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Sample records for environmental building materials what

  1. Environmental Evaluation of Building Materials of 5 Slovak Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porhincak, Milan; Estokova, Adriana

    2013-11-01

    Building activity has recently led to the deterioration of environment and has become unsustainable. Several strategies have been introduced in order to minimize consumption of energy and resulting CO2 emissions having their origin in the operational phase. But also other stages of Life Cycle should are important to identify the overall environmental impact of construction sector. In this paper 5 similar Slovak buildings (family houses) were analyzed in terms of environmental performance of building materials used for their structures. Evaluation included the weight of used materials, embodied energy and embodied CO2 and SO2 emissions. Analysis has proven that the selection of building materials is an important factor which influences the environmental profile. Findings of the case study indicated that materials like concrete, ceramic or thermal insulation materials based on polystyrene and mineral wool are ones with the most negative environmental impact.

  2. Analysis of Embodied Environmental Impacts of Korean Apartment Buildings Considering Major Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the reduction in environmental impacts (EIs of buildings using life-cycle assessment (LCA has been emphasized as a practical strategy for the sustainable development of the construction industry, studies are required to analyze not only the operational environmental impacts (OEIs of buildings, but also the embodied environmental impacts (EEIs of building materials. This study aims to analyze the EEIs of Korean apartment buildings on the basis of major building materials as part of research with the goal of reducing the EIs of buildings. For this purpose, six types of building materials (ready-mixed concrete, reinforcement steel, concrete bricks, glass, insulation, and gypsum for apartment buildings were selected as major building materials, and their inputs per unit area according to the structure types and plans of apartment buildings were derived by analyzing the design and bills of materials of 443 apartment buildings constructed in South Korea. In addition, a life-cycle scenario including the production, construction, maintenance, and end-of-life stage was constructed for each major building material. The EEIs of the apartment buildings were quantitatively assessed by applying the life-cycle inventory database (LCI DB and the Korean life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA method based on damage-oriented modeling (KOLID, and the results were analyzed.

  3. Environmental effect of structural solutions and building materials to a building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapio, Appu; Viitaniemi, Pertti

    2008-01-01

    The field of building environmental assessment tools has become a popular research area over the past decade. However, how the service life of a building affects the results of the environmental assessment of a building has not been emphasised previously. The aim of this study is to analyse how different structural solutions and building materials affect the results of the environmental assessment of a whole building over the building's life cycle. Furthermore, how the length of the building's service life affects the results is analysed. The environmental assessments of 78 single-family houses were calculated for this study. The buildings have different wall insulations, claddings, window frames, and roof materials, and the length of the service life varies from 60 years up to 160 years. The current situation and the future of the environmental assessment of buildings are discussed. In addition, topics for further research are suggested; for example, how workmanship affects the service life and the environmental impact of a building should be studied

  4. Using Bamboo as an Alternative Material for Environmental Friendly Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardjono, F.; Erkelens, P.A.; Jonge, S. de; Vliet, A.A.M. van

    2000-01-01

    Bamboo is one of natural resources that can be applied for building materials. In such bamboo growing countries, bamboo has main role as a building material for more than hundreds years ago. Sometimes bamboo can be used to replace wood based building material. Based on the detecting of problems on

  5. Sustainability of earth building materials - Environmental product declarations as an instrument of competition in building material industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Horst; Lemke, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The evaluation of the building process in terms of their environmental impact in all life cycle phases of a building leads to the key principle of sustainable building: the analysis of the life cycle of the materials used in a building. The goal of this analysis is to reduce waste and keep the environmental impact as low as possible by “closing” the cycle. During an inventory, the entire life cycle is assessed. This includes the sourcing and extracting of the raw material, the use of the...

  6. Environmental impacts of adobe as a building material: The north cyprus traditional building case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Olukoya Obafemi

    2016-06-01

    Summarily, this paper posits that the successful fusion of traditional building materials such as Adobe and modern design construct will not only give birth to earth conscious building, but will also be energy efficient. Moreover, it will be a substitute building material the building industry can adopt at as a contributing solution to the omniscient global warming malady.

  7. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Som S.; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined

  8. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  9. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  10. The energy-environmental profile of building bio-materials. A decision-making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, G.; Cellura, M.; Lo Cicero

    2000-01-01

    In this article it is presented a reckoning model used for comparing concrete blocks made with recycled aggregates with blocks realised with quarry inerts. Both algorithm and procedural passages are easily transferable to handmade products having different characteristics. From the results one can infer how an open circuit recycling process allows to improve energy-environmental performances of the handmade product even when the technological performances of the blocks are essentially similar. This underlines the importance of a procedural approach taking into account environmental design right from the start of the planning process, also as far as the final fate of the building material at the end of its useful life is concerned [it

  11. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  12. Design of environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based building materials : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the performance based design and development of an environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based indoor building product towards an improved indoor air quality. Here "environmental friendly" is referred to the environment related subjects including: (1) the selection of raw

  13. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available , steel and composites research. Analysis of the building materials market situation in South Africa identified the major building material cost drivers as cement and concrete and steel. For South Africa, research and development focus has been... in South Africa be cement and concrete, light-weight steel construction, smart tiles and composite materials. Nanotechnology materials should be used for property enhancement. The building materials developed should be modularised and/or panelised...

  14. Wood: a construction material for tall buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmers, Guido

    2017-12-01

    Wood has great potential as a building material, because it is strong and lightweight, environmentally friendly and can be used in prefabricated buildings. However, only changes in building codes will make wood competitive with steel and concrete.

  15. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  16. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials

  17. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  18. Gamma activity as a guide for the building raw materials selection and controlling the environmental hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrometric measurements can provide an alarm for the radiation activity and radioelement concentra-tions. The activity increase over the ambient background can be achieved by well calibrated gamma-spectrometers. In comparison between Wadi El-Dahl and Abu Zawal quarries for building raw materials (feld-spar, the activity concentration of El-Dahl stream sediments are 54.5 and 44.5 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. While the activity concentration of Abu Zawal rock quarry are 167.03 and 79.77 Bq/kg for uranium and thorium respectively. These activities yielding effective dose rates of 0.63 mSv/y for Wadi El-Dahl stream sediments and 1.48 mSv/y for Abu Zawal rock quarry. In summary, the spectrometric measurements are excellent selective tool to monitoring the environment against the radiation risk. In this aspect, Wadi El-Dahl stream sedi-ment quarry considered as the more suitable for producing feldspar as a raw materials to building industry. In comparison, Abu Zawal rock quarry has a higher effective dose rate exceeds the international permissible limits which is 1 mSv/y. A total of 19 feldspar samples were completely described regarding their general chemical fea-tures by using x-ray fluorescence. From the study all the samples contain high concentration of barium and ru-bidium which can separate using different methods in order to use in different important industry.

  19. Building materials. Stichwort Baustoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwer, W

    1981-01-01

    To handle building materials properly, one must know about their characteristics. This pocket book will be of help: structured like a glossary, it gives brief descriptions of the most common building materials. It is small and handy enough to be a constant companion to resident engineers, foremen, gangers, building tradesmen, and construction workers and an aid in their training. The following groups of building materials are discussed: Natural stone; units for brick walls, floors, and roofs; mortar and concrete (definitions, binders, aggregates, additives, admixtures, mixing water); special types of plaster and rendering; light-weight building boards and wood wool basis; multilayer light-weight building boards; gypsum plasterboards; chimney construction; sewers; thermal insulation and sound section; structural steels; plastics.

  20. Radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpakova, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the gamma-spectrometric determination of natural radioactivity in the different building materials and wares applied in Slovakia was performed. The specific activities for potassium-40, thorium, radium as well as the equivalent specific activities are presented

  1. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  2. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only the most widely used building material in the United States but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. Efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees range from a minimally processed log at a log-home building site to a...

  3. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... roles of water and materials, Health, including a state-of-the-art description of the health-related effects of indoor molds, and Strategies, integrating remediation, prevention and policies....

  4. Wood as a sustainable building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk

    2010-01-01

    Few building materials possess the environmental benefits of wood. It is not only our most widely used building material but also one with characteristics that make it suitable for a wide range of applications. As described in the many chapters of this handbook, efficient, durable, and useful wood products produced from trees can range from a minimally processed log at...

  5. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1979-01-01

    The object of this brief report is to make the pollution inspectorate aware of the radiation hazards involved in new building materials, such as gypsum boards and alum slate based concrete blocks whose radium content is high. Experience in Swedish housebuilding has shown that a significant increase in the radiation dose to the occupants can occur. Improved insulation and elimination of draughts in fuel conservation accentuate the problem. Norwegian investigations are referred to and OECD and Scandinavian discussions aiming at recommendations and standards are mentioned. Suggested measures by the Norwegian authorities are given. (JIW)

  6. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  7. Building Materials Reclamation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, David C.; Chen, Shen-En; Hilger, Helene; Besnard, Fabien; Cavalline, Tara; Tempest, Brett; Alvey, Adam; Grimmer, Madeleine; Turner, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C and D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C and D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C and D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C and D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  8. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  9. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  10. The MaSe decision support system: Development of an integrated information system for the selection of environmentally preferable materials and products in the building process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Sigrid Melby

    2003-07-01

    New building regulations and increased focus on building related environmental burdens have created a need for guidance to design more sustainable buildings. The main objective in this thesis is to develop a decision support system, to guide decision-makers to a better selection of building materials and products, based on environmental prioritisation. The system is focused on building materials and products, but the structure of the system can be adapted to other types of decision problems. No tool is found that satisfy the identified needs for a material selection system. By studying existing methods, however important information and possible solutions are gathered, that partly could be used in a new tool. Key decision makers with respect to material and product selection are the client, the architects, the technical consultants, and the contractors when they decide on specific brands. The user of the MaSe system first identifies the materials acceptable in the specific project, based on the technical requirements. These pre-selected materials are then scored and ranked through the procedures in the MaSe system. The alternative ranking is then the basis for the selection of construction elements, materials or products. Seeing the building and real estate industry as a part of our society, it is clear that the use of material resources and pollution are areas that need improvement. The MaSe system includes environmental aspects under the headlines Resources, Ecology and Human health. When selecting building materials, factors like recycling and reuse needs to be considered. Renewability, energy and waste are other aspects included in the Resource area. Toxic substances are clearly important when it comes to building materials. Factors to be included under the headline Ecology are global warming, acidification, and photochemical oxidant formation. The emissions of toxics to air, water and soil will have effect on human health. Aspects that should be included in

  11. Environmental Impact Assessment of a School Building in Iceland Using LCA-Including the Effect of Long Distance Transport of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargessadat Emami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the key components of urban areas and society as a complex system. A life cycle assessment was applied to estimate the environmental impacts of the resources applied in the building envelope, floor slabs, and interior walls of the Vættaskóli-Engi building in Reykjavik, Iceland. The scope of this study included four modules of extraction and transportation of raw material to the manufacturing site, production of the construction materials, and transport to the building site, as described in the standard EN 15804. The total environmental effects of the school building in terms of global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, human toxicity, acidification, and eutrophication were calculated. The total global warming potential impact was equal to 255 kg of CO2 eq/sqm, which was low compared to previous studies and was due to the limited system boundary of the current study. The effect of long-distance overseas transport of materials was noticeable in terms of acidification (25% and eutrophication (31% while it was negligible in other impact groups. The results also concluded that producing the cement in Iceland caused less environmental impact in all five impact categories compared to the case in which the cement was imported from Germany. The major contribution of this work is that the environmental impacts of different plans for domestic production or import of construction materials to Iceland can be precisely assessed in order to identify effective measures to move towards a sustainable built environment in Iceland, and also to provide consistent insights for stakeholders.

  12. Natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrnustik, J.

    1988-01-01

    Within a study of the natural radioactivity of building materials, coefficients were determined of the emanation from selected materials and raw materials, such as porous concrete, bricks, marlite, quartzite, etc. Measurements were made of ground samples using Lucas scintillation chambers which give an accuracy of determination of the coefficient of about 10%. Specific radium activity was also determined for the samples. Tabulated is a comparison of the average specific activity of radium in concrete, power plant ash and porous concrete in Czechoslovakia and abroad. It is stated that monitoring the content of natural radionuclides in building materials is an indispensable part of the production process in the building industry, this with regard to the radiation protection of the population. This will be enhanced by the new Czechoslovak standard determining methods of measuring the content of natural radionuclides and the coefficient of radon emanation, and the subsequent evaluation of the properties of building materials. (Z.M.) 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment of wood-based building materials and building product. Oekobilanzen von Baustoffen und Bauprodukten aus Holz; Zusammenfassung erster Erkenntnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K; Sell, J [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Industrie, Bauwesen und Gewerbe, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    1992-08-01

    This report presents a summary of the main studies on the topic carried out at EMPA wood department in the last 4 years.In its first part, the concept of an environmental life cycle analysis (LCA), whose purpose is to quantify the known environmental impacts of a product by means of a systematic input/output analysis, is described. Such evaluation must include all phases of a product's life cycle, from the extraction of resources to the final disposal. Raw material and energy supply are input values, whereas main products, by-products, and emissions to the environment are outputs. It is essential for a meaningful data collection as well as for the final interpretation of the results to define exact system boundaries and explain the models used for data aggregation which are, therefore, described in detail. The report's second part summarizes the results of an environmental assessment of wood as a raw material and construction component, and of some important wood-based products. First, some product-independent ecological values of wood are shown, which today cannot be quantified sufficiently in LCA (e.g. relations between forest management and multi-functional values of forests, sustainable reproduction of wood, careful and benign harvesting practices, CO[sub 2] cycling with wood, and the complete utilization of the resource for industrial productions). Although all these basic characteristics contribute to the out-standing ecologic value of wood, an environmental analysis has to concentrate on material- and product-related aspects. In our study, this is realized by assessing energy consumption and air pollution. In a case study the data compiled are used to compare a timber frame wall with several wall types of different materials, but with identical heat transmission and acoustic performance: as expected, the timber frame wall shows very good ratings. (author) figs., tabs., 21 refs.

  14. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  15. Variation of radon exhalation on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Wang Chunhong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui; Ji Dong

    2009-01-01

    The 19 samples from different building material factories were collected for four kinds of building materials. The activity concentration and radon exhalation of building materials were measured. The radon exhalations of building materials are not obviously different if the component is same and the processes of building materials are similar. However, the radon exhalations of same kind of building material are greatly different if the components are different and the processes of building material are varied even if the activity concentrations of building material are similar. (authors)

  16. Environmentally-sound building technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Referring to numbers of international scientific reports it arises that Sustainable Building Constructions are the only acceptable possibilities yet. The Sustainability of a construction deals with responsible choices of materials and energies as well as similar choices of production and execution.

  17. Frost resistance of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    materials, has been developed.The importance of the pore structure on the development of stresses in the material during freezing is emphasized. To verify the model, experimental investigations are made on various concretes without air-entrainment and brick tiles with different porosities.Calculations......In this thesis it is shown that the critical degree of saturation is suitable as parameter for the frost resistance of porous building materials. A numerical model for prediction of critical degrees of saturation based on fracture mechanics and phase geometry of two-phase materials, e.g. porous...

  18. Daylight as a building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thule Kristensen, Peter; Madsen, Merete

    2005-01-01

    The article draws on examples to chronologically trace the use of daylight as building material in architecture of the 20th and early 21st century. The essay covers works of Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Erik Bryggman, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvar Aalto, Aldo Rossi, Jørn Utzon, Daniel Libeskind, Peter...

  19. Environmental indicators: Establishing a common language for green building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven; Elle, Morten

    2006-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to investigate if (and to what extent) consensus on environmental indicators for buildings as ‘a common language for green building’ can be reached among core actors in the Danish building sector and what such indicators could look like. Based on an analysis of current indicator...... is unlikely. Instead, three likely scenarios are described for the future development of the indicator debate and the directions are identified into which different actors need to move in order to establish indicators that can serve as a common language for green building.......Environmental indicators for buildings have the potential to serve as a means of making the environmental impacts (and possibly benefits) of buildings visible to all relevant actors. In addition, indicators facilitate the consideration and management of an array of environmental issues...

  20. Environmental materials and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig

  1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE DELIVERY OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS USED FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION TO THE CITY OF ZAGREB AND THE ZAGREB COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral raw material transport directly affects a product’s unit price and exhaust gases amounts. Transportation length is proportional to raw material price; its low price enables short transportation distances only. Taking into account stone aggregates delivered to Zagreb, the consequence of exploitation fields closure in the Zagreb area, particularly within the Medvednica Nature Park, we tried to answer the question of the impact of transport distances on the greenhouse gas emissions. Certain models will present environmental impact of the stone aggregate transportation and of nearby city quarries. The generally accepted public opinion on the closure of nearby city quarries as the best solution to environmental pollution will have to be reviewed. Mining works are predestined by mineral resources sites and limited by real possibilities and intentions of the community, therefore the experts, i.e. miners, geologists and other geoscientists, should be actively involved in spatial planning. During the years of intensive construction, millions of tons have been delivered from distances up to 100 km. The question arises whether some more rational solutions could be generated by more appropriate spatial planning? (the paper is published in Croatian

  2. Investigating the presence of hazardous materials in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustitus, D.A.; Blaisdell, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental hazards in buildings can be found in the air, on exposed surfaces, or hidden in roofs, walls, and systems. They can exist in buildings in solid, liquid, and gaseous states. A sound methodology for investigating the presence of environmental hazards in buildings should include several components. The first step in planning an investigation of environmental hazards in buildings is to ascertain why the investigation is to be performed. Research should be performed to review available documentation on the building. Next, a visual inspection of the building should be performed to identify and document existing conditions, and all suspect materials containing environmental hazards. Lastly, samples of suspect materials should be collected for testing. It is important to sample appropriate materials, based on the information obtained during the previous steps of the investigation. It is also important to collect the samples using standard procedures. Pollutants of concern include asbestos, lead, PCBs, and radon

  3. Impact of tall buildings in environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hayati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, tall building is a phenomenon that the world particularly large cities are facing. The tall buildings in order to exploit the land with having the negative affects in the environment create new problems including increasing congestion population, environmental pollution, reduce citizen access to fresh air and sunlight. However, regarding to population increasing and land shortage, tall buildings could not be avoided. This paper investigates the relationship of tall buildings with urban air pollution as well as the possible reducing of negative affects of tall building on environmental pollution with respect to geographical position, technicalrules, immunization, green space, direct of wind, appropriate distance to other buildings, design in terms of visibility and landscape and urban appearance were reviewed. The study showed that the tall buildings cause increasing the air pollution in large urban area due to changing in wind and its direction and also congestion of tall buildings as a pollution sources. Therefore some techniques to design the tall building must be considered to reduce the negative affects of the tall buildings on environmental pollution. Unfortunately the lack of the construction roles in term of environmental protection and also control of the rules in construction process causing the environmental pollution particularly air pollution. It is suggested that the re-evaluate of the rules with restricted control can improve the air quality in the large cities and also utilization of green spaces in floors and roofs of buildings as environmentally friendly buildings which are attempt to reduce environmental problems.

  4. A storey of buildings and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Throughout history, the development of new materials and technologies has enabled more functional and aesthetically pleasing buildings. With the advent of sustainable architecture, the role of materials science in building innovation is becoming more prominent than ever.

  5. Radioactive substances in the Danish building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbak, K.

    1986-01-01

    Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)

  6. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minho, E-mail: minmin40@hanmail.net [Asset Management Division, Mate Plus Co., Ltd., 9th Fl., Financial News Bldg. 24-5 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-877 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: chnagyoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C{sub 6}H{sub 6} eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings.

  7. Hybrid LCA model for assessing the embodied environmental impacts of buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Minho; Hong, Taehoon; Ji, Changyoon

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings can help decision-makers plan environment-friendly buildings and reduce environmental impacts. For a more comprehensive assessment of the embodied environmental impacts of buildings, a hybrid life cycle assessment model was developed in this study. The developed model can assess the embodied environmental impacts (global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation, abiotic depletion, and human toxicity) generated directly and indirectly in the material manufacturing, transportation, and construction phases. To demonstrate the application and validity of the developed model, the environmental impacts of an elementary school building were assessed using the developed model and compared with the results of a previous model used in a case study. The embodied environmental impacts from the previous model were lower than those from the developed model by 4.6–25.2%. Particularly, human toxicity potential (13 kg C 6 H 6 eq.) calculated by the previous model was much lower (1965 kg C 6 H 6 eq.) than what was calculated by the developed model. The results indicated that the developed model can quantify the embodied environmental impacts of buildings more comprehensively, and can be used by decision-makers as a tool for selecting environment-friendly buildings. - Highlights: • The model was developed to assess the embodied environmental impacts of buildings. • The model evaluates GWP, ODP, AP, EP, POCP, ADP, and HTP as environmental impacts. • The model presents more comprehensive results than the previous model by 4.6–100%. • The model can present the HTP of buildings, which the previous models cannot do. • Decision-makers can use the model for selecting environment-friendly buildings

  8. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Muntean, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, indoor air quality has become a growing environmental problem. A careful selection of building materials concerning the acceptance of chemical and radioactive emissions is one of the ways to ensure high indoor air quality. Nowadays, it is a tendency to obtain new building materials having good isolation properties and low density by using the cheap and practically inexhaustible solid waste products like furnace slag, fly coal ash and phosphogypsum, without combustion. The Romanian furnace slag containing generally, above 45 % CaO can be used alone or mixed with fly ash to obtain some binder materials with mechanical resistance comparable to the Portland cement. Different additives such as CaO+Na 2 SO 4 or CaCl 2 +Na 2 SO 4 are used as activating admixtures. Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method at WWR-S Reactor of IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Raw material used in the cement production (∼75 % limestone, ∼25 % clay), cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick compacted from furnace slag, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement have been analyzed. The fly coal ashes from five Romanian coal-fired power plants, resulting by the combustion of the xyloide brown coals, lignite and bituminous-subbituminous coals were previously analyzed. It was found that the content of the toxic microelements like As, Co, Cr, Th, U, Zn in the ceramic blocks is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main components. This content depends on the particular sources of mineral raw materials. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as used in the metallurgical process. (authors)

  10. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  11. The absolute environmental performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Kathrine Nykjær; Kalbar, Pradip; Petersen, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Our paper presents a novel approach for absolute sustainability assessment of a building's environmental performance. It is demonstrated how the absolute sustainable share of the earth carrying capacity of a specific building type can be estimated using carrying capacity based normalization factors....... A building is considered absolute sustainable if its annual environmental burden is less than its share of the earth environmental carrying capacity. Two case buildings – a standard house and an upcycled single-family house located in Denmark – were assessed according to this approach and both were found...... to exceed the target values of three (almost four) of the eleven impact categories included in the study. The worst-case excess was for the case building, representing prevalent Danish building practices, which utilized 1563% of the Climate Change carrying capacity. Four paths to reach absolute...

  12. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  13. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL RATING TOOL FOR BUILDINGS THROUGH A NEW KIND OF DIALOGUE BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS AND RESEARCHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Glaumann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Buildings need to be more environmentally benign since the building sector is responsible for about 40% of all of energy and material use in Sweden. For this reason a unique cooperation between companies, municipalities and the Government called “Building- Living and Property Management for the future”, in short “The Building Living Dialogue” has going on since 2003. The project focuses on: a healthy indoor environment, b efficient use of energy, and c efficient resource management. In accordance with the dialogue targets, two research projects were initiated aiming at developing an Environmental rating tool taking into accounts both building sector requirements and expectations and national and international research findings. This paper describes the first phase in the development work where stakeholders and researchers cooperate. It includes results from inventories and based on this experience discusses procedures for developing assessment tools and what the desirable features of a broadly accepted building rating tool could be.

  15. Electrokinetic desalination of porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.

    2012-01-01

    The deterioration of porous building materials and structures by the crystallization of water soluble salts is a well known phenomenon. The threats posed by salts to building materials can be minimized either by controlling the environment or by removing the salts from the deteriorated zone. In

  16. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Witzany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents partial results of laboratory research into physical and mechanical characteristics of materials most commonly used as walling units in masonry structures of historic and heritage buildings. Core boreholes and specimens for the laboratory research of selected characteristics were sampled from accessible places of historic buildings, which had not been restored or reconstructed. The results of the research brought new knowledge about the unreliability (variance of the properties of historical, mainly natural building materials, and, at the same time, pointed out the need for further research and extension of knowledge necessary for the assessment of residual physical and mechanical characteristics of historic masonry structures.

  17. Environmental TEM for Materials Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum

    Over the last decades, electron microscopy has played a large role in materials research. The increasing use of particularly environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides new possibilities for investigating nanoscale components at work. Careful experimentation...

  18. Environmental TEM in Materials Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    Over the last decades, electron microscopy has played a large role in materials research. The increasing use of particularly environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides new possibilities for investigating nanoscale components at work. Careful experimentation...

  19. People, planet and profit: Unintended consequences of legacy building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Ha, HakSoo

    2017-12-15

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several examples where building materials were broadly deployed into society only to find that health and environmental problems resulted in unintended sustainability consequences. In the following paper, we use lead and asbestos as legacy building materials to show their similar historical trends and sustainability consequences. Our research findings show unintended consequences such as: increased remediation and litigation costs; adverse health effects; offshoring of related industries; and impediments to urban revitalization. As numerous new building materials enter today's market, another building material may have already been deployed, representing the next "asbestos." This paper also proposes an alternative methodology that can be applied in a cost-effective way into existing and upcoming building materials, to minimize and prevent potential unintended consequences and create a pathway for sustainable communities. For instance, our findings show that this proposed methodology could have prevented the unintended incurred sustainability costs of approximately $272-$359 billion by investing roughly $24 million in constant 2014 U.S. dollars on up-front research into lead and asbestos. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Synthetic building materials for transport buildings and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The most effective building materials account for the highest growth not only in construction of residential and public buildings, but also other capital projects including roadways, bridges, drainage, communications and other engineering projects. Advancement in the technology of more efficient and ecologically responsible insulation materials have been a priority for safety, minimal maintenance and longevity of finished construction projects. The practical use of modern building materials such as insulation, sound reduction and low energy consumption are a benefit in cost and application compared to the use of outdated heavier and labor-intensive materials. The most efficient way for maximizing insolation and sound proofing should be done during the design stages of the project according to existing codes and regulations that are required by Western Government. All methods and materials that are used need to be optimized in order to reach a high durability and low operational and maintenance cost exceeding more than 50 years of the life of the building, whether it is for public, industrial or residential use. Western construction techniques and technologies need to be applied and adapted by the Russian Federation to insure the most productive successful methods are being implemented. The issues of efficient insulation materials are outlined in this article.

  1. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  2. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  3. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  4. The radioactivity of house-building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sos, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares the natural radioactivity and radon emission properties of different building materials like bricks, concretes, cements, sands, limes, marmors of different origin. A description of the radioactive model of apartments is also given. (TRA)

  5. New build: Materials, techniques, skills and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, Jacqueline; Dainty, Andrew R.J.; Gibb, Alistair G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to secure, sustainable, low-energy systems will have a significant effect on the way in which we design and construct new buildings. In turn, the new buildings that are constructed will play a critical role in delivering the better performance that would be expected from such a transition. Buildings account for about half of UK carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) production. So it is urgent to ensure that energy is used efficiently in existing buildings and that new building stock is better able to cope with whatever the future holds. Most energy used in buildings goes towards heating, lighting and cooling, but a growing percentage is consumed by domestic appliances, computers and other electrical equipment. Actual energy consumption is the product of a number of factors, including individual behaviours and expectations, the energy efficiency of appliances and the building envelope. This review focuses on the third of these, the building itself, and its design and construction. It discusses the issues faced by the construction industry today, suggesting that major changes are needed relating to materials, techniques, skills and innovation. It moves on to consider future advances to 2050 and beyond, including developments in ICT, novel materials, skills and automation, servitisation (the trend for manufacturers to offer lifetime services rather than simple products), performance measurement and reporting, and resilience. We present a vision of the new build construction industry in 2050 and recommendations for policy makers, industry organisations and construction companies

  6. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  7. People, Planet and Profit: Unintended Consequences of Legacy Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although an explosion of new building materials are being introduced into today's market, adequate up-front research into their chemical and physical properties as well as their potential health and environmental consequences is lacking. History has provided us with several exam...

  8. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, H.; Steger, F.

    1984-03-01

    About 120 samples of natural and manufactured building materials have been analyzed by gamma-spectrometry for their Thorium 232-, Radium 226- and Potassium 40 - content. Granites showed generally the greatest amounts of the above mentioned radionuclides, whereas other natural products like sand, gravels, marbles and gypsum contained only traces of radionuclides. As regards the manufactured building materials only some types of bricks and chemical gypsum showed relatively high concentrations of radionuclides, while the rest of the bricks, tiles, plaster and accessory materials fulfilled the criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (Author)

  9. Sustainable materials for low carbon buildings

    OpenAIRE

    B.V. Venkatarama Reddy

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on certain issues pertaining to energy, carbon emissions and sustainability of building construction with particular reference to the Indian construction industry. Use of sustainable natural materials in the past, related durability issues, and the implications of currently used energy-intensive materials on carbon emissions and sustainability are discussed. Some statistics on the Indian construction sector regarding materials produced in bulk quantities and the energy impl...

  10. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  11. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  12. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoxiang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Wong, Jonathan Wc; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-04-04

    Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  13. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  14. Natural radioactivity for some Egyptian building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M. F.; Mostafa, R. M.; Shahin, F.; Hassan, K. F.; Saleh, Z. A.; Yahia, A.

    2007-01-01

    Study of the radiation hazards for the building materials is interested in most international countries. Measurements of natural radioactivity was verified for some egyptian building materials to assess any possible radiological hazard to man by the use of such materials. The measurements for the level of natural radioactivity in the materials was determined by γ-ray spectrum using HP Ge detector. A track detector Cr-39 was used to measure the radon exhalation rate from these materials. The radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 2.83±0.86 to 41.57 ± 8.38 mBqm -2 h -1 for egyptian alabaster. The absorbed dose rate in air is lower than the international recommended value (55 n Gy h -1 ) for all test samples

  15. Durability of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, JMPQ

    2013-01-01

    Durability of Building Materials and Components provides a collection of recent research works to contribute to the systematization and dissemination of knowledge related to the long-term performance and durability of construction and, simultaneously, to show the most recent advances in this domain. It includes a set of new developments in the field of durability, service life prediction methodologies, the durability approach for historical and old buildings, asset and maintenance management and on the durability of materials, systems and components. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  16. Risk to Krakow population of gamma radiation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Jasinska, M.

    1980-01-01

    A statistics was made of 7128 dwelling-houses considering their age, types of building materials and density of population. Gamma dose rates were measured by means of the TL and pressurized ionization chamber techniques inside 300 buildings and in 44 points outdoors over different kinds of beddings. Personal doses of 49 inhabitants of the buildings monitored were also recorded. By means of the spectrometric analysis of gamma radiation, and basing on a specially developed computational programme ''DOZA'' mean concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in 61 samples of building materials were evaluated. It was found that the mean personal dose rate as well as the mean indoor dose rate equals 5.7 urad/h /15.8 pGy/s/ and is about 19% higher than the dose outdoors which equals 4.8 urad/h /13.3 pGy/s/. Gamma dose rates inside the buildings made of gravel-sand concrete elements are about 10% lower than those in the buildings made of red bricks. Mean annual dose equivalent per capita from gamma radiation of building materials equals 40.6 mrem/y /406 uSv/y/, which constitutes about 57% of total annual dose equivalent per capita from all environmental sources of gamma radiation in the residential districts in Krakow. (author)

  17. BREEAM [Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method] BRE [Building Research Establishment] assessment method for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Buildings account for a large share of environmental impacts in their construction, use, and demolition. In western Europe, buildings account for ca 50% of primary energy use (hence CO 2 output), far outweighing the contribution of the transport and industrial sectors. Other impacts from building energy use include the use of chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. In the United Kingdom, the Building Research Establishment (BRE) has developed a certificate system for environmental labelling of buildings so that the performance of the building against a set of defined environmental criteria can be made visible to clients. This system thus rewards positive actions to improve the environmental performance of buildings and assists in marketing to an environmentally aware clientele. Issues included in assessments for awarding the certificate are addressed under three main headings: global issues and use of resources, local issues, and indoor issues. Global issues include ozone depletion and CO 2 emissions; local issues include public health and water conservation; and indoor issues include air quality and lighting. 8 refs., 1 tab

  18. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  19. International conventions for measuring radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2004-01-01

    In buildings, whether civil or industrial, natural radioactivity always occurs at different degrees in the materials (main building materials, decorative materials). Concerns on radioactivity from building materials is unavoidable for human living and developing. As a member of WTO, China's measuring method of radioactivity for building materials, including radionuclides limitation for building materials, hazard evaluation system etc, should keep accordance with the international rules and conventions. (author)

  20. Application of BIM technology in green building material management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhineng, Tong

    2018-06-01

    The current green building materials management system in China's construction industry is not perfect, and there are still many shortcomings. Active construction of green building materials management system based on BIM technology, combined with the characteristics of green building materials and its relationship with BIM technology application, is urgently needed to better realize the scientific management of green building materials.

