International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kendon, Viv
2014-01-01
Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer
Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.
2007-01-01
The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included
Unitary equivalence of quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas; Diósi, Lajos
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F
2016-05-05
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.
Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor
Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-01-01
The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471
Environment-Assisted Speed-up of the Field Evolution in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.
Cimmarusti, A D; Yan, Z; Patterson, B D; Corcos, L P; Orozco, L A; Deffner, S
2015-06-12
We measure the quantum speed of the state evolution of the field in a weakly driven optical cavity QED system. To this end, the mode of the electromagnetic field is considered as a quantum system of interest with a preferential coupling to a tunable environment: the atoms. By controlling the environment, i.e., changing the number of atoms coupled to the optical cavity mode, an environment-assisted speed-up is realized: the quantum speed of the state repopulation in the optical cavity increases with the coupling strength between the optical cavity mode and this non-Markovian environment (the number of atoms).
Quantum walks and search algorithms
Portugal, Renato
2013-01-01
This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...
Physical implementation of quantum walks
Manouchehri, Kia
2013-01-01
Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of
Quantum walks with entangled coins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S
2005-01-01
We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs
Sustainability of environment-assisted energy transfer in quantum photobiological complexes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G. [Institute of Systems Science, Durban University of Technology (South Africa)
2017-09-15
It is shown that quantum sustainability is a universal phenomenon which emerges during environment-assisted electronic excitation energy transfer (EET) in photobiological complexes (PBCs), such as photosynthetic reaction centers and centers of melanogenesis. We demonstrate that quantum photobiological systems must be sustainable for them to simultaneously endure continuous energy transfer and keep their internal structure from destruction or critical instability. These quantum effects occur due to the interaction of PBCs with their environment which can be described by means of the reduced density operator and effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian (NH). Sustainable NH models of EET predict the coherence beats, followed by the decrease of coherence down to a small, yet non-zero value. This indicates that in sustainable PBCs, quantum effects survive on a much larger time scale than the energy relaxation of an exciton. We show that sustainable evolution significantly lowers the entropy of PBCs and improves the speed and capacity of EET. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Sustainability of environment-assisted energy transfer in quantum photobiological complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G.
2017-01-01
It is shown that quantum sustainability is a universal phenomenon which emerges during environment-assisted electronic excitation energy transfer (EET) in photobiological complexes (PBCs), such as photosynthetic reaction centers and centers of melanogenesis. We demonstrate that quantum photobiological systems must be sustainable for them to simultaneously endure continuous energy transfer and keep their internal structure from destruction or critical instability. These quantum effects occur due to the interaction of PBCs with their environment which can be described by means of the reduced density operator and effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian (NH). Sustainable NH models of EET predict the coherence beats, followed by the decrease of coherence down to a small, yet non-zero value. This indicates that in sustainable PBCs, quantum effects survive on a much larger time scale than the energy relaxation of an exciton. We show that sustainable evolution significantly lowers the entropy of PBCs and improves the speed and capacity of EET. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks
Loke, T.; Wang, J. B.
2017-07-01
A major advantage in using Szegedy's formalism over discrete-time and continuous-time quantum walks lies in its ability to define a unitary quantum walk by quantizing a Markov chain on a directed or weighted graph. In this paper, we present a general scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits for Szegedy quantum walks that correspond to classical Markov chains possessing transformational symmetry in the columns of the transition matrix. In particular, the transformational symmetry criteria do not necessarily depend on the sparsity of the transition matrix, so this scheme can be applied to non-sparse Markov chains. Two classes of Markov chains that are amenable to this construction are cyclic permutations and complete bipartite graphs, for which we provide explicit efficient quantum circuit implementations. We also prove that our scheme can be applied to Markov chains formed by a tensor product. We also briefly discuss the implementation of Markov chains based on weighted interdependent networks. In addition, we apply this scheme to construct efficient quantum circuits simulating the Szegedy walks used in the quantum Pagerank algorithm for some classes of non-trivial graphs, providing a necessary tool for experimental demonstration of the quantum Pagerank algorithm.
Open quantum random walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noise
Wang, Caishi; Wang, Ce; Ren, Suling; Tang, Yuling
2018-03-01
In this paper, we introduce an open quantum random walk, which we call the QBN-based open walk, by means of quantum Bernoulli noise, and study its properties from a random walk point of view. We prove that, with the localized ground state as its initial state, the QBN-based open walk has the same limit probability distribution as the classical random walk. We also show that the probability distributions of the QBN-based open walk include those of the unitary quantum walk recently introduced by Wang and Ye (Quantum Inf Process 15:1897-1908, 2016) as a special case.
Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists
Venegas-Andraca, Salvador
2008-01-01
Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir
Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Feiran [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Pei, E-mail: zhangpei@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2017-01-15
Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.
Spatial search by quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Childs, Andrew M.; Goldstone, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
Grover's quantum search algorithm provides a way to speed up combinatorial search, but is not directly applicable to searching a physical database. Nevertheless, Aaronson and Ambainis showed that a database of N items laid out in d spatial dimensions can be searched in time of order √(N) for d>2, and in time of order √(N) poly(log N) for d=2. We consider an alternative search algorithm based on a continuous-time quantum walk on a graph. The case of the complete graph gives the continuous-time search algorithm of Farhi and Gutmann, and other previously known results can be used to show that √(N) speedup can also be achieved on the hypercube. We show that full √(N) speedup can be achieved on a d-dimensional periodic lattice for d>4. In d=4, the quantum walk search algorithm takes time of order √(N) poly(log N), and in d<4, the algorithm does not provide substantial speedup
Coined quantum walks on weighted graphs
Wong, Thomas G.
2017-11-01
We define a discrete-time, coined quantum walk on weighted graphs that is inspired by Szegedy’s quantum walk. Using this, we prove that many lackadaisical quantum walks, where each vertex has l integer self-loops, can be generalized to a quantum walk where each vertex has a single self-loop of real-valued weight l. We apply this real-valued lackadaisical quantum walk to two problems. First, we analyze it on the line or one-dimensional lattice, showing that it is exactly equivalent to a continuous deformation of the three-state Grover walk with faster ballistic dispersion. Second, we generalize Grover’s algorithm, or search on the complete graph, to have a weighted self-loop at each vertex, yielding an improved success probability when l < 3 + 2\\sqrt{2} ≈ 5.828 .
Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks
Wong, Thomas G.
2017-09-01
Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.
Quantum walks induced by Dirichlet random walks on infinite trees
Higuchi, Yusuke; Segawa, Etsuo
2018-02-01
We consider the Grover walk on infinite trees from the viewpoint of spectral analysis. From the previous work, infinite regular trees provide localization. In this paper, we give the complete characterization of the eigenspace of this Grover walk, which involves localization of its behavior and recovers the previous work. Our result suggests that the Grover walk on infinite trees may be regarded as a limit of the quantum walk induced by the isotropic random walk with the Dirichlet boundary condition at the n-th depth rather than one with the Neumann boundary condition.
Quantum walks driven by many coins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brun, Todd A.; Ambainis, Andris; Carteret, Hilary A.
2003-01-01
Quantum random walks have been much studied recently, largely due to their highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum random walk on the line: the use of multiple quantum 'coins' (or more generally, coins of higher dimension) in order to diminish the effects of interference between paths. We find solutions to this system in terms of the single-coin random walk, and compare the asymptotic limit of these solutions to numerical simulations. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments, and show that in the long-time limit the ''quantum-mechanical'' behavior of the one-coin walk persists, even if each coin is flipped only twice. We further show that this is generic for a very broad class of possible walks, and that this behavior disappears only in the limit of a new coin for every step of the walk
Quantum walks assisted by particle number fluctuations
Vargas-Hernandez, Rodrigo A.; v Krems, Roman
2017-04-01
We consider quantum walks of particles governed by lattice Hamiltonians with particle-number changing interactions. We show that such interactions, even if weak, accelerate quantum walks at short times due to Rabi oscillations between different particle number subspaces. We examine the dynamics of quantum walks governed by Hamiltonians arising in the context of D-wave quantum annealing experiments and experiments with excitations of ultracold molecules in optical lattices. The same Hamiltonians describe excitations in ensembles of highly magnetic atoms, such as Dy.
Quantum walks in an array of quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manouchehri, K; Wang, J B
2008-01-01
Quantum random walks are shown to have non-intuitive dynamics, which makes them an attractive area of study for devising quantum algorithms for well-known classical problems as well as those arising in the field of quantum computing. In this work, we propose a novel scheme for the physical implementation of a discrete-time quantum random walk using laser excitations of the electronic states of an array of quantum dots. These dots represent the discrete nodes of the walk, while transitions between the energy levels inside each dot correspond to the required coin operation and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) processes are employed to induce the steps of the walk. The quantum dot design is tailored in such a way as to enable selective coupling of the energy levels. Our simulation results show a close agreement with the ideal quantum walk distribution as well as modest robustness toward noise disturbance
Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimi, S.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K 2 graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.
Coin state properties in quantum walks.
Souza, A M C; Andrade, R F S
2013-01-01
Recent experimental advances have measured individual coin components in discrete time quantum walks, which have not received the due attention in most theoretical studies on the theme. Here is presented a detailed investigation of the properties of M, the difference between square modulus of coin states of discrete quantum walks on a linear chain. Local expectation values are obtained in terms of real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transformed wave function. A simple expression is found for the average difference between coin states in terms of an angle θ gauging the coin operator and its initial state. These results are corroborated by numerical integration of dynamical equations in real space. The local dependence is characterized both by large and short period modulations. The richness of revealed patterns suggests that the amount of information stored and retrieved from quantum walks is significantly enhanced if M is taken into account.
Random Walk Quantum Clustering Algorithm Based on Space
Xiao, Shufen; Dong, Yumin; Ma, Hongyang
2018-01-01
In the random quantum walk, which is a quantum simulation of the classical walk, data points interacted when selecting the appropriate walk strategy by taking advantage of quantum-entanglement features; thus, the results obtained when the quantum walk is used are different from those when the classical walk is adopted. A new quantum walk clustering algorithm based on space is proposed by applying the quantum walk to clustering analysis. In this algorithm, data points are viewed as walking participants, and similar data points are clustered using the walk function in the pay-off matrix according to a certain rule. The walk process is simplified by implementing a space-combining rule. The proposed algorithm is validated by a simulation test and is proved superior to existing clustering algorithms, namely, Kmeans, PCA + Kmeans, and LDA-Km. The effects of some of the parameters in the proposed algorithm on its performance are also analyzed and discussed. Specific suggestions are provided.
Analysis of coined quantum walks with renormalization
Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan
2018-01-01
We introduce a framework to analyze quantum algorithms with the renormalization group (RG). To this end, we present a detailed analysis of the real-space RG for discrete-time quantum walks on fractal networks and show how deep insights into the analytic structure as well as generic results about the long-time behavior can be extracted. The RG flow for such a walk on a dual Sierpinski gasket and a Migdal-Kadanoff hierarchical network is obtained explicitly from elementary algebraic manipulations, after transforming the unitary evolution equation into Laplace space. Unlike for classical random walks, we find that the long-time asymptotics for the quantum walk requires consideration of a diverging number of Laplace poles, which we demonstrate exactly for the closed-form solution available for the walk on a one-dimensional loop. In particular, we calculate the probability of the walk to overlap with its starting position, which oscillates with a period that scales as NdwQ/df with system size N . While the largest Jacobian eigenvalue λ1 of the RG flow merely reproduces the fractal dimension, df=log2λ1 , the asymptotic analysis shows that the second Jacobian eigenvalue λ2 becomes essential to determine the dimension of the quantum walk via dwQ=log2√{λ1λ2 } . We trace this fact to delicate cancellations caused by unitarity. We obtain identical relations for other networks, although the details of the RG analysis may exhibit surprisingly distinct features. Thus, our conclusions—which trivially reproduce those for regular lattices with translational invariance with df=d and dwQ=1 —appear to be quite general and likely apply to networks beyond those studied here.
