterhouse on the urban fringe of Sydney, Australia. The slaughterhouse has a long history of alleged environmental misconduct. The impact of the facility on catchment source waters by the slaughterhouse has been the subject of controversy. The facility owner has persistently denied breach of their licence condition and maintains it is `a very environmentally conscious operation'. The disputed nature of the possible sources of discharges and its contaminants required a detailed forensic environmental assessment. Water samples collected from off-site discharge points associated with the facility show highly elevated concentrations of faecal coliforms (max 68,000 cfu), ammonia-N (51,000 µg/L), total nitrogen (98,000 µg/L) and phosphorous (32,000 µg/L). Upstream and adjacent watercourses were markedly less contaminated. Water discharge points associated with the slaughterhouse and natural catchment runoff were sampled for arsenic speciation, including assessment for the organoarsenic compound Roxarsone. Roxarsone is used as a chicken growth promoter. Water draining the slaughterhouse facility contained concentrations around 10 times local background levels. The Roxarsone compound was not detected in any waters, but inorganic arsenic, As(V), was present in all waters with the greatest concentrations in waters draining from the slaughterhouse. The environmental evidence was compiled over a series of discharges events and presented to the NSW EPA. Subsequent to receipt of the data supported by their own investigations, the NSW EPA mandated that the slaughterhouse be subject to a pollution reduction program. The efficacy of the pollution reduction program to stem the release of highly contaminated effluent is currently subject to ongoing investigation using a suite of water chemistry measures including

  12. Using proven, cost-effective chemical stabilization to remediate radioactive and heavy metal contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.; Sogue, A.

    1999-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS) has deployed a cost-effective metals stabilization method which can be used to reduce the cost of remediation projects where radioactivity and heavy metals are the contaminants of concern. The Envirobond TM process employs the use of a proprietary chemical process to stabilize metals in many waste forms, and provides an excellent binding system that can easily be compacted to reduce the waste into a shippable brick called Envirobric TM . The advantages of using chemical stabilization are: (1) Low cost, due to the simplicity of the process design and inexpensive reagents. (2) Chemical stabilization is easily deployed in field applications, which limit the amount of shielding and other protective measures. (3) The process does not add volume and bulk to the treated waste; after treatment the materials may be able to remain on-site, or if transportation and disposal is required the cost will be reduced due to lower volumes. (4) No secondary waste. The simplicity of this process creates a safe environment while treating the residues, and the long-term effectiveness of this type of chemical stabilization lowers the risk of future release of hazardous elements associated with the residues. (author)

  13. Achieving synergy between chemical oxidation and stabilization in a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vipul J; Hudson, Jeffrey Michael; Cassidy, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Eight in situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) amendments were tested to promote in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with activated persulfate (PS) in a contaminated soil. A 3% (by weight) dose of all ISS amendments selected for this study completely activated a 1.5% dose of PS within 3 h by raising temperatures above 30 °C (heat activation) and/or increasing pH above 10.5 (alkaline activation). Heat is released by the reaction of CaO with water, and pH increases because this reaction produces Ca(OH)2. Heat activation is preferred because it generates 2 mol of oxidizing radicals per mole of PS, whereas alkaline activation releases only 1. The relative contribution of heat vs. alkaline activation increased with CaO content of the ISS amendment, which was reflected by enhanced contaminant oxidation with increasing CaO content, and was confirmed by comparing to controls promoting purely heat or alkaline (NaOH) activation. The test soil was contaminated with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), particularly naphthalene (NAP). ISS-activated PS oxidized between 47% and 84% of the BTEX & NAP, and between 13% and 33% of the higher molecular weight PAH. ISS-activated PS reduced the leachability of BTEX & NAP by 76%-91% and of the 17 PAH by 83%-96%. Combined ISCO/ISS reduced contaminant leachability far than ISCO or ISS treatments alone, demonstrating the synergy that is possible with combined remedies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Management of commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This Draft Environmental Statement is issued to assess the environmental impact of the AEC's program to manage commercial high-level and transuranium-contaminated radioactive wastes. These are the types of commercial radioactive wastes for which AEC custody is required by present or anticipated regulations. The program consists of three basic parts: development of a Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF) for commercial high-level waste, using existing technology; evaluating geological formations and sites for the development of a Geological Disposal Pilot Plant (GDPP) which would lead to permanent disposal; and providing retrievable storage for the transuranium-contaminated waste pending availability of permanent disposal. Consideration has been given to all environmental aspects of the program, using waste generation projections through the year 2000. Radiological and other impacts of implementing the program are expected to be minimal, but will be discussed in further environmental statements which will support budget actions for specific repositories. The alternatives discussed in this Draft Environmental Statement are presented. (U.S.)

  15. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a 'haemostatic decontaminant' is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 Through 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Wildlife Research Center- synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora...series-—sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center—synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental...7 37. Macronectes giganteus: 32 16; 33 26; 34 27. Macrophytes , aquatic, Cabomba spp., Chara sp., Elodea, Lemna, Myriophyllum, Polygonum sp

  17. Radon as an indicator of environmental contamination by hydrocarbons in free-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Crislene

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated sites by NAPL (Non-Aqueous Phase-Liquids) may lead to safety risks to human health