  1. Radon exhalation study in cements and other building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Sharma, N.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, which is produced during the decay of radium, an element present in the naturally occurring uranium series. In the recent past, environmental scientists all over the world have been expressing great concern about the radiation hazard from radon and its short lived daughter products inside buildings. The radon concentration inside a building depends upon the radon exhalation from the building materials used for the construction and the soil underneath the building. In the present investigations, a comparative study for radon exhalation rate has been carried out in some Indian and Pakistani cements and other building materials being used locally such as sand, soil, bricks, marbles, CaCO 3 , POPs by using Track Etch Technique. The Pakistani cement with the trade name 'Elephant' shows the minimum mass exhalation rate while the Indian 'Birla White' cement has shown the maximum. Among the other building materials studied, CaCO 3 has shown the minimum, while local soil the maximum mass exhalation rate. Out of the fired clay bricks, roof tiles, floor tiles and different marbles, floor tiles have the minimum areal exhalation rate while roof tiles the maximum. (author)

  2. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  3. Effect of UV on building materials in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Building materials can be divided into two main classes; organic or polymeric based and inorganic materials. Inorganic materials are in most cases largely unaffected by UV radiation. Many common polymers have bonds sensitive to radiation in the UV region. Absorption of radiation of these wavelengths will lead to excitation of electrons which can lead to isomerisation, chain scissors, cross linking and free radical formation. It is worth noting that the effects of UV radiation are always acting synergistically with other environmental effects. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  5. Environmental science in building. 4. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, R.

    1998-05-01

    This well established book examines the science and technology of those provisions and services that are required in the built environment. The main considerations are the effects of heat, light and sound within buildings. In addition other essential requirements such as supplies of electricity and water are discussed. While the basic structure of the book remains the same in this new edition, all chapters are revised; some material is rearranged and several new sections are added. (author)

  6. Energy related environmental impact of buildings; Oekoinventar der Entsorgungsprozesse von Baumaterialien; Grundlagen zur Integration der Entsorgung in Oekobilanzen von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doka, G.

    2000-07-01

    Ecological assessments of buildings, constructions, and building materials are often focussed on the production and use phase. Disposal is mostly disregarded. This study within the IEA Annex 31 'Energy related environmental impact of buildings' shows that excluding disposal is not generally justified. A life cycle assessment of the disposal of various common building materials in Switzerland was conducted. It heeds energy consumption as well as directly or indirectly emitted pollutants. Valuation methods were Eco-indicator95+ and UBP (ecological scarcity). The study specifies disposal inventories for about 50 building materials. They are fit to complement inventory data for the production of materials. Unlike production, the disposal can only be assessed in the light of a specific building or construction. The potential for recycling is influenced by type of construction, application, and site-specific logistics. Durability of a material determines what proportion will be disposed of in renovation activities. Wherever possible and likely, disposal options with or without re-utilization are considered in the assessment. Building wastes are divided in construction wastes, renovation wastes, and demolition wastes, that can have quite different impact even for identical materials. The system boundary in the assessment includes expenditures on the building site like demolition energies, transports, expenditures in a sorting plant and the final disposal in an incinerator or landfill. According to the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape, 46% of all burnable building wastes in Switzerland are disposed of illegally. Hence, in one scenario the disposal in an open fire was assessed for burnable wastes. The assessments of the disposal processes are material-specific, i.e. the post use-phase composition of the materials is heeded. The data applies to the situation in Switzerland. The results of the study are compared to the impacts of the

  7. Radioisotopes present in building materials of workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Claro, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Corrêa, J. N.; Denyak, V.; Kappke, J.; Perna, A. F. N.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, T. O.; Rocha, Z.; Schelin, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    The isotope 222Rn is responsible for approximately half of the effective annual dose received by the world population. The decay products of 222Rn interacting with the cells of biological tissue of lungs have very high probability to induce cancer. The present survey was focused in the evaluation of activity concentration of 222Rn and other radioisotopes related to the building materials at workplaces at Curitiba - Paraná State. For this purpose, the instant radon detector AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) was used to measure the average concentrations of 222Rn in building materials, which were also submitted to gamma spectrometry analysis for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the radionuclides present in samples of sand, mortar, blue crushed stone (Gneissic rock), red crushed stone (Granite), concrete and red bricks. The main radionuclides evaluated by gamma spectrometry in building material samples were 238U/226Ra, 232Th and 40K. These measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development (CDTN - CNEN). The results of the survey present the concentration values of 222Rn related to construction materials in a range from 427±40.52 Bq/m³ to 2053±90.06 Bq/m³. The results of gamma spectroscopy analysis show that specific activity values for the mentioned isotopes are similar to the results indicated by the literature. Nevertheless, the present survey is showing the need of further studies and indicates that building materials can contribute significantly to indoor concentration of 222Rn.

  8. Advanced FRP for flooring in buildings: a low carbon material application in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yijian

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) are building materials that permit both the improvement of long-term building performance and the simplification of the construction process, thanks to their high specific strength, low thermal conductivity, good environmental resistance, and ability to be formed into complex shapes. FRP materials are well-suited to fulfilling many building functions. By integrating traditionally separate building systems and layers into single function-integrated components, a...

  9. Assessing sustainability of building materials in developing countries: the sustainable building materials index (SBMI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available performance. This paper reviews a selection of sustainability assessment and reporting methodologies in order understand the applicability of existing systems as a means of measuring sustainability of building materials in developing countries. The review...

  10. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  11. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  12. Photon activation analysis on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Heller, W.; Kupsch, H.

    1988-01-01

    With regard to the planned construction of a new microtron, first investigations on raw materials for the aerated concrete production have been done to clear up the possibilities of photon activation analysis (PAA). Irradiations have been partly carried out on linear accelerators with a self-developed moveable activation equipment. PAA results of qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis are described. The detection of chlorine is important for studying the oversalting processes in buildings. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity in building materials in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, S.; Faghihi, R.; Sina, S.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Iran. For this purpose, 177 samples of five types of building material, i.e. cement, gypsum, cement blocks, gravel and brick, were gathered from different regions of the country and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and a spectroscopy system. According to the results of this investigation, cement samples had maximum values of the mean Ra-226 and Th-232 concentrations, 39.6 and 28.9 Bq/kg, respectively, while the lowest value for mean concentration of these two radionuclides were found in gypsum samples 8.1 and 2.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The highest (851.4 Bq/kg) and lowest (116.2 Bq/kg) value of K-40 mean concentration were found in brick and gypsum samples, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were also calculated from the radioactivity content of the radionuclides. The results show that the maximum values of dose rate and annual effective dose equivalent were 53.72 nGy/h and 0.37 mSv/y in brick samples. The radium equivalent activities R eq calculated were below the permissible level of 370 Bq/kg for all building materials. The values of hazard indexes were below the recommended levels, therefore, it is concluded that the buildings constructed from such materials are safe for the inhabitants. The results of this study are consistent with the results of other investigations in different parts of the world. (authors)

  14. Proceedings of the workshop on cool building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Fishman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Frohnsdorff, G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building Materials Div.] [eds.

    1994-04-01

    The Option 9, Cool Communities, of the Clinton-Gore Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) calls for mobilizing community and corporate resources to strategically plant trees and lighten the surfaces of buildings and roads in order to reduce cooling energy use of the buildings. It is estimated that Cool Communities Project will potentially save over 100 billion kilowatt-hour of energy per year corresponding to 27 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2015. To pursue the CCAP`s objectives, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), organized a one-day meeting to (1) explore the need for developing a national plan to assess the technical feasibility and commercial potential of high-albedo (``cool``) building materials, and if appropriate, to (2) outline a course of action for developing the plan. The meeting took place on February 28, 1994, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The proceedings of the conference, Cool Building Materials, includes the minutes of the conference and copies of presentation materials distributed by the conference participants.

  15. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  16. Preservation of adobe buildings. Study of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa, A.; Rocha, F.; Costa, C.; Varum, H.

    2012-04-01

    Adobe buildings are common in the central region of Portugal due to the lack of natural stone in the surrounding area. This type of construction technique lasted until the 20th Century, at which time cementitious materials, with faster hardening and greater structural capacity substituted traditional materials and techniques. Currently, a significant percentage of these buildings is vacant and many are degraded and in need of conservation actions. Adobes from central Portugal are distinctive as they are lightly coloured and made from air lime and quarry sand. Although some adobes were manufactured locally, most were produced almost 'industrially' and sold to nearby regions. In order to preserve this heritage, conservation actions must be undertaken. So as to ensure the adequacy of these actions and compatibility between original materials and new ones, a thorough study of adobe compostion is mandatory. The current study is an initial step in the characterization of earth based construction materials from central Portugal. Adobe samples were collected from residential buildings in two different locations. The determination of the composition of adobe blocks encompassed the determination of the binder fraction and of their chemical composition and also the particle size analysis of the aggregate. For this purpose FRX analysis, acid dissolution and dry sieving were performed. Methylene blue test was also executed in order to determine the clay fraction. Additionally, the mineral composition of powder samples and oriented samples was performed using XRD analysis in order to determine the clay minerals present in the blocks. As adobe blocks are extremely prone to the action of water the Geelong test was undertaken in order to provide information in terms of durability. It was concluded that air lime was generally used in adobe compositions. However, the clay content varies in adobes from different regions, providing distinct durability characteristics to these materials.

  17. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with techno......Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...

  18. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  19. Recipes for porous building materials, More with less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.-B.; Bode, K.-A.; Beuthan, C.

    2012-01-01

    The building sector, comprising both buildings and infrastructure, is the largest consumer of energy and materials. As well as the huge amount of raw materials involved, enormous amounts of energy are also used for the production and transport of raw materials, building materials and products. Among

  20. Human exposure to emissions from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, S.; Hauschildt, P.; Pejtersen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    found on peak flow, eye foam formation, tear fluid cells, or conjunctival epithelial damage. Among subjective evaluations only sound intensity rating was significant. A correlation was found between acute nose irritation rating and change in nasal volume.Conclusions. The findings indicate physiological......Objectives. Reactions to emissions from building matrials were studied in a climate chamber as part of an intervention study in an office building. New and existing flooring materials were compared with regard to comfort and health.Methods. Twenty subjects were exposed four times for six hours...... respectively to clean air, to emissions from linoleum, from carpet, and from an alternative new vinyl. Measurements of objective and subjective effects were made.Results. Tear film stability decreased after exposure to linoleum. The nasal volume decreased near-significantly for all exposures. No effects were...

  1. Green Template for Life Cycle Assessment of Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling: Focus on Embodied Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased popularity of building information modeling (BIM for application in the construction of eco-friendly green buildings has given rise to techniques for evaluating green buildings constructed using BIM features. Existing BIM-based green building evaluation techniques mostly rely on externally provided evaluation tools, which pose problems associated with interoperability, including a lack of data compatibility and the amount of time required for format conversion. To overcome these problems, this study sets out to develop a template (the “green template” for evaluating the embodied environmental impact of using a BIM design tool as part of BIM-based building life-cycle assessment (LCA technology development. Firstly, the BIM level of detail (LOD was determined to evaluate the embodied environmental impact, and constructed a database of the impact factors of the embodied environmental impact of the major building materials, thereby adopting an LCA-based approach. The libraries of major building elements were developed by using the established databases and compiled evaluation table of the embodied environmental impact of the building materials. Finally, the green template was developed as an embodied environmental impact evaluation tool and a case study was performed to test its applicability. The results of the green template-based embodied environmental impact evaluation of a test building were validated against those of its actual quantity takeoff (2D takeoff, and its reliability was confirmed by an effective error rate of ≤5%. This study aims to develop a system for assessing the impact of the substances discharged from concrete production process on six environmental impact categories, i.e., global warming (GWP, acidification (AP, eutrophication (EP, abiotic depletion (ADP, ozone depletion (ODP, and photochemical oxidant creation (POCP, using the life a cycle assessment (LCA method. To achieve this, we proposed an LCA method

  2. MDOT Materials Laboratories : Environmental Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this EMP was to develop and implement a comprehensive Environmental : Management Plan for MDOT Materials Laboratories. This goal was achieved through : perfonnance of environmental audits to identify potential environmental impacts, and b...

  3. Indoor environmental quality in French dwellings and building characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sarka; Ramalho, Olivier; Derbez, Mickaël; Ribéron, Jacques; Kirchner, Severine; Mandin, Corinne

    2016-03-01

    A national survey on indoor environmental quality covering 567 residences in mainland France was performed during 2003-2005. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, CO2, and the indoor air pollutants: fourteen individual volatile organic compounds (VOC), four aldehydes and particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. The measured indoor concentrations were analyzed for correlations with the building characteristics: type of dwelling, period of construction, dwelling location, type of ventilation system, building material, attached garage and retrofitting. The median night time air exchange rate (AER) for all dwellings was 0.44 h-1. The night time AER was higher in apartments (median = 0.49 h-1) than in single-family houses (median = 0.41 h-1). Concentration of formaldehyde was approximately 30% higher in dwellings built after 1990 compared with older ones; it was higher in dwellings with mechanical ventilation and in concrete buildings. The VOC concentrations depended on the building characteristics to various extents. The sampling season influenced the majority of the indoor climate parameters and the concentrations of the air pollutants to a higher degree than the building characteristics. Multivariate linear regression models revealed that the indoor-outdoor difference in specific humidity, a proxy for number of occupants and their indoor activities, remained a significant predictor for most gaseous and particulate air pollutants. The other strong predictors were outdoor concentration, smoking, attached garage and AER (in descending order).

  4. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  5. Towards The Adaptation of Green Building Material Systems to the Egyptian Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif Mohamed Sabry Elattar; Eman Badawy Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This research briefly reviews the definition and the principles of green architecture, making a comparison between the global green building rating systems in respect to materials only. These systems are the [1, 2]Green Pyramid, BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method), [3] LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and the [4] Green Star in the form of Credits %, importance and its Requirements.The research Aims to evaluate the green building material ...

  6. Environmental and Energy Aspects of Construction Industry and Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Green building is an important component of sustainable real estate market development, and one of the reasons is that the construction industry consumes a high amount of resources. Energy consumption of construction industry results in greenhouse gas emissions, so green buildings, energy systems, building technologies and other aspects play an important role in sustainable development of real estate market, construction and environmental development. The aim of the research is to analyse environmental aspects of sustainable real estate market development, focusing on importance of green buildings at the industry level and related energy aspects. Literature review, historical, statistical data analysis and logical access methods have been used in the research. The conducted research resulted in high environmental rationale and importance of environment-friendly buildings, and there are many green building benefits during the building life cycle. Future research direction is environmental information process and its models.

  7. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  8. Environmental management and monitoring for education building development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of research were (1) a conceptual, functional model designed and implementation for environmental management and monitoring for education building development, (2) standard operational procedure made for management and monitoring for education building development, (3) assessed physic-chemical, biological, social-economic environmental components so that fulfilling sustainable development, (4) environmental management and monitoring program made for decreasing negative and increasing positive impact in education building development activities. Descriptive method is used for the research. Cibiru UPI Campus, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia was study location. The research was conducted on July 2016 to January 2017. Spatial and activities analysis were used to assess physic-chemical, biological, social-economic environmental components. Environmental management and monitoring for education building development could be decreasing water, air, soil pollution and environmental degradation in education building development activities.

  9. Environmental performances of gas pipe materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nifterik, G.

    1996-01-01

    In constructing new gas pipelines energy distribution companies are increasingly dealing with the question of which material has the lowest environmental impact. Gastec (Dutch gas research institute) and the 'Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden' (Centre for Environmental Studies of the University of Leiden) studied and compared the environmental aspects of such materials. The study concerns the entire life cycle from raw materials production through digging and welding or fusion joining to the moment the materials are discarded as waste. 2 figs

  10. Flammability tests for regulation of building and construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Sumathipala

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of building materials and products for flammability is critical to ensure the safety of occupants in buildings and other structures. The involvement of exposed building materials and products in fires resulting in the loss of human life often spurs an increase in regulation and new test methods to address the problem. Flammability tests range from those...

  11. Straw insulated buildings. Nature building materials; Strohgedaemmte Gebaeude. Naturbaustoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Straw is one of the major agricultural by-products and is mainly used as litter in animal husbandry and to compensate the balance of humus. A relatively recent development is the use of straw bales for the construction of buildings. The brochure under consideration documents the technical development of straw construction in Germany. Possibilities of the use of straw in single family homes up to commercial buildings are described.

  12. Cardboard Based Packaging Materials as Renewable Thermal Insulation of Buildings: Thermal and Life Cycle Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Čekon, Miroslav; Struhala, Karel; Slávik, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cardboard based packaging components represent a material with a significant potential of renewable exploitation in buildings. This study presents the results of thermal and environmental analysis of existing packaging materials compared with standard conventional thermal insulations. Experimental measurements were performed to identify the thermal performance of studied cardboard packaging materials. Real-size samples were experimentally tested in laboratory measurements. The thermal resi...

  13. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m −3 , accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). - Highlights: ► Neopentyl glycol is reported in emissions from building materials for the first time. ► Neopentyl glycol dominates the VOC emissions from cement-based building materials. ► A dual chamber was developed to control diffusion through building materials. ► Building materials facilitate diffusion of indoor air pollutants through their pores. - Neopentyl glycol was detected in high concentrations in emissions from building materials.

  14. Environmental design - an emerging field of study for professionals in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, N.; Paul, J.

    2004-01-01

    Despite differences in definition, perspective and priorities, sustainable design has become a critical challenge for building design professionals in the 21st century. The major issue is how best to manage/maintain the interconnections between ecological conditions and balances, on the one hand, and social needs and priorities, on the other. This paper has attempted to examine how the field of environmental design has been evolved; how global environmental issues relate to the built environment; what professional commitments have been made to improve the environmental quality of buildings? Finally, it argues the need for environmental-design education in Pakistan and introduces a recently developed/launched degree-programme in environmental design for building professionals (architects, civil engineers, planners and designers) through distance learning methodology. (author)

  15. Valorisation of phosphogypsum as building material: Radiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayibi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, alternative uses of phosphogypsum (PG in the building industry are being considered in several countries; however, the natural radioactivity level in the PG could be a restriction for those uses. United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA classified PG as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM. This drawback could be avoided controlling its percentage in the cement preparation and the radionuclides content in the other raw materials used in its production, and calculating the activity concentration index (I in the final by-products. The valorization of PG as a building material has been studied, from a radiological point of view, by developing a new stabilisation/solidification process. PG is incorporated within a polymeric sulphur matrix, obtaining a concrete-like material, which presents lower natural radioactive content than the initial PG. The 226Ra content of this material ranged between 26-27 Bq·kg-1 and it is quite similar to that of common Spanish building materials.

    Actualmente, en muchos países se está contemplando el uso alternativo del fosfoyeso (PG en la industria de la construcción, aunque su contenido en radionucleidos naturales puede presentar ciertas restricciones para dicha aplicación (material clasificado por la US-EPA como TENORM: “Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Materials. No obstante, estos inconvenientes podrían paliarse controlando el porcentaje del PG y los niveles de radioactividad en las materias primas a incorporar al cemento y calculando el índice de concentración de actividad (I en los productos finales. La valorización del PG como material de construcción se ha estudiado en este trabajo desde el punto de vista radiológico, desarrollando un nuevo proceso de estabilización/solidificación, obteniéndose un material de características similares al cemento y que presenta menor contenido de radionucleidos naturales que el

  16. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for residential or farm building construction. Section 3(n) of the Act, as amended, excludes from... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND...

  17. Buildings and Health. Educational campaign for healthy buildings. Educational material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    In recent years health and comfort problems associated with the indoor climate have come to constitute a problem in Sweden. To come to grips with this a nationwide educational campaign on Buildings and Health is being run. It is directed to those involved in planning, project design, construction and management of buildings. The objective is to convey a body of knowledge to the many occupational and professional groups in the construction sector on how to avoid indoor climate problems in homes, schools, offices and other workplaces. The campaign is being run by the Swedish National Board of Housing and Planning and the Swedish Council for Building Research, in co-operation with various organizations and companies in the construction industry, and with municipalities and authorities. The knowledge which is being disseminated through the campaign is summarized in this compendium. figs., tabs.

  18. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  19. Building lifespan: effect on the environmental impact of building components in a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    of building lifespan are inadequately addressed. The aim of this research is therefore to explore how environmental impact from building components is affected by building lifespans of 50, 80, 100 and 120 years in a Danish context. LCAs are undertaken for 792 parametric variations of typical construction...... solutions, covering all primary building components and based on contemporary practice. A full statistical analysis is carried out, which shows a significant statistical correlation between changes in building lifespan and environmental impact for all primary building components, except windows......Construction professionals must now integrate environmental concerns with life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the procurement process. Building lifespan is important to LCA, since results must be normalized on an annualized basis for comparison. However, the scientific literature shows that issues...

  20. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  1. Designed materials: what and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Jyotirmoy; Dutta, Debasish; Ghosh, Amit K.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    2003-03-01

    Quest for a material to suit the service performance is almost as old as human civilization. So far materials engineers have developed a series of alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites to serve many of the performance requirements in a modern society. However, challenges appear when one needs to satisfy more than one boundary condition. For example, a component with negative Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) using a ductile metal was almost impossible until recently. Synthesis of various technologies such as Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) Homogenization Design Method (HDM) and mutli material Computer Aided Design (CAD) was necessary to achieve this goal. Rapid fabrication of three-dimensional shapes of engineering materials such as H13 tool steel and nickel super alloys are now possible using Direct Materials Deposition (DMD) technique as well as similar techniques such as Light Engineered New Shaping (LENS) or Directed Light Fabrication (DLF). However, DMD has closed loop capability that enables better dimension and thermal cycle control. This enables one to deposit different material at different pixels with a given height directly from a CAD drawing. The feedback loop also controls the thermal cycle. H13 tool steel is one of the difficult alloys for deposition due to residual stress accumulation from martensitic transformation. However, it is the material of choice for the die and tool industry. DMD has demonstrated successful fabrication of complicated shapes and dies and tools, even with H13 alloys. This process also offers copper chill blocks and water-cooling channels as the integral part of the tool. On the other hand ZrO2 was co-deposited with nickel super alloys using DMD. Flexibility of the process is enormous and essentially it is an enabling technology to marterialize many a design. Using DMD in conjunction with HDM and multi-material CAD, one can produce components with predetermined performance such as negative co-efficient of expansion, by

  2. What on earth is environmental economics?

    OpenAIRE

    Briguglio, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Although there are as yet few “environmental economists”, the subject seems to be generating quite a bit of curiosity, mingled, perhaps, with a touch of skepticism. The idea of “green” economics really is quite intriguing, even if may seem somewhat obscure: what do you get if you cross a hard-nosed economist with a flower-child?

  3. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margo M.

    1993-01-01

    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  4. Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Spengler, John; Vallarino, Jose; Santanam, Suresh; Satish, Usha; Allen, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. 24 participants were then selected to be relocated to the Syracuse Center of Excellence, a LEED platinum building, for six workdays. While they were there, ventilation, CO 2 , and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels were changed on different days to match the IEQ of conventional, green, and green+ (green with increased ventilation) buildings. Participants reported improved air quality, odors, thermal comfort, ergonomics, noise and lighting and fewer health symptoms in green buildings prior to relocation. After relocation, participants consistently reported fewer symptoms during the green building conditions compared to the conventional one, yet symptom counts were more closely associated with environmental perceptions than with measured IEQ. On average, participants had 4.7 times the odds of reporting a lack of air movement, 1.4 more symptoms (p-value = 0.019) and a 2 bpm higher heart rate (p-value green and conventional buildings is driven by both environmental perceptions and physiological pathways.

  5. What Academia Can Gain from Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierschem, David; McMillen, Jeremy; McBroom, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, when used effectively, data warehouses can be a significant component of strategic decision making on campus. Discusses what a data warehouse is and what its informational contents may include, environmental drivers and obstacles, and strategies to justify developing a data warehouse for an academic institution. (EV)

  6. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  7. Buildings materials and raw materials as a source of exposition of population of the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents specific activities of potassium-40, radium-226, thorium-232 and equivalent of specific activity in some building materials and raw materials used at building-up of flats in the Slovak Republic

  8. Durability of Building Materials Vol 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Facility management has become another business management discipline and the transfer of building data from design and construction into management has been neglected. The needs of building managers need to be specified and standardised to aallow designers to provide data in the form required....

  9. Solar energy systems: Sustainable or not? Environmental effects of materials of solar systems with Eco-Quantum: the break even point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapen, M.; Anink, D.; Donze, G.

    2000-01-01

    Solar systems seem a sustainable way of providing energy. But are nowadays PV-systems with materials like heavy metals sustainable? Is PV really environmentally sound with the actual efficiency? And what about solar collectors? This paper provides the answers and indicates improvement options for solar systems to make them more overall sustainable in the future. With Eco-Quantum, a simulation tool for analysing the environmental performance of buildings, the overall environmental profit of buildings with PV-systems and solar collectors is shown. It calculates the environmental effects during the entire life cycle of a complete building ('cradle to grave'). This includes the impact of energy and water use, maintenance during use phase, differences in durability of parts or construction needs, like adhesives and nails. The basis of Eco-Quantum is environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). IEA BCS Annex 31 indicated Eco-Quantum as one of the most sophisticated tools to calculate environment al performance of a build ing. The results of Eco-Quantum are the environmental indicators: Exhaustion of resources; Emissions; Energy and Waste. Options like PV and solar collectors are investigated in a reference building. On the one hand the energy during use is reduced by the options. On the other hand the environmental effects because of materials exhaustion of resources and emissions during production is increased as a consequence of additional material use. (au)

  10. Influence of building materials process technology on radon exhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Wang Chunhong; Liu Senlin; Ji Dong; Zhang Yonggui; Pan Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    The building materials were produced through changing raw material ingredient, baking temperature, pressure difference between surface and interior of building material, grain diameter etc. Experiment indicates that change of raw material ingredient ratio can obviously influence the radon exhalation from building material, followed by baking temperature; and pressure difference does not have significant influence on radon exhalation. For the factory to produce shale-brick, the radon exhalation is relatively low under the condition that coal gangue accounts for 40%-50%, the grain diameter is less than 2 mm, the baking temperature is about 960 degree C or 1 020 degree C and the pressure difference is 85 kPa. (authors)

  11. Dependence of indoor 222Rn level on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, M.W.; Ng, C.; Leung, J.K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The radionuclide contents of typical building materials used in Hong Kong were studied by γ spectroscopic analysis. The physical properties of these building materials affecting the production and transportation of 222 Rn to the surrounding air were examined; these include the emanation coefficient of 2 '2 2 Rn of the material, the diffusion coefficient of 222 Rn in the material and the effect of surface coating and temperature on the rate of 222 Rn exhalation. Results obtained in this study explain the indoor 222 Rn concentration observed in our previous surveys and also suggest that the main source of indoor 222 Rn in Hong Kong is building material. (3 figs., 4 tabs.)

  12. Environmental zoning for service life prediction of building components in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathoni U; Rohayu C O; Zakaria C M

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between building materials and environment are very complex. More often than not, deterioration of building component is due to environmental loads with the result of reducing its durability. The environmental loads are less overlooked or underestimated in early design phase. Objective of this study is to distinguish the difference of environmental load for different area in Malaysia. The environmental data consist of climate and pollution data which extracted from the Malaysia Meteorology Department's data bank. From this study, six different environmental zones in Malaysia are distinguished. There are different characteristic of environmental parameters found where some of them dominant to others. This information can assist the engineer to justify the use of different technology, material or construction method in construction industry.

  13. University Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design: How Postsecondary Institutions Use the LEEDRTM Green Building Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Shannon Massie

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive, exploratory study focused on how institutions of higher education have used the United States Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]) Green Building Rating system. It employed statistical methods to assess which types of universities have used LEED, what ratings they earned, and…

  14. Environmental and economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction: practical case study in the Italian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Galli, Alessandro; Pulselli, Riccardo Maria; Niccolucci, Valentina

    2007-11-01

    This paper focuses on appropriation of natural capital through construction of buildings. The ecological footprint and the Costanza natural capital concepts are applied. The environmental consequences of human settlement are currently of great concern, and a need is felt to reduce the impact of building on the environment. The embodied energy of building materials and the "land area" required to sustain their production are considered to evaluate the demand on nature of this activity. The ecological footprints of 2 typical Italian buildings are compared. The paper also focuses on how to reduce the natural capital appropriation of building construction by means of environmentally inexpensive materials, renewable energy resources, and optimization of the use of bioproductive land by construction of multistoried buildings. Finally, to allocate an environmental load of buildings, an economic evaluation of natural capital appropriation through building construction is proposed.

  15. The measurement theory of radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jinhui; Wang Renbo; Zhang Xiongjie; Tan Hai; Zhu Zhipu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity in Building Materials is the main source of natural radiation dose that the individual is received, which has caused serious concern of all Social Sector. The paper completely introduce the measurement theory of the Radioactivity in Building Materials along with the measurement principle of natural radioactivity, design of shielding facility, choosing measurement time, sample prepared and spectrum analyzed. (authors)

  16. Gamma spectrometric method for measuring natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-11-01

    The natural 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrations of building materials were determined by gamma spectrometry. Altogether 121 samples from all over Hungary, one from each factory producing building materials, were examined. The presented data had preliminary character. The results were compared to the relating ones from abroad. (Sz.N.Z.)

  17. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  18. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  19. RESOURCE MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the importance of linking environmental issues with educational ... the teacher's role and status, gender discrimination, ... school teachers are dedicated to their work and are ... been developed and shaped through critical reflection .... Ongoing literature reviews and deepening theoretical ... orientations to research stress the.

  20. GREEN OAK AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical documentation necessary for a project demonstrating the viability of green oak as a contemporary structural material. These will include material grading guidelines, mechanical testing, architectural construction documents and details, specifications, engineering cal...

  1. Building materials as sources of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    1992-11-01

    The thesis deals with the radioactivity of Finnish building materials and of industrial wastes or residues which can be used as building materials or as mixing substances of such materials. The external and internal exposure to radiation from building materials is described. The study also discusses with the methods used for measuring concentrations of natural and artificial gamma emitters in different kinds of materials and the amount of radon exhaling from building materials. A computational method for assessing the gamma ray exposure inside dwellings is desribed, and the results are compared with those of other corresponding methods. The results of the simple method described here are in good agreement with those obtained with the more refined Monte Carlo technique

  2. Research Progress of Building Materials Used in Construction Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Construction land preparation is an important aspect of land remediation project. The research of materials in the process of land improvement is the foundation and the core. Therefore, it is necessary to study the materials that may be involved in the process of building land preparation. In this paper, the research on the construction materials such as recycled concrete, geosynthetics, soil stabilizers, soil improvers, building insulation materials and inorganic fibrous insulation materials, which are commonly used in construction sites, is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Land remediation project involved in the construction of land materials to provide reference.

  3. Radioactivity assessment of some building materials from Little Poland Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Mazur, J.; Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J.; Tracz, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the paper are presented the results of building materials analysis connected with radiation protection. The concentration of natural radioactive elements (K, U, Th), and the values of f 1 and f 2 coefficients are measured for these materials. The values for ceramic building materials and for cellular concretes are composed. The utility of f 2 parameter is unformally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  4. PLACE-BASED GREEN BUILDING: INTEGRATING LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND PLANNING ANALYSIS INTO GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project will develop a model for place-based green building guidelines based on an analysis of local environmental, social, and land use conditions. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a methodology and model for placing green buildings within their local cont...

  5. Measurement of naturally occurring radioactive materials in commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Building materials can cause significant gamma dose indoors, due to their natural radioactivity content. The knowledge of the natural radioactivity level of building materials is important for determination of population exposure, as most people spend 80-90% of their time indoors furthermore, it is useful in setting the standards and national guidelines for the use and management of these materials. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials vary depending on the local geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. The aim of the study is to determine levels of natural radionuclide in the commonly used building materials in Hyderabad, India

  6. Material characterization models and test methods for historic building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Predictions of long term hygrothermal performance can be assessed by dynamic hygrothermal simulations, in which material parameters are crucial input. Material parameters for especially historic materials are often unknown; therefore, there is a need to determine important parameters, and simple...

  7. Natural radioactivity level of main building materials in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Caifeng; Lu Xinwei; Li Nan; Yang Guang

    2012-01-01

    A survey was done on natural radioactivity level and annual effective dose rate of main building materials in Baotou, China. The natural radionuclides of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in main building materials collected from Baotou were measured using NaI γ-ray spectrometry and the measured data were analyzed according to the national standards and radiological protection principles of the European Commission. The specific activities of 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in the building materials samples were 218.82-1145.92, 19.75-1.32.50 and 11.46-82.66 Bq/kg, respectively. The internal and external exposure indexes of building materials were 0.06-0.41 and 0.28-0.70, respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent was 0.41-0.97 mSv/y. This justifies the production and sale of the main building materials, as both the internal and external exposure indexes of building materials are less than 1. The effective dose rate of ash brick is 0.97 mSv/y, while the maximum acceptable value is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount of industrial waste residue in building materials to avoid unnecessary radioactive exposure to residents. (authors)

  8. Protection of historic buildings against environmental pollution of vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Koczwara Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historic buildings in Poland are largely neglected objects that small percentage is preserved in its original form. Unrelenting in the case of historic buildings is a time that brings with it the natural processes of aging of buildings, but also the history of the object which is often marked by military conflicts, fires or even incompetently carried out reconstruction. Nowadays historic buildings are also destroyed by the rapid development of infrastructure and residential construction. This development could lead to changes of water in the soil, make changes in the geologic al structure or cause exposure of the historic building to the new influences (eg. traffic vibrations, to which building has not been subjected so far. Vibrations are often omitted in environmental issues, although the protection against noise and vibration has its place in the Law on Environmental Protection. This article presents the methodology for the measurement and interpretation of vibration influence on historic buildings and the assessment methods of technical condition of historic building on the example of dynamic measurements made on St. Nicholas Church in Krakow. The importance of well-done crack-by-crack documentation and characterization of damages based on damage index is shown. Difficulties that can be encountered when determining the causes of technical condition of historic buildings are also shown. Based on the example of the Church in the article are also given the possible protection solutions of historic structures from vibrations.