On the physical realizability of quantum stochastic walks
Taketani, Bruno; Govia, Luke; Schuhmacher, Peter; Wilhelm, Frank
Quantum walks are a promising framework that can be used to both understand and implement quantum information processing tasks. The recently developed quantum stochastic walk combines the concepts of a quantum walk and a classical random walk through open system evolution of a quantum system, and have been shown to have applications in as far reaching fields as artificial intelligence. However, nature puts significant constraints on the kind of open system evolutions that can be realized in a physical experiment. In this work, we discuss the restrictions on the allowed open system evolution, and the physical assumptions underpinning them. We then introduce a way to circumvent some of these restrictions, and simulate a more general quantum stochastic walk on a quantum computer, using a technique we call quantum trajectories on a quantum computer. We finally describe a circuit QED approach to implement discrete time quantum stochastic walks.
Faster search by lackadaisical quantum walk
Wong, Thomas G.
2018-03-01
In the typical model, a discrete-time coined quantum walk searching the 2D grid for a marked vertex achieves a success probability of O(1/log N) in O(√{N log N}) steps, which with amplitude amplification yields an overall runtime of O(√{N} log N). We show that making the quantum walk lackadaisical or lazy by adding a self-loop of weight 4 / N to each vertex speeds up the search, causing the success probability to reach a constant near 1 in O(√{N log N}) steps, thus yielding an O(√{log N}) improvement over the typical, loopless algorithm. This improved runtime matches the best known quantum algorithms for this search problem. Our results are based on numerical simulations since the algorithm is not an instance of the abstract search algorithm.
Quantum Interference, Graphs, Walks, and Polynomials.
Tsuji, Yuta; Estrada, Ernesto; Movassagh, Ramis; Hoffmann, Roald
2018-04-09
In this paper, we explore quantum interference (QI) in molecular conductance from the point of view of graph theory and walks on lattices. By virtue of the Cayley-Hamilton theorem for characteristic polynomials and the Coulson-Rushbrooke pairing theorem for alternant hydrocarbons, it is possible to derive a finite series expansion of the Green's function for electron transmission in terms of the odd powers of the vertex adjacency matrix or Hückel matrix. This means that only odd-length walks on a molecular graph contribute to the conductivity through a molecule. Thus, if there are only even-length walks between two atoms, quantum interference is expected to occur in the electron transport between them. However, even if there are only odd-length walks between two atoms, a situation may come about where the contributions to the QI of some odd-length walks are canceled by others, leading to another class of quantum interference. For nonalternant hydrocarbons, the finite Green's function expansion may include both even and odd powers. Nevertheless, QI can in some circumstances come about for nonalternants from cancellation of odd- and even-length walk terms. We report some progress, but not a complete resolution, of the problem of understanding the coefficients in the expansion of the Green's function in a power series of the adjacency matrix, these coefficients being behind the cancellations that we have mentioned. Furthermore, we introduce a perturbation theory for transmission as well as some potentially useful infinite power series expansions of the Green's function.
Quantum mechanics by walking 1. Foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pade, Jochen
2012-01-01
Quantum mechanics by walking introduces to the foundations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This book applies to studyings of teaching physics as well as all studyings of physics, who look for an appropriate, easy, fresh, and modern approach to the field. In the present first volume the essential principles of quantum mechanics are worked out. in order to be able to develop their mathematical formulation as fastly and clearly as possible, systematically between wave mechanics and algebraic presentation is changed. Beside themes, which are traditionally in textbooks of quantum mechanics, extensively actual aspects like interaction-free quantum measurement, neutrino oscillations, or quantum cryptography are considered as well as fundamental problems and epistemological questions discussed, as they occur in connection with the measurement process. The list of the postulates of quantum mechanics closes this volume; they form the framework for the extensions and applications, which are discussed in the second volume. The required mathematical aids are introduced step by step. In the appendix the most important mathematical tools are compactly collected, so that supplementing literature can be far reachingly abandoned. Furthermore in the appendix supplementing themes are deepened as for instance the Quantum Zeno effect or delayed-choice experiments.
Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum dynamical semigroup; Evans–Hudson flow; quantum random walk. 1. Introduction. The aim of this article is to investigate convergence of random walks on von Neumann algebra to Evans–Hudson flows. Here the random walks and Evans–Hudson flows are gene- ralizations of classical Markov chains and Markov ...
Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Using coordinate-free basic operators on toy Fock spaces, quantum random walks are defined following the ideas of Attal and Pautrat. Extending the result for one dimensional noise, strong convergence of quantum random walks associated with bounded structure maps to Evans–Hudson flow is proved under suitable ...
An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-09
Feb 9, 2017 ... Abstract. In this article we present an effective Hamiltonian approach for discrete time quantum random walk. A form of the Hamiltonian for one-dimensional quantum walk has been prescribed, utilizing the fact that Hamil- tonians are generators of time translations. Then an attempt has been made to ...
Finding paths in tree graphs with a quantum walk
Koch, Daniel; Hillery, Mark
2018-01-01
We analyze the potential for different types of searches using the formalism of scattering random walks on quantum computers. Given a particular type of graph consisting of nodes and connections, a "tree maze," we would like to find a selected final node as quickly as possible, faster than any classical search algorithm. We show that this can be done using a quantum random walk, both through numerical calculations as well as by using the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the quantum system.
The Effect of Quantum Coins on the Spreading of Binary Disordered Quantum Walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jing; Hu Ya-Yun; Tong Pei-Qing
2015-01-01
The dynamical and static disordered quantum walks were extensively studied recently. It is found that, for the dynamical disorder case, the transport behavior of particles is diffusive, and for the static disorder case the transport behavior is localized. In this work, we study the effect of quantum coins on the transport behaviors of the binary disordered quantum walks. We find that once the coins satisfy certain conditions, the sub-ballistic spreading could be found in binary dynamical disorder quantum walks, and the sub-ballistic, diffusive and sub-diffusive spreadings could be found in binary static disorder quantum walks. We obtain the necessary conditions for those abnormal diffusive behaviors. (paper)
Parrondo's game using a discrete-time quantum walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrashekar, C.M.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2011-01-01
We present a new form of a Parrondo game using discrete-time quantum walk on a line. The two players A and B with different quantum coins operators, individually losing the game can develop a strategy to emerge as joint winners by using their coins alternatively, or in combination for each step of the quantum walk evolution. We also present a strategy for a player A (B) to have a winning probability more than player B (A). Significance of the game strategy in information theory and physical applications are also discussed. - Highlights: → Novel form of Parrondo's game on a single particle discrete-time quantum walk. → Strategies for players to emerge as individual winners or as joint winners. → General framework for controlling and using quantum walk with multiple coins. → Strategies can be used in algorithms and situations involving directed motion.