  9. Investigations of radioactivity of building raw and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Jagielak, J.; Lipinski, P.

    1993-01-01

    In 1980, Ministry of Building and Building Materials Industry, the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection (abbreviated as CLRP), Ministry of Health and Social Welfare have agreed to issue the compulsory regulation of performing the validation of investigations of building raw and materials. Methods of measurement, apparatus and method of evaluation of results of the investigations have been recommended for the whole country. The following two criteria of usefulness of a building material for housing and public building have been accepted, f 1 = 0.00027 S K + 0.0027 S Ra0 .0043 S Th ≤ 1 (this one limit exposition of the whole body to gamma radiation); f 2 = S Ra ≤ 185 Bq/kg (this one limits exposition of lung epithelium to progeny of radon 222 Rn exhaled from the building walls). The CLRP and Institute of Building Technology supervise over correctness (agreement with the regulations) of operation of laboratories in Departments of Building Industry and Energy, organize training of the personnel and collect results of the measurements. From 1980 till 1991, results of measurements of 6550 samples from 550 localities were collected in computer data base organized in CLRP. In this paper, results of examination of selected groups of building raw and materials have been presented. Annual average values of the qualification coefficients f 1 and f 2 have been also analyzed. (author). 7 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  11. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  13. Increase in buildings sustainability by using renewable materials and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milutiene, Edita [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania); Lithuanian Solar Energy Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); Straw Houses Builders' Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); Staniskis, Jurgis K. [Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Kaunas (Lithuania); Krucius, Audrys [Straw Houses Builders' Association, Kaunas (Lithuania); JSK ' ' Ecococon' ' , Kaunas (Lithuania); Auguliene, Vida [Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, Kaunas (Lithuania); Ardickas, Daumilas [University of Cambridge, Girton College, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Sustainable development could be seen as indispensable condition for survival of civilization. Construction sector is a field with immediate need for reducing environmental impacts. Sustainability measures applied for buildings could produce very efficient results to the people. The paper provides the methods of construction sustainability increase by researching, developing, and applying the technologies which use renewable materials and energy. The paper analyzes the cases of both a solar eco house which was built of original prefabricated straw-bale panels and was designed to use direct solar energy; and an educational project promoting straw-bale construction and seeking to mitigate climate change. The project results have shown the need of spreading information on sustainable building methods to be accepted by wider society and to be applied to the construction industry. Monitoring of solar ecohouse has proved that direct solar energy gains are significant in reducing heating degree-days in 55 N latitude and in allowing to save half the energy needed for heating. (orig.)

  14. Energy-efficient buildings are environmentally friendly, architecturally attractive and economically compelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa, Latifa Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Standard building construction is wasteful, toxic, and is destroying the environment. It produced buildings that operate independently of its natural surrounding and depended heavily on mechanical systems that run with fossil fuel to create comfortable indoor environment. These buildings caused a wide range of health and environmental problems. The concern about the consequences of standard building construction have prompted countless experiments and design improvements to make built environment more energy efficient, less reliant on potentially limited fossil fuels and more reliant on renewable energy resources. The application of energy efficient technologies can make significant contribution to meeting the building and construction sector's energy demand, while at the same time providing better built environment, offering more comfortable living and working conditions for the users, cleaner and healthier in-outdoor environment, and cost no more to build. The proposes of the paper are to: 1-Promote the implementation of Energy-Efficient buildings through vigorous efforts, by engaging government agencies, design professions, engineers, and construction industry in the task of radically improving the performance of our buildings, neighborhoods, and cities. 2-Educate the general public (the consumers) that Energy-Efficient Building is good for their well-being, to their pocket and to the environment.3-Demonstrate that Energy-efficient Building are with highest standards of architecture design, the highest quality living and working environment and within a reasonable budget. The paper describes the technological options available for dealing sensibly with energy and focuses on the important areas of new building constructions and building refurbishment together with its specific energy requirements. The approach presented in this paper is just one of many methods of planning energy efficient buildings.This paper is part of the effort to promote Energy

  15. Sustainable materials in building and architecture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available of heavy and bulky materials and opened up the era of prefabricated elements and product catalogues. At the same time, new materials were invented. Notwithstanding this, timber and timber-derived products, masonry units of clay and cement, concrete, steel...

  16. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S. Thomas, E-mail: tstng@hkucc.hku.hk; Chen Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan4@gmail.com; Wong, James M.W., E-mail: jmwwong@hku.hk

    2013-01-15

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA

  17. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, S. Thomas; Chen Yuan; Wong, James M.W.

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: ► Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. ► Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. ► Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. ► Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA schemes. ► A more transparent and comprehensive framework for carbon assessment is required.

  18. Fate and transport of fragrance materials in principal environmental sinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Yan, Song; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2013-10-01

    Fragrance materials are widely present in the environment, such as air, water, and soil. Concerns have been raised due to the increasing utilization and suspected impact on human health. The bioaccumulating property is considered as one of the causes of the toxicity to human beings. The removal of fragrance materials from environmental sinks has not been paid enough attention due to the lack of regulation and research on their toxicity. This paper provides systematic information on how fragrance materials are transferred to the environment, how do they affect human lives, and what is their fate in water, wastewater, wastewater sludge, and soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    OpenAIRE

    Oladipupo OLOMO; Olufikayo ADERINLEWO; Moses TANIMOLA; Silvana CROOPE

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive) tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concr...

  20. Sensory ratings of emissions from nontraditional building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kolarik, Jakub; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five subjects assessed the emissions from building materials: linoleum, cement mortar with and without fly ash, gypsum board and tiles with air cleaning properties and natural organic sheep wool. The ratings were made at different material loadings and in combinations with linoleum....... The results showed that except for natural organic product, increasing loading and combining materials with linoleum increased intensity of odor....

  1. Building Investigation: Material or Structural Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof M.Z.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structures such as roof trusses will not suddenly collapse without ample warning such as significant deflection, tilting etc. if the designer manages to avoid the cause of structural failure at the material level and the structural level. This paper outlines some principles and procedures of PDCA circle and QC tools which can show some clues of structural problems in terms of material or structural performance

  2. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, André; Brito, Jorge de

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environmental impacts of different demolition practices. ► “Top-down” approach to the Life Cycle Analysis methodology. ► Results based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities. ► Not every type of selective demolition brings about environmental benefits. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is “top-down” rather than “bottom-up”, which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred).

  3. Radiological evaluation of building materials used in Malumfashi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in building materials (sand, cement, blocks, granite, and paints) used in the construction of buildings in Malumfashi local Government area of Katsina state, Nigeria were determined by means of a gamma-ray spectrometry system using Sodium Iodide thallium activated (NaI(Tl)) detector in a low background configuration.

  4. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.; Lu, X.; Zhao, C.; Li, N.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings. (authors)

  5. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  6. Mechanical behavior of sustainable building materials using PET waste and industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez, C. A; Mendoza-Rangel, J. M; González, J. R; Rodríguez, J. A; Valdez, P

    2015-01-01

    The building industry is facing the challenge of satisfying a growing demand for housing spaces that can be mitigated by the use of construction materials manufactured with industrial by-products that allow the production of low-cost housing with a low environmental impact. In this research, an alternative building system to manufacture lightweight masonry blocks with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and fiber-reinforced panels using binary mixture (Portland cement and fly ash), was s...

  7. Radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1982-01-01

    A review of radiological consequences of radioactive substances in building materials is given. Where the other contributing papers are dealing with technical problems and measuring techniques, this paper is going beyond the term dose and is considering the risk by radioactive substances in building materials in relation to conventional risks. The present state of international standards is also discussed. If a limit of 1 mSv is adopted, it is shown that this limit is just met at present conditions. (Author) [de

  8. Conceptual Developments & Capacity Building in Environmental Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Moving from largely command and control measures in the 70s and 80s, through cleaner production and self-regulatory initiatives in the 90s, the emphasis in the new millennium is more on using networks and partnerships as levers for promoting a greening of industry. Predominantly since the 1992 Rio...... corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among the highlighted alternatives to governmental regulation. While being promoted as an option...... for governments in the South to make up for lack of sufficient environmental legislation and enforcement, the majority of these examples, however, stem from countries in the North. In terms of public–private partnerships, one of the foremost Danish initiatives is the Green Network in the former county of Vejle...

  9. Building materials. VOC emissions, diffusion behaviour and implications from their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Leva, Paolo; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2012-10-01

    Five cement- and five lime-based building materials were examined in an environmental chamber for their emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Typical VOCs were below detection limits, whereas not routinely analysed VOCs, like neopentyl glycol (NPG), dominated the cement-based products emissions, where, after 72 h, it was found to occur, in levels as high as 1400 μg m(-3), accounting for up to 93% of total VOCs. The concentrations of NPG were not considerably changed between the 24 and 72 h of sampling. The permeability of building materials was assessed through experiments with a dual environmental chamber; it was shown that building materials facilitate the diffusion of chemicals through their pores, reaching equilibrium relatively fast (6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dataset of Atmospheric Environment Publication in 2016, Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants’ sorption on building materials and consumer products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains OPFR sorption concentrations on building materials and consumer...

  11. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  12. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  13. Post-material values and environmental policy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, N. (International Inst. for Environmental and Society, Berlin, Germany); Wandesforde-Smith, G.

    Environmental policy may be particularly suited as a vehicle to articulate post-material values in advanced industrial societies, and recognition of this is likely to prove enormously helpful in future comparative and cross-national research into the origins of environmentalism and the causes of environmental policy change. The paper notes the salient characteristics of post-materialism and the overlap of these with the leading indicators of environmentalism. Possible structural causes for this overlap are noted and opposed to the prevailing socialization explanation for the adoption of post-material and environmental values. To help understand the impact of environmentalism on policy, an idealized development of the movement is sketched. This leads to the description of a set of general factors likely to be related to the way environmentalism finds political expressions in various countries. In the final section, the focus is on what we might want to know about the policy process in order to be able to gauge environmentalist influence on policy outputs. 20 references.

  14. Parameters for Building Materials Specifications in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Oluwole Folorunso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility of specifying materials for building construction purposes within Nigeria rests on the architects. Understanding the appropriate parameters for specifying building materials that could lead to immense financial proportion is required from the architects. The level of understanding and knowledge of architects is germane to the optimum performance of buildings throughout their life cycle. The methodology applied for this research involved the administration of a structured questionnaire on professional architects within the study area to determine the basis of their decision on the materials they specify or chose for building finishes. The parameters used to measure the specification of materials for finishes are client’s choice, cost, climatic compliance, and maintenance demand of materials. Findings show that the maintenance demand of materials is the most important factor that determines the specification of materials irrespective of the choice of client and climate. However, cost occupies a prominent role in the decision process. It also shows that most architects are not fully aware about the role of climate in determining the life cycle of materials in tropical environments. The compliance of materials to ever-changing climate does not constitute a major factor in the specification of materials in the area.

  15. The analysis of radon diffusion through the buildings materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grujic, S.; Radukin-Kosanovic, A.; Bikit, I.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since people most of the time spent indoors it is of great importance to analyse the radon diffusion through different types of materials, in order to prevent the increase of its concentration in the interior of buildings. The paper examined six different types of materials used in construction, mainly in the insulating purposes, in order to determine the material, or a combination of appropriate type and thickness of material which have a smaller value of diffusion coefficient of radon. (author) [sr

  16. Corrosion Detection of Reinforcement of Building Materials with Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Peng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of reinforced materials in the construction industry has raised increased concerns about their safety and durability, while corrosion detection of steel materials is becoming increasingly important. For the scientific management, timely repair and health monitoring of construction materials, as well as to ensure construction safety and prevent accidents, this paper investigates corrosion detection on construction materials based on piezoelectric sensors. At present, the commonly used corrosion detection methods include physical and electrochemical methods, but there are shortcomings such as large equipment area, low detection frequency, and complex operation. In this study an improved piezoelectric ultrasonic sensor was designed, which could not only detect the internal defects of buildings while not causing structural damage, but also realize continuous detection and enable qualitative and quantitative assessment. Corrosion detection of reinforced building materials with piezoelectric sensors is quick and accurate, which can find hidden dangers and provide a reliable basis for the safety of the buildings.

  17. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  18. Effects of energy and carbon taxes on building material competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The relations between building material competitiveness and economic instruments for mitigating climate change are explored in this bottom-up study. The effects of carbon and energy taxes on building material manufacturing cost and total building construction cost are modelled, analysing individual materials as well as comparing a wood-framed building to a reinforced concrete-framed building. The energy balances of producing construction materials made of wood, concrete, steel, and gypsum are described and quantified. For wood lumber, more usable energy is available as biomass residues than is consumed in the processing steps. The quantities of biofuels made available during the production of wood materials are calculated, and the cost differences between using these biofuels and using fossil fuels are shown under various tax regimes. The results indicate that higher energy and carbon taxation rates increase the economic competitiveness of wood construction materials. This is due to both the lower energy cost for material manufacture, and the increased economic value of biomass by-products used to replace fossil fuel. (Author)

  19. Susceptibility of green and conventional building materials to microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Attipoe, J; Reponen, T; Salmela, A; Veijalainen, A-M; Pasanen, P

    2015-06-01

    Green building materials are becoming more popular. However, little is known about their ability to support or limit microbial growth. The growth of fungi was evaluated on five building materials. Two green, two conventional building materials and wood as a positive control were selected. The materials were inoculated with Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum, in the absence and presence of house dust. Microbial growth was assessed at four different time points by cultivation and determining fungal biomass using the N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) enzyme assay. No clear differences were seen between green and conventional building materials in their susceptibility to support microbial growth. The presence of dust, an external source of nutrients, promoted growth of all the fungal species similarly on green and conventional materials. The results also showed a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.81 to 0.88 between NAHA activity and culturable counts. The results suggest that the growth of microbes on a material surface depends on the availability of organic matter rather than the classification of the material as green or conventional. NAHA activity and culturability correlated well indicating that the two methods used in the experiments gave similar trends for the growth of fungi on material surfaces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Laboratory study of the PCB transport from primary sources to building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  1. Modelling transport of waste material leachate in soils in support of environmental standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren JCH; Aalbers TG; de Wilde PGM

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands a process of defining environmental standards is going on. These standards serve to protect the environment at the one hand, and to stimulate the reuse of rest-materials, e.g. ash from blast-furnaces, as building materials at the other hand. In order to come to an environmental

  2. Effect of phase change material on the heat transfer rate of different building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mushfiq; Alam, Shahnur; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is widely known as latent heat storage. A comprehensive study is carried out to investigate the effect of PCM on heat transfer rate of building materials. Paraffin is used as PCM along with different conventional building materials to investigate the heat transfer rate from the heated region to the cold region. PCM is placed along with the three different types of building materials like plaster which is well know building material in urban areas and wood and straw which are commonly used in rural areas for roofing as well as wall panel material and investigated the heat transfer rate. An experimental setup was constructed with number of rectangular shape aluminum detachable casing (as cavity) and placed side by side. Series of rectangular cavity filled with convent ional building materials and PCM and these were placed in between two chambers filled with water at different temperature. Building materials and PCM were placed in different cavities with different combinations and investigated the heat transfer rate. The results show that using the PCM along with other building materials can be used to maintain lower temperature at the inner wall and chamber of the cold region. Moreover, the placement or orientation of the building materials and PCM make significant contribution to heat transfer rate from the heated zone to the cold zone.

  3. Glass-ceramics as building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics are materials composed as any ceramic material by several crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous or vitreous matrix, but their manufacture process implies the controlled devitrification or nucleation and growth of phases from an original glass. The original shape of the original glass molded by conventional methods is carried out by using pressing and sintering followed by crystallization steps. By both processing routes are obtained transparent and/or opaque materials, with or without colours, which after adequate control and design of composition and microstructure have numerous domestic and architectonic applications. They can be used as pavements or wall coatings and in various decorative elements. In fact, their use is very extensive in east-European, American and Asian (Japan countries in constructions for covering large surfaces. The greater advantage of the glass-ceramic process is that due to the own process of vitrification allows the incorporation in their structure of a wide range of compositions from mining and industrial residues, such as red muds, ashes, fangos, scraps... which they can in this way not only be inertizated, but furthermore it be converted without risk for the environment into products useful in construction applications, offering to the architect and to the decorator a new range of "eco-materials" with multiple complementary possibilities of the already existing architectural materials in the market.

    Los productos o materiales vitrocerámicos se componen, como cualquier material de tipo cerámico, de una o varias fases cristalinas embebidas en una matriz amorfa o vítrea, pero cuyo proceso de fabricación implica la desvitrificación o nucleación y cristalización controlada de un vidrio original o de partida. En el proceso de obtención de estos materiales se puede conservar la forma original conferida al vidrio de partida por los métodos convencionales de moldeado de vidrios

  4. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  5. Effective 226Ra-content of some Hungarian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the work was to analyse the effective 226 Ra content of building- and back filling materials used in Hungary. The quantity of radon was determined by ionization chambers connected to vibrating-reed electrometers, as well as by a scintillation radon counter. The radon measuring instruments were calibrated by known 222 Rn quantities given off from standard RaCl 2 solutions. The overall uncertainty of the data obtained is estimated as being 25%. The minimum measurable effective 226 Ra concentration due to a 10 4 g building material source is calculated as 16 fCi/g for the ionization chambers and 8 fCi/g for the scintillation counter. 68 building material samples and 11 backfill (concrete made by fly-ashes) samples have been studied and it has been found, that the effective 226 Ra contents of the tested building materials are 2 to 9 times greater than those found in the Soviet Union though none exceeds the recommended 600 fCi/g level. Among the back filling materials made with fly-ash the maximum 226 Ra content was 3300 fCi/g. The effective 226 Ra content measurements are well suited for a priori radon escape qualification of building materials. (K.A.)

  6. Multiscale modelling for better hygrothermal prediction of porous building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Rafik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to understand the influence of the microstructuralgeometric parameters of porous building materials on the mechanisms of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers, in order to predict behavior of the building to control and improve it in its durability. For this a multi-scale approach is implemented. It consists of mastering the dominant physical phenomena and their interactions on the microscopic scale. Followed by a dual-scale modelling, microscopic-macroscopic, of coupled heat, air and moisture transfers that takes into account the intrinsic properties and microstructural topology of the material using X-ray tomography combined with the correlation of 3D images were undertaken. In fact, the hygromorphicbehavior under hydric solicitations was considered. In this context, a model of coupled heat, air and moisture transfer in porous building materials was developed using the periodic homogenization technique. These informations were subsequently implemented in a dynamic computation simulation that model the hygrothermalbehaviourof material at the scale of the envelopes and indoor air quality of building. Results reveals that is essential to consider the local behaviors of materials, but also to be able to measure and quantify the evolution of its properties on a macroscopic scale from the youngest age of the material. In addition, comparisons between experimental and numerical temperature and relative humidity profilesin multilayers wall and in building envelopes were undertaken. Good agreements were observed.

  7. Ozone reactions with indoor materials during building disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppendieck, D.; Hubbard, H.; Ward, M.

    2007-01-01

    , and particularly after several hours of disinfection, surface reaction resistance dominated the overall resistance to ozone deposition for nearly all materials. Total building disinfection by-products (all carbonyls) were quantified per unit area of each material for the experimental period. Paper, office...... partition, and medium density fiberboard each released greater than 38 mg m(-2) of by-products....

  8. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins...

  9. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29).

  10. Measurement of thoron exhalation rates from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de With, G; de Jong, P; Röttger, A

    2014-09-01

    Thoron (220Rn) exhalation from building materials has become increasingly recognized as a potential source for radiation exposure in dwellings. However, contrary to radon (220Rn), limited information on thoron exposure is available. The purpose of this study is to develop a test method for the determination of the thoron exhalation rate from building materials. The method is validated, and subsequently the thoron exhalation rates from 10 widely-applied concretes, gypsums, brick, limestone, and mortar are determined. The measured thoron exhalation rates of these materials range from 0.01 Bq m-2 s-1 to 0.43 Bq m-2 s-1, with relative standard uncertainties between 6% to 14%.

  11. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  12. Environmental impact assessment for the Nova projects (Building 391 complex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental impact assessment of the Nova projects (Building 391 Complex) describes (1) the proposed actions, (2) the existing environment in and around the Livermore Valley, and (3) the potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of these facilities. It shows that the proposed action does not conflict with any Federal, State, Regional, or Local Plans and Programs. Possible alternatives to the proposed action are discussed. However, it is concluded that the proposed actions were the most reasonable of the alternatives and would involve relatively minor adverse environmental impacts

  13. Environmental issues in planning building energy efficiency R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has initiated analyses on the relationship and impact of buildings energy conservation on the environment. A plethora of activities involving DOE, its national laboratories and other organizations are addressing various aspects of global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. Elements of the current task include (1) a literature review of buildings' contribution to these problems; (2) inventories of OBT studies directly and indirectly related to these environmental problems, and other germane DOE and non-DOE projects; (3) identifying OBT projects that should be done; and (4) analyzing differential impacts on the environment of alternative OBT planning strategies and varying National Energy Strategy scenarios. The success of this project relies, at least in part, on suggestions from the buildings research community on information sources, literature, and ideas that OBT should consider

  14. Survey and specimen taking of building materials which are destined for house building in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.F. den

    1985-11-01

    This investigation deals with the following items: (a) Some building materials cause an increase of the natural radioactive radiation level indoors, especially building materials containing a certain kind of phosphogypsum. The radiation level depends among other things on the applied quantity of building materials and on the location in the building (walls, floors or roofs, etc.). The soil underneath dwellings can also be an important radiation source. The report gives a listing of the kind of building materials used for dwellings in The Netherlands, both present ones as well as possible future ones. A survey of the quantities applied and the location of application in dwellings is also given. The different types of soil underneath the dwellings are discussed. (b) Samples were collected from various factories, dealers and other sources (both present and future samples) of the most important building materials and components thereof. The samples were handed over to Division of Technology for Society TNO, Radiological Service TNO and Netherland Energy Research Foundation, in order to measure the activity concentrations and the radon exhalations. A listing of the samples is given. (Auth.)

  15. BUILDING MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS BASED ON SILICON MANGANESE SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Currently of particular relevance was given to the matter of introduction in manufacture of building materials and products, resource-saving techniques and technologies; integrated use of raw materials and materials that prevent or significantly reduce their harmful impact on the environment. This allows you to recycle hundreds of thousands of tons of the fiery liquid slags of silicon manganese and to develop effective structural materials that can replace metals, non-metallic building materials of natural origin, concretes, cast stone, plastics and refractories. Purpose. The study of the structure and properties of building materials and products from electric furnace slag of silicon manganese. Conclusion. Slags from the smelting of silicon manganese are classified as acidic. Their lime factor is in the range of 0.47–0.52. The composition of the slag located in the heterogeneous region SiO2 near the line of separation of cristobalite spread to the crystallization of wollastonite, according to the ternary system MnO-CaO-SiO2, which in consideration of their stability, allows the development of technology of building materials (gravel, sand, granulated slag, etc. and products (foundation blocks, road slabs, containers for transportation and storage of hazardous waste, and others.

  16. Building-in-Briefcase: A Rapidly-Deployable Environmental Sensor Suite for the Smart Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekly, Kevin; Jin, Ming; Zou, Han; Hsu, Christopher; Soyza, Chris; Bayen, Alexandre; Spanos, Costas

    2018-04-29

    A building’s environment has profound influence on occupant comfort and health. Continuous monitoring of building occupancy and environment is essential to fault detection, intelligent control, and building commissioning. Though many solutions for environmental measuring based on wireless sensor networks exist, they are not easily accessible to households and building owners who may lack time or technical expertise needed to set up a system and get quick and detailed overview of environmental conditions. Building-in-Briefcase (BiB) is a portable sensor network platform that is trivially easy to deploy in any building environment. Once the sensors are distributed, the environmental data is collected and communicated to the BiB router via the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and WiFi technology, which then forwards the data to the central database securely over the internet through a 3G radio. The user, with minimal effort, can access the aggregated data and visualize the trends in real time on the BiB web portal. Paramount to the adoption and continued operation of an indoor sensing platform is battery lifetime. This design has achieved a multi-year lifespan by careful selection of components, an efficient binary communications protocol and data compression. Our BiB sensor is capable of collecting a rich set of environmental parameters, and is expandable to measure others, such as CO 2 . This paper describes the power characteristics of BiB sensors and their occupancy estimation and activity recognition functionality. We have demonstrated large-scale deployment of BiB throughout Singapore. Our vision is that, by monitoring thousands of buildings through BiB, it would provide ample research opportunities and opportunities to identify ways to improve the building environment and energy efficiency.

  17. Space Environmental Effects on Materials and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbann, Leslie M.

    2009-01-01

    The Materials and Processes (M&P) Branch of the Structural Engineering Division at Johnson Space Center (JSC) seeks to uphold the production of dependable space hardware through materials research, which fits into NASA's purpose of advancing human exploration, use, and development of space. The Space Environmental Effects projects fully support these Agency goals. Two tasks were assigned to support M&P. Both assignments were to further the research of material behavior outside of Earth's atmosphere in order to determine which materials are most durable and safe to use in space for mitigating risks. One project, the Materials on International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) task, was to compile data from International Space Station (ISS) experiments to pinpoint beneficial space hardware. The other project was researching the effects on composite materials of exposure to high doses of radiation for a Lunar habitat project.

  18. Fungal Microbiomes Associated with Green and Non-Green Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha; Vesper, Stephen; Green, Brett J; Yermakov, Mikhail; Reponen, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Water-damaged buildings can lead to fungal growth and occupant health problems. Green building materials, derived from renewable sources, are increasingly utilized in construction and renovations. However, the question as to what fungi will grow on these green compared to non-green materials, after they get wet, has not been adequately studied. By determining what fungi grow on each type of material, the potential health risks can be more adequately assessed. In this study, we inoculated green and non-green pieces of ceiling tile, composite board, drywall, and flooring with indoor dust containing a complex mixture of naturally occurring fungi. The materials were saturated with water and incubated for two months in a controlled environment. The resulting fungal microbiomes were evaluated using ITS amplicon sequencing. Overall, the richness and diversity of the mycobiomes on each pair of green and non-green pieces were not significantly different. However, different genera dominated on each type of material. For example, Aspergillus spp. had the highest relative abundance on green and non-green ceiling tiles and green composite boards, but Peniophora spp. dominated the non-green composite board. In contrast, Penicillium spp. dominated green and non-green flooring samples. Green gypsum board was dominated by Phialophora spp. and Stachybotrys spp., but non-green gypsum board by Myrothecium spp. These data suggest that water-damaged green and non-green building materials can result in mycobiomes that are dominated by fungal genera whose member species pose different potentials for health risks.

  19. Building control for nuclear materials R and D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, O.

    1979-01-01

    The new plutonium research and development facility at LASL was the first facility to be completed in the United States under the new environmental requirements. To insure that these new requirements are met, a redundant computer system is used to monitor and control the building. This paper describes the supervisory control and data acquisition system that was implemented to perform that function

  20. A system approach to the environmental analysis of industrial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-Jose Lombera, Jose-Tomas [LABEIN-Tecnalia, C/Geldo, Parque Tecnologico de Bizkaia, Edificio 700, 48160 Derio (Vizcaya) (Spain); Department of Science of Materials, ESTSI Bilbao-University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Garrucho Aprea, Isaac [SEDICAL S.A., Txorierri Etorbidea 46 - Pab, 12 F 48150 Sondica (Vizcaya) (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The construction sector plays a major role in the development of society. It wields enormous influence over economic activity, employment and growth rates. However, it also has a substantial impact on the natural environment, the effects of which are evident across the world. Over recent decades, pioneering initiatives have proposed environmentally friendly buildings and sustainable construction has centred on residential and office buildings. Nevertheless, further consideration still needs to be given to sustainability in many areas of industrial construction. Accordingly, an Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES) is presented in this article that applies a set of six study scopes to define the sustainability criteria of industrial buildings. The system uses a requirements tree to quantify sustainability at various hierarchical levels, in order to assess the behaviour of industrial buildings and compliance with the criteria. Assignment of value functions to the sustainability criteria is then described in the context of a case study of a printing works, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this model at unifying both qualitative and quantitative indicators, in order to arrive at a specific ''environmental sustainability index'' for the industrial building. (author)

  1. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  2. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E. A.; El-Khayat, A.; Ashmawy, L.; Hassan, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  3. Updated database on natural radioactivity in building materials in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Risica, S; Nuccetelli, C

    2018-07-01

    The paper presents the latest collection of activity concentration data of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4  K) in building materials. This database contains about 24200 samples of both bulk materials and their constituents (bricks, concrete, cement, aggregates) and superficial materials used in most European Union Member States and some European countries. This collection also includes radiological information about some NORM residues and by-products (by-product gypsum, metallurgical slags, fly and bottom ashes and red mud) which can be of radiological concern if recycled in building materials as secondary raw materials. Moreover, radon emanation and radon exhalation rate data are reported for bricks and concrete. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured

  5. The impact of roofing material on building energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Ali

    The last decade has seen an increase in the efficient use of energy sources such as water, electricity, and natural gas as well as a variety of roofing materials, in the heating and cooling of both residential and commercial infrastructure. Oil costs, coal and natural gas prices remain high and unstable. All of these instabilities and increased costs have resulted in higher heating and cooling costs, and engineers are making an effort to keep them under control by using energy efficient building materials. The building envelope (that which separates the indoor and outdoor environments of a building) plays a significant role in the rate of building energy consumption. An appropriate architectural design of a building envelope can considerably lower the energy consumption during hot summers and cold winters, resulting in reduced HVAC loads. Several building components (walls, roofs, fenestration, foundations, thermal insulation, external shading devices, thermal mass, etc.) make up this essential part of a building. However, thermal insulation of a building's rooftop is the most essential part of a building envelope in that it reduces the incoming "heat flux" (defined as the amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface) (Sadineni et al., 2011). Moreover, more than 60% of heat transfer occurs through the roof regardless of weather, since a roof is often the building surface that receives the largest amount of solar radiation per square annually (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). Hence, an argument can be made that the emphasis on building energy efficiency has influenced roofing manufacturing more than any other building envelope component. This research project will address roofing energy performance as the source of nearly 60% of the building heat transfer (Suman, and Srivastava, 2009). We will also rank different roofing materials in terms of their energy performance. Other parts of the building envelope such as walls, foundation

  6. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...

  7. Contributions to indoor gamma dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xionghua; Li Guangming; Yang Xiangdong

    1990-01-01

    In the coures of construction of a building structured with bricks and concrets, the indoor gamma air absorbed dose rates were seperately measured from the floors, brick walls and prefabricated plates of concrets, etc.. It suggested that the indoor gamma dose rates from building materials are mainly attributed to the brick walls and the floors. A little contribution comes from other brilding materials. The dose rates can be calculated through a 4π-infinite thick model with a correction factor of 0.52

  8. Materials Lifecycle and Environmental Consideration at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Ingram, Marceia

    2010-01-01

    The aerospace community faces tremendous challenges with continued availability of existing material supply chains during the lifecycle of a program. Many obsolescence drivers affect the availability of materials: environmental safety ahd health regulations, vendor and supply economics, market sector demands,and natural disasters. Materials selection has become increasingly more critical when designing aerospace hardware. NASA and DoD conducted a workshop with subject matter experts to discuss issues and define solutions for materials selections during the lifecycle phases of a product/system/component. The three primary lifecycle phases were: Conceptualization/Design, Production & Sustainment, and End of life / Reclamation. Materials obsolescence and pollution prevention considerations were explored for the aforementioned lifecycle phases. The recommended solutions from the workshop are being presented.

  9. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  10. Flotation tailings as a raw material for ceramic building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmistrov, V N; Karpunina, T I; Smolin, V N

    1986-02-01

    The VNIIstrom research institute developed a method for utilizing flotation tailings for production of bricks. Tailings are dewatered using filter presses. After dewatering, moisture content in the tailings ranges from 25 to 26%. Tailings are mixed with chamotte with a grain size to 2 mm. Using 30% chamotte improves mechanical and physical properties of the bricks and reduces energy consumption of brick firing. Tailings mixed with chamotte are granulated and dried on a conveyor. Granules with moisture content reduced to the optimum level are mixed a second time and formed in a press. The bricks are fired in a tunnel kiln with modified design. The bricks made of flotation tailings mixed with 30% chamotte are characterized by mechanical properties comparable to those of high quality bricks made of conventional materials.

  11. 24 CFR 1000.18 - What environmental review requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What environmental review requirements apply? 1000.18 Section 1000.18 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.18 What environmental...