Neutrino oscillations in discrete-time quantum walk framework
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallick, Arindam; Mandal, Sanjoy; Chandrashekar, C.M. [C. I. T. Campus, The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Mumbai (India)
2017-02-15
Here we present neutrino oscillation in the framework of quantum walks. Starting from a one spatial dimensional discrete-time quantum walk we present a scheme of evolutions that will simulate neutrino oscillation. The set of quantum walk parameters which is required to reproduce the oscillation probability profile obtained in both, long range and short range neutrino experiment is explicitly presented. Our scheme to simulate three-generation neutrino oscillation from quantum walk evolution operators can be physically realized in any low energy experimental set-up with access to control a single six-level system, a multiparticle three-qubit or a qubit-qutrit system. We also present the entanglement between spins and position space, during neutrino propagation that will quantify the wave function delocalization around instantaneous average position of the neutrino. This work will contribute towards understanding neutrino oscillation in the framework of the quantum information perspective. (orig.)
Pseudo-Hermitian continuous-time quantum walks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salimi, S; Sorouri, A, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: a.sorouri@uok.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, PO Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-07-09
In this paper we present a model exhibiting a new type of continuous-time quantum walk (as a quantum-mechanical transport process) on networks, which is described by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian possessing a real spectrum. We call it pseudo-Hermitian continuous-time quantum walk. We introduce a method to obtain the probability distribution of walk on any vertex and then study a specific system. We observe that the probability distribution on certain vertices increases compared to that of the Hermitian case. This formalism makes the transport process faster and can be useful for search algorithms.
Quantum walks with an anisotropic coin I: spectral theory
Richard, S.; Suzuki, A.; Tiedra de Aldecoa, R.
2018-02-01
We perform the spectral analysis of the evolution operator U of quantum walks with an anisotropic coin, which include one-defect models, two-phase quantum walks, and topological phase quantum walks as special cases. In particular, we determine the essential spectrum of U, we show the existence of locally U-smooth operators, we prove the discreteness of the eigenvalues of U outside the thresholds, and we prove the absence of singular continuous spectrum for U. Our analysis is based on new commutator methods for unitary operators in a two-Hilbert spaces setting, which are of independent interest.
Discrete-time quantum walk with feed-forward quantum coin.
Shikano, Yutaka; Wada, Tatsuaki; Horikawa, Junsei
2014-03-21
Constructing a discrete model like a cellular automaton is a powerful method for understanding various dynamical systems. However, the relationship between the discrete model and its continuous analogue is, in general, nontrivial. As a quantum-mechanical cellular automaton, a discrete-time quantum walk is defined to include various quantum dynamical behavior. Here we generalize a discrete-time quantum walk on a line into the feed-forward quantum coin model, which depends on the coin state of the previous step. We show that our proposed model has an anomalous slow diffusion characterized by the porous-medium equation, while the conventional discrete-time quantum walk model shows ballistic transport.
A quantum walk in phase space with resonator-assisted double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bian Zhi-Hao; Qin Hao; Zhan Xiang; Li Jian; Xue Peng
2016-01-01
We implement a quantum walk in phase space with a new mechanism based on the superconducting resonator-assisted double quantum dots. By analyzing the hybrid system, we obtain the necessary factors implementing a quantum walk in phase space: the walker, coin, coin flipping and conditional phase shift. The coin flipping is implemented by adding a driving field to the resonator. The interaction between the quantum dots and resonator is used to implement conditional phase shift. Furthermore, we show that with different driving fields the quantum walk in phase space exhibits a ballistic behavior over 25 steps and numerically analyze the factors influencing the spreading of the walker in phase space. (paper)
Quantum walk on a line with two entangled particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omar, Y.; Paunkovic, N.; Sheridan, L.; Bose, S.; Mateus, P.
2005-01-01
Full text: We introduce the concept of a quantum walk with two particles and study it for the case of a discrete time walk on a line. A quantum walk with more than one particle may contain entanglement, thus offering a resource unavailable in the classical scenario and which can present interesting advantages. In this work, we show how the entanglement and the relative phase between the states describing the coin degree of freedom of each particle will influence the evolution of the quantum walk. In particular, the probability to find at least one particle in a certain position after N steps of the walk, as well as the average distance between the two particles, can be larger or smaller than the case of two unentangled particles, depending on the initial conditions we choose. This resource can then be tuned according to our needs, in particular to enhance a given application (algorithmic or other) based on a quantum walk. Experimental implementations are briefly discussed. (author)
Entanglement measurement with discrete multiple-coin quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endrejat, J; Buettner, H
2005-01-01
Within a special multi-coin quantum walk scheme, we analyse the effect of the entanglement of the initial coin state. For states with a special entanglement structure, it is shown that this entanglement can be measured with the mean value of the walk, which depends on the i-concurrence of the initial coin state. Further, the entanglement evolution is investigated and it is shown that the symmetry of the probability distribution is reflected by the symmetry of the entanglement distribution
A short walk in quantum probability.
Hudson, Robin
2018-04-28
This is a personal survey of aspects of quantum probability related to the Heisenberg commutation relation for canonical pairs. Using the failure, in general, of non-negativity of the Wigner distribution for canonical pairs to motivate a more satisfactory quantum notion of joint distribution, we visit a central limit theorem for such pairs and a resulting family of quantum planar Brownian motions which deform the classical planar Brownian motion, together with a corresponding family of quantum stochastic areas.This article is part of the themed issue 'Hilbert's sixth problem'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Wigner formula of rotation matrices and quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazaki, Takahiro; Katori, Makoto; Konno, Norio
2007-01-01
Quantization of a random-walk model is performed by giving a qudit (a multicomponent wave function) to a walker at site and by introducing a quantum coin, which is a matrix representation of a unitary transformation. In quantum walks, the qudit of the walker is mixed according to the quantum coin at each time step, when the walker hops to other sites. As special cases of the quantum walks driven by high-dimensional quantum coins generally studied by Brun, Carteret, and Ambainis, we study the models obtained by choosing rotation as the unitary transformation, whose matrix representations determine quantum coins. We show that Wigner's (2j+1)-dimensional unitary representations of rotations with half-integers j's are useful to analyze the probability laws of quantum walks. For any value of half-integer j, convergence of all moments of walker's pseudovelocity in the long-time limit is proved. It is generally shown for the present models that, if (2j+1) is even, the probability measure of limit distribution is given by a superposition of (2j+1)/2 terms of scaled Konno's density functions, and if (2j+1) is odd, it is a superposition of j terms of scaled Konno's density functions and a Dirac's delta function at the origin. For the two-, three-, and four-component models, the probability densities of limit distributions are explicitly calculated and their dependence on the parameters of quantum coins and on the initial qudit of walker is completely determined. Comparison with computer simulation results is also shown
Averaging in SU(2) open quantum random walk
Clement, Ampadu
2014-03-01
We study the average position and the symmetry of the distribution in the SU(2) open quantum random walk (OQRW). We show that the average position in the central limit theorem (CLT) is non-uniform compared with the average position in the non-CLT. The symmetry of distribution is shown to be even in the CLT.
An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-09
Feb 9, 2017 ... Abstract. In this article we present an effective Hamiltonian approach for discrete time quantum random walk. A form of the Hamiltonian for ... approach the effective Hamiltonian shows a clear dis- tinction between the two ...... of the results of the earlier work in the same direction in one dimension but differs ...
Driving quantum-walk spreading with the coin operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, A.
2009-01-01
We generalize the discrete quantum walk on the line using a time-dependent unitary coin operator. We find an analytical relation between the long-time behaviors of the standard deviation and the coin operator. Selecting the coin time sequence allows to obtain a variety of predetermined asymptotic wave-function spreadings: ballistic, sub-ballistic, diffusive, subdiffusive, and localized.
Implementing Parrondo's paradox with two-coin quantum walks
Rajendran, Jishnu; Benjamin, Colin
2018-02-01
Parrondo's paradox is ubiquitous in games, ratchets and random walks. The apparent paradox, devised by J. M. R. Parrondo, that two losing games A and B can produce a winning outcome has been adapted in many physical and biological systems to explain their working. However, proposals on demonstrating Parrondo's paradox using quantum walks failed for a large number of steps. In this work, we show that instead of a single coin if we consider a two-coin initial state which may or may not be entangled, we can observe a genuine Parrondo's paradox with quantum walks. Furthermore, we focus on reasons for this and pin down the asymmetry in initial two-coin state or asymmetry in shift operator, either of which is necessary for observing a genuine Parrondo's paradox. We extend our work to a three-coin initial state too with similar results. The implications of our work for observing quantum ratchet-like behaviour using quantum walks are also discussed.
Averaging in SU(2) open quantum random walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ampadu Clement
2014-01-01
We study the average position and the symmetry of the distribution in the SU(2) open quantum random walk (OQRW). We show that the average position in the central limit theorem (CLT) is non-uniform compared with the average position in the non-CLT. The symmetry of distribution is shown to be even in the CLT
Implementing quantum walks using orbital angular momentum of classical light
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Goyal, SK
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We present an implementation scheme for a quantum walk in the orbital angular momentum space of a laser beam. The scheme makes use of a ring interferometer, containing a quarter-wave plate and a q plate. This setup enables one to perform...
Partition-based discrete-time quantum walks
Konno, Norio; Portugal, Renato; Sato, Iwao; Segawa, Etsuo
2018-04-01
We introduce a family of discrete-time quantum walks, called two-partition model, based on two equivalence-class partitions of the computational basis, which establish the notion of local dynamics. This family encompasses most versions of unitary discrete-time quantum walks driven by two local operators studied in literature, such as the coined model, Szegedy's model, and the 2-tessellable staggered model. We also analyze the connection of those models with the two-step coined model, which is driven by the square of the evolution operator of the standard discrete-time coined walk. We prove formally that the two-step coined model, an extension of Szegedy model for multigraphs, and the two-tessellable staggered model are unitarily equivalent. Then, selecting one specific model among those families is a matter of taste not generality.
Quantum walk with a four-dimensional coin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Craig S; Gabris, Aurel; Jex, Igor; Barnett, Stephen M
2011-01-01
We examine the physical implementation of a discrete time quantum walk with a four-dimensional coin. Our quantum walker is a photon moving repeatedly through a time delay loop, with time being our position space. The quantum coin is implemented using the internal states of the photon: the polarization and two of the orbital angular momentum states. We demonstrate how to implement this physically and what components would be needed. We then illustrate some of the results that could be obtained by performing the experiment.
Recurrences in three-state quantum walks on a plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kollar, B.; Kiss, T.; Stefanak, M.; Jex, I.
2010-01-01
We analyze the role of dimensionality in the time evolution of discrete-time quantum walks through the example of the three-state walk on a two-dimensional triangular lattice. We show that the three-state Grover walk does not lead to trapping (localization) or recurrence to the origin, in sharp contrast to the Grover walk on the two-dimensional square lattice. We determine the power-law scaling of the probability at the origin with the method of stationary phase. We prove that only a special subclass of coin operators can lead to recurrence, and there are no coins that lead to localization. The propagation for the recurrent subclass of coins is quasi-one dimensional.
Random walks, critical phenomena, and triviality in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, R.; Froehlich, J.; Sokal, A.D.