  12. Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    was “Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability”. The joint conference was designed to facilitate ‘within‐the‐domain’, as well as to create a space for developing synergies between the two communities. Altogether 125 research and applied papers (including extended abstracts) from 42......“Knowledge is power” (Sir Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626), Religious Meditations, Of Heresis, 1597) “Science is organised knowledge. Wisdom is organised life” (Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804)) The 29th International Conference on Informatics for Environmental Protection and the third International...

  13. Forty years of environmentally conscious building technology design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Matteoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This short essay analyzes the environmental approach throughout the history of Architectural Technology, starting from building details up to the present attention to the smart city, land maintenance and urban retrofit, seen as complex research activities, political strategies, design and entrepreneurial actions which have the scope to transform present day urban crusts into organic textures, climatologically consistent, reactive, user-friendly, efficient and with a low environmental impact. The exercise identifies some research and teaching trends for Architectural Technology in order to promote debate and the analysis of the historical perspective and present situation of the discipline.

  14. Environmental Conditions and Occupant Perceptions in European Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-03-01

    This is a preliminary report regarding a portion of the environmental conditions and occupant comfort perceptions from a five nation, 26 building European field data collection effort. Approximately 1,000 participants were involved in this project which included twelve monthly visits to each building. Climate, building and cultural variation will be illustrated for the five countries involved - France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Each country used identical instrumentation; questionnaires and experimental protocols imbedded in a custom hardware/software system. The comfort survey was based on the ASHRAE model. The physical measurements included air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air movement, CO{sub 2}, light, and sound levels. Where possible, connections and explanations between variables are made. Potential energy and policy ramifications are illustrated. (The publication includes two reports from EU JOULE III projects JOE3CT970066 'Smart controls and thermal comfort project)

  15. Using thermal power plants waste for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduik, R. S.; Smoliakov, A. K.; Timokhin, R. A.; Batarshin, V. O.; Yevdokimova, Yu G.

    2017-10-01

    The recycled use of thermal power plants (TPPs) wastes in the building materials production is formulated. The possibility of using of TPPs fly ash as part of the cement composite binder for concrete is assessed. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis as well as and materials photomicrographs are presented. It was revealed that the fly ash of TPPs of Russian Primorsky Krai is suitable for use as a filler in cement binding based on its chemical composition.

  16. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F. Handan; Brown, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the s...

  17. Environmental Comfort Indicators for School Buildings in Sustainability Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Saraiva

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Decades ago, the only requirement to construct a building was to give men the right conditions for the execution of their work or leisure activities. With the development of knowledge about the internal and external environments of buildings, other requirements have been added such as the issue of user comfort. New construction techniques have been incorporated and new products have been created to improve internal environment comfort. This research addressed the importance of using indicators related to environmental comfort in sustainability assessment tools applied to school buildings. It also considered the importance of environmental issues for the good performance of human beings, and the harmonious coexistence of the comfort indicators indoor air quality, thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort and ergonomic comfort based on data gathered in research carried out with users of high schools (only students. This research was carried out in two different cities of different countries, Guimarães (Portugal and Juiz de Fora (Brazil, that have similar characteristics of teaching standards and climate conditions (temperature and air humidity. In this study, interviews were made through questionnaires and, later, the information collected was analyzed. This study demonstrates the need to include an ergonomic indicator for school buildings in sustainability assessment tools.

  18. Review on phase change materials for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia SOCACIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In nowadays, the Phase Change Material (PCM is a viable alternative for reducing the energy consumption and for increase the thermal comfort in buildings. The use of PCM in building applications provides the potential to increase the indoor thermal comfort for occupants due to the reduced indoor temperature fluctuations and lower global energy consumption. The possibility to incorporate the PCM into the material of construction for cooling and heating the buildings gained the interest of researchers from all the world because the PCM have a high heat of fusion, meaning it is capable to storing and release large amounts of energy in the form of heat during its melting and solidifying process at a specific temperature.

  19. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  20. Salinization effects on the water sorption of porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Rook, W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of salt transport and moisture transport plays a crucial role in some deterioration mechanisms of porous building materials. For this reason it has been an important research subject for mant' years. Yet most research was still complicated by the lack of experimental techniques

  1. VOCs and odors: key factors in selecting `green` building materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, C. [Steven Winter Associates Inc., Norwalk, CT and Washington DC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The current state of knowledge available for selecting building materials on the basis of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors is reviewed. The significance of VOCs and odors in building materials is related to their role in influencing indoor air quality. As far as toxicity is concerned, many of the VOCs detected in indoor air are relatively inert when considered singly. They are not however, unimportant because in actual fact they are invariably found in mixtures some of which can be toxic. Although knowledge of VOCs is incomplete, it is important to specify ozone-resistant polymeric building products, i.e. those that are chemically stable and inert to oxidation. In addition to VOCs, attention should also be focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) since they are even more persistent than VOCs and tend to offgas for prolonged periods of time. Similarly, it is reasonable to specify low-odor materials. Inclusion of issues related to complex indoor chemistry, less volatile emissions, in addition to VOCs and odor, should in time result in expanded choices of building materials that promote indoor air quality. 16 refs.,2 tabs.

  2. New concrete materials technology for competitive house building

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The research project aims at investigating the potential of new concrete materials technology (high performance concrete, HPC and self-compacting concete, SCC) for competitive design, production and function of structural frames of cast in-situ concrete in house building.

  3. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  4. Environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    Research on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of light water reactor materials has focused on (a) fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, (b) crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (d) EAC in high- nickel alloys. The effect of strain rate during different portions of the loading cycle on fatigue life of carbon and low-alloy steels in 289 degree C water was determined. Crack growth studies on wrought and cast SSs have been completed. The effect of dissolved-oxygen concentration in high-purity water on IASCC of irradiated Type 304 SS was investigated and trace elements in the steel that increase susceptibility to intergranular cracking were identified. Preliminary results were obtained on crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 degree C. The program on Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Light Water Reactor Materials is currently focused on four tasks: fatigue initiation in pressure vessel and piping steels, fatigue and environmentally assisted crack growth in cast duplex and austenitic SS, irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic SSs, and environmentally assisted crack growth in high-nickel alloys. Measurements of corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates (CGRs) of wrought and cast stainless steels has been essentially completed. Recent progress in these areas is outlined in the following sections

  5. BUILDING TRIBAL CAPABILITIES IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-03-01

    The following activities were completed by the end of the quarter: (1) The CERT Executive Director invited a cross section of CERT member Tribes to participate in the project. By the end of the quarter, three Tribes had the invitation under active consideration, four Tribes expressed interest but wanted to see the detailed workplan prior to making a final decision and one Tribe, the Navajo Nation has accepted the invitation. (2) The CERT Board of Directors Executive Committee has endorsed two significant environmental policy priorities for consideration in the project. First, how does the federal Indian trust responsibility to land and natural resources as well as for the health, safety and political integrity of Indian Tribes affect the federal responsibility for facility cleanup and other statutory mandates under federal environmental statutes? And second, What are the protocols of government-to-government relations within a federal system of shared sovereignty and shared governmental responsibilities? And the corollaries to that question, What is the federal obligation for consultation with Tribes and how is that different and similar to consultation with states? And, What is the federal obligation to work cooperatively with Tribes and states in recognition of the three sovereigns of the American federal system? (3) The CERT consulted with political leaders and environmental staff of member and non-member Tribes. This consultation centered on three environmental policy priorities: issues concerning the intergovernmental interface between states, Tribes and federal government agencies and programs; Issues with the cleanup of federal facilities and activities that have damaged Tribal environmental resources; and issues concerning the DOE cleanup of federal facilities used in the production of nuclear weapons.

  6. Growing and testing mycelium bricks as building insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yangang; Brewer, Matthew; El-Gharabawy, Hoda; Griffith, Gareth; Jones, Phil

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve energy performance of buildings, insulation materials (such as mineral glass and rock wools, or fossil fuel-based plastic foams) are being used in increasing quantities, which may lead to potential problem with materials depletions and landfill disposal. One sustainable solution suggested is the use of bio-based, biodegradable materials. A number of attempts have been made to develop biomaterials, such as sheep wood, hemcrete or recycled papers. In this paper, a novel type of bio insulation materials - mycelium is examined. The aim is to produce mycelium materials that could be used as insulations. The bio-based material was required to have properties that matched existing alternatives, such as expanded polystyrene, in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics but with an enhanced level of biodegradability. The testing data showed mycelium bricks exhibited good thermal performance. Future work is planned to improve growing process and thermal performance of the mycelium bricks.

  7. Materials, used in historical buildings, analysis methods and solutions puroposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döndüren, M. Sami; Sişik, Ozlem

    2017-10-01

    Most of historical buildings are built with pressure principle and have the characteristics of masonry structures. Therefore, the structure components of buildings are constituted bearing walls, columns, buttresses, vaults and domes. Natural stone, cut stone, rubble stone brick or alternate materials were used in the bearing elements. Brick-dust and mortar with more binding feature were used as combination elements. In time, some problems were occurred in used materials and in structure as a result of various effects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various applications in framework of repair and strengthening of buildings. In this study, restoration of historic buildings and the control of the adequacy of the bearing systems as one most important part of structure were examined. For this purpose, static analysis of Edirne-Merkez Demirtaş (Timurtaş) mosque located in Edirne was tested. Testes could give suggestions and be applied if buildings needed be revealed. The structure was modelled with finite element model of sap2000 package program and the forces generated under various loads and stresses, the occurred deformation due to that, overflow of allowable stress of this deformation and stresses were investigated. As the results of this study can be note that the maximum compressive stress at the construction is calculated as 1.1 MPa.

  8. Materials, used in historical buildings, analysis methods and solutions puroposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Döndüren M.Sami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of historical buildings are built with pressure principle and have the characteristics of masonry structures. Therefore, the structure components of buildings are constituted bearing walls, columns, buttresses, vaults and domes. Natural stone, cut stone, rubble stone brick or alternate materials were used in the bearing elements. Brick-dust and mortar with more binding feature were used as combination elements. In time, some problems were occurred in used materials and in structure as a result of various effects. Therefore, it is necessary to apply various applications in framework of repair and strengthening of buildings. In this study, restoration of historic buildings and the control of the adequacy of the bearing systems as one most important part of structure were examined. For this purpose, static analysis of Edirne-Merkez Demirtaş (Timurtaş mosque located in Edirne was tested. Testes could give suggestions and be applied if buildings needed be revealed. The structure was modelled with finite element model of sap2000 package program and the forces generated under various loads and stresses, the occurred deformation due to that, overflow of allowable stress of this deformation and stresses were investigated. As the results of this study can be note that the maximum compressive stress at the construction is calculated as 1.1 MPa.

  9. The release of lindane from contaminated building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchek, Konstantin; Thouin, Geneviève; Kuang, Wenxing; Li, Ken; Tezel, F Handan; Brown, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    The release of the organochlorine pesticide lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) from several types of contaminated building materials was studied to assess inhalation hazard and decontamination requirements in response to accidental and/or intentional spills. The materials included glass, polypropylene carpet, latex-painted drywall, ceramic tiles, vinyl floor tiles, and gypsum ceiling tiles. For each surface concentration, an equilibrium concentration was determined in the vapour phase of the surrounding air. Vapor concentrations depended upon initial surface concentration, temperature, and type of building material. A time-weighted average (TWA) concentration in the air was used to quantify the health risk associated with the inhalation of lindane vapors. Transformation products of lindane, namely α-hexachlorocyclohexane and pentachlorocyclohexene, were detected in the vapour phase at both temperatures and for all of the test materials. Their formation was greater on glass and ceramic tiles, compared to other building materials. An empiric Sips isotherm model was employed to approximate experimental results and to estimate the release of lindane and its transformation products. This helped determine the extent of decontamination required to reduce the surface concentrations of lindane to the levels corresponding to vapor concentrations below TWA.

  10. Use of moisture probes in building materials industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, L.

    A neutron probe to be built in the production line was developed for monitoring moisture content of bulk materials and suspensions of all types in the building material industry. The probe is dust- and external moisture-protected. The probe measuring capacity is about 100 l, the mean measurement error is +- 0.008 g water per 1 cm 3 , which for fine sand represents an error of +- 0.3%. The probe is connected via a cable to a measuring instrument showing an electrical value proportional to the measured material moisture content. (Z.M.)

  11. Mould growth on building materials under low water activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Holm, G.; Uttrup, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of relative humidity (RH) and temperature on growth and metabolism of eight microfungi on 21 different types of building material was investigated. The fungi were applied as a dry mixture to the materials, which were incubated at 5degreesC, 10degreesC, 20degreesC and 25degrees...... growth at RH > 90%, although 95% RH was needed to yield chemically detectable quantities of biomass. Almost exclusively only Penicillium, Aspergillus and Eurotium (contaminant) species grew on the materials. Production of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins decreased with humidity and the quantities...

  12. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is "top-down" rather than "bottom-up", which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of the radiological impact of selected building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowski, B.

    1983-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials are a source of external and internal radiation exposure to essentially the entire Polish population. The programme of our studies met two main aspects on radioactivity of building materials: Gamma dose rate and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements in dwellings of various kinds of structure and materials in both industrial and rural districts of Poland. Gamma dose rate measurements were made in about 2200 dwellings and radon or alpha potential energy concentration measurements - in 750 dwellings. On the basis of these studies the annual effective dose equivalent to the Polish population due to gamma and alpha radiation indoors was estimated to be 0.39 mSv/a and 0.99 mSv/a, respectively. The contribution of external (from gamma) and internal (from alpha) radiation exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials to the total radiation exposure of Polish population was assessed to be 3.6 per cent and 34.2 per cent, respectively. Measurements of about 1500 samples of various kinds of building materials and raw materials were made to determine radionuclide concentrations in them. The highest values were obtained in samples of phosphogypsum, fly ash and slag: potassium concentration ranges up to 36 pCi g -1 (a slag sample), radium - up to 17 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum sample) and thorium - up to 4 pCi g -1 (a phosphogypsum). On the basis of the results of our studies we came to the conclusion that it was necessary to work out a control system which could protect habitants against enhancement of indoor exposure to ionizing radiation

  14. Wireless data management system for environmental monitoring in livestock buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gray

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of air quality on the health, welfare and productivity of livestock needs to be considered, especially when livestock are kept in enclosed buildings. The monitoring of such environmental factors allows for the development of appropriate strategies to reduce detrimental effects of sub-optimal air quality on the respiratory health of both livestock and farmers. In 2009, an environmental monitoring system was designed, developed and tested that allowed for the monitoring of a number of airborne pollutants. One limitation of the system was the manual collection of logged data from each unit. This paper identifies limitations of the current environmental monitoring system and suggests a range of networking technologies that can be used to increase usability. Consideration is taken for the networking of environmental monitoring units, as well as the collection of recorded data. Furthermore, the design and development of a software system that is used to collate and store recorded environmental data from multiple farms is explored. In order to design such a system, simplified software engineering processes and methodologies have been utilised. The main steps taken in order to complete the project were requirements elicitation with clients, requirements analysis, system design, implementation and finally testing. The outcome of the project provided a potential prototype for improving the environmental monitoring system and analysis informing the benefit of the implementation.

  15. Interim recommendations concerning the risks to the Dutch population resulting from the use of radioactive wastes in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. In his request the Minister points to the growing need to use various waste products as building materials. The highest increase of the effective dose equivalent for the foreseeable use of waste products in building construction implies that the annual exposure, averaged over the entire population, could eventually be increased by a maximum of 0.05 mSv per caput. (Auth.)

  16. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  17. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spišáková Marcela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  18. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran AB Majid; Aznan Fazli Ismail; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Redzuwan Yahaya; Ismail Bahari

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg -1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year -1 ) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  19. Environmental decision making: what does public participation add?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierle, T.C.; Cayford, J.

    2004-01-01

    The role of public participation in environmental policy making has led to much discussion in recent years, accompanied by some cheering, some hand-wringing, a great deal of speculation, and always recognition of its growing importance. Over the past 30 years, participation has moved to centre stage in the play of influences that determine how the environment will be protected and managed. In doing so, it has evolved considerably. Traditional public hearings and public comment procedures have been joined by a broad array of more intensive approaches to participation that emphasize face-to-face deliberation, problem solving, and consensus building. Policy dialogues, stakeholder advisory committees, citizen juries, formal mediations, and a variety of other processes are now familiar components of the public participation mix. The amount of influence the public can wield has changed as well. In the United States, agreements made among interest groups in regulatory negotiations, for example, actually determine the content of proposed environmental regulations. Describing how well public participation has performed in its central role in environmental policy-making is the topic of our book, Democracy in Practice: Public Participation in Environmental Decisions. In the book, we evaluate the success of 239 cases of public participation undertaken in the United States over the last 30 years. Our primary objective was to develop an understanding of the social value of public participation by evaluating cases against a set of social goals, such as conflict resolution, trust formation, and education. Our second objective was to understand what made some processes successful and others not. We were particularly interested in how different approaches to public participation - from public hearings to formal mediations differed in their accomplishments. (author)

  20. Experimental evaluation of passive cooling using phase change materials (PCM) for reducing overheating in public building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mateo-Garcia, Monica; McGough, Danny; Caratella, Kassim; Ure, Zafer

    2018-02-01

    Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) is essential for the health and productivity of building users. The risk of overheating in buildings is increasing due to increased density of occupancy of people and heat emitting equipment, increase in ambient temperature due to manifestation of climate change or changes in urban micro-climate. One of the solutions to building overheating is to inject some exposed thermal mass into the interior of the building. There are many different types of thermal storage materials which typically includes sensible heat storage materials such as concrete, bricks, rocks etc. It is very difficult to increase the thermal mass of existing buildings using these sensible heat storage materials. Alternative to these, there are latent heat storage materials called Phase Change Materials (PCM), which have high thermal storage capacity per unit volume of materials making them easy to implement within retrofit project. The use of Passive Cooling Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in the form of PCM PlusICE Solutions has been investigated in occupied spaces to improve indoor environmental quality. The work has been carried out using experimental set-up in existing spaces and monitored through the summer the months. The rooms have been monitored using wireless temperature and humidity sensors. There appears to be significant improvement in indoor temperature of up to 5°K in the room with the PCM compared to the monitored control spaces. The success of PCM for passive cooling is strongly dependent on the ventilation strategy employed in the spaces. The use of night time cooling to purge the stored thermal energy is essential for improved efficacy of the systems to reduce overheating in the spaces. The investigation is carried within the EU funded RESEEPEE project.

  1. THE MODEL CONSTRUCTIONS OF PRICE FORMING OF BUILDING MATERIALS MANUFACTURE IN BASHKORTOSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.N. Gizatullin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work attempt has been done analyze the influence of the environmental factors, as outward, as inside to choice of the strategy and the pricing of the industry of the building materials of Bashkortostan. This article examines the competitive surroundings of enterprises and branches in a aspect of the regional market of the building industry’s production. The evaluation of the compatibility is given of the price and competitive strategy. As a result of the research and pricing majority of industry’s enterprises had no official document stating their per pose in a pricing area. In reason of analysis the general situation of the industry building materials the enterprises of Bashkortostan, the conception of pricing is determined on functional level.

  2. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhenhong; Wennersten, R.; Assefa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems

  3. The use of bio-based materials to reduce the environmental impact of construction

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, the construction industry is responsible for over 50 % of total carbon emissions. 20% of these carbon emissions are embodied within the construction and materials of buildings and the balance is expended in environmental control (heating, lighting, air conditioning) and other ‘in use’ aspects of occupation of buildings. This is replicated in other countries to a similar extent. This lecture identifies ways in which the use of bio-based construction materials can significantly reduc...

  4. Assessment of radioactivity in building material(granite) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z. A; Salih, I; Albadwai, K. A; Salih, A. M; Salih, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work radioactivity in building materials (granite) central Sudan was evaluated. In general the building materials used in Sudan are derived either from rocks or soil. These contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials(NORMs), so it contains radionuclides from uranium and thorium series and natural potassium. The levels of these radionuclides vary according to the geology of their site of origin. High levels increase the risk of radiation exposure in homes(especially exposure due to radon). Investigation of radioactivity in granite used of the building materials in Sudan is carried out, a total of 18 major samples of granite have been collected and measured using X- ray fluorescence system (30 mci). The activity concentrations have been determined for uranium ("2"3"8U), thorium ('2"3"2Th) and potassium("4"0K) in each sample. The concentrations of uranium have been found to range from 14.81 Bq/kg to 24.572 Bq/kg, thorium between 10.02 Bq/kg and 10.020-84.79 Bq/kg and the potassium concentration varies between 13.33 Bq/kg to 82.13 Bq/kg. Limits of radioactivity in the granite are based on dose criteria for controls. This study can be used as a reference for more extensive studies of the same subject in future. (Author)

  5. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building

  6. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  7. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Lechów, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter) Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  8. Aerophytic Cyanobacteria as a Factor in the Biodegradation of Technical Materials on External Building Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study conducted at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, University of Zielona Góra showed the presence of 4 species of aerophytic cyanobacteria in the biological material sampled from the external building wall with visible biocorrosion: Gloeocapsa montana Kützing, Phormidium calcareum Kützing, Aphanothece saxicola Nägeli, Gloeothece caldariorum (P. Richter Hollerbach. High levels of moisture were detected in the places of biofilm occurrence.

  9. Biological and environmental reference materials in CENAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu-Torres, R; Perez-Castorena, A; Salas-Tellez, J A; Mitani-Nakanishi, Y

    2001-06-01

    Since 1994, when the NIST/NOAA Quality Assurance Program in Chemical Measurements was discussed in Queretaro, CENAM, the National Measurement Institute (NMI) of Mexico, has become involved in the development of reference materials. In the field of biological and environmental reference materials, in particular, the NORAMET collaboration program with NIST and NRC, and the North-American Environmental Cooperation signed among three free-trade treaty organizations, have greatly helped the development of the materials metrology program in the newly established CENAM. This paper describes some particularly significant efforts of CENAM in the development of biological and environmental reference materials, on the basis of inter-comparison studies organized with local and governmental environmental agencies of Mexico. In the field of water pollution CENAM has developed a practical proficiency testing (PT) scheme for field laboratories, as a part of registration by local government in the metropolitan area, according to the Mexican Ecological Regulation. The results from these eight PTs in the last 5 years have demonstrated that this scheme has helped ensure the reliability of analytical capability of more than 50 field laboratories in three states, Mexico, D.F., and the States of Mexico and Queretaro. Similar experience has been obtained for more than 70 service units of stack emission measurements in the three states in 1998 and 1999, as a result of the design of a PT scheme for reference gas mixtures. This PT scheme has been accomplished successfully by 30 analytical laboratories who provide monitoring services and perform research on toxic substances (Hg, methylmercury, PCB, etc.) in Mexico. To support these activities, reference samples have been produced through the NIST SRMs, and efforts have been made to increase CENAM's capability in the preparation of primary reference materials in spectrometric solutions and gas mixtures. Collaboration among NMIs has also

  10. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractal theory is introduced into the prediction of VOC diffusion coefficient. • MSFC model of the diffusion coefficient is developed for porous building materials. • The MSFC model contains detailed pore structure parameters. • The accuracy of the MSFC model is verified by independent experiments. - Abstract: Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber.

  11. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  12. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo OLOMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concrete samples, tensile strength test on the steel samples and chemical tests involving the assessment of the quantities of cement, sulphates and chloride concentrations in the samples. A redesign of the building elements was also carried out and the results were compared with the existing design. The non-destructive test results indicated compressive strengths as low as 9.9 N/mm2, the tensile strength test indicated a maximum strength of 397.48 N/mm2 and the chemical test indicated chloride contents as high as 0.534 g per gramme of concrete. These properties deviated significantly from standard requirements. Based on these results, it was concluded that the remains of the building should be demolished.

  13. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  14. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  15. Simulation of energy- efficient building prototype using different insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaibi, Salma; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Lbibb, Rachid; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the energetic efficiency of an individual building including an area of 130 m2 multi-zone, located in the region of FEZ which is characterized by a very hot and dry climate in summer and a quite cold one in winter, by incorporating insulating materials. This study was performed using TRNSYS V16 simulation software during a typical year of the FEZ region. Our simulation consists in developing a comparative study of two types of polystyrene and silica-aerogel insulation materials, in order to determine the best thermal performance. The results show that the thermal insulation of the building envelope is among the most effective solutions that give a significant reduction in energy requirements. Similarly, the use of silica-aerogels gives a good thermal performance, and therefore a good energy gain.

  16. The Teaching Green School Building: A Framework for Linking Architecture and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    The "Teaching Green School Building" is an emergent type of school building that attempts to engage building users with environmental issues in buildings. Architectural interventions in these buildings range from signage to interactive touch screens to gardens and demonstration kitchens that foster educational programmes about…

  17. Study on reactor building structure using ultrahigh strength materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimura, Kikuo; Odajima, Masahiro; Irino, Kazuo; Hashiba, Toshio.

    1991-01-01

    This study was promoted to be aimed at realization of the optimal nuclear reactor building structure of the future. As the first step, the study regarding ultrahigh strength reinforced concrete (abbr. RC) shear wall was selected. As the result of various tests, the application of ultrahigh strength RC shear walls was verified. The tests conducted were relevant to; ultrahigh strength concrete material tests; pure shear tests of RC flat panels; and bending shear tests and its simulation analysis of RC shear walls. (author)

  18. Oriented strand board: new material for building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridah Md Tahir; Ong, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paper will attempt to show the suitability and competitiveness of oriented strand board (OSB) in building construction. One important factor underlining the success of this product is the availability of the wood raw material. Plantation timbers such as rubberwood, paraserianthes falcataria, acacia crassicarpa, A. auriculiformis and A. mangium have been identified as the major source of this industry. We will focus on the domestic market as well as export market especially on the Asia Pacific region

  19. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents in buildings, at building sites, and in building materials and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The recommendations should serve as guidelines for specifying the scope of measurement and ways of evaluating the measuring results when satisfying the relevant requirements laid down by the Czech Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) and Decree No. 184/1997 in the field of natural radiation sources occurring in the environment without deliberate use. The document consists of the following sections: Methodology for the measurement and assessment of natural exposure of persons in dwelling rooms of buildings; Methodology of determination of the radon risk of building sites; Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of building materials; and Principles of systematic measurement and evaluation of natural radionuclide contents of supplied water. (P.A.)

  20. Cold storage with phase change material for building ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Butala, Vincenc; Stritih, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical analysis of building coolingusing night-time cold accumulation in phase change material (PCM), otherwise known as the "free-cooling" or "passive-cooling" principle. The phase change materials were used in ceilings and floors. The free-cooling principle is explained and some of the types of PCMs suitable for summer cooling are listed. An experiment was conducted using paraffin with a melting point of 22 °C as the PCM to store cold during the ni...

  1. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S.; Vitina, I.; Lindina, L.; Timma, I.; Barbane, I.

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  2. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  3. Neutron activation of building materials used in the reactor shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.T.; Perez, G.; D'Alessandro, K.

    1993-01-01

    Cuban concretes and their main components (mineral aggregates and cement) were investigated through long-lived activation products induced by neutrons from a reactor. The multielemental content in the materials studied was obtained by neutron activation analysis in an IBR-2 reactor and gamma activation analysis in an MT-25 microtron from Join Institute of Nuclear Research of Dubna. After irradiation of building materials for 30 years by a neutron flow of unitary density, induced radioactivity was calculated according to experimental data. The comparative evaluation of different concretes aggregates and two types of cement related to the activation properties is discussed

  4. Stone material investigations of the Riga Stock Exchange building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaune-Blumberga, S; Vitina, I; Lindina, L; Timma, I; Barbane, I

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the stone material investigation of former Riga Stock Exchange building and presents the following aspects: characterization of materials, analyses of mortars for sealing and cladding of artificial marble, decors, bricks, render of sealing, analyses of soluble salts, analyses of deteriorated granite surface of foundation. The last damage by fire was in 1979 which caused the collapse of the roof and consequently an infiltration of rain water. The conditions of the objects were found in very bad condition-deterioration represented by salt efflorescence's, cracking and in very large areas there was a complete loss of the artificial marble (stucco marble).

  5. Radiological impact assessment of building materials on ordinary houses dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.P. de.

    1994-01-01

    The radiological impact due to building materials on habitants living in the Santo Andre district of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was assessed through the total effective dose equivalent rate determination, for external and internal irradiation. The effective dose equivalent rate for external irradiation was calculated by the gamma spectrometry determination of natural radionuclides specific activity in the dwelling materials. The effective dose equivalent rate due to 222 Rn inhalation was calculated through the radon indoor activity determination by using solid state nuclear track detectors. (author). 46 refs, 6 figs, 14 tabs

  6. Spectral Signatures of Surface Materials in Pig Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, GuoQiang; Strøm, Jan; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    . In this study, the optical properties of different types of surfaces to be cleaned and the dirt found in finishing pig units were investigated in the visual and the near infrared (VIS-NIR) optical range. Four types of commonly used materials in pig buildings, i.e. concrete, plastic, wood and steel were applied...... and after high-pressure water cleaning. The spectral signatures of the surface materials and dirt attached to the surfaces showed that it is possible to make discrimination and hence to classify areas that are visually clean. When spectral bands 450, 600, 700 and 800 nm are chosen, there are at least two...

  7. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  8. Evaluation of internal/external exposure from interior building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Morita-Murase, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters is the second leading cause of lung cancer. As a source of indoor radon in home, there are interior building materials that contain radioactive minerals. These radioactive consumer products have been claimed by distributors to have effect of 'minus-ion' or 'radon spring' for healthy promotion. We analyzed radioactive nuclides contained in the interior building materials, and measured radon levels released from them. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry revealed that these interior building materials contain U- and Th-series nuclides. The densities of some radioactive nuclides in the tile used for a bathroom exceeded the exempt limits of International Basic Safety Standards. However, the radon densities released from the tile was lower than detectable limit. In contrast, one of the wallpaper released 34 Bq·m -3 of radon gas in a 50-liter container. This value is two times higher than the average radon level in Japanese homes. The minus-ion effect' wallpapers are thought to be a cause of residential exposure to radon. (author)

  9. Natural radioactivity of building materials coming from a volcanic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, V.; Pugliese, M.; Sabbarese, C.; D'Onofrio, A.; Lubritto, C.; Terrasi, F.; Ermice, A.; Inglima, I.; Migliore, G.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactivity was found to be very high in tuff and other materials originating from volcanic lava. Emanation of radon from such materials is appreciably higher than from materials of other origin. This work allowed us to obtain a first complete database of natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials from this region. Measurements were carried out by means of a gamma spectrometry system. Gamma emitting daughter products of 222 Rn were measured to determine 226 Ra. The samples, after a routine treatment, were accommodated in sealed metallic containers for a time sufficient for the equilibrium to establish. The determination of the radon emanation power was carried out by using an electrostatic monitor. Alpha spectroscopy of radon daughters was used to evaluate the content of radon coming from the sample

  10. Stratification of a cityscape using census and land use variables for inventory of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.; Johnson, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A cityscape (or any landscape) can be stratified into environmental units using multiple variables of information. For the purposes of sampling building materials, census and land use variables were used to identify similar strata. In the Metropolitan Statistical Area of a cityscape, the census tract is the smallest unit for which census data are summarized and digitized boundaries are available. For purposes of this analysis, census data on total population, total number of housing units, and number of singleunit dwellings were aggregated into variables of persons per square kilometer and proportion of housing units in single-unit dwellings. The level 2 categories of the U.S. Geological Survey's land use and land cover data base were aggregated into variables of proportion of residential land with buildings, proportion of nonresidential land with buildings, and proportion of open land. The cityscape was stratified, from these variables, into environmental strata of Urban Central Business District, Urban Livelihood Industrial Commercial, Urban Multi-Family Residential, Urban Single Family Residential, Non-Urban Suburbanizing, and Non-Urban Rural. The New England region was chosen as a region with commonality of building materials, and a procedure developed for trial classification of census tracts into one of the strata. Final stratification was performed by discriminant analysis using the trial classification and prior probabilities as weights. The procedure was applied to several cities, and the results analyzed by correlation analysis from a field sample of building materials. The methodology developed for stratification of a cityscape using multiple variables has application to many other types of environmental studies, including forest inventory, hydrologic unit management, waste disposal, transportation studies, and other urban studies. Multivariate analysis techniques have recently been used for urban stratification in England. ?? 1987 Annals of Regional

  11. Balanced Evaluation of Structural and Environmental Performances in Building Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lamperti Tornaghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of new buildings, and even more the rehabilitation of existing ones, needs to satisfy modern criteria in terms of energy efficiency and environmental performance, within the context of adequate safety requirements. Tackling all these needs at the same time is cumbersome, as demonstrated by several experiences during recent earthquakes, where the improvement of energy performance vanished by seismic-induced damages. The costs of energy retrofitting must be added to the normal losses caused by the earthquake. Even though the minimum safety requirements are met (no collapse, the damage due to earthquake might be enough to waste the investment made to improve energy efficiency. Since these measures are often facilitated by corresponding incentives, the use of public funding is not cost effective. The application of the existing impact assessment methods is typically performed at the end of the architectural and structural design process. Thus, no real optimisation can be achieved, because a good structural solution could correspond to a poor environmental performance and vice versa. The proposed Sustainable Structural Design method (SSD considers both environmental and structural parameters in the life cycle perspective. The integration of environmental data in the structural performance is the focus of the method. Structural performances are considered in a probabilistic approach, through the introduction of a simplified Performance Based Assessment method. Finally, the SSD method is implemented with a case-study of an office-occupancy building, both for precast and cast-in-situ structural systems, with the aim to find the best solution in terms of sustainability and structural performance for the case at hand.

  12. Building form and environmental performance: archetypes, analysis and an arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, C.; Raydan, D.; Steemers, K. [Department of Architecture, The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Leslie Martin and others at Cambridge University addressed the question 'What building forms make the best use of land?' in a number of influential papers published in the late 1960s. They selected six simplified urban arrays based on archetypal building forms. Then they analysed and compared the archetypes in terms of built potential and day lighting criteria, eventually reaching the conclusion that courtyards perform best. Their results, which inspired a generation of designers, are briefly reviewed here and reassessed in environmental terms using innovative computer analysis techniques. Furthermore, the implications of their question, which to date has not addressed the link with climate, are explored using a case study in a hot-arid region. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity of building materials used in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, M. [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Kajang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2002-03-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactive content of building materials used in Malaysia. The materials analysed include both old and new clay bricks, cement bricks, mortar, cement, sands, ceramic tiles and gypsum. Samples of the first three materials were collected from the 12 states of the Malay Peninsula. Radium-226 (from the U-238 series) and Ra-228 (from the Th-232 series), these both representing naturally occurring radionuclides, were analysed using high-resolution HpGe gamma spectrometers. The results of our investigations showed that some old clay bricks contain high levels (at more than 5 times the normal soil concentration) of natural radionuclides, with maximum concentrations of 590 Bq/kg and 480 Bq/kg for respectively Ra-226 and Ra-228. The reasons behind this finding were not clearly understood. As there are people living in old buildings, i.e. built using old clay bricks, there is a possibility that they are being exposed to significant radiation doses. However, there proved to be no significant overall difference between old and new clay bricks in terms of the natural radioactivity levels determined, at a 95% confidence level. The overall mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 observed in Malaysian clay bricks were respectively 118 {+-} 58 Bq/kg and 120 {+-} 42 Bq/kg. The radioactive content of other materials was found to be not much different from that to be determined in normal soil from Malaysia. The data obtained can be used as a basis for reaching decisions on the regulatory limits for radioactivity levels in building materials in Malaysia. (orig.)

  14. Calculation of coal power plant cost on agricultural and material building impact of emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad Nasrullah; Wiku Lulus Widodo

    2016-01-01

    Calculation for externally cost of Coal Power Plant (CPP) is very important. This paper is focus on CPP appear SO 2 impact on agricultural plant and material building. AGRIMAT'S model from International Atomic Energy Agency is model one be used to account environmental damage for air impact because SO 2 emission. Analysis method use Impact Pathways Assessment: Determining characteristic source, Exposure Response Functions (ERF), Impacts and Damage Costs, and Monetary Unit Cost. Result for calculate shows that SO 2 that issued CPP, if value of SO 2 is 19,3 μg/m3, damage cost begins valuably positive. It shows that the land around CPP has decrease prosperity, and it will disadvantage for agricultural plant. On material building, SO 2 resulting damage cost. The increase humidity price therefore damage cost on material building will increase cost. But if concentration SO 2 increase therefore damage cost that is appear on material building decrease. Expected this result can added with external cost on health impact of CPP. External cost was done at developed countries. If it is done at Indonesia, therefore generation cost with fossil as more expensive and will get implication on issue cut back gases greenhouse. On the other side, renewable energy and also alternative energy as nuclear have opportunity at national energy mix system. (author)

  15. Molecular Clusters: Nanoscale Building Blocks for Solid-State Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, Andrew; Champsaur, Anouck M; Roy, Xavier

    2018-04-17

    The programmed assembly of nanoscale building blocks into multicomponent hierarchical structures is a powerful strategy for the bottom-up construction of functional materials. To develop this concept, our team has explored the use of molecular clusters as superatomic building blocks to fabricate new classes of materials. The library of molecular clusters is rich with exciting properties, including diverse functionalization, redox activity, and magnetic ordering, so the resulting cluster-assembled solids, which we term superatomic crystals (SACs), hold the promise of high tunability, atomic precision, and robust architectures among a diverse range of other material properties. Molecular clusters have only seldom been used as precursors for functional materials. Our team has been at the forefront of new developments in this exciting research area, and this Account focuses on our progress toward designing materials from cluster-based precursors. In particular, this Account discusses (1) the design and synthesis of molecular cluster superatomic building blocks, (2) their self-assembly into SACs, and (3) their resulting collective properties. The set of molecular clusters discussed herein is diverse, with different cluster cores and ligand arrangements to create an impressive array of solids. The cluster cores include octahedral M 6 E 8 and cubane M 4 E 4 (M = metal; E = chalcogen), which are typically passivated by a shell of supporting ligands, a feature upon which we have expanded upon by designing and synthesizing more exotic ligands that can be used to direct solid-state assembly. Building from this library, we have designed whole families of binary SACs where the building blocks are held together through electrostatic, covalent, or van der Waals interactions. Using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) to determine the atomic structure, a remarkable range of compositional variability is accessible. We can also use this technique, in tandem with vibrational

  16. Luminescence dosimetry using building materials and personal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H. Y.; Bailiff, I. K.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing public awareness of the risk of accidental radiation exposure due to ageing nuclear power installations, illegal dumping of nuclear waste and terrorist activities, and of the consequential health risks to populations in addition to social and economic disturbance extending beyond national boundaries. In the event of catastrophic incidents where no direct radiation monitoring data are available, the application of retrospective dosimetry techniques such as luminescence may be employed with materials from the immediate environment to confirm values of cumulative gamma dose to compare with or augment computational modeling calculations. Application of the method to post-Chernobyl studies has resulted in the development of new procedures using fired building materials with the capability to measure cumulative doses owing to artificial sources of gamma radiation as low as 20 mGy. Combined with Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport, values of cumulative dose in brick can be presented in a form suitable for use in dose-reconstruction efforts. Recent investigations have also shown that certain types of cementitious building material, including concrete, mortar and plaster, and personal objects in the form of telephone cards containing microchips and dental ceramics have the potential to be used for retrospective dosimetry. Examples of the most recent research concerning new materials and examples of application to sites in the Former Soviet Union are discussed. (authors)

  17. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jing, E-mail: jing.chen@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada); Rahman, Naureen M.; Atiya, Ibrahim Abu [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for slate tiles and 42 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, it would contribute only 18 Bq m{sup -3} to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  18. Architecture and environmental restoration: Remediating uranium mill tailings from buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teply, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) manages the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program in Grand Junction, Colorado. This program is a congressionally mandated clean up of by-product waste that resulted from the extraction of yellow cake from uranium ore. The by-product waste, a fine sand commonly called open-quotes mill tailingclose quotes is contaminated with low-level radioactivity. These mill tailings were available to the community for use as construction material from approximately 1952 to 1966; their use as bedding material for concrete slabs, utilities, backfill materials, concrete sand, and mortar created unique remediation problems that required innovative solutions. This paper describes how design personnel approach the remediation of structures, the evaluation of the buildings, and the factors that must be considered in completing the remediation design. This paper will not address the health risks of the tailings in an inhabited space, the remediation of exterior areas, or the process of determining where the tailings exist in the building

  19. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  20. Environmental, economic and social analysis of materials for doors and windows in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundra, U.G. Yasantha; Babel, Sandhya; Sharp, Alice [Environmental Technology Program, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology, School of Energy and Materials Building, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2007-05-15

    This paper compares the environmental, economic and social impacts of two types of doors and windows (elements), namely timber and aluminum taking into consideration the life cycle perspective. These elements are widely used for the buildings in Sri Lanka. Thus, it will help in the decision-making process when selecting materials for these elements. Major materials used for these elements are timber, brass, glass, paint, aluminum, rubber, steel and PVC boards. Environmental burdens associated with these materials are analyzed in terms of embodied energy, and environmental impacts that are relevant to Sri Lanka, such as global warming (GWP), acidification (ACP) and nutrient enrichment (NEP). Economic analysis is done using market prices of materials and affordability for those materials. Social concerns such as thermal comfort, good interior (aesthetics), ability to construct fast, and durability are analyzed based on the data collected through the questionnaires and also, interviews with the stakeholders of the buildings such as engineers, architects, building contractors and building users. It was found that timber elements are superior to aluminum elements in environmental scores (GWP, ACP and NEP). On economic score, also, timber elements are better. But on social score, aluminum elements are better than timber. It was also found that the higher the recycling percentage of aluminum, the higher the environmental favorability of the aluminum. (author)

  1. Stone Dust Agglomeration for Utilizing as Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss the possibility of using stone dust for utilizing as building material. The tested material was amphibolite, found in the Sudeten Mountains and the Tatra Mountains in Poland. The chemical composition of dust was determined by means of spectrometry methods. Moreover, the basic physical properties of the material were designated. Stone dust was mixed with starch or cement binder. The binder addition was from 5% to 20% by weight. The water content was adjusted to about 25% humidity. The mixture was then compressed in a hydraulic press at 50 MPa. The results of the mechanical toughness of agglomerates were shown. On the basis of the results, acceptable toughness of agglomerates was found, with the addition of cement in mass share 20% and seasoning for 48 hours. However, starch was not suitable as a binder for agglomeration of amphibolite.

  2. Waste Foundry Sand Usage for Building Material Production: A First Geopolymer Record in Material Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Doğan-Sağlamtimur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to bring a solution to the problem of waste foundry sand (WFS in the foundry sector and achieve its reuse, geopolymer building material (as a cementless technology was produced from the WFS for the first time in the literature in this study. The physical and mechanical characteristics of this material were determined. In the first part of the experimental step, the sieve analysis, loose/tight unit weight, and loss of ignition of the WFS were obtained as well as the ultimate analysis. In the second step, the water absorption percentage, porosity, unit weight, and compressive strength tests were conducted on the WFS-based geopolymer specimens activated by chemical binders (sodium hydroxide: NaOH and sodium silicate: Na2SiO3. As the unit weights of all the produced samples were lower than 1.6 g/cm3, they may be considered as lightweight building materials. The minimum compressive strength value for building wall materials was accepted as 2.5 MPa by national standards. In this study, the maximum compressive strength value was measured as 12.3 MPa for the mixture incorporation of 30% Na2SiO3 at the curing temperature of 200°C in 28 days. It was concluded that this geopolymer material is suitable for using as a building wall material.

  3. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  4. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanekova, H.; Vladar, M.

    1998-01-01

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg -1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg -1 of 226 Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm 3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232 Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214 Bi (609 keV), 214 Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228 Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212 Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40 K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  5. Quantification of Improvement in Environmental Quality for Old Residential Buildings Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, 35% of buildings are older than 50 years but most newer buildings built before 1990 have greater energy consumption. Some other countries also have similar problems. The growing importance of energy saving in buildings can be, in the case of new and old residential buildings (RB, achieved by lowering thermal energy consumption most often by application of polystyrene insulation on the external walls and roof and the exchange of wood window frames for PVC (polyvinyl chloride windows. The novelty of the article for Slovakia and some other central European countries consists in using the life cycle assessment (LCA method for the objective assessment of the environmental benefits of the selected systems of wall insulation, as well as of energy savings in various time intervals of insulation functionality (up to 20 years. LCA software SimaPro (LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands was used with ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ assessment methods to quantify the total environmental impact at selected endpoints and midpoints (IMPACT 2002+ of basic structural materials of an RB and its energy demand—heat consumption (hot water heating, central heating before the application of insulation and thermal energy saving (TES after application of insulation to its external walls, roof, and the exchange of windows. The data we obtained confirmed that the environmental impact of the polystyrene insulation of external walls, roof, and exchange of windows of one residential building (RB in the first year after insulation is higher than the reduction caused by achieving a TES of 39%. When taking a lifespan of 20 years into consideration, the impact over the life cycle of the building materials is reduced by 25% (global warming: −4792 kg CO2 eq; production of carcinogens: −2479 kg C2H3Cl eq; acidification: −12,045 kg SO2 eq; and aquatic eutrophication: −257 kg PO4 P-lim. The verified LCA methodology will be used for comparative analysis of different variants

  6. Anthropology and environmental policy: What counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; William H. Durham

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we document a...

  7. Environmental Education Research: To What Ends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickling, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This paper engages questions about ends in environmental education research. In doing so, I argue that such questions are essentially normative, and that normative questions are underrepresented in this field. After cautioning about perils of prescribing research agendas, I gently suggest that in environmental education key normative questions…

  8. Effect of using low-polluting building materials and increasing ventilation on perceived indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Zuczek, P. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The potential of improving perceived air quality indoors was quantified when low-polluting materials are used and when building ventilation is increased. This was done by studying the relationships between ventilation rate and the perceived indoor air quality. A sensory panel assessed the air quality in test rooms ventilated with realistic outdoor air supply rates, where combinations of high- and low-polluting wall, floor and ceiling materials were set up. These materials were ranked as high- and low-polluting using sensory assessments of air quality in small-scale glass chambers, where they were tested individually. Substituting materials ranked as high-polluting with materials ranked as lower-polluting improved the perceived air quality in the test rooms. This improvement was greater than what was achieved by a realistic increase of the ventilation rate in the test rooms. Thus reducing pollution emitted from building materials that affects the perceived air quality has a considerable potential of limiting the energy for ventilation without compromising indoor air quality. (au)

  9. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  10. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  11. Reprocessing of metallurgical slag into materials for the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, L.S.; Pioro, I.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of reprocessing metallurgical (blast furnace) slag into materials for the building industry, based on melting aggregates with submerged combustion, were developed and tested. The first method involves melting hot slag with some additives directly in a slag ladle with a submerged gas-air burner, with the objective of producing stabilized slag or glass-ceramic. The second method involves direct draining of melted slag from a ladle into the slag receiver, with subsequent control of the slag draining into the converter where special charging materials are added to the melt, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic. A third method involves melting cold slag with some additives inside a melting converter with submerged gas-air burners, with the objective of producing glass-ceramic fillers for use in road construction. Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside the melt. This feature provides melt bubbling to help achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, improve mixing (and therefore homogeneity of the melt), and increases the rate of chemical reactions. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed methods are presented. The reprocessed blast-furnace slag in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concretes, asphalts, and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. As well, reprocessed blast-furnace slag can be poured into forms for the production of glass-ceramic tiles

  12. Modeling gamma radiation dose in dwellings due to building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter; van Dijk, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that calculates the absorbed dose rate in air of gamma radiation emitted by building materials in a rectangular body construction. The basis for these calculations is formed by a fixed set of specific absorbed dose rates (the dose rate per Bq kg(-1) 238U, 232Th, and 40K), as determined for a standard geometry with the dimensions 4 x 5 x 2.8 m3. Using the computer codes Marmer and MicroShield, correction factors are assessed that quantify the influence of several room and material related parameters on the specific absorbed dose rates. The investigated parameters are the position in the construction; the thickness, density, and dimensions of the construction parts; the contribution from the outer leave; the presence of doors and windows; the attenuation by internal partition walls; the contribution from building materials present in adjacent rooms; and the effect of non-equilibrium due to 222Rn exhalation. To verify the precision, the proposed method is applied to three Dutch reference dwellings, i.e., a row house, a coupled house, and a gallery apartment. The averaged difference with MCNP calculations is found to be 4%.

  13. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  14. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  15. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  16. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...... of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. The fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 97%. A specially designed small chamber (P-FLEC) was placed on the gypsum board. The release...

  17. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norafatin Khalid; Amran Abdul Majid; Redzuwan Yahaya; Muhammad Samudi Yasir

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly 238 U and 232 Th series and 40 K. In general most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived 222 Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of 226 Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m -3 , 192 Bq m -3 , 176 Bq m -3 and 28 Bq m -3 , respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m -3 for example higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y -1 , 4.85 mSv y -1 , 4.44 mSv y -1 and 0.72 mSv y -1 , respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels for example 3 - 10 mSv y -1 . As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively. (author)

  18. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2014-01-01

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly 238 U and 232 Th series and 40 K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived 222 Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of 226 Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m −3 , 192 Bq m −3 , 176 Bq m −3 and 28 Bq m −3 , respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m −3 i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y −1 , 4.85 mSv y −1 , 4.44 mSv y −1 and 0.72 mSv y −1 , respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y −1 . As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively

  19. Processing of Building Binder Materials to Increase their Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Garmashov, I. S.; Kuzmin, D. E.; Stoyushko, N. Yu; Gladkova, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals modern physical methods of activation of building powder materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of Portland cement. Activated concrete has a number of features that are used as design characteristics of structures and are due to the structure of the activated binder and its contacts with concrete aggregates. These features also have a significant impact on the nature of the destruction of concrete under load, changing the boundaries of its microcracks and durability.

  20. Hyperpolarized Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR of Building Stone Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mauri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated several building stone materials, including minerals and rocks, using continuous flow hyperpolarized xenon (CF-HP NMR spectroscopy to probe the surface composition and porosity. Chemical shift and line width values are consistent with petrographic information. Rare upfield shifts were measured and attributed to the presence of transition metal cations on the surface. The evolution of freshly cleaved rocks exposed to the atmosphere was also characterized. The CF-HP 129Xe NMR technique is non-destructive and it could complement currently used techniques, like porosimetry and microscopy, providing additional information on the chemical nature of the rock surface and its evolution.

  1. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  2. Calculation of Environmental Conditions in NEK Intermediate Building Following HELB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, D.; Spalj, S.; Basic, I.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of Equipment Qualification (EQ) in nuclear power plants is to ensure the capability of safety related equipment to perform its function on demand under postulated service conditions, including harsh accident environment (e.g. Loss of Coolant Accident - LOCA, High Energy Line Break - HELB). The determination of the EQ conditions and zones is one of the basic steps in the frame of the overall EQ project. The EQ parameters (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, chemical spray, submergence, radiation) should be defined for all locations of the plant containing equipment important to safety. This paper presents the calculation of thermohydraulic environmental parameters (pressure and temperature) inside Intermediate Building (IB) of Krsko NPP after the postulated HELB. The RELAP5/mod2 computer code was used for the determination of HELB mass and energy release and computer code GOTHIC was used to calculate pressure and temperature profiles inside NPP Krsko IB. (author)

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated, namely, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential (GWP, and ozone layer depletion (ODP. The building operation under use phase contributed the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.41 × 103 kg CO2 eq and 1.10 × 101 kg SO2 eq, respectively. In the pre-use phase, concrete in the substructure has the most significant overall impact with cement as the primary raw material. The results showed that the residential building in Malaysia has a fairly high impact in GWP but lower in acidification and ODP compared to other studies.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF A NEW BUILDING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumba Huta Msuratovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches and procedures of implementation of official provisions of Methodical Recommendations are considered in article. Upon completion of analysis of a number of factors, the authors suggest using the option of assessment of efficiency of application of a new construction material through the application of Methodical Recommendations for Assessment of Efficiency of Investment Projects. As for the assimilation of new materials by building companies engaged in construction operations, the recommendation is to assess the business project efficiency upon introduction of each new construction material, and capital investments are the main indicators of efficiency of construction materials, let alone net discounted profit and the payback period. Upon consideration of a number of conditions that underlie the mathematical and economic model that substantiates decision-making in terms of implementation of innovative projects, the project efficiency can be assessed on the basis of an integrated indicator - maximal return on capital investments. The proposed model also takes account of the payback period, although the efficiency of new construction materials does not take account of any positive social effect of their introduction.

  5. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  6. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an example...... investigation, we look at continuous filaments organized into braided structures, within the context of bio-hybrids constructing architectural artifacts. We report the result of an early swarm robot experiment. The robots successfully constructed a braid in a self-organized process. The construction process can...... be extended by using different materials and by embedding sensors during the self-organized construction directly into the braided structure. In future work, we plan to apply dedicated braiding robot hardware and to construct sophisticated 3-d structures with local variability in patterns of filament...

  7. REQUIREMENTS FOR DRILLING CUTTINGS AND EARTH-BASED BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertes Konstantin L'vovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problem of utilization of drilling cuttings by means of scavenging, is researched. The product received could be used for the restoration of lands disturbed during construction and economic activities. When assessing technogenic formations, the binary approach was used, as a system of two components. The purpose of the study is to assess the state and possibility of utilizing drilling cuttings as raw materials in order to produce technogenic building materials; to study the effect of the degree of homogeneity of initial mixtures based on drilling cuttings, on kinetics of their hardening which leads to obtaining final products for various applications . As a result of research, relations of hardening and subsequent strengthening of slurry-cement mixtures were obtained; the plan of the process area for treatment of drilling cuttings is presented on the spot of demolished drilling pit.

  8. Building Student Awareness of Societal Decision-Making Challenges about Energy through the Study of Earth System Data and Innovations in Energy-Related Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Acker, J. G.; Berding, M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy literacy requires knowledge about the trade-offs inherent in energy alternatives, about how humans use energy and have choices in how much energy to use, and about what changes to the Earth system are occurring from energy uses. It also requires collaborative decision-making skills coupled with awareness about what values we bring to the table as we negotiate solutions that serve both personal needs and the common good. Coming up with a notion of the common good requires delineating how environmental crises occurring in other parts of the world compare to our own. We also need to understand criteria for judging what might be viable solutions. This presentation describes work that SRI International is carrying out to meet these awareness-building needs. SRI educational researchers created a curriculum that immerses students in studying regional climate change data about California in comparison to global climate change. Students ponder solution energy-related strategies and impact analyses. The curriculum will be described, as will a collaboration between SRI educational researchers and materials scientists. The scientists are designing and testing technologies for producing biofuels and solar power, and for sequestering carbon from coal fired power plants. As they apply principles of science and engineering to test materials intended to meet these energy challenges, they understand that even if the tests prove successful, if there is not economic feasibility or environmental advantage, the technology may not stand as a viable solution. This educator-scientist team is using the Essential Energy Principles and Next Generation Science Standards to articulate milestones along a trajectory of energy learning. The trajectory starts with simple understandings of what energy is and what constitute our energy challenges. It ends with more the types of more sophisticated understandings needed for designing and testing energy technology solutions.

  9. Building stock dynamics and its impacts on materials and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei; Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhao, Yongqiang; Sandholt, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    China hosts a large amount of building stocks, which is nearly 50 billion square meters. Moreover, annual new construction is growing fast, representing half of the world's total. The trend is expected to continue through the year 2050. Impressive demand for new residential and commercial construction, relative shorter average building lifetime, and higher material intensities have driven massive domestic production of energy intensive building materials such as cement and steel. This paper developed a bottom-up building stock turnover model to project the growths, retrofits and retirements of China's residential and commercial building floor space from 2010 to 2050. It also applied typical material intensities and energy intensities to estimate building materials demand and energy consumed to produce these building materials. By conducting scenario analyses of building lifetime, it identified significant potentials of building materials and energy demand conservation. This study underscored the importance of addressing building material efficiency, improving building lifetime and quality, and promoting compact urban development to reduce energy and environment consequences in China. - Highlights: •Growths of China's building floorspace were projected from 2010 to 2050. •A building stock turnover model was built to reflect annual building stock dynamics. •Building related materials and energy demand were projected.

  10. US Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of rating systems aimed at increasing the environmental and health performance of buildings' sites and structures and of neighborhoods. LEED® covers the design, construction, and operations of all types of buildings.

  11. Environmental labelling of buildings and construction products: lessons for South Africa from global trends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available be informed by life cycle considerations. Environmental labelling in construction takes the form of whole building rating systems and construction product certification programmes. The First Generation building rating systems have to date experienced much...

  12. Environmental assessment of low-energy social housing, Boatemah Walk building, Brixton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lidia Johansen

    Energy use from buildings represents a considerable share from the UK energy consumption as a whole and the resulting C02 emissions are considered the main driver for climate change. There is a global urge for new and existing buildings to be truly effective in reducing their energy consumption. This study evaluates the performance in use of low energy design in social housing: Boatemah Walk is a newly built residential block of 18 flats located in Angell Town, Brixton, which benefits from various low energy enhancing features such as: a low embodied energy building fabric, super insulation, photovoltaic panels integrated in the roof, rainwater recycling system and non-toxic building materials and finishes. The new building layout and surrounding landscape influences positively the community integration and safety. The evaluation has been done through observation, monitoring, interviews with tenants and the use of TAS software, throughout the year after occupation. Boatemah Walk building has proved successful in some aspects and less successful in others. It is crucial that a demonstration project like Boatemah Walk building considers all mechanisms necessary to monitor its efficiency, as this would provide feedback to prove the efficiency and encourage similar investments. However, during the course of the study it was found that a meter for the recycled water and export meters for the photovoltaic production were missing. This proved to be an obstacle for the accurate monitoring of the building performance. The annual heating in Boatemah Walk is below the national averages, which confirms the good performance of its building fabric. In hot summer days the lightweight building is expectedly vulnerable to the outside. This is not a frequent occurrence however the effects of climate change are very likely to increase the length and temperatures in the future. The tenants' energy consuming behavior has a definitive impact, as revealed through monitoring and direct

  13. 36 CFR 1222.14 - What are nonrecord materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT CREATION AND MAINTENANCE OF FEDERAL RECORDS Identifying Federal Records § 1222.14 What are nonrecord materials? Nonrecord materials are U.S. Government-owned documentary materials... from the statutory definition of records (see 44 U.S.C. 3301). An agency's records management program...

  14. Comparative Study on the Cost of Building Public House Construction Using Red Brick and Interlock Brick Building Material in the City of Banda Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malahayati, Nurul; Hayati, Yulia; Nursaniah, Cut; Firsa, T.; Fachrurrazi; Munandar, Aris

    2018-05-01

    Red brick and interlocking brick are the building materials that are often used for wall installation work on houses construction. In the development of building materials technology and cost savings, interlocking brick can be alternative to replace red bricks. In Aceh Province, the use of interlocking bricks is less popular compared to other big cities in Indonesia. Interlocking brick is made from a mixture of clay, concrete sand and compacted cement and one of the environmentally friendly materials because it does not burn the process like red brick material. It is named interlocking brick because the installation method is locked together and it serves as a structural and partition wall of residential buildings. The aims of this study are to compare the cost of building a house in Banda Aceh City using red brick and interlock brick building materials. The data were obtained from interviews and questionnaires distributed to respondents who had built houses in Banda Aceh City. The results concluded that the house construction cost using interlock brick offer lower construction cost at comparable quality rather than using red brick.

  15. A diffusivity model for predicting VOC diffusion in porous building materials based on fractal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhou, Xiaojun; Wang, Dengjia; Song, Cong; Liu, Jiaping

    2015-12-15

    Most building materials are porous media, and the internal diffusion coefficients of such materials have an important influences on the emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pore structure of porous building materials has a significant impact on the diffusion coefficient. However, the complex structural characteristics bring great difficulties to the model development. The existing prediction models of the diffusion coefficient are flawed and need to be improved. Using scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests of typical porous building materials, this study developed a new diffusivity model: the multistage series-connection fractal capillary-bundle (MSFC) model. The model considers the variable-diameter capillaries formed by macropores connected in series as the main mass transfer paths, and the diameter distribution of the capillary bundles obeys a fractal power law in the cross section. In addition, the tortuosity of the macrocapillary segments with different diameters is obtained by the fractal theory. Mesopores serve as the connections between the macrocapillary segments rather than as the main mass transfer paths. The theoretical results obtained using the MSFC model yielded a highly accurate prediction of the diffusion coefficients and were in a good agreement with the VOC concentration measurements in the environmental test chamber. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Constituent Materials of Historical Building in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Fahed; El-Turke, Adel; Scott, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Increasing levels of atmospheric pollution is observed to accentuate and accelerate the degradation of historical sites. This paper investigates the chemical and mineralogical characteristic of the building materials used to construct the declared UNESCO world heritage site located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia., and provide an initial assessment of the primary mechanisms for their environmental degradation. Stone and plaster samples were collected from six historic houses as well as the quarry from which the stone was originally produced. The main objective of this work was to identify the composition and alteration of the stone, plaster and quarry materials and to provide information about the decay mechanisms, thereby better enabling conservators to identify the correct methods and materials for onwards conservation and restoration works. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy combined with energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (FEGSEM-EDS) were utilized as analytical techniques to conjointly to determine the chemical composition of the corresponding materials. The results revealed that the stone used throughout the historic buildings comprises a mixture of calcareous limestone and corallite stones. The associated binding plaster is lime based, made with non-hydraulic lime and local sand, whilst the decorative plaster is made of gypsum (CaSO4). On degraded surfaces it was possible to detect the deposition of sea salt, sulphur and phosphorus as the main atmospheric pollutants and significant contributors to the observed environmental degradation.

  17. Decreased bio-inhibition of building materials due to transport of biocides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Mendoza, S.M.; Floor, W.; Hermanns, S.P.M.; Homan, W.J.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inhibition of buildings and structures is an important issue. In many cases building materials have biocides added to prevent growth of micro-organisms. Growth of microorganisms on building materials has several negative effects; (1) Aesthetic damage, e.g. fungi, algae grow on the material,

  18. Hackathons as A Capacity Building Tool for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; Mildorf, T.; Charvat, K.; Berre, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Today's society requires easy, reliable and quick access to environmental information published by various organizations and initiatives. The environment questions require many activities that produce various sorts of data; by authorities through operation of instruments such as satellites, and through informal local and community activities producing videos, photos or oral stories. The collected information can contribute to up-to-date data. Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is the harnessing of tools to create, assemble, and disseminate geographic data provided voluntarily by individuals. Under the INSPIRE (Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe) umbrella, a number of EU projects co-organize hackathons - the INSPIRE Hack. The INSPIRE Hack focuses on methods where citizens are able to contribute to different environmental and societal issues through smart phones and other sensors. The INSPIRE Hack supports creativity, innovation, technical capabilities and knowledge sharing by combining open data, VGI, and data from citizens observatories or other citizen science activities. This presentation offer a capacity building perspective on the INSPIRE hackathons, the co-design aspects and the argility with respect to the accelerating technological and social innovations, and effective up-take in societal use. Starting in Europe, the concept can be broadened to encompass all continents.

  19. COMPUTER MODELING OF STRUCTURAL - CONCENTRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Zaripova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the computer modeling of structural and concentration characteristics of the building composite material on the basis of the theory of the package. The main provisions of the algorithmon the basis of which it was possible to get the package with a significant number of packaged elements, making it more representative in comparison with existing analogues modeling. We describe the modeled area related areas, the presence of which determines the possibility of a percolation process, which in turn makes it possible to study and management of individual properties of the composite material of construction. As an example of the construction of a composite material is considered concrete that does not exclude the possibility of using algorithms and modeling results of similar studies for composite matrix type (matrix of the same material and distributed in a certain way by volume particles of another substance. Based on modeling results can be manufactured parts and construction elementsfor various purposes with improved technical characteristics (by controlling the concentration composition substance.

  20. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  1. Quantitative relationships between occupant satisfaction and satisfaction aspects of indoor environmental quality and building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Schiavon, S.; Goins, J.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines which subjectively evaluated indoor environmental parameters and building features mostly affect occupants' satisfaction in mainly US office buildings. The study analyzed data from a web-based survey administered to 52 980 occupants in 351 office buildings over 10 years...... by the Center for the Built Environment. The survey uses 7-point ordered scale questions pertaining to satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters, workspace, and building features. The average building occupant was satisfied with his/her workspace and building. Proportional odds ordinal logistic...

  2. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  3. Indoor Pollution Emissions from Building Materials; Case of Study: Gypsum Boards Indoor Pollution Emissions from Building Materials; Case of Study: Gypsum Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio Hernández Moreno

    2012-02-01

    common room; for example, a classroom or a workstation. The indoor environmental conditions, such as ventilation, temperature, and humidity, affect chemical emissions from building materials. The technical methodology used, is based on the comparison of conventional materials and alternative materials with similar characteristics and different composition, using similar testing methods, environmental conditions, and instruments and tools. This is a very important report to understand problems related to environmental pollution, specifically of air and its effects indoors, directly on public health, and indirectly on building systems and selection of materials. The tests conclude that alternative materials (with recycled content are better than traditional ones, because they reduce indoor pollution.

  4. Power plant wastes capitalization as geopolymeric building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Litu, Loredana; Harja, Maria

    2017-11-01

    In this innovative study, we are present an investigation over the properties of geopolymeric materials prepared using ash supplied by power plant Iasi, Romania and sodium hydroxide solutions/pellets. Having as objective a minimum consumption of energy and materials was developed a class of advanced eco-materials. New synthesized materials can be used as a binder for cement replacement or for the removal/immobilization of pollutants from waste waters or soils. It offers an advanced and low cost-effective solution too many problems, where waste must be capitalized. The geopolymer formation, by hydrothermal method, is influenced by: temperature (20-600°C), alkali concentration (2M-6M), solid /liquid ratio (1-2), ash composition, time of heating (2-48 h), etc. The behaviour of the FTIR peak of 6M sample indicated upper quantity of geopolymer formation at the first stage of the reaction. XRD spectra indicated phases like sodalite, faujasite, Na-Y, which are known phases of geopolymer/zeolite. Advanced destroyed of ash particles due to geopolymerisation reaction were observed when the temperature was higher. At the constant temperature the percentage of geopolymer increases with increasing of curing time, from 4-48 h. Geopolymer materials are environmentally friendly, for its obtaining energy consumption, and CO2 emission is reduced compared to cement binder.