1992-01-01
The subject of this book is equilibrium statistical mechanics - in particular the theory of critical phenomena - and quantum field theory. A general review of the theory of critical phenomena in spin systems, field theories, and random-walk and random-surface models is presented. Among the more technical topics treated in this book, the central theme is the use of random-walk representations as a tool to derive correlation inequalities. The consequences of these inequalities for critical-exponent theory and the triviality question in quantum field theory are expounded in detail. The book contains some previously unpublished results. It addresses both the researcher and the graduate student in modern statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. (orig.)
Approximation of quantum Lévy processes by quantum random walks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Introduction. The note is concerned with investigating convergence of random walks on quantum groups to quantum Lévy processes. The theory of the latter is a natural noncommutative coun- terpart of the theory of classical Lévy processes on groups [Hey]. It has been initiated in. [ASW] and further extensively developed by ...
A Novel Algorithm of Quantum Random Walk in Server Traffic Control and Task Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Yumin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A quantum random walk optimization model and algorithm in network cluster server traffic control and task scheduling is proposed. In order to solve the problem of server load balancing, we research and discuss the distribution theory of energy field in quantum mechanics and apply it to data clustering. We introduce the method of random walk and illuminate what the quantum random walk is. Here, we mainly research the standard model of one-dimensional quantum random walk. For the data clustering problem of high dimensional space, we can decompose one m-dimensional quantum random walk into m one-dimensional quantum random walk. In the end of the paper, we compare the quantum random walk optimization method with GA (genetic algorithm, ACO (ant colony optimization, and SAA (simulated annealing algorithm. In the same time, we prove its validity and rationality by the experiment of analog and simulation.
Green-function approach for scattering quantum walks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, F. M. [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Luz, M. G. E. da [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, C.P. 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba-PR (Brazil)
2011-10-15
In this work a Green-function approach for scattering quantum walks is developed. The exact formula has the form of a sum over paths and always can be cast into a closed analytic expression for arbitrary topologies and position-dependent quantum amplitudes. By introducing the step and path operators, it is shown how to extract any information about the system from the Green function. The method's relevant features are demonstrated by discussing in detail an example, a general diamond-shaped graph.
A one-dimensional quantum walk with multiple-rotation on the coin.
Xue, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Qin, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Bian, Zhihao; Li, Jian
2016-01-29
We introduce and analyze a one-dimensional quantum walk with two time-independent rotations on the coin. We study the influence on the property of quantum walk due to the second rotation on the coin. Based on the asymptotic solution in the long time limit, a ballistic behaviour of this walk is observed. This quantum walk retains the quadratic growth of the variance if the combined operator of the coin rotations is unitary. That confirms no localization exhibits in this walk. This result can be extended to the walk with multiple time-independent rotations on the coin.
Steady states of continuous-time open quantum walks
Liu, Chaobin; Balu, Radhakrishnan
2017-07-01
Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. As shown by the examples in this article, the steady states of CTOQW can be very unusual and complicated even though the underlying graphs are simple. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect quantum coherence in CTOQW through a long-time run. Precisely, the quantum coherence persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, the quantum coherence will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).
Time-continuous open quantum walks (Conference Presentation)
Balu, Radhakrishnan; Liu, Chaobin
2017-05-01
Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. The difference of long-time behaviors between CTOQW and other two continuous-time processes on graphs is exemplified. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect a quantum coherence effect on CTOQW through a long time run. Precisely, a quantum coherence effect persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, a quantum coherence effect will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).
Quantum Chemistry via Walks in Determinant Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Umrigar, Cyrus J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
2016-01-05
There are many chemical questions of practical interest to the DOE that could be answered if there were an electronic structure method that provided consistently accurate results for all systems at an affordable computational cost. The coupled cluster method with single, double and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) is the most frequently used high-order method, but it has known deficiencies, e.g., in the description of stretched bonds. The full configuration interaction (FCI) method is the most robust method for treating electronic correlations, but it is little used because its computational cost scales exponentially in the size of the system. The largest calculation that has been done to date employed 10 billion determinants. In this regard, there was a major advance in 2010. The Alavi group at Cambridge University developed a stochastic approach to FCI --- combining it with ideas from quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) --- called FCIQMC, that allows one to go to a far larger number of determinants in certain circumstances. The computational cost is exponential in the system and basis size but with a much reduced exponent compared to conventional FCI. In this project Umrigar's group made several major improvements to the FCIQMC method that increased its efficiency by many orders of magnitude. In addition this project resulted in a cross-fertilization of ideas between the FCIQMC method, the older phaseless auxilliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method developed by Zhang and Krakauer (two of the PI's of this project), and symmetry-restored wavefunctions developed by Scuseria (also a PI of this project).
Continuous Time Open Quantum Random Walks and Non-Markovian Lindblad Master Equations
Pellegrini, Clément
2014-02-01
A new type of quantum random walks, called Open Quantum Random Walks, has been developed and studied in Attal et al. (Open quantum random walks, preprint) and (Central limit theorems for open quantum random walks, preprint). In this article we present a natural continuous time extension of these Open Quantum Random Walks. This continuous time version is obtained by taking a continuous time limit of the discrete time Open Quantum Random Walks. This approximation procedure is based on some adaptation of Repeated Quantum Interactions Theory (Attal and Pautrat in Annales Henri Poincaré Physique Théorique 7:59-104, 2006) coupled with the use of correlated projectors (Breuer in Phys Rev A 75:022103, 2007). The limit evolutions obtained this way give rise to a particular type of quantum master equations. These equations appeared originally in the non-Markovian generalization of the Lindblad theory (Breuer in Phys Rev A 75:022103, 2007). We also investigate the continuous time limits of the quantum trajectories associated with Open Quantum Random Walks. We show that the limit evolutions in this context are described by jump stochastic differential equations. Finally we present a physical example which can be described in terms of Open Quantum Random Walks and their associated continuous time limits.
Quantum walks, deformed relativity and Hopf algebra symmetries.
Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-05-28
We show how the Weyl quantum walk derived from principles in D'Ariano & Perinotti (D'Ariano & Perinotti 2014Phys. Rev. A90, 062106. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062106)), enjoying a nonlinear Lorentz symmetry of dynamics, allows one to introduce Hopf algebras for position and momentum of the emerging particle. We focus on two special models of Hopf algebras-the usual Poincaré and theκ-Poincaré algebras. © 2016 The Author(s).