  5. Radioactivity of building materials in our country and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkova, L.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of radiation load of the population in recent years in the world, but also in Slovakia, is a topic of increasing interest. The reason is significant radiation exposure which is caused by natural or artificial sources of ionizing radiation. The most serious of natural resources is radon. Studies point to the fact that, together with its transformation products it poses a plumbless risk for developing of lung cancer. As part of measures to reduce the radiation load of the population the content of radionuclides in materials and raw materials used in construction is being monitored. The aim is to regulate the size of the exposure in the accommodation space and thus eliminate the health risks that result in exposure of radon. The author tried to make an overview of measured concentrations of natural radionuclides in building materials used in Slovakia and other countries. The author also provides a picture of radiation load on the population of the Czech Republic and Slovakia and gives an overview of legal and legislative standards based on international standards and requirements. (author)

  6. Environmental assessment for the proposed CMR Building upgrades at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In order to maintain its ability to continue to conduct uninterrupted radioactive and metallurgical research in a safe, secure, and environmentally sound manner, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to upgrade the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building. The building was built in the early 1950s to provide a research and experimental facility for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy. Today, research and development activities are performed involving nuclear materials. A variety of radioactive and chemical hazards are present. The CMR Building is nearing the end of its original design life and does not meet many of today's design codes and standards. The Proposed Action for this Environmental Assessment (EA) includes structural modifications to some portions of the CMR Building which do not meet current seismic criteria for a Hazard Category 2 Facility. Also included are upgrades and improvements in building ventilation, communications, monitoring, and fire protection systems. This EA analyzes the environmental effects of construction of the proposed upgrades. The Proposed Action will have no adverse effects upon agricultural and cultural resources, wetlands and floodplains, endangered and threatened species, recreational resources, or water resources. The Proposed Action would have negligible effects on human health and transportation, and would not pose a disproportionate adverse health or environmental impact on minority or low-income populations within an 80 kilometer (50 mile) radius of the CMR Building

  7. Environmental assessment for the proposed CMR Building upgrades at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. Final document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-04

    In order to maintain its ability to continue to conduct uninterrupted radioactive and metallurgical research in a safe, secure, and environmentally sound manner, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to upgrade the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building. The building was built in the early 1950s to provide a research and experimental facility for analytical chemistry, plutonium and uranium chemistry, and metallurgy. Today, research and development activities are performed involving nuclear materials. A variety of radioactive and chemical hazards are present. The CMR Building is nearing the end of its original design life and does not meet many of today`s design codes and standards. The Proposed Action for this Environmental Assessment (EA) includes structural modifications to some portions of the CMR Building which do not meet current seismic criteria for a Hazard Category 2 Facility. Also included are upgrades and improvements in building ventilation, communications, monitoring, and fire protection systems. This EA analyzes the environmental effects of construction of the proposed upgrades. The Proposed Action will have no adverse effects upon agricultural and cultural resources, wetlands and floodplains, endangered and threatened species, recreational resources, or water resources. The Proposed Action would have negligible effects on human health and transportation, and would not pose a disproportionate adverse health or environmental impact on minority or low-income populations within an 80 kilometer (50 mile) radius of the CMR Building.

  8. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Lessons for South Africa from global trends in environmental labelling of buildings and construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines the international state-of-the-art of environmental labelling of buildings and construction products; and discusses ways in which the emerging South African framework for environmental labelling could benefit from the lessons...

  10. pH and redox effects of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van Zomeren, A.; Meeussen, J.C.L.; De Nie, D.S.

    2007-11-01

    The application of relatively fine grained industrial slags as fill material in industrial terrains and parking lots has led to unacceptably elevated pH values and imposed reducing conditions in ground- and surface water. Based on the Dutch Building Materials Decree the materials applied were classified as category 1 materials (free use). There are no limits set to pH and redox in this regulation. In itself a lower or higher pH and a low redox potential are not necessarily critical. Only when the buffer capacity of the surroundings is exceeded, undesirable situations may develop. In this work, the release of alkaline and reducing substances has been studied to assess if regulatory controls are needed and how such controls could be implemented practically. Both pH and redox potential are unsuitable properties for this purpose as it is the buffer capacity of the releasing material and the buffer capacity of the receiving soil and water bodies that determine whether unacceptable conditions develop. As pH and redox are also affected by gas reactions (O2 and CO2), the evaluation becomes relatively complex. Using the chemical speciation-transport model ORCHESTRA, a scenario description has been developed to assess the release of alkaline and reducing species from slag by infiltration under unsaturated conditions. Proper acid neutralization and redox buffering data for the materials were determined. Based on the sophisticated model results, a simplified model description was applied to link observations to impact. Decision schemes for applications above groundwater and in surface water have been developed based on the buffer capacity and particle size distribution of the material to be used, the infiltration rate, the degree of exposure to O2 and CO2 from the atmosphere or from soil air and the dimensions of the application. This has led to a preliminary guidance on implementing rules for acceptance of materials in specific applications. The modeled release predictions

  11. Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs. To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between the cubicles directly related to the PCM’s characteristics. Data collection devices included in the system were temperature sensors, some of which were embedded in the walls, as well as humidity sensors, heat flux density sensors, a weather station and energy counters. The analysis of the results shows agreement with previous studies of PCM addition; therefore, the acquisition system is suitable for this application.

  12. Determination of radioactivity levels from some Egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EL Sattar, M.; Morsy, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Our world is radioactive and has been, since it was created. Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive elements) can be found in nature. Radon is naturally occurring radioactive gas, that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentration of radon can cause lung cancer. A set of experiments were carried out using Cr-39 as solid state nuclear track detectors with the optimum etching conditions, 6.25 N Na OH at 70 o C for 8 hours. The radon-222 activity in this survey was found to be in the range of 0.303 kBq/m 3 to 5.04 KBq/m 3 for different building materials in Egypt

  13. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Baumgartner, A.; Rechberger, F.; Seidel, C.; Stietka, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. - Highlights: • Dose models for indoor radiation exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials. • Strategies and methods in radionuclide metrology, activity measurement and dose modelling. • Selection of appropriate parameters in radiation protection standards for building materials. • Scientific-based limitations of indoor exposure due to natural radionuclides in building materials

  14. How accelerated biological aging can affect solar reflective polymeric based building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C.; Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.; Sgarbi, E.

    2017-11-01

    Among the main issues concerning building materials, in particular outdoor ones, one can identify the colonization by microorganisms referred to as biological aggression. This can affect not only the aesthetical aspect but also the thermal performance of solar reflective materials. In order to improve the reliability of tests aimed to assess the resistance to biological aggression and contextually reduce the test duration, an accelerated test method has been developed. It is based on a lab reproducible setup where specific and controlled environmental and boundary conditions are imposed to accelerate as much as possible biological growth on building materials. Due to their widespread use, polymeric materials have been selected for the present analysis, in the aim of reaching an advanced bio-aged level in a relatively short time (8 weeks or less) and at the same time comparatively evaluate different materials under a given set of ageing conditions. Surface properties before, during and after ageing have been investigated by surface, microstructural and chemical analyses, as well as by examination of time progressive images to assess bacterial and algal growth rate.

  15. Postparadigmatic Materialisms: A "New Movement of Thought" for Outdoor Environmental Education Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Since at least the beginning of this century, the literatures of research methodology in the social sciences have increasingly focused on what are now being called "new empiricisms" and "new materialisms." My purpose in this essay is to appraise the potential of these approaches for outdoor environmental education research. I…

  16. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  17. Building a Successful Security Infrastructure: What You Want vs. What You Need vs. What You Can Afford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Michele D.; Woodrow, Thomas S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    With the fast growing popularity of the Internet, many organizations are racing to get onto the on-ramp to the Information Superhighway. However, with frequent headlines such as 'Hackers' break in at General Electric raises questions about the Net's Security', 'Internet Security Imperiled - Hackers steal data that could threaten computers world-wide' and 'Stanford Computer system infiltrated; Security fears grow', organizations find themselves rethinking their approach to the on-ramp. Is the Internet safe? What do I need to do to protect my organization? Will hackers try to break into my systems? These are questions many organizations are asking themselves today. In order to safely travel along the Information Superhighway, organizations need a strong security framework. Developing such a framework for a computer site, whether it be just a few dozen hosts or several thousand hosts is not an easy task. The security infrastructure for a site is often developed piece-by-piece in response to security incidents which have affected that site over time. Or worse yet, no coordinated effort has been dedicated toward security. The end result is that many sites are still poorly prepared to handle the security dangers of the Internet. This paper presents guidelines for building a successful security infrastructure. The problem is addressed in a cookbook style method. First is a discussion on how to identify your assets and evaluate the threats to those assets; next are suggestions and tips for identifying the weak areas in your security armor. Armed with this information we can begin to think about what you really need for your site and what you can afford. In this stage of the process we examine the different categories of security tools and products that are available and then present some tips for deciding what is best for your site.

  18. Students' Environmental Responsibility and Their Willingness to Pay for Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Sharmin; Celik, Bilge Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore environmental attitudes and how such attitudes, when combined with a specific cost, can affect environmental behavior. Environmental attitudes are important to study due to the rising belief by building occupants that they are owed safe, healthy, environmentally responsible, and comfortable living…

  19. Moisture measurement in wood, wood-based materials and building materials - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, A.; Mehlhorn, L.; Plinke, B.

    1989-10-01

    Methods of moisture measurement in solid substances, especially on wood, wood-based materials and building materials were examined and evaluated according to the literature available. The question was which methods of examining the moisture distribution in building elements at climate loading offer the best accuracy and spatial resolution as well as which methods are the most appropriate at present and in future for the solution of measurement problems in the wood and wood-based industry. The most common methods are electric measurement methods which are utilizing either the moisture-depending conductivity or the dielectric constant or the reflectivity of the material for infrared radiation but they offer only a limited accuracy. The same is valid for the rarely used microwave methods or X-ray and NMR tomography. Simple electric methods will further on play an important role in the industrial process measuring technique. For the examination of building elements, methods using nuclear radiation still offer possibilities for a further development. (orig.) With 207 refs., 13 figs [de

  20. Environmental analysis for building legislation purposes. A challenge to science and policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Huppes, G.; Haes, H.A.U. de

    2000-01-01

    The Dutch Government is cooperating with the building industry to prepare legislation for environmental performance requirements for dwellings and residential buildings. These requirements, also known as dubo-eisen (requirements for sustainable building) will have to apply to all newly built

  1. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural radioactivity of Turkish natural stones as building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, Guenseli; Yasar, Oezden

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Turkey has very important natural stones potential with over 5 billion m 3 marble reserves. According to 2002 giving data the number of Turkish stones export is 303 million US Dollars. In this regards, the present study deals with 90 Turkish natural stones. The studied samples were analyzed and the concentrations in Bq/kg dry weight of radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The radon exhalation rates of natural stones were also measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 ). The radium equivalent activity varied from 183 Bq/kg to 522 Bq/kg for granite samples and from 1 Bq/kg to 37 Bq/kg for marble samples. The value of radon exhalation rate ranged from 0.003 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.768 Bq/m 2 h -1 for granite samples and from 0.001 Bq/m 2 h -1 to 0.02 Bq/m 2 h -1 for marble samples. The total absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 22 to 61 n Gy h -1 for one quarter utilization of granite samples. The annual effective dose rates per person indoors were determined to be between 108 and 298 μSv y -1 for of for one quarter utilization of the materials. Applying the dose criteria recently recommended by UNSCEAR for building materials, the natural stones meet the upper dose limit of 1mSvy -1 . So, there are not restrictions for use of any Turkish commercial marble as covering materials, including Turkish granites. (author)

  3. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  4. What is materialism? Testing two dominant perspectives on materialism in the marketing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchiraju Srikant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Materialism is defined as the importance an individual attaches to worldly possessions, which has been considered as an important construct in consumer behavior and marketing literature. There are two dominant perspectives on individual materialism in the marketing literature that focus on (1 personality traits or (2 individual personal values. However, several scholars have questioned the aforementioned materialism conceptualizations. Therefore, the present study directly compares the constructs of personality materialism and value materialism. Structural equation modeling was employed to address the following issues: (1 what are the key conceptual dimensions of materialism, (2 how much do they overlap, and (3 what is their discriminant validity in predicting outcomes linked to materialism. We suggest these two dominant perspectives on individual materialism are two distinct constructs, as they shared only 21 percent of common variance. Furthermore, we stress the multi-faceted nature of materialism, with an emphasis on future research directions related to materialism in marketing.

  5. Development of Composite PCMs by Incorporation of Paraffin into Various Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focused on the development of composite phase-change materials (CPCMs by incorporation of a paraffin through vacuum impregnation in widely used building materials (Kaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS. The composite PCMs were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques. Moreover, thermal performance of cement paste composite PCM panels was evaluated using a self-designed heating system. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of paraffin retained by Kaolin and GGBS was found to be 18% and 9%, respectively. FT-IR results show that CPCMs are chemically compatible. The phase-change temperatures of CPCMs were in the human comfort zone, and they possessed considerable latent-heat storage capacity. TGA results showed that CPCMs are thermally stable, and they did not show any sign of degradation below 150 °C. From thermal cycling tests, it was revealed that the CPCMs are thermally reliable. Thermal performance tests showed that in comparison to the control room model, the room models prepared with CPCMs reduced both the temperature fluctuations and maximum indoor center temperature. Therefore, the prepared CPCMs have some potential in reducing peak loads in buildings when applied to building facade.

  6. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  7. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  8. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  9. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D.; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D.; Durão, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards. PMID:28773516

  10. Insulation Cork Boards-Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D; Durão, Vera

    2016-05-20

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A "cradle-to-cradle" environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows ( i.e. , uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage-the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation-the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date "cradle-to-cradle" environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  11. Life cycle assessment and environmental building declaration for the design building at the University of Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2018-01-01

    AbstractWith the world’s increasing focus on sustainability in the construction sector through green building systems, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has been ac-tively engaged in green building advocacy in the United States through USDA Tall Wood Building competitions and follow-up research on use of mass timber for nonresi-dential buildings. The USDA...

  12. Indoor air quality environmental information handbook: Building system characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This manual, the third in a series, focuses on residential building system characteristics and their effects on indoor air quality. The manual addresses: residential indoor air pollutants by source, indoor concentrations, health effects, source control and mitigation techniques, standards and guidelines; building system characteristics of air exchange, pollutant source strength, residence volume, site characteristics, structural design, construction, and operation, infiltration and ventilation system, building occupancy; and monitoring methods

  13. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowers, Paul, E-mail: paul.blowers@cefas.co.uk [Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Caborn, Jane, E-mail: jane.a.caborn@nnl.co.uk [NNL, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Dell, Tony [Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB (United Kingdom); Gingell, Terry [DSTL, Radiation Protection Services, Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom); Harms, Arvic [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Long, Stephanie [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland (United Kingdom); Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stewart, Charlie [UKAEA (Waste Management Group), Chemical Support Services, D1310/14, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom); Walker, Jill [Radiocarbon Dating, The Old Stables, East Lockinge, Wantage, Oxon OX12 8QY (United Kingdom); Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the {sup 14}C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing {sup 14}C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  14. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E.

    2011-01-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the 14 C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing 14 C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  16. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  17. Space Environmental Effects on Coated Tether Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittemeier, Keith A.; Hawk, Clark W.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Watts, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville s Propulsion Research Center has teamed with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to research the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) bombardment on coated tether materials. Tethers Unlimited Inc. has provided several candidate tether materials with various coatings for AO exposure in MSFC s Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility. Additional samples were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation at MSFC. AO erodes most organic materials, and ultraviolet radiation embrittles polymers. This test series was performed to determine the effect of AO and UV on the mechanical integrity of tether materials that were treated with AO-protective coatings, such as polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) or metallization. Both TUI's Multi-Application Survivable Tether (MAST) Experiment and Marshall Space Flight Center s Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) programs will benefit from this research by helping to determine tether materials and coatings that give the longest life with the lowest mass penalty.

  18. Selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste from material resources consumed in residential building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader-Moyano, Pilar; Ramírez-de-Arellano-Agudo, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The unfortunate economic situation involving Spain and the European Union is, among other factors, the result of intensive construction activity over recent years. The excessive consumption of natural resources, together with the impact caused by the uncontrolled dumping of untreated C&D waste in illegal landfills have caused environmental pollution and a deterioration of the landscape. The objective of this research was to generate a selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste based on the material resources consumed in the construction of residential buildings, either new or renovated, namely the Conventional Constructive Model (CCM). A practical example carried out on ten residential buildings in Seville, Spain, enabled the identification and quantification of the C&D waste generated in their construction and the origin of the waste, in terms of the building material from which it originated and its impact for every m(2) constructed. This model enables other researchers to establish comparisons between the various improvements proposed for the minimization of the environmental impact produced by building a CCM, new corrective measures to be proposed in future policies that regulate the production and management of C&D waste generated in construction from the design stage to the completion of the construction process, and the establishment of sustainable management for C&D waste and for the selection of materials for the construction on projected or renovated buildings.

  19. Environmental assessment of biomass based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel

    of these impacts in LCA, in order to get a realistic picture of the overall impacts from a biomass feedstock crop establishment, and thus downstream products. However, there is a challenge in terms of e.g. the preliminary state of methods, and the requirements to availability of local data. Available biomass...... level. The temporal scope is defined by the impact category considered. The technological scope includes both current environmental performance of biomaterials and a discussion of future perspectives, including potentials for future change in their environmental impacts compared to fossil based...... place in biomaterials, on which there is currently no consensus. Other important environmental aspects related to biomaterials that are currently not generally included in LCAs are land use and land use change (LULUC) related impacts, such as changes in biogenic carbon stocks (especially including soil...

  20. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  1. Phosphogypsum recycling in the building materials industry: assessment of the radon exhalation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M P; Costa, L J P; Nisti, M B; Mazzilli, B P

    2017-06-01

    Phosphogypsum can be classified as a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) residue of the phosphate fertilizer industry. One of the main environmental concerns of its use as building material is the radon exhalation. The aim of this study is to measure the radon exhalation rate from plates and bricks manufactured with phosphogypsum from three installations of the main Brazilian producer, Vale Fertilizantes, in order to evaluate the additional health risk to dwellers. A simple and reliable accumulator method involving a PVC pipe sealed with a PVC pipe cover commercially available with CR-39 radon detector into a diffusion chamber was used for measuring radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum made plates and bricks. The radon exhalation rate from plates varied from 0.19 ± 0.06 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, from 1.3 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. As for the bricks, the results ranged from 0.11 ± 0.01 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Bunge Fertilizers, to 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq m -2 h -1 , for phosphogypsum from Ultrafertil. The results obtained in this study for the radon exhalation rate from phosphogypsum plates and bricks are of the same order of magnitude than those from ordinary building materials. So, it can be concluded that the recycling of phosphogypsum as building material is a safe practice, since no additional health risk is expected from the radiological point of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What role can Life Cycle Assessment play in the selection of green construction materials?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The green building movement aims to foster the environmental sustainability of construction products by maximising resource efficiency while minimising concomitant pollution throughout the building life cycle. However, green building principles...

  3. Natural radioactivity in granite stones and their radiological aspects as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, S.; Sunil, C.N.; Narashimha Nath, V.; Raghunath, T.; Prashanth Kumar, M.; Ramakrishna, V.; Nair, B.S.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Tripati, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity in building and building decorating materials comes mainly from natural radioactive series like 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. India is one of the leading users of granite stones as it is preferred by decorators and architects. The knowledge of presence of natural radioactivity in these materials is required for the assessment of radiation exposure due to them. The objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity and radiological aspects of granite stones as building material

  4. Competitive landscape of the EU’s insulation materials industry for energy-efficient buildings

    OpenAIRE

    PAVEL CLAUDIU; BLAGOEVA DARINA

    2017-01-01

    Insulation materials could contribute significantly to improving the overall energy efficiency and sustainability of the buildings, especially by reducing the energy losses through the building envelope (walls, roofs, floors, etc.). The global demand for thermal insulation materials in building applications is projected to increase at a CAGR of 4.5 % between 2016 and 2027. In the EU the demand for thermal insulation materials is estimated at 3.48 % (2015-2027). Wool minerals (glass and stone ...

  5. What can the brain teach us about building artificial intelligence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dileep

    2017-01-01

    Lake et al. offer a timely critique on the recent accomplishments in artificial intelligence from the vantage point of human intelligence and provide insightful suggestions about research directions for building more human-like intelligence. Because we agree with most of the points they raised, here we offer a few points that are complementary.

  6. What the Building Boom Says about Campus Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Some construction projects that colleges and universities have recently undertaken--residence halls, dining halls, student centers, athletic and recreation centers--have attracted significant criticism. Critics have taken issue with the proliferation and design of buildings intended to structure the use of students' free time and attract…

  7. Characterization study on secondary sewage sludge for replacement in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Aziz, Nurul Sazwana A.; Hamdan, Rafidah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Recently, environmental issues continually increased since expanded in industrial development and grown in population. Regarding to this activity, it will cause lack management of waste such as solid waste from wastewater treatment plant called sewage sludge. This research presents the characteristic study of sewage sludge, regardless of whether it is appropriate or not to be applied as building materials. The sewage sludge samples were collected from secondary treatment at Senggarang and Perwira under Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) treatment plant. Raw materials were tested with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) in order to determine the composition of sewage sludge and heavy metal concentration contains in sewage sludge. From the study, it was found that sewage sludge contained high amount of Silica Oxide (SiO2) with 13.6%, Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) with 12.64% and Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) with 8.7% which is similar in clay. In addition, sewage sludge also high in Iron (Fe) with 276.2 mg/L followed by Zinc (Zn) with concentration 45.41 mg/L which sewage sludge cannot be directly disposed to landfill. Results from this study demonstrated that sewage sludge has high possibility to be reused as alternative building materials such as bricks and have compatible chemical composition with clay.

  8. Natural radioactivity in granite stones used as building materials in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharizadeh, F; Abbasi, A; Hochaghani, O; Gooya, E S

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing concern about environmental radiological protection, specific radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in different types of commonly used granite stone samples collected from the Tehran city of Iran have been determined by means of a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectroscopy system. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 18 to 178, 6 to 160 and 556 to 1539 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) set by NEA-OECD [Nuclear Energy Agency. Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts. OECD (1979)], except in two samples. The internal hazard indexes have been found well below the acceptable limit in most of the samples. Five samples of investigated commercial granite stones do not satisfy the safety criterion illustrated by UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Exposure from natural sources of radiation. Report to the General Assembly (1993). Applying dose criteria recently recommended by the EC [European Commission Report on Radiological Protection Principles Concerning the Natural Radioactivity of Building Materials. Radiation Protection 112 (1999)] for superficial materials, all investigated samples meet the exemption dose limit of 0.3 mSv y(-1).

  9. Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Michiyuki; Fujii, Hidemichi; Hoang, Vincent; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-09-15

    This study estimates the environmental efficiency of international listed firms in 10 worldwide sectors from 2007 to 2013 by applying an order-m method, a non-parametric approach based on free disposal hull with subsampling bootstrapping. Using a conventional output of gross profit and two conventional inputs of labor and capital, this study examines the order-m environmental efficiency accounting for the presence of each of 10 undesirable inputs/outputs and measures the shadow prices of each undesirable input and output. The results show that there is greater potential for the reduction of undesirable inputs rather than bad outputs. On average, total energy, electricity, or water usage has the potential to be reduced by 50%. The median shadow prices of undesirable inputs, however, are much higher than the surveyed representative market prices. Approximately 10% of the firms in the sample appear to be potential sellers or production reducers in terms of undesirable inputs/outputs, which implies that the price of each item at the current level has little impact on most of the firms. Moreover, this study shows that the environmental, social, and governance activities of a firm do not considerably affect environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 7. Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Custodial Buildings 136 4.5.5 Retail Stores, Malls, etc. 138 l’ 4.5.6 Restaurants and Nightclubs 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters... auditoria , theaters, exhibition halls, arenas, transportation terminals; educational buildings and indus- trial buildings. Many of the fire safety...usage are developed. 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters, Exhibition Halls, Arenas, Transportation Terminals, Etc. The factors

  11. Activity measurement and effective dose modelling of natural radionuclides in building material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Rechberger, F; Seidel, C; Stietka, M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper the assessment of natural radionuclides' activity concentration in building materials, calibration requirements and related indoor exposure dose models is presented. Particular attention is turned to specific improvements in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the activity concentration of necessary natural radionuclides in building materials with adequate measurement uncertainties. Different approaches for the modelling of the effective dose indoor due to external radiation resulted from natural radionuclides in building material and results of actual building material assessments are shown. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  13. Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Commercial Buildings: An Elicitation Study of U.S. Building Professionals’ Beliefs on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Kientzel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary environmental programs (VEPs have become increasingly popular around the world to address energy efficiency issues that mandatory building codes have not been able to tackle. Even though the utility of voluntary schemes is widely debated, they have become a de facto reality for many professionals in the building and construction sector. One topic that is neglected, however, in both academic and policy discussions, relates to how professionals (architects, engineers, real estate developers, etc. perceive the rise of voluntary rating schemes. In order to fill this gap in the literature, the present study investigates beliefs underlying adoption behavior regarding one of the most prominent voluntary assessment and certification programs in the U.S. building industry, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED scheme. In this paper, an elicitation study, based on 14 semi-structured interviews with building professionals in the North East of the United States, was conducted to analyze this question. Building on the Reasoned Action Approach, this paper shows that, in addition to more conventional factors such as financial calculations and marketing aspects, the understanding of beliefs held by building professionals offers important insights into their decisions to work with Voluntary Environmental Assessment and Rating Programs.

  14. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  15. Ice crystallization in porous building materials: assessing damage using real-time 3D monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Maxim; De Kock, Tim; De Schutter, Geert; Cnudde, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    Frost action is one of the main causes of deterioration of porous building materials in regions at middle to high latitudes. Damage will occur when the internal stresses due to ice formation become larger than the strength of the material. Hence, the sensitivity of the material to frost damage is partly defined by the structure of the solid body. On the other hand, the size, shape and interconnection of pores manages the water distribution in the building material and, therefore, the characteristics of the pore space control potential to form ice crystals (Ruedrich et al., 2011). In order to assess the damage to building materials by ice crystallization, lot of effort was put into identifying the mechanisms behind the stress build up. First of all, volumetric expansion of 9% (Hirschwald, 1908) during the transition of water to ice should be mentioned. Under natural circumstances, however, water saturation degrees within natural rocks or concrete cannot reach a damaging value. Therefore, linear growth pressure (Scherer, 1999), as well as several mechanisms triggered by water redistribution during freezing (Powers and Helmuth, 1953; Everett, 1961) are more likely responsible for damage due to freezing. Nevertheless, these theories are based on indirect observations and models and, thus, direct evidence that reveals the exact damage mechanism under certain conditions is still lacking. To obtain this proof, in-situ information needs to be acquired while a freezing process is performed. X-ray computed tomography has proven to be of great value in material research. Recent advances at the Ghent University Centre for Tomography (UGCT) have already allowed to dynamically 3D image crack growth in natural rock during freeze-thaw cycles (De Kock et al., 2015). A great potential to evaluate the different stress build-up mechanisms can be found in this imaging technique consequently. It is required to cover a range of materials with different petrophysical properties to achieve

  16. Heavy rainfall: An underestimated environmental risk for buildings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Second, heavy rain may result in urban pluvial flooding due to sewer overflow that cause severe damage to buildings. A comprehensive study of the impacts and the consequences in Dresden (Germany, presented in the paper, revealed that the potential risks of flooding from sewers due to hydraulic overload can be estimated on building scale using the model approach IVART (Integrated Spatial Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool. Modelling results provide the basis to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of flood resilience technologies.

  17. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@napier.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nowack, Bernd [Materials, Products and the Environment Group, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH - 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, NanoDTU, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Brink, Nico van den [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kammer, Frank von der [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Vienna University, Althanstrasse 14, Wien 1090 (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effects Laboratory, Centre for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instituttveien, 18, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Handy, Richard [University of Plymouth, Davy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hankin, Steven [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hasselloev, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Nanoparticle Research Group, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Joner, Erik [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fernandes, Teresa F. [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  18. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; Brink, Nico van den; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hasselloev, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO 2 nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be required

  19. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, T.D.; Easterling, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  20. Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, S; Singh, B; Singh, J

    1999-01-01

    LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

  1. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  2. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  3. Characterization of cement-based ancient building materials in support of repository seal materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1983-12-01

    Ancient mortars and plasters collected from Greek and Cypriot structures dating to about 5500 BC have been investigated because of their remarkable durability. The characteristics and performance of these and other ancient cementitious materials have been considered in the light of providing information on longevity of concrete materials for sealing nuclear waste geological repositories. The matrices of these composite materials have been characterized and classified into four categories: (1) gypsum cements; (2) hydraulic hydrated lime and hydrated-lime cements; (3) hydraulic aluminous and ferruginous hydrated-lime cements (+- siliceous components); and (4) pozzolana/hydrated-lime cements. Most of the materials investigated, including linings of ore-washing basins and cisterns used to hold water, are in categories (2) and (3). The aggregates used included carbonates, sandstones, shales, schists, volcanic and pyroclastic rocks, and ore minerals, many of which represent host rock types of stratigraphic components of a salt repository. Numerous methods were used to characterize the materials chemically, mineralogically, and microstructurally and to elucidate aspects of both the technology that produced them and their response to the environmental exposure throughout their centuries of existence. Their remarkable properties are the result of a combination of chemical (mineralogical) and microstructural factors. Durability was found to be affected by matrix mineralogy, particle size and porosity, and aggregate type, grading, and proportioning, as well as method of placement and exposure conditions. Similar factors govern the potential for durability of modern portland cement-containing materials, which are candidates for repository sealing. 29 references, 29 figures, 6 tables

  4. Disequilibrium implications on dose assessment in the use of NORM as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    2002-01-01

    The need of reusing industrial wastes to avoid environmental impact resulting from their deposition and to reduce the management costs, indicates the building industry as an important user of large quantities of industrial wastes, mainly those generated in the ore milling. The industry of phosphate fertilizers is a typical example of this situation. The phosphate rock contains radionuclides of the U and Th decay series. During the chemical attack these radionuclides are distributed in different proportions between the phosphoric acid and the phosphogypsum, depending on the process. Several countries adopt a methodology based on the Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 content in order to allow the use of materials with natural radionuclides. Dose assessment for the use of phosphogypsum as building material have shown that methodology is not adequate when disequilibrium exists. This paper will present some implications on dose assessment and on the use of that methodology when disequilibrium exists, using two phosphogypsum radionuclides distribution patterns obtained through different milling processes in Brazil. (author)

  5. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  6. Environmental issues and energy conservation in buildings in Pakistan: role of architectural intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, S.; Khan, A.; Alamgir, K.; Alamgir, K.

    2011-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental catastrophe is the severe problem globally and particularly important for the developing countries like Pakistan. There is a serious need to solve the problem for a sustainable building environment as the building sector has become a major consumer of energy. An attempt has been made for the building professionals and building users for adherence into their design and construction the energy conservation measures to reduce environmental problems more easily after the thorough review of the famous authors' research work and findings in this field. The ultimate aim is the establishment of awareness for the building professionals for delivering sustainable buildings in Pakistan. Through the implementation of design measures to mitigate the urban heat island, the general public can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the urban landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, energy conservation leads to reductions in CO/sub 2/ emissions. (author)

  7. Religion and Environmental Education: Building on Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzhusen, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental educators are beginning to consider how to incorporate religious resources into their curricula. Common concerns about religion pose a challenge for integration, but these concerns are manageable. Reflection on the precursors of environmental citizenship behaviour provides a framework for considering some of the ways that religious…

  8. The global warming potential of building materials : An application of life cycle analysis in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Zanetti, Michela; Pierobon, Francesca; Gatto, Paola; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the global-warming potential of materials used to construct the walls of 3 building types - traditional, semimodern, and modern - in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal, using the life-cycle assessment approach. Traditional buildings use local materials, mainly wood

  9. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  10. Calculation of radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide contained in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Tien Thinh; Nguyen Hao Quang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some results that we used MCNP5 program to calculate radiation dose rate arisen from radionuclide in building materials. Since then, the limits of radionuclide content in building materials are discussed. The calculation results by MCNP are compared with those calculated by analytical method. (author)

  11. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property construction. Sales of building materials to a contractor or speculative builder for the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property construction. 779.336 Section 779.336 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...

  12. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Green building rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems. A particular system might favor certain

  13. Embodied energy of building materials and green building rating systems : a case study for industrial halls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, B.; Trcka, M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Green Building Rating (GBR) systems are developed to provide independent assessment standards that evaluate in a few categories about the performance and sustainability of buildings. However, same category might weight differently in each of the GBR systems, which are different in objectives. A

  14. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stals, M.; Verhoeven, S.; Bruggeman, M.; Pellens, V.; Schroeyers, W.; Schreurs, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr 3 (Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from 226 Ra and its progeny; 232 Th progeny and 40 K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. -- Highlights: • Many building materials will have to be tested for NORM activity concentrations. • An on-site NORM analysis method has been developed and validated. • Over 120 building materials on the Belgian market have been analyzed with this method. • The Euratom BSS reference level of 1 mSv/year excess dose will

  15. The natural radioactivity of building materials used in the Christchurch urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural gamma radioactivity of a variety of common building materials in Christchurch, has been measured by gamma spectroscopy. Using conversion factors from the literature, relative dose rate indices for the various building materials were calculated and compared. An increasing order of radioactivity concentration was found from timber to compressed limestone to brick products. These levels are however less than the acceptable limits of radioactivity based on some overseas criteria suggested as building standards

  16. Container for storage of environmental incompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggenthaler, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The container consists of a cuboid chamber, closed to five sides, just as the cover made of concrete. Iron mountings for use with lifting gears are coupled with the armouring of the container. The cover is made in such a way that mountings are hidden by the recesses at its borders. Therefore it is possible to stick these boxes. Concrete employed for is enriched with sealing materials of synthetics, the box is painted too. Sensors on the outside ensure telemetering of closeness of the boxes. (J.K.) [de

  17. Predictive control techniques for energy and indoor environmental quality management in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotsa, D. [Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 3, Romanou str., 73133, Hania, Crete (Greece); Pouliezos, A. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Production Engineering and Management, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece); Stavrakakis, G.; Lazos, C. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, University Campus, Kounoupidiana, 73100 Hania (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present paper is to present a model-based predictive controller, combined with a Building Energy Management System (BEMS). The overall system predicts the indoor environmental conditions of a specific building and selects the most appropriate actions so as to reach the set points and contribute to the indoor environmental quality by minimizing energy costs. The controller is tested using a BEMS installation in Hania, Crete, Greece. (author)

  18. Build green and conventional materials off-gassing tests: A final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piersol, P.

    1995-12-31

    Build Green is a certification program that will identify and label building products with a known recycled content. The introduction of these recycled materials has raised the concern that they may emit more indoor pollutants than conventional materials. This study addresses that concern by analyzing Build Green and conventional materials to assess their potential for off-gassing. The study involved emission tests of 37 materials including carpets, carpet undercushions, structural lumber, foundation material, insulation, drywall, fiberboard, counter tops, and cabinetry. The results presented in this report include comparisons of Build Green and conventional materials in terms of emissions of volatile organic compounds and formaldehyde, the material loading ratio, and discussion of the specific sources of the emissions.

  19. Making the Case for Green Building: Cataloging the Benefits of Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To those entrenched in the green building world, the benefits seem obvious. Why would anyone choose to build in a way that isn't comfortable, healthy, energy efficient, and environmentally responsible? Even within a single college or university project, different team members often have different reasons for promoting a green agenda. Architects…

  20. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...

  1. Quantification of mold contamination in multi-level buildings using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible use of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) to quantify mold contamination in multi-level, office buildings. Settled-dust samples were collected in multi-level, office buildings and the ERMI value for each sample de...

  2. Indoor Environmental Quality in Mechanically Ventilated, Energy-Efficient Buildings vs. Conventional Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Munoz, Ute; Tappler, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Kundi, Michael; Shelton, Janie F; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2015-11-06

    Energy-efficient buildings need mechanical ventilation. However, there are concerns that inadequate mechanical ventilation may lead to impaired indoor air quality. Using a semi-experimental field study, we investigated if exposure of occupants of two types of buildings (mechanical vs. natural ventilation) differs with regard to indoor air pollutants and climate factors. We investigated living and bedrooms in 123 buildings (62 highly energy-efficient and 61 conventional buildings) built in the years 2010 to 2012 in Austria (mainly Vienna and Lower Austria). Measurements of indoor parameters (climate, chemical pollutants and biological contaminants) were conducted twice. In total, more than 3000 measurements were performed. Almost all indoor air quality and room climate parameters showed significantly better results in mechanically ventilated homes compared to those relying on ventilation from open windows and/or doors. This study does not support the hypothesis that occupants in mechanically ventilated low energy houses are exposed to lower indoor air quality.

  3. Suggestions for inclulsion of radon exhalation control target in building materials radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui

    2010-01-01

    The specific-activity and radon exhalation rate from 26 building material samples from different areas were measured with high pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer and activated carbon cartridge. It is shown that the radium content is not completely relevant to radon exhalation rate from some building material. The existing national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials' (GB 6566-2001) only present internal exposure index as control target but not for radon exhalation rate; in fact, the radon exhalation rate from building materials is closely nearly related to indoor radon concentration. So we suggest that the radon exhalation control target should be included in the national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials'. (authors)

  4. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaefthymiou, H.; Gouseti, O.

    2008-01-01

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using γ-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of 226 Ra (1041Bqkg -1 ). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external γ-radiation

  5. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in building materials used in Peloponnese, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)], E-mail: epap@chemistry.upatras.gr; Gouseti, O. [Division of Physics, Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras 265 00 (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    Five different kinds of building materials (Pozzolanic and Portland cements, limestone, white cement, marble powder and sand) commonly used in building construction in Peloponnese, Greece, and Portland cement's raw materials were analyzed for their natural radioactivity content, using {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Pozzolanic and Portland cement (Cem II) samples were found to contain the highest average {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activity concentrations compared with the other examined building material samples. This could be attributed to their containing fly ash, which was found to contain high natural radionuclide concentrations, especially that of {sup 226}Ra (1041Bqkg{sup -1}). Results obtained were compared with the results reported by other Greek researchers and the worldwide values for building materials and soil. The calculated activity concentration index (I) values for all the examined building material samples were lower than the recommended exception limits for exposure to external {gamma}-radiation.

  6. Potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor Chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosen, Ina; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Clausen, Geo

    2017-01-01

    , have been screened for, and thus detected in buildings. In this study, we used a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected building materials for all the Chaetomium metabolites described in the literature. Pure agar cultures were...... also investigated in order to establish differences between metabolite production in vitro and on building materials as well as comparison to non-indoor reference strains. On building materials six different chaetoglobosins were detected in total concentrations of up to 950 mg/m2 from C. globosum along...... with three different chaetoviridins/chaetomugilins in concentrations up to 200 mg/m2. Indoor Chaetomium spp. preferred wood-based materials over gypsum, both in terms of growth rate and metabolite production. Cochliodones were detected for the first time on all building materials infected by both C. globosum...

  7. Terrain and building effects on the transport of radioactive material at a nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Park, Misun; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Eunhan; Han, Moonhee

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study is to quantify the building and terrain effects on the atmospheric dispersion. • Statistical methods with AERMOD-PRIME and CFD were used. • To assess the risk in nuclear power plants, terrain and building effects have to be considered. - Abstract: This study identified the terrain and building effects on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials at the Wolsong Nuclear Site. To analyze the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials, the AERMOD-PRIME model, CFD model and meteorological data from 2010 were used. The terrain and building effects on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials within a 1 km radius of the site were statistically significant. The maximum concentration of the radioactive material increased by 7 times compared to the concentration when the terrain and building effects were not considered. It was found that the terrain and building influenced the decrease in the concentration of radioactive material in a concentric circle with a 914 m radius from the center of the site. The concentration of radioactive material in a concentric circle with a 350 m radius was two-times higher than the concentration estimated at the backside of the building, which is the downwind side, without any consideration of the terrain and building effects. In consideration of the Korean situation, in which multiple nuclear reactors are built on the same nuclear site, it is necessary to evaluate the risk that may affect workers and nearby residents by reflecting the terrain and building effects

  8. Study of radiation dose reduction of buildings of different sizes and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    The dependence of radiation dose reduction on the sizes and materials of buildings was studied by numerical analyses using the Monte Carlo simulation code, PHITS. The dose rates inside the buildings were calculated by simulating gamma-ray transport from radioactive cesium deposited at the ground surface. Three building models were developed: the wooden house, the open-space concrete building, and the thin-wall building, to study the effect of building size and construction material on dose reduction inside these structures. Here the floor-area sizes of the building models were varied to clarify the influence of building configuration on dose reduction. The results demonstrated that the dose rates inside the buildings linearly decreased with increasing floor area on a logarithmic scale for all types of buildings considered. The calculated dose distribution inside a building indicated that the distance from the outer walls was a determining factor for the dose rate at each position in the building. The obtained tendency was verified by comparison with data reflecting the dose reduction of typical buildings in Japan. (author)

  9. Building materials Degradation state of the chella historic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdad, B.; Inigo, A.C.; Bounakhla, M.; Naimi, A.; Taleb, A.

    2008-01-01

    The chella Necropolis merinid is located upstream from the mouth on Wadi Bou Regreg left bank, 2 km northeast of downtown Rabat. The site climate is wet oceanic influence with average annual rainfall 400 to 500 mm / year and 16C average annual temperature. The construction material of this historical monument type stone size up the very large door with its original architecture and forming a coating, however close behind which the wall is made of coarse rubble, and likely mostly calcarenite, sand limestone, crystalline limestone and coquina. The stone, paving, and walls are being degraded. To surface rocks natural aging phenomenal we adds air pollution action suffered by the city in recent decades, particularly due to urban development and a concurrent increase in road Traffic which represents about 95% of the pollution source. This accelerates the coatings decomposation and the stone erosion. Opposite the site, at Chella door the concentration measured of certain gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2 ...) exceeds the standard (190 ug / Nm 3 ). The rainwater analysis collected in this site shows a concentration of 14 mg / l average sulphate. The Chella historic site deterioration is linked to the aging of its concentrations, air pollution, and assault by salt spray and water, algae development, lichens and other vegetation types and the burrowing animals action, insects, birds and other creatures. All these phenomena are added to the natural process of the rock surface weathering and contribute to the monument deterioration. This study aims to inventory the various aspects of these monuments deterioration and the explanation of construction materials evolution. The alteration work is mainly related to the interaction of many external factors: exposure conditions the ambient atmosphere first composition, climate and weather conditions, position in the construction, architectural features. The most important parameters are those that control water flow to the surface blocks

  10. An Analysis of the Most Adopted Rating Systems for Assessing the Environmental Impact of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bernardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings are technical instruments that aim to evaluate the environmental impact of buildings and construction projects. In some cases, these rating systems can also cover urban-scale projects, community projects, and infrastructures. These schemes are designed to assist project management in making the projects more sustainable by providing frameworks with precise criteria for assessing the various aspects of a building’s environmental impact. Given the growing interest in sustainable development worldwide, many rating systems for assessing the environmental impact of buildings have been established in recent years, each one with its peculiarities and fields of applicability. The present work is motivated by an interest in emphasizing such differences to better understand these rating systems and extract the main implications to building design. It also attempts to summarize in a user-friendly form the vast and fragmented assortment of information that is available today. The analysis focuses on the six main rating systems: the Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology (BREEAM, the Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB, the Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQETM, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED, and the Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool.

  11. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dipak [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar [School of Studies in Environmental Radiation and Archaeological Sciences, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2008-02-15

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 {+-} 2.5 to 590.6 {+-} 16.8 Bq kg{sup -1}. The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  12. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7 ± 2.5 to 590.6 ± 16.8 Bq kg -1 . The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health

  13. Determination of the exhalation rate of radon and thoron from building materials by detectors Cr-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The building materials (BM) such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium and thorium in various amounts. Therefore the knowledge of true value exhalation rate of Rn and Tn from BM represents scientific and practical interest in environmental radiation protection. In present work, we have used calibrated plastic cups with two detectors Cr-39. The detected surface of the cup is situated in perpendicular position surface BM and were exposed for 20-30 days. The first detector fixed the bottom on distance from surface of BM and records alpha particles from Rn-222 only. The second detector records alpha particles of the thoron and radon. After exposition, the detectors chemically etched and analyzed. The values of the exhalation rate per unit area of the granite, concrete, fired and unfired bricks, sand, cement, alabaster varied 0.091 - 0.1 Bq m -2 h -1 for the radon, 200 - 5800 Bq m -2 h - 1 for the thoron, accordingly

  14. Radionuclide content in building materials in Camaguey and Ciego de Avila provinces of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, O.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Barreras Caballero, A. A.; Queipo Garcia, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was initiated by the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, three years ago, to estimate the various natural radiation components that contribute to the annual effective dose to the population of Camaguey and Ciego de Avila. The natural radioactivity of some building materials commonly used in the above mentioned provinces of Cuba was measured by gamma spectrometry. Typical concentrations, so far encountered, are in the ranges: 47 to 2511 Bq.kg-1 for 40K; 9 to 71 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra; and 2 to 38 Bq.kg-1 for 232Th. The relationship between the activity concentration and the corresponding annual effective dose is a function of many parameters. The external gamma ray absorbed doses in indoor air, and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented in this paper

  15. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials

  16. Overview of environmental materials degradation in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, H.I.; Wu, P.

    1986-08-01

    This report provides a brief overview of analyses and conclusions reported in published literature regarding environmentally induced degradation of materials in operating light-water reactors. It is intended to provide a synopsis of subjects of concern rather than to address a licensing basis for any newly discovered problems related to reactor materials

  17. Building an environmentally accountable medical curriculum through international collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walpole, Sarah Catherine; Vyas, Aditya; Maxwell, Janie

    2017-01-01

    to mitigation of and adaptation to negative health impacts of environmental change. Medical schools have an integral role in training doctors who understand the interdependence of ecosystems and human health. Yet integrating environmental perspectives into busy medical curricula is not a simple task. Content......Background: Global environmental change is associated with significant health threats. The medical profession can address this challenge through advocacy, health system adaptation and workforce preparedness. Stewardship of health systems with attention to their environmental impacts can contribute......: At the 2016 Association for Medical Education in Europe conference, medical educators, students and clinicians from six continents discussed these challenges in a participatory workshop. Here we reflect on emerging themes from the workshop and how to plan for curricular change. Firstly, we outline recent...

  18. Algae and their biodegradation effects on building materials in the Ostrava industrial agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtková, H.

    2017-10-01

    Microorganisms cause changes in the building stone, which reduce its usable life and reliability. Microalgae make important parts of the biodegradation consortia of microorganisms on the surface of building materials. Via their metabolites, microalgae affect the stability of mineral components and thus lead to the material destruction. The aim of the paper was to identify aerophytic microalgae on the surface of engineering structures in the Ostrava agglomeration, and to describe the basic interactions between such microorganisms and the building materials, which may lead to the destruction of the materials.

  19. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Hassan District, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.; Suresh, S.

    2018-01-01

    Significant portion of the background radiation is coming from the primordial nuclides such as 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K which are present in the soil, rock and building material. These radionuclides are sources of the external and the internal radiation exposures in dwellings. The specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building raw materials and products mainly depend on geological and geographical conditions as well as geochemical characteristics of those materials. Knowledge of radioactivity present in building materials enables one to assess any possible radiological risk to human health

  20. Integrating Environmental Management of Asthma into Pediatric Health Care: What Worked and What Still Needs Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R; Newman, Nicholas; McCurdy, Leyla E; Chang, Jane S; Salas, Mauro A; Eskridge, Bernard; De Ybarrondo, Lisa; Sandel, Megan; Mazur, Lynnette; Karr, Catherine J

    2016-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF) launched an initiative in 2005 to integrate environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This study, a follow-up to a 2013 study, evaluated the program's impact and assessed training results by 5 new faculty champions. We surveyed attendees at training sessions to measure knowledge and the likelihood of asking about and managing environmental triggers of asthma. To conduct the program evaluation, a workshop was held with the faculty champions and NEEF staff in which we identified major program benefits, as well as challenges and suggestions for the future. Trainee baseline knowledge of environmental triggers was low, but they reported robust improvement in environmental triggers knowledge and intention to recommend environmental management. The program has a broad, national scope, reaching more than 12 000 physicians, health care providers, and students, and some faculty champions successfully integrated materials into health record. Program barriers and future endeavors were identified.

  1. Energy and Environmental Research in the Building Area; Forschen und Bauen im Kontext von Energie und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (HABG-IEB), Muttenz (Switzerland); Chianese, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana, Dipartimento Ambiente Costruzioni e Design, Instituto di Sostenibilita Applicata all' Ambiente Costruito (SUPSI-DACD-ISAAC), Canobbio (Switzerland); Filleux, Ch. [Basler und Hofmann, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gaegauf, Ch. [Oekozentrum Langenbruck, Langenbruck (Switzerland); Gugerli, H. [Amt fuer Hochbauten der Stadt Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Menti, U.-P. [Hochschule Luzern, Technik und Architektur, Horw (Switzerland); Rommel, M. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Institut fuer Solartechnik (SPF), Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schwehr, P. [brenet, building and renewable energies network of technology, HTA Luzern, Horw (Switzerland); Zimmermann, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    These proceedings of the 16{sup th} Swiss Status Seminar held in September 2010 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, present a comprehensive overview of the two-day event on Swiss energy and environmental topics in the building area. A total of 55 lectures in ten sessions covered architectural and building topics. The main lectures at the beginning of the seminar covered models for sustainable city development, building for the 2000-watt society and design principles. Also the 'Tropical House' project, the 'Self' autonomous house, the new Monte Rosa mountaineers hut and the Swiss Village project in Masdar were presented. The presentations were divided into nine thematic areas: The house as a 'power station', building renewal, energy management, heat pumps, processes, innovative building and renovation, city districts, building technologies, ventilation and the building as a system. Twenty poster contributions completed the seminar. Themes addressed in the 'house as a power station' set looked at the local generation of power, buildings that generate or even export energy and low-energy consumption buildings. Building renewal topics discussed included grey energy and legal topics, energy management contributions dealt with control, hot water preparation and energy efficiency. The heat pump section dealt with theory and practice of heating and cooling, multi-functional and low-exergy systems and related calculation aids. The processes section included contributions on infra-red analysis, solar-assisted systems, modelling, eco-balances and the City of Zurich's resource strategy for mineral building materials. Innovative building and renovation topics included renovation with prefabricated elements, integrated photovoltaic modules, retrofits as well as financing topics. The topics covered in the district development set included contributions on sustainable (re-)development, the 2000-watt

  2. Natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazardous of main building materials in Yan'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Zhao Caifeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the rapidly economic development and urbanization in Yan'an city, more building materials were consumed in building construction. While the natural radioactivity level of building materials from Yan'an is limited in the literatures. Purpose: The main objective of this study is to determine the natural radioactivity level and to analyze the associated radiation hazards of building materials in Yan'an. Methods: The specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in various building materials from Yan'an city were determined using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry, and their radiation hazards were evaluated according to the standard methods. Results: The results show that the specific activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the building materials are 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9 and 258.9-1055.1 Bq/kg, respectively. The activities of 226 Ra and 232 Th, except for sand and gravel aggregate, in all other building materials are higher than the corresponding means of local soil, and the activities of 40 K in hollow brick, red-clay brick, sand and gravel aggregate exceed the means of 40 K in soil. However, the values of internal exposure index, external exposure index and gamma radiation index in all investigated building materials are less than 1. Conclusions: The radiation levels of all analyzed building materials are within the national safety standard, which indicates that all analyzed building materials can be used anywhere and they can't cause radiation hazard to the local residents. (authors)

  3. Naturally radioactivity in common building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Vanasundari, K.; Suganya, M.; Sivakumar, S.; Senthilkumar, G.; Chandramohan, J.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The radioactivity of some building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ) internal radiation hazard index (H in ) and the activity utilization index (I) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Thiruvannamalai city is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  4. Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Indoor Environmental Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report is a part of a research assignment carried out by students in the 5ETCS course “Project Byggeri – [entitled as: Building Information Modeling (BIM) – Modeling & Analysis]”, during the 3rd semester of master degree in Civil and Architectural Engineering, Department of Engineering, Aarhus...... University. This includes seven papers describing BIM for Sustainability, concentrating specifically on individual topics regarding to Indoor Environment Performance Analysis....

  5. Environmental Assessment for Demolition of Buildings 5303 and 5312

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Land Use ANSI S3.23-1980. Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics and Biomechanics . 1981. Assessment of Community Noise Response to High-Energy...entirely renovated since its original construction. In 1950, a covered platform, stair , and door were added to the northeast side of the building. Several...transformation into the housing office. A replacement for the rear entrance porch and stairs , with an awning, was completed in 1995; new windows and

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Chemical and thermal analysis for characterisation of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.C.; Sudersanan, M.; Ravindran, P.V.; Kalekar, B.B.; Mathur, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Cement and other construction materials are extensively used for the construction of shielding materials for nuclear and high energy radiations. The design and optimum utilisation of such materials need an accurate analysis of their chemical composition. The moisture content and presence of bound water and other volatile materials are also important. The use of thermal analysis supplements the data obtained by chemical analysis and enables a distinction of moisture and chemically bound water. It also enables an identification of the process leading to the loss on ignition. The work carried out on the analysis of sand, cement and other aggregate materials used for the preparation of concrete is described in the paper. (author)

  8. Amoebae and other protozoa in material samples from moisture-damaged buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yli-Pirilae, T.; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Haatainen, Susanna; Haenninen, Marja; Jalava, Pasi; Reiman, Marjut; Seuri, Markku; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Nevalainen, Aino

    2004-01-01

    Mold growth in buildings has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. The fungal and bacterial growth on moistened building materials has been studied, but little attention has been paid to the other organisms spawning in the damaged materials. We examined moist building materials for protozoa, concentrating on amoebae. Material samples (n=124) from moisture-damaged buildings were analyzed for amoebae, fungi, and bacteria. Amoebae were detected in 22% of the samples, and they were found to favor cooccurrence with bacteria and the fungi Acremonium spp., Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium spp., and Trichoderma spp. In addition, 11 seriously damaged samples were screened for other protozoa. Ciliates and flagellates were found in almost every sample analyzed. Amoebae are known to host pathogenic bacteria, such as chlamydiae, legionellae, and mycobacteria and they may have a role in the complex of exposure that contributes to the health effects associated with moisture damage in buildings

  9. Radon as an environmental risk: concentration measurements in family buildings at Cordoba city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, A.; Murua, C.; Martin, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration at homes are usual activities in the last years at the countries with uranium in their soils. On the other hand, the man's radiological protection about radiation is related to the environmental actions for a healthy life, but not much known for a public. The great quantities of ore with uranium can be an important source of irradiation when they are used as building materials. The soils are important too for the emanations of radon in the interior of buildings and for these reasons, the radon concentration measurements in Cordoba familiar houses were implemented in the summer of 1991. The Alpha Track Technique and the results obtained indicate the need of other measurements and a winter measurement for investigation variations of radon concentration. The typical values measured were low, about 4.13 Bq/m 3 if they are compared with other Argentine values measured. This paper discusses the procedure, techniques and criteria used in the work held in Cordoba city, Argentina. (Author)

  10. CAPACITY BUILDING PROCESS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR A THAI COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithui, Suthat; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Hengpraprom, Sarunya

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed at exploring the development of the capacitybuilding process in environmental and health impact assessment, including the consideration of subsequent, capacity-building achievements. Data were gathered through questionnaires, participatory observations, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and capacity building checklist forms. These data were analyzed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and inferential statistics. Our study used the components of the final draft for capacity-building processes consisting of ten steps that were formulated by synthesis from each respective process. Additionally, the evaluation of capacity building levels was performed using 10-item evaluation criteria for nine communities. The results indicated that the communities performed well under these criteria. Finally, exploration of the factors influencing capacity building in environmental and health impact assessment indicated that the learning of community members by knowledge exchange via activities and study visits were the most influential factors of the capacity building processes in environmental and health impact assessment. The final revised version of capacitybuilding process in environmental and health impact assessment could serve as a basis for the consideration of interventions in similar areas, so that they increased capacity in environmental and health impact assessments.

  11. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  12. [Environmental health and inequalities: building indicators for sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.

  13. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Urumqi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Yang, Guang; Li, Nan

    2013-07-01

    Building materials contain natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, which cause direct radiation exposure of the public. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials of Urumqi, China have been analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (40)K and (232)Th in the studied building materials range from 19.8 to 87.4, from 273.3 to 981.2 and from 11.6 to 47.7 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma index (Iγ) and alpha index (Iα) were calculated to assess the radiation hazards to people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated Raeq values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for building materials. The values of Iγ and Iα of all the building materials are less than unity. The study shows that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  14. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  15. Study of radon diffusion coefficient for technologically enhanced building construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, A.K.; Goyal, S.K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most building materials of natural origin contain small amounts of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs), mainly radionuclides from the 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains and 40 K. The origin of these materials is the earths crust, but they find their way into building materials, air, water, food and the human body itself. The worldwide average indoor effective dose due to gamma rays from building materials is estimated to be about 0.4 mSv per year. In many parts of the world, building materials containing radioactive materials have been used for generations. As individuals spend more than 80% of their time indoors, the internal and external radiation exposure from building materials creates prolonged exposure situations. The internal (inhalation) radiation exposure is due to 222 Rn and their short lived decay products exhaled from building materials into the room air. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the earths crust are 35, 30 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. However, elevated levels of natural radionuclides causing annual doses of several mSv were identified in some regions around the world. Recycled industrial by-products containing Technologically Phosphogypsum, a by-product in the production of phosphate fertilizers is used as building material, and red mud, a waste from primary aluminum production, is used in bricks, ceramics and tiles. The increased tendency of the building material industry to use industrial wastes as substitutes for natural products having relatively high activity concentration of NORMs and the increased exposure caused by them were the driving forces for undertaking the present investigation. (author)

  16. Building and application of environmental radioactivity data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics and the way of functioning of the complex system of acquisition, storage and processing of data on environmental radioactivity of a data bank type are described. Its advantages and disadvantages and possible ways of its utilization in different fields are shown. (author)

  17. Deposition velocities and impact of physical properties on ozone removal for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the ozone deposition velocities of eight commonly used building materials (BMs) which include calcium silicate board (CSB), green calcium silicate board (GCSB), mineral fiber ceiling (MFC), green mineral fiber ceiling (GMFC), gypsum board (GB), green gypsum board (GGB), wooden flooring (WF) and green wooden flooring (GWF). In addition, the impact of physical properties (specific surface area and total pore volume of BM) on ozone removal ability was also explored and discussed. Studies were conducted in a small-scale environmental stainless steel chamber. CSB and GCSB showed the highest ozone deposition velocities, while WF and GWF showed the lowest ozone deposition velocities among test BMs materials. All reaction probabilities were estimated to fall within the order of magnitude of 10-6. Green BMs showed lower reaction probabilities with ozone comparing with non-green BMs except for GGB. Consistent with the trends for deposition velocity, fleecy and porous materials exhibit higher reaction probabilities than smooth, non-porous surfaces. Specific surface area of BM is more closely related to ozone removal than total pore volume of BM with R2 of 0.93 vs. R2 of 0.84. Discussion of Thiele modulus for all test BMs indicates surface reactions are occurring quickly relative to internal diffusion and ozone removal is internal diffusion-limited.

  18. Natural radioactivity and radiological hazards of building materials in Xianyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Yang Guang; Ren Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Common building materials collected from Xianyang, China were analyzed for the natural radioactivity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using γ-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied building materials ranges from 13.4 to 69.9, 13.1–99.1 and 124.7–915.1 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide average activity of soil. To assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples to the people, the radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, internal hazard index, indoor absorbed dose rate and total annual effective dose were estimated. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The external hazard index and internal hazard index of all analyzed building materials are less than unity. The mean values of indoor absorbed dose rate for all building materials except for lime are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h −1 and the total annual effective dose values of building materials are lower than 1 mSv y −1 except for some cyan brick samples. The study shows the measured building materials do not pose significant source of radiation hazard and are safe for use in the construction of dwellings. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in building materials was determined by gamma ray spectrometry. ► The radiological hazard of studied building materials is within the recommended safety limit. ► Most of the studied building materials do not pose significant radiation risk to residents.

  19. Study on the Application Mode and Legal Protection of Green Materials in Medical-Nursing Combined Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-09-01

    In the context of green development, green materials are the future trend of Medical-Nursing Combined building. This paper summarizes the concept and types of green building materials. Then, on the basis of existing research, it constructs the green material system framework of Medical-Nursing Combined building, puts forward the application mode of green building materials, and studies the policy and legal protection of green material application.

  20. Physical basis of destruction of concrete and other building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleymanova, L. A.; Pogorelova, I. A.; Kirilenko, S. V.; Suleymanov, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the article the scientifically-grounded views of authors on the physical essence of destruction process of concrete and other materials are stated; it is shown that the mechanism of destruction of materials is similar in its essence during the mechanical, thermal, physical-chemical and combined influences, and that in its basis Newton's third law lays. In all cases destruction consists in decompaction of structures, loosening of the internal bonds in materials, in the further integrity damage and their division into separate loosely-bound (full destruction) and unbound with each other (incomplete destruction) elements, which depends on the kind of external influence and perfection of materials structure.

  1. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  2. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  3. Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David

    2017-07-01

    Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.

  4. Energy policy for integrating the building environmental performance model of an air conditioned building in a subtropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mui, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    For an air conditioned building, the major electricity consumption is by the heating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. As energy saving strategies may be in conflict with the criteria of indoor air quality and thermal comfort, a concept of the building environmental performance model (BEPM) has been developed to optimize energy consumption in HVAC systems without any deterioration of the indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The BEPM is divided into two main modules: the adaptive comfort temperature (ACT) module and the new demand control ventilation (nDCV) module. This study aims to enhance and prompt the conventional operation of the air side systems by incorporating temperature reset with the adaptive comfort temperature control and the new demand control ventilation system in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. A new example weather year (1991) was established as a reference to compute the energy use of HVAC systems in buildings in order to obtain more representative data for predicting annual energy consumption. A survey of 165 Hong Kong office buildings was conducted and it provided valuable information on the existing HVAC design values in different grades of private commercial buildings in Hong Kong. It was found that the actual measured values of indoor temperature were lower than the design ones. Furthermore, with the new example weather year and the integration of the BEPM into Grade A private office buildings in Hong Kong, the total energy saving of the air conditioning systems was calculated (i.e. a saving of HK$122 million in electrical consumption per year) while the thermal comfort for the occupants was also maintained

  5. Research and Development of solar cell frame. Study on solar cell array solid with building material-business building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is a NEDO annual report for 1985. A feasibility study was carried out from the viewpoints demanded both from the building material side and the solar cell. Evaluation from the technical, institutional, and economical viewpoints indicated the possibility of using a roof material solid with carbon-fiber-reinforced concrete and a curtain wall. The solar cell module was verified as a building material to be resistant against the external force, water, and heat. A problem left is how to enlarge the module. Integrated use of CFRC (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete) and a cell of maximum size (1,240 x 700 mm), which is industrially available, can be expected. Present solar cell array can be utilized as a building material as it is for a curtain wall. Cost calculation of the CFRC solid roofing material indicates 276 yen/KWH for 15 years depreciation, 10 % residual value, and 8% annual interest, which is a little expensive, but this cost may be applicable to the use as a curtain wall.

  6. Do Certified Buildings Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality and Performance of Office Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Nuno Alexandre Faria; Wargocki, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of sustainability consciousness, the awareness of stakeholders for high performance buildings has also increased. The concept of green buildings has appeared. Several voluntary environmental rating schemes for buildings were created. Their focus has been energy conservation...... on productivity and that an average employee cost can be >10-100 times higher than the rental operation and maintenance costs (Morrell, 2005; Persramet al., 2007). There is however lack of consistent and systematic data benchmarking benefits of green building, in particular as regards IEQ and the effects...... (Lee, 2011), the green building do not have to necessarily meet this postulation. Quite limited numbers of credits for enhancing IEQ offered by the schemes will certainly not very much help that the high IEQ is guaranteed. The present paper surveyed literature on green buildings to examine whether...

  7. Establishment of Low Energy Building materials and Equipment Database Based on Property Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumin; Shin, Hyery; eon Lee, Seung

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide reliable service of materials information portal through the establishment of public big data by collecting and integrating scattered low energy building materials and equipment data. There were few cases of low energy building materials database in Korea have provided material properties as factors influencing material pricing. The framework of the database was defined referred with Korea On-line E-procurement system. More than 45,000 data were gathered by the specification of entities and with the gathered data, price prediction models for chillers were suggested. To improve the usability of the prediction model, detailed properties should be analysed for each item.

  8. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  9. Building a Collaboratory in Environmental and Molecular Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Myers, J.D.; Devaney, D.M.; Dunning, T.H.; Wise, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A Collaboratory is a meta-laboratory that spans multiple geographical areas with collaborators interacting via electronic means. Collaboratories are designed to enable close ties between scientists in a given research area, promote collaborations involving scientists in diverse areas, accelerate the development and dissemination of basic knowledge, and minimize the time-lag between discovery and application. PNL is developing the concept of an Environmental and Molecular Sciences Collaboratory (EMSC) as a natural evolution of the EMSL project. The goal of the EMSC is to increase the efficiency of research and reduce the time required to implement new environmental remediation and preservation technologies. The EMSC will leverage the resources (intellectual and physical) of the EMSL by making them more accessible to remote collaborators as well as by making the resources of remote sites available to local researchers. It will provide a common set of computer hardware and software tools to support remote collaboration, a key step in establishing a collaborative culture for scientists in the theoretical, computational, and experimental molecular sciences across the nation. In short, the EMSC will establish and support an `electronic community of scientists researching and developing innovative environmental preservation and restoration technologies.