Quantum walks and non-Abelian discrete gauge theory
Arnault, Pablo; Di Molfetta, Giuseppe; Brachet, Marc; Debbasch, Fabrice
2016-07-01
A family of discrete-time quantum walks (DTQWs) on the line with an exact discrete U(N ) gauge invariance is introduced. It is shown that the continuous limit of these DTQWs, when it exists, coincides with the dynamics of a Dirac fermion coupled to usual U(N ) gauge fields in two-dimensional spacetime. A discrete generalization of the usual U(N ) curvature is also constructed. An alternate interpretation of these results in terms of superimposed U(1 ) Maxwell fields and SU(N ) gauge fields is discussed in the Appendix. Numerical simulations are also presented, which explore the convergence of the DTQWs towards their continuous limit and which also compare the DTQWs with classical (i.e., nonquantum) motions in classical SU(2 ) fields. The results presented in this paper constitute a first step towards quantum simulations of generic Yang-Mills gauge theories through DTQWs.
Quantum centrality testing on directed graphs via P T -symmetric quantum walks
Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.; Abbott, P. C.; Ma, X. S.
2017-09-01
Various quantum-walk-based algorithms have been proposed to analyze and rank the centrality of graph vertices. However, issues arise when working with directed graphs: the resulting non-Hermitian Hamiltonian leads to nonunitary dynamics, and the total probability of the quantum walker is no longer conserved. In this paper, we discuss a method for simulating directed graphs using P T -symmetric quantum walks, allowing probability-conserving nonunitary evolution. This method is equivalent to mapping the directed graph to an undirected, yet weighted, complete graph over the same vertex set, and can be extended to cover interdependent networks of directed graphs. Previous work has shown centrality measures based on the continuous-time quantum walk provide an eigenvectorlike quantum centrality; using the P T -symmetric framework, we extend these centrality algorithms to directed graphs with a significantly reduced Hilbert space compared to previous proposals. In certain cases, this centrality measure provides an advantage over classical algorithms used in network analysis, for example, by breaking vertex rank degeneracy. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis over ensembles of random graphs, and show strong agreement with the classical PageRank measure on directed acyclic graphs.
Quantum state engineering using one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks
Innocenti, Luca; Majury, Helena; Giordani, Taira; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Sciarrino, Fabio; Paternostro, Mauro; Ferraro, Alessandro
2017-12-01
Quantum state preparation in high-dimensional systems is an essential requirement for many quantum-technology applications. The engineering of an arbitrary quantum state is, however, typically strongly dependent on the experimental platform chosen for implementation, and a general framework is still missing. Here we show that coined quantum walks on a line, which represent a framework general enough to encompass a variety of different platforms, can be used for quantum state engineering of arbitrary superpositions of the walker's sites. We achieve this goal by identifying a set of conditions that fully characterize the reachable states in the space comprising walker and coin and providing a method to efficiently compute the corresponding set of coin parameters. We assess the feasibility of our proposal by identifying a linear optics experiment based on photonic orbital angular momentum technology.
Creating cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei-Wei; Gao, Fei; Goyal, Sandeep K; Sanders, Barry C; Simon, Christoph
2016-01-01
Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks. (paper)
QSWalk: A Mathematica package for quantum stochastic walks on arbitrary graphs
Falloon, Peter E.; Rodriguez, Jeremy; Wang, Jingbo B.
2017-08-01
We present a Mathematica package, QSWalk, to simulate the time evaluation of Quantum Stochastic Walks (QSWs) on arbitrary directed and weighted graphs. QSWs are a generalization of continuous time quantum walks that incorporate both coherent and incoherent dynamics and as such, include both quantum walks and classical random walks as special cases. The incoherent component allows for quantum walks along directed graph edges. The dynamics of QSWs are expressed using the Lindblad formalism, originally developed for open quantum systems, which frames the problem in the language of density matrices. For a QSW on a graph of N vertices, we have a sparse superoperator in an N2-dimensional space, which can be solved efficiently using the built-in MatrixExp function in Mathematica. We illustrate the use of the QSWalk package through several example case studies.
Experimental simulation and limitations of quantum walks with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matjeschk, R; Schneider, Ch; Enderlein, M; Huber, T; Schmitz, H; Glueckert, J; Schaetz, T
2012-01-01
We examine the prospects of discrete quantum walks (QWs) with trapped ions. In particular, we analyze in detail the limitations of the protocol of Travaglione and Milburn (2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 032310) that has been implemented by several experimental groups in recent years. Based on the first realization in our group (Schmitz et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 090504), we investigate the consequences of leaving the scope of the approximations originally made, such as the Lamb-Dicke approximation. We explain the consequential deviations from the idealized QW for different experimental realizations and an increasing number of steps by taking into account higher-order terms of the quantum evolution. It turns out that these already become significant after a few steps, which is confirmed by experimental results and is currently limiting the scalability of this approach. Finally, we propose a new scheme using short laser pulses, derived from a protocol from the field of quantum computation. We show that this scheme is not subject to the above-mentioned restrictions and analytically and numerically evaluate its limitations, based on a realistic implementation with our specific setup. Implementing the protocol with state-of-the-art techniques should allow for substantially increasing the number of steps to 100 and beyond and should be extendable to higher-dimensional QWs. (paper)
Scattering quantum random-walk search with errors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabris, A.; Kiss, T.; Jex, I.
2007-01-01
We analyze the realization of a quantum-walk search algorithm in a passive, linear optical network. The specific model enables us to consider the effect of realistic sources of noise and losses on the search efficiency. Photon loss uniform in all directions is shown to lead to the rescaling of search time. Deviation from directional uniformity leads to the enhancement of the search efficiency compared to uniform loss with the same average. In certain cases even increasing loss in some of the directions can improve search efficiency. We show that while we approach the classical limit of the general search algorithm by introducing random phase fluctuations, its utility for searching is lost. Using numerical methods, we found that for static phase errors the averaged search efficiency displays a damped oscillatory behavior that asymptotically tends to a nonzero value
Disordered-quantum-walk-induced localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandrashekar, C. M.