  10. Building a Collaboratory in Environmental and Molecular Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Myers, J.D.; Devaney, D.M.; Dunning, T.H.; Wise, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A Collaboratory is a meta-laboratory that spans multiple geographical areas with collaborators interacting via electronic means. Collaboratories are designed to enable close ties between scientists in a given research area, promote collaborations involving scientists in diverse areas, accelerate the development and dissemination of basic knowledge, and minimize the time-lag between discovery and application. PNL is developing the concept of an Environmental and Molecular Sciences Collaboratory (EMSC) as a natural evolution of the EMSL project. The goal of the EMSC is to increase the efficiency of research and reduce the time required to implement new environmental remediation and preservation technologies. The EMSC will leverage the resources (intellectual and physical) of the EMSL by making them more accessible to remote collaborators as well as by making the resources of remote sites available to local researchers. It will provide a common set of computer hardware and software tools to support remote collaboration, a key step in establishing a collaborative culture for scientists in the theoretical, computational, and experimental molecular sciences across the nation. In short, the EMSC will establish and support an 'electronic community of scientists researching and developing innovative environmental preservation and restoration technologies

  11. Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

  12. Theoretical Explanations of Environmental Motivations and Expectations of Clients on Green Building Demand and Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joachim, Onuoha Iheanyichukwu; Kamarudin, Norhaya; Aliagha, Godwin Uche; Ufere, Kalu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In building industry, green demand and investment creates a positive footprint on the environment. However, these environmental opportunities have not been adequately harnessed and explored by Clients of green building apparently because of poor understanding of the motivating drivers and benefits accruing from green building demand and investment. The decision to demand for or invest in green building is influenced by certain environmental motivating drivers and expectations which have not been fully examined by researchers and not well understood by stakeholders. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Theory of Value Belief Norm (VBN) explanations, this study focused on the Clients, purchasers and users' motivations and intentions to go for green building. Based on the reviewed theories, we hypothesized that environmental motivations and expectations for green building demand and investment are embedded in the environmental quest for protection of eco-system and bio-diversity, improvement of water and air quality, reduction of solid waste, conservation of natural resources, reduction of societal costs of landfill creation and maintenance, minimization of site impact and reduction emission to air and enhanced energy efficiency. However, the predictive validity of these propositions depends on the client's beliefs, values, social pressure, and perceived behavioural control

  13. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  14. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R ampersand D in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.; Abel, F.H.; Nicholls, A.K.; Millhone, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R ampersand D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs

  15. 30 CFR 250.227 - What environmental impact analysis (EIA) information must accompany the EP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What environmental impact analysis (EIA... and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.227 What environmental impact analysis (EIA... requirements. Your EIA must: (1) Assess the potential environmental impacts of your proposed exploration...

  16. Proposal for the use of new materials in the TOKAMAK building cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiva, L.

    2011-01-01

    It was considered relevant and innovative to apply new structural materials to the construction of the roof of the building that lodged the TOKAMAK reactor, with the aim of achieving a severe reduction of the weight of the roof structure that result in greater ease of mounting, minor charges on the walls and foundations of the building and a reduced impact on the distribution of masses of the building scheme.

  17. Elevated radon and thoron concentrations from natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Vivyurka, A.

    1980-01-01

    Radon levels in excess of 20 mWL were observed in an apartment building under construction in Elliot Lake. Tracer studies showed ventilation periods as long as 29 hours since the ventilation system of the building was not yet working. It was concluded that, once the contribution from thoron daughters was taken into account, the natural radioactivity of the concrete and other building materials was sufficient to produce the observed levels of radioactivity

  18. Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, C; Grimard, Y; Cormier, Y

    2000-01-01

    Eight swine confinement buildings, selected to cover the widest possible range of cleanliness, were visited twice during winter and once during summer to verify the range, seasonal variations, and correlations between biological and chemical contaminants. Physical aspects were graded for dirtiness (1 = clean, 10 = dirty), ventilation, air temperature, number of animals, building, and room size. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, and microbiological counts and/or identification (bacteria and molds); endotoxin levels also were measured. During winter, average measurements and ranges were: CO2 = 0.304% (0.254 to 0.349%); ammonia = 19.6 ppm (1.9 to 25.9 ppm); dust = 3.54 mg/m3 (2.15 to 5.60 mg/m3). There were 883 cfu/m3 (547 to 2862 cfu/m3) of molds, 4.25 x 10(5) cfu/m3 (1.67 x 10(5) to 9.30 x 10(5) cfu/m3) of total bacteria, 29 cfu/m3 (3 to 94 cfu/m3) of thermophilic actinomycetes). A significant decrease in bacterial levels (p = 0.04), dust (p = 0.0008), ammonia (p = 0.005), and CO2 (p < 0.0001) was observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mold counts were positively correlated (p = 0.03) with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter (p < 0.002), whereas bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals (p < 0.05). Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other (p = 0.006). Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high (mean = 4.9 x 10(3) EU/m3). We conclude that a wide range of air contamination exists in swine confinement buildings of different maintenance. There is a decrease in some of these contaminants during summer. Observed dirtiness of the swine confinement buildings has a poor predictive value concerning air quality.

  19. Mesothelioma among employees with likely contact with in-place asbestos-containing building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Schirmer, J; Higgins, D; Sarow, P

    1991-12-31

    The occurrence of mesothelioma is a sentinel event in occupational and environmental disease. A mesothelioma surveillance system was established utilizing existing computerized Wisconsin vital statistics data maintained since 1959 and a Cancer Reporting System (CRS) established in 1978. Review of the death certificate listing of usual occupation and industry from 487 mesothelioma deaths in Wisconsin from 1959 to 1989 led to the investigation of 41 persons with likely exposure to inplace asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM): 12 school teachers, 10 school maintenance employees, 7 public building maintenance workers, 5 private building maintenance workers, and 7 commercial and factory workers performing maintenance activities. For 10 (34%) of the 29 maintenance workers the only source of asbestos exposure identified was their maintenance work. For five (17%) histories indicated some prior employment in occupations and industries with probable asbestos exposures. Opportunities for indirect occupational exposure were identified for ten who had been employed in the residential construction industry. One maintenance worker was exposed to asbestos in the household and another had neighborhood exposure. For 9 (75%) of the school teachers, the only identifiable potential source of asbestos exposure was derived from in-place ACBM in schools. One teacher had spent a season in the merchant marine aboard an iron ore-hauling ship and 2 had worked in the residential construction industry. Two of the teachers were sisters, and in two instances, two teachers had taught in the same school facility. We conclude that individuals occupationally exposed to in-place ACBM are at risk for the subsequent development of mesothelioma.

  20. 40 CFR 262.103 - What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental management standard? 262.103 Section 262.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... University Laboratories XL Project-Laboratory Environmental Management Standard § 262.103 What is the scope of the laboratory environmental management standard? The Laboratory Environmental Management Standard...

  1. Modeling of electromigration salt removal methods in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2008-01-01

    for salt attack of various kinds, is one potential method to preserve old building envelopes. By establishing a model for ionic multi-species diffusion, which also accounts for external applied electrical fields, it is proposed that an important complement to the experimental tests and that verification...... with its ionic mobility properties. It is, further, assumed that Gauss’s law can be used to calculate the internal electrical field induced by the diffusion it self. In this manner the external electrical field applied can be modeled, simply, by assigning proper boundary conditions for the equation...

  2. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph; Noel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction

  3. Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznik, Frederic; Virgone, Joseph [Thermal Sciences Center of Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5008, INSA de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Bat Freyssinet, 40 Rue des Arts, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Noel, Jean [Free-lance Scientific Software Developer, 15 Place Carnot, 69002 Lyon (France)

    2008-08-15

    In construction, the use of phase change materials (PCM) allows the storage/release of energy from the solar radiation and/or internal loads. The application of such materials for lightweight construction (e.g., a wood house) makes it possible to improve thermal comfort and reduce energy consumption. A wallboard composed of a new PCM material is investigated in this paper to enhance the thermal behavior of a lightweight internal partition wall. The paper focuses on the optimization of phase change material thickness. The in-house software CODYMUR is used to optimize the PCM wallboard by the means of numerical simulations. The results show that an optimal PCM thickness exists. The optimal PCM thickness value is then calculated for use in construction. (author)

  4. Environmental sustainability assessment of buildings in hot climates: the case of the UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AboulNaga, Mohsen M.; Elsheshtawy, Yasser H.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainability has acquired great importance due to the negative impact of various developments on the environment. The rapid growth during the last decade has been accompanied by active construction which, in some instances, neglected the impact on the environment and human activities. The impact of developments on the traditional heritage has not been taken into consideration although the latter represents a rich resource for sustainable building practices. The study aims at examining these developments in the UAE using an assessment tool that measures the performance of buildings in terms of their sustainability. This study attempts to: (a) develop a comprehensive definition of sustainability to suit UAE needs; (b) classify sustainable building practices at international and regional levels; (c) assess building performance in the UAE; and (d) establish guidelines for future sustainable architecture. T-Sol software was used to predict the CO 2 emission level in selected buildings in the UAE. Results illustrate that average energy use/area in domestic buildings is high (213 kWh/m 2 ) and public buildings showed less sustainable measures in terms of energy features, energy performance and environmental features. Issues considered in the assessment of buildings such as energy use per square metre and CO 2 emission are alarming. Traditional buildings in the UAE were more sustainable than contemporary buildings, however. (Author)

  5. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 OEstersund (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO{sub 2} balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO{sub 2} emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO{sub 2} balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO{sub 2} balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  6. Variability in energy and carbon dioxide balances of wood and concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Sathre, Roger

    2006-01-01

    A variety of factors affect the energy and CO 2 balances of building materials over their lifecycle. Previous studies have shown that the use of wood for construction generally results in lower energy use and CO 2 emission than does the use of concrete. To determine the uncertainties of this generality, we studied the changes in energy and CO 2 balances caused by variation of key parameters in the manufacture and use of the materials comprising a wood- and a concrete-framed building. Parameters considered were clinker production efficiency, blending of cement, crushing of aggregate, recycling of steel, lumber drying efficiency, material transportation distance, carbon intensity of fossil fuel, recovery of logging, sawmill, construction and demolition residues for biofuel, and growth and exploitation of surplus forest not needed for wood material production. We found the materials of the wood-framed building had lower energy and CO 2 balances than those of the concrete-framed building in all cases but one. Recovery of demolition and wood processing residues for use in place of fossil fuels contributed most significantly to the lower energy and CO 2 balances of wood-framed building materials. We conclude that the use of wood building material instead of concrete, coupled with greater integration of wood by-products into energy systems, would be an effective means of reducing fossil fuel use and net CO 2 emission to the atmosphere. (author)

  7. A life cycle multi-objective economic and environmental assessment of distributed generation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lifecycle optimization model for distributed energy systems is developed. • Model estimates costs and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand. • Design and operating strategies to reduce costs and environmental impacts are discussed. • Pareto frontiers of costs vis-à-vis environmental impacts are presented. • Distributed generation can reduce the environmental impacts of the building sector. - Abstract: Distributed generation, namely cogeneration and solar technologies, is expected to play an important role in the future energy supply mix in buildings. This calls for a methodological framework to assess the economic and environmental performance of the building sector when such technologies are employed. A life-cycle model has been developed, combining distributed generation and conventional sources to calculate the cost and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand over a defined planning period. Three type of cogeneration technologies, solar photovoltaic and thermal, as well as conventional boilers along with the Portuguese electricity generation mix comprise the energy systems modeled. Pareto optimal frontiers are derived, showing the trade-offs between different types of impacts (non-renewable cumulative energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication) and cost to meet the energy demand of a commercial building. Our analysis shows that according to the objective to employ distributed generation (reducing cost or environmental impacts), a specific design and operational strategy for the energy systems shall be adopted. The strategies to minimize each type of impact and the associated cost trade-offs by exploring the solutions located on the Pareto optimal frontiers are discussed

  8. State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumberga, Andra; Kass, Kristaps; Kamendere, Edite

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. Hist...

  9. An experimental setup for measuring generation and transport of radon in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal, M.; Hendriks, N.A.; de Meijer, R.J.; van der Graaf, E.R.; de Wit, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  10. Experimental Setup for Measuring Diffusive and Advective Transport of Radon through Building Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, van der M.; Graaf, van der E.R.; Meijer, de R.J.; Wit, de M.H.; Hendriks, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study describes an approach for measuring and modelling diffusive and advective transport of radon through building materials. The goal of these measurements and model calculations is to improve our understanding concerning the factors influencing the transport of radon through building

  11. Exploring the Importance of Employing Bio and Nano-Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Naguib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued and increasing use of ordinary building materials to house the ever-growing world population ensures growing contributions of carbon (C to the active carbon cycle through carbon dioxide (C02 emissions from combustion and chemical reactions in the raw material to the atmosphere. To minimize this, materials should be conserved, reduce their unnecessary use, produce them more benignly and make them last longer, recycle and reuse materials. Thus, paper will focus on exploring alternative building materials and systems that can be developed in order to balance atmospheric carbon dioxide.  It also presents the Bio-inspired architecture approach that embraces the eco-friendly practices of using Biomaterials and Nano-materials for sustainable dwelling construction through a number of examples that shows how a building can be strongly related to its site.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  13. Comparison of salt solution and air drying methods for moisture fixation in highly porous building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has identified some bio-based, porous building materials as good or excellent regulators of moisture in buildings. The ability of a material to absorb, release and store moisture is described by vapour sorption isotherms. It is necessary input to simulations of indoor...... building materials by a standardized testing method, using saturated salt solutions. Furthermore, results from the standard method are compared to values of moisture content for the same materials, obtained by air-drying at different relative humidity. This is done with the aim to compare the findings from...... the two methods with respect to time and repeatability of the results. Derived isotherms are further used as direct input in the building simulation software BSim, which is capable of predicting indoor environment parameters by solving coupled, transient heat and moisture transport equations using finite...

  14. The application of entropy weight topsis method for optimal choice in low radiological decorative building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Guangwen; Hu Youhua; Liu Qian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of TOPSIS method was introduced and applied to sorting the given indexes of glazed brick and granite respectively in different areas' decorative building materials in order to selecting the optimal low radiological decorative building materials. First, the entropy weight TOPSIS method was used for data processing about the sample numbers and radio nuclides content, and then different weights were given to different indexes. Finally, by using the SAS software for data analysis and sorting, we obtained that the optimal low radiological decorative building materials were Sichuan glazed brick and Henan granite. Through the results, it could be seen that the application of entropy weight TOPSIS method in selecting low radiological decorative building materials was feasible, and it will also provide the method reference. (authors)

  15. Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuba, J.; Dziedzic, A.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative method of X-ray diffraction phase analysis of building materials, with use of internal standard, has been presented. The errors committed by determining the content of particular phases have been also given. (author)

  16. Use of Secondary Building Materials in EU - Different National Strategies; Anvaendning av restprodukter inom EU - Olika nationella strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Gunilla; Wilhelmsson, Anna (Ramboell Sverige AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this report is to show how use of waste/secondary building materials/aggregates for construction purposes is managed in 8 different countries within the European Union. A short review is done how national legislations and guidelines support, and restrict, reuse in an environmentally responsible way, and experiences from and control of some construction purposes. Different national strategies are used in the studied countries, depending on their previous experiences of reuse of secondary building materials, natural conditions and energy systems, and administrative traditions. In general the actual regulations are built on high demands on protection of water and soil resources and protection of health and environment, with the pronounced aim of supporting waste reuse for construction purposes. In most countries regulations of environmentally controlled use of secondary building materials contains these elements as a basis: - Inert waste are often free for construction use; - Specific waste fractions are allowed; - Specified use is defined; - Different material categories might be used/prescribed for different purposes; - Ashes of different origin is an important source for secondary aggregates; - Quality control of materials and construction is essential; - Specified precaution or remediation are prescribed, according to the purpose; - Reporting or simplified permit processes are prescribed. There is generally a specific regulation concerning use of secondary materials. If used in other circumstances than prescribed/listed, it will normally need a regular environmental permit process. Important experiences are that proper design and control of the construction is essential, based on know-how, research and feed-back from experience. It exists a broad base of knowledge in the studied European countries, including material properties, leaching behaviour and testing methods for a wide range of materials. Many successful ways of promoting cooperation between

  17. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building Replacement Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    NNSA, an agency within DOE, proposes to replace the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The CMRR EIS examines the potential environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action of consolidating and relocating the mission-critical CMR capabilities from a degraded building to a new modern building(s). The existing CMR Building, constructed in the early 1950s, houses most of LANL's analytical chemistry and materials characterization AC and MC capabilities. Other capabilities at the CMR Building include actinide processing, waste characterization, and nondestructive analysis that support a variety of NNSA and DOE nuclear materials management programs. In 1992, DOE initiated planning and implementation of CMR Building upgrades to address specific safety, reliability, consolidation, and security and safeguards issues. Later, in 1997 and 1998, a series of operational, safety, and seismic issues surfaced regarding the long-term viability of the CMR Building. Because of these issues, DOE determined that the extensive upgrades originally planned would be much more expensive and time consuming and of only marginal effectiveness. As a result, DOE decided to perform only the upgrades necessary to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the CMR Building through 2010 and to seek an alternative path for long-term reliability. The CMRR EIS evaluates the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts associated with the Proposed Action. The Proposed Action is to replace the CMR Building. The Preferred Alternative is to construct a new CMRR Facility at Technical Area (TA) 55, consisting of two or three buildings. One of the new buildings would provide space for administrative offices and support functions. The other building(s) would provide secure laboratory spaces for research and analytical support activities. The buildings would be expected to operate for a minimum of 50 years. Tunnels could be

  18. A conceptualisation framework for building consensus on environmental sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Del Campo, Ainhoa

    2017-09-15

    Examination of the intrinsic attributes of a system that render it more or less sensitive to potential stressors provides further insight into the baseline environment. In impact assessment, sensitivity of environmental receptors can be conceptualised on the basis of their: a) quality status according to statutory indicators and associated thresholds or targets; b) statutory protection; or c) inherent risk. Where none of these considerations are pertinent, subjective value judgments can be applied to determine sensitivity. This pragmatic conceptual framework formed the basis of a stakeholder consultation process for harmonising degrees of sensitivity of a number of environmental criteria. Harmonisation was sought to facilitate their comparative and combined analysis. Overall, full or wide agreement was reached on relative sensitivity values for the large majority of the reviewed criteria. Consensus was easier to reach on some themes (e.g. biodiversity, water and cultural heritage) than others (e.g. population and soils). As anticipated, existing statutory measures shaped the outcomes but, ultimately, knowledge-based values prevailed. The agreed relative sensitivities warrant extensive consultation but the conceptual framework provides a basis for increasing stakeholder consensus and objectivity of baseline assessments. This, in turn, can contribute to improving the evidence-base for characterising the significance of potential impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. What the new EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) rules mean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.; Friedland, D.M.

    1990-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued its first proposed New Source Performance Standards for municipal incinerators in 18 years. EPA's 1971 NSPS set only particulate limits. The new NSPS also sets combustion standards, acid gas and dioxin emission limits, and a materials separation requirement. The latest NSPS, plus proposed emission guidelines for existing facilities, both regulate municipal waste combustors (MWCs) under the Clean Air Act. They both contain new emission limitations for the various pollutants emitted by MWCs, and materials separation requirements. The emission limitations, and the control technologies on which they are based, are different for different size facilities. The proposed regulations also contain operating requirements, testing and record-keeping provisions, and requirements for operator certification and training. The New Source Performance Standards are summarized. The emission guidelines for existing facilities are then described. These include: best demonstrated technology, combustion controls, and materials separation.

  20. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  1. Safety distance for preventing hot particle ignition of building insulation materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayun Song; Supan Wang; Haixiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Trajectories of flying hot particles were predicted in this work, and the temperatures during the movement were also calculated. Once the particle temperature decreased to the critical temperature for a hot particle to ignite building insulation materials, which was predicted by hot-spot ignition theory, the distance particle traveled was determined as the minimum safety distance for preventing the ignition of building insulation materials by hot particles. The results showed that for sphere ...

  2. Measurement of Ra-226 in building materials, with a Na I (Tl) scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, L.R.; Fuenteseca, J.W.; Rivera, C.A.; Aros, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ra-226 concentration in building materials is determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Ra-226 contained in sundry materials employed in the construction of dwelling houses and public buildings in Antofagasta city is determined by counting the Pb-214 peaks at 295 KeV and 352 keV, and the Bi-214 peak at 609 keV recorded by means of a 7.5-cm Nal (TI) scintillation counter. (author)

  3. Natural radioactivity in some building materials and assessment of the associated radiation hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumovic, Amira; Hankic, Ema; Kasic, Amela; Adrovic, Feriz [Tuzla Univ. (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The results of the specific activities of {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K measured in samples of commonly used building materials in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented. Measurements were performed by gamma-ray spectrometer with coaxial HPGe detector. The surface radon exhalation and mass exhalation rates for selected building materials were also measured. The determined values of specific activities were in range from 3.16 ± 0.81 Bq kg{sup -1} to 64.79 ± 6.16 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, from 2.46 ± 0.95 Bq kg{sup -1} to 53.89 ± 3.67 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra and from 28.44 ± 7.28 Bq kg{sup -1} to 557.30 ± 93.38 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The radium equivalent activity, the activity concentration index, the external and internal hazard indices as well as the absorbed dose rate in indoor air and the corresponding annual effective dose, due to gamma-ray emission from the radioactive nuclides in the building material, were evaluated in order to assess the radiation hazards for people. The measured specific activities of the natural radioactive nuclides in all investigated building materials were compared with the published results for building materials from other European countries. It can be noted that the results from this study are similar to the data for building materials from neighbouring countries and for building materials used in the EU Member States. The radiological hazard parameters of the building materials were all within the recommended limits for safety use.

  4. Building credibility in public studies: Lessons learned from the Hanford environmental Dose Reconstruction project may apply to all public studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the process by which the author came to recognize the importance of openness to the public in environmental studies, during the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Using the Dose reconstruction public involvement, the article goes on to describe a general guide to the construction of a new, positive framework for conducting future public studies. The steps include the following: putting the public in the study; building credibility into a public study (1 -search for proof in historical records; 2-define the domain and the exposed population; 3-characterize the material released; 4-identify key materials, pathways and receptors; 5-encouraging public participation; 6 -explaining the meaning of the results) and reconciling scientific and public issues

  5. Building credibility in public studies: Lessons learned from the Hanford environmental Dose Reconstruction project may apply to all public studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, J.E. [Radiological Assessment Corp., Neeses, SC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the process by which the author came to recognize the importance of openness to the public in environmental studies, during the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Using the Dose reconstruction public involvement, the article goes on to describe a general guide to the construction of a new, positive framework for conducting future public studies. The steps include the following: putting the public in the study; building credibility into a public study (1 -search for proof in historical records; 2-define the domain and the exposed population; 3-characterize the material released; 4-identify key materials, pathways and receptors; 5-encouraging public participation; 6 -explaining the meaning of the results) and reconciling scientific and public issues.

  6. 24 CFR 1003.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 1003.205 Section 1003.205... planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a... plans, general environmental studies, and strategies and action programs to implement plans, including...

  7. 24 CFR 570.205 - Eligible planning, urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. 570.205 Section 570.205..., urban environmental design and policy-planning-management-capacity building activities. (a) Planning... known or suspected environmental contamination. (5) [Reserved] (6) Policy—planning—management—capacity...

  8. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  9. Building a Cloud Infrastructure for a Virtual Environmental Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-khatib, Y.; Blair, G. S.; Gemmell, A. L.; Gurney, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental science is often fragmented: data is collected by different organizations using mismatched formats and conventions, and models are misaligned and run in isolation. Cloud computing offers a lot of potential in the way of resolving such issues by supporting data from different sources and at various scales, and integrating models to create more sophisticated and collaborative software services. The Environmental Virtual Observatory pilot (EVOp) project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, aims to demonstrate how cloud computing principles and technologies can be harnessed to develop more effective solutions to pressing environmental issues. The EVOp infrastructure is a tailored one constructed from resources in both private clouds (owned and managed by us) and public clouds (leased from third party providers). All system assets are accessible via a uniform web service interface in order to enable versatile and transparent resource management, and to support fundamental infrastructure properties such as reliability and elasticity. The abstraction that this 'everything as a service' principle brings also supports mashups, i.e. combining different web services (such as models) and data resources of different origins (in situ gauging stations, warehoused data stores, external sources, etc.). We adopt the RESTful style of web services in order to draw a clear line between client and server (i.e. cloud host) and also to keep the server completely stateless. This significantly improves the scalability of the infrastructure and enables easy infrastructure management. For instance, tasks such as load balancing and failure recovery are greatly simplified without the need for techniques such as advance resource reservation or shared block devices. Upon this infrastructure, we developed a web portal composed of a bespoke collection of web-based visualization tools to help bring out relationships or patterns within the data. The portal was

  10. A Framework for Building Efficient Environmental Permitting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ulibarri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance as a tool for protecting air and water quality, and for mitigating impacts to protected species and ecosystems, the environmental permitting process is widely recognized to be inefficient and marked by delays. This article draws on a literature review and interviews with permitting practitioners to identify factors that contribute to delayed permit decisions. The sociopolitical context, projects that are complex or use novel technology, a fragmented and bureaucratic regulatory regime, serial permit applications and reviews, and applicant and permitting agency knowledge and resources each contribute to permitting inefficiency when they foster uncertainty, increase transaction costs, and allow divergent interests to multiply, yet remain unresolved. We then use the interviews to consider the potential of a collaborative dialogue between permitting agencies and applicants to mitigate these challenges, and argue that collaboration is well positioned to lessen permitting inefficiency.

  11. High Strength Phosphogypsum and Its Use as a Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Wellington Massayuki; Rossetto, Hebert Luis; de Souza, Milton Ferreira; Máduar, Marcelo Francis; de Campos, Marcia Pires; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci

    2008-08-01

    A new process (patent applied) that works equally well with both plaster of mineral gypsum and phosphogypsum for the preparation of gypsum components, UCOS, has been developed. The process consists of the following steps: humidification of plaster by fine water droplets, uni-axial compression, hydration reaction and drying. Strong hydrogen bonds develop among the crystals together with adhesion provided by confined water that accounts for nearly 70% of the adhesion forces. By reducing the plaster to water ratio to close the minimum necessary, new features are generated. An experimental house has been constructed, in which walls and ceilings have been built of gypsum and phosphogypsum. Since phosphogypsum potentially contain radioactive elements, the application of an activity concentration index to the phosphogypsum employed in the building was carried out.

  12. Building Opportunities for Environmental Education Through Student Development of Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; Boyer, D. M.; Mobley, C.; Byrd, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    It is increasingly common to utilize simulations and games in the classroom, but learning opportunities can also be created by having students construct these cyberinfrastructure resources themselves. We outline two examples of such projects completed during the summer of 2014 within the NSF ACI sponsored REU Site: Research Experiences for Undergraduates in Collaborative Data Visualization Applications at Clemson University (Award 1359223). The first project focuses on the development of immersive virtual reality field trips of geologic sites using the Oculus Rift headset. This project developed a platform which will allow users to navigate virtual terrains derived from real-world data obtained from the US Geological Survey and Google Earth. The system provides users with the ability to partake in an interactive first-person exploration of a region, such as the Grand Canyon, and thus makes an important educational contribution for students without access to these environmental assets in the real world. The second project focused on providing players visual feedback about the sustainability of their practices within the web-based, multiplayer watershed management game Naranpur Online. Identifying sustainability indicators that communicate meaningful information to players and finding an effective way to visualize these data were a primary challenge faced by the student researcher working on this project. To solve this problem the student translated findings from the literature to the context of the game to develop a hierarchical set of relative sustainability criteria to be accessed by players within a sustainability dashboard. Though the REU focused on visualization, both projects forced the students to transform their thinking to address higher-level questions regarding the utilization and communication of environmental data or concepts, thus enhancing the educational experience for themselves and future students.

  13. Investigation of Waste Paper Cellulosic Fibers Utilization into Cement Based Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Hospodarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the utilization of renewable natural cellulosic materials, such as wood, plants, and waste paper in the preparation of building materials has attracted significant interest. This is due to their advantageous properties, low environmental impact and low cost. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of recycled cellulosic fibers (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the filler and binder weight and superplasticizer (in the amount 0.5 wt % of the cement weight on the resulting properties of cement composites (consistency of fresh mixture, density, thermal conductivity, and compressive and flexural strength for hardening times of 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days. Plasticizer use improved the workability of fresh cement mixture. In comparison to the reference sample, the results revealed a decrease in density of 6.8% and in the thermal conductivity of composites with cellulosic fibers of 34%. The highest values of compressive (48.4 MPa and flexural (up to 7 MPa strength were achieved for hardened fiber cement specimens with plasticizer due to their significantly better dispersion of cement particles and improved bond strength between fibers and matrix.

  14. Building waste management core indicators through Spatial Material Flow Analysis: net recovery and transport intensity indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Vivanco, David; Puig Ventosa, Ignasi; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the material and spatial characterization of the flows within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are combined through a Network-Based Spatial Material Flow Analysis. Using this information, two core indicators are developed for the bio-waste fraction, the Net Recovery Index (NRI) and the Transport Intensity Index (TII), which are aimed at assessing progress towards policy-related sustainable MSW management strategies and objectives. The NRI approaches the capacity of a MSW management system for converting waste into resources through a systematic metabolic approach, whereas the TII addresses efficiency in terms of the transport requirements to manage a specific waste flow throughout the entire MSW management life cycle. Therefore, both indicators could be useful in assessing key MSW management policy strategies, such as the consecution of higher recycling levels (sustainability principle) or the minimization of transport by locating treatment facilities closer to generation sources (proximity principle). To apply this methodological approach, the bio-waste management system of the region of Catalonia (Spain) has been chosen as a case study. Results show the adequacy of both indicators for identifying those points within the system with higher capacity to compromise its environmental, economic and social performance and therefore establishing clear targets for policy prioritization. Moreover, this methodological approach permits scenario building, which could be useful in assessing the outcomes of hypothetical scenarios, thus proving its adequacy for strategic planning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building construction materials effect in tropical wet and cold climates: A case study of office buildings in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was conducted in 15 office buildings in the humid and cold tropics during the working hours of the dry and rainy seasons in Cameroon. This was with the aim to study the effects that local and imported materials had on indoor air quality. To achieve this objective, the adaptive model approach has been selected. In accordance with the conditions of this model, all workers were kept in natural ventilation and, in accordance with the general procedure, a questionnaire was distributed to them, while variables, like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity were sampled. The results showed a clear agreement between expected behaviour, in accordance with the characteristics of building construction, and its real indoor ambience once they were statistically analysed. On the other hand, old buildings showed a higher percentage of relative humidity and a lower degree of indoor air temperature. Despite this, local thermal comfort indices and questionnaires showed adequate indoor ambience in each group of buildings, except when marble was used for external tiling. The effect of marble as an external coating helps to improve indoor ambience during the dry season. This is due to more indoor air and relative humidity being accumulated. At the same time, these ambiences are degraded when relative humidity is higher. Finally, these results should be taken cognisance of by architects and building designers in order to improve indoor environment, and overcome thermal discomfort in the Saharan area.

  16. Narcissism, Materialism, and Environmental Ethics in Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jacqueline Z.; Westerman, James W.; Bergman, Shawn M.; Westerman, Jennifer; Daly, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between narcissism, materialism, and environmental ethics in undergraduate business students. Data were collected from business students (n = 405) at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited business school at a comprehensive state university. Results indicate that narcissism has an…

  17. Some issues on environmental impact report of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaming

    2001-01-01

    The author puts forward some issues which should be paid attention to when compiling a environmental impact report of radioactive material transport. The main issues discussed are as follows: (1) Optimization analysis for transport routes. (2) Source terms under accident conditions in transport. (3) Precautions against accidents and emergency preparedness. (4) Quality assurance of transport, etc

  18. Application of radiochemical separation procedures to environmental and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-06-15

    The measurement of low levels of radionuclides in environmental and biological materials often depends on separation of the nuclide of interest from a bulky matrix containing interfering radioelements. In such case, however sophisticated and elegant the counting technique, the quality of the final data will

  19. Finding Environmental Knowledge in SCUBA-Based Textual Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    As marine environments within the adventure domain are future key-settings for recreational SCUBA diving experience, SCUBA-based textual materials should provide insight into environmental knowledge that is well connected to the novice divers' behaviour and attitude. This research is concerned with a major recreational SCUBA diver manual for…

  20. Health service planning and sustainable development: considering what, where and how care is delivered through a pro-environmental lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Sharon

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present paper was to review the opportunities currently available to health service planners to advance sustainable development in their future-facing roles within health service organisation. Critical challenges and enablers to facilitate health services planners in adopting a pro-environmental lens are discussed. What is known about the topic? Despite its harmful effect on the environment, health has been slower than other industries to embrace the sustainable development agenda. The attitudes and knowledge base of health service planners with regard to environmental sustainability has not been widely studied. For health service planners, embracing pro-environmental considerations in sustainable model of care development is a powerful opportunity to review care paradigms and prepare for the implementation of meaningful, improved health and system efficiency. What does this paper add? This paper advances the case for health service planners to embrace a pro-environmental stance and guides health service leaders in the preparation and implementation of sustainable and improved health and system efficiency. What are the implications for practitioners? Health service planers are in an ideal position to champion the sustainable development agenda as they explore what care is delivered, how care is delivered and where care is delivered. External policy, health service leadership and carbon literacy are advanced as critical contextual factors to facilitate the key role that health service planners can play in building sustainable healthcare organisations.