2011-01-01
We present an approach to induce localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice under the influence of unitary quantum-walk evolution using disordered quantum coin operation. We introduce a discrete-time quantum-walk model in which the interference effect is modified to diffuse or strongly localize the probability distribution of the particle by assigning a different set of coin parameters picked randomly for each step of the walk, respectively. Spatial localization of the particle or state is explained by comparing the variance of the probability distribution of the quantum walk in position space using disordered coin operation to that of the walk using an identical coin operation for each step. Due to the high degree of control over quantum coin operation and most of the system parameters, ultracold atoms in an optical lattice offer opportunities to implement a disordered quantum walk that is unitary and induces localization. Here we present a scheme to use a Bose-Einstein condensate that can be evolved to the superposition of its internal states in an optical lattice and control the dynamics of atoms to observe localization. This approach can be adopted to any other physical system in which controlled disordered quantum walk can be implemented.
Observation of Topological Structures in Photonic Quantum Walks
Puentes, Graciana; Gerhardt, Ilja; Katzschmann, Fabian; Silberhorn, Christine; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Lewenstein, Maciej
2014-03-01
Phases of matter with nontrivial topological order are predicted to exhibit a variety of exotic phenomena, such as robust localized bound states in 1D systems, and edge states in 2D systems, which are expected to display spin helicity, immunity to backscattering, and weak antilocalization. In this Letter, we present an experimental observation of topological structures generated via the controlled implementation of two consecutive noncommuting rotations in photonic discrete-time quantum walks. The second rotation introduces valleylike Dirac points in the system, allowing us to create the nontrivial topological pattern. By choosing specific values for the rotations, it is possible to coherently drive the system between topological sectors characterized by different topological invariants. We probe the full topological landscape, demonstrating the emergence of localized bound states hosted at the topological boundaries, and the existence of extremely localized or delocalized non-Gaussian quantum states. Our results pave the way for the study of valley polarization and applications of topological mechanisms in robust optical-device engineering.
A Spectral Analysis of Discrete-Time Quantum Walks Related to the Birth and Death Chains
Ho, Choon-Lin; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Segawa, Etsuo; Takumi, Kentaro
2018-04-01
In this paper, we consider a spectral analysis of discrete time quantum walks on the path. For isospectral coin cases, we show that the time averaged distribution and stationary distributions of the quantum walks are described by the pair of eigenvalues of the coins as well as the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding random walks which are usually referred as the birth and death chains. As an example of the results, we derive the time averaged distribution of so-called Szegedy's walk which is related to the Ehrenfest model. It is represented by Krawtchouk polynomials which is the eigenvectors of the model and includes the arcsine law.
Yang, YuGuang; Zhang, YuChen; Xu, Gang; Chen, XiuBo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, WeiMin
2018-03-01
Li et al. first proposed a quantum hash function (QHF) in a quantum-walk architecture. In their scheme, two two-particle interactions, i.e., I interaction and π-phase interaction are introduced and the choice of I or π-phase interactions at each iteration depends on a message bit. In this paper, we propose an efficient QHF by dense coding of coin operators in discrete-time quantum walk. Compared with existing QHFs, our protocol has the following advantages: the efficiency of the QHF can be doubled and even more; only one particle is enough and two-particle interactions are unnecessary so that quantum resources are saved. It is a clue to apply the dense coding technique to quantum cryptographic protocols, especially to the applications with restricted quantum resources.
Quantum quincunx for walk on circles in phase space with indirect coin flip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Peng; Sanders, Barry C
2008-01-01
The quincunx, or Galton board, has a long history as a tool for demonstrating and investigating random walk processes, but a quantum quincunx (QQ) for demonstrating a coined quantum walk (QW) is yet to be realized experimentally. We propose a variant of the QQ in cavity quantum electrodynamics, designed to eliminate the onerous requirement of directly flipping the coin. Instead, we propose driving the cavity in such a way that cavity field displacements are minimized and the coin is effectively flipped via this indirect process. An effect of this indirect flipping is that the walker's location is no longer confined to a single circle in the planar phase space, but we show that the phase distribution nonetheless shows quadratic enhancement of phase diffusion for the quantum versus classical walk despite this small complication. Thus our scheme leads to coined QW behaviour in cavity quantum electrodynamics without the need to flip the coin directly
Experimental quantum-walk revival with a time-dependent coin.
Xue, P; Zhang, R; Qin, H; Zhan, X; Bian, Z H; Li, J; Sanders, Barry C
2015-04-10
We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker.
Area law violations and quantum phase transitions in modified Motzkin walk spin chains
Sugino, Fumihiko; Padmanabhan, Pramod
2018-01-01
Area law violations for entanglement entropy in the form of a square root have recently been studied for one-dimensional frustration-free quantum systems based on the Motzkin walks and their variations. Here we consider a Motzkin walk with a different Hilbert space on each step of the walk spanned by the elements of a symmetric inverse semigroup with the direction of each step governed by its algebraic structure. This change alters the number of paths allowed in the Motzkin walk and introduces a ground state degeneracy that is sensitive to boundary perturbations. We study the frustration-free spin chains based on three symmetric inverse semigroups, \
History dependent quantum walk on the cycle with an unbalanced coin
Krawec, Walter O.
2015-06-01
Recently, a new model of quantum walk, utilizing recycled coins, was introduced; however little is yet known about its properties. In this paper, we study its behavior on the cycle graph. In particular, we will consider its time averaged distribution and how it is affected by the walk's "memory parameter"-a real parameter, between zero and eight, which affects the walk's coin flip operator. Despite an infinite number of different parameters, our analysis provides evidence that only a few produce non-uniform behavior. Our analysis also shows that the initial state, and cycle size modulo four all affect the behavior of this walk. We also prove an interesting relationship between the recycled coin model and a different memory-based quantum walk recently proposed.
Two-particle quantum walks applied to the graph isomorphism problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamble, John King; Friesen, Mark; Zhou Dong; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.
2010-01-01
We show that the quantum dynamics of interacting and noninteracting quantum particles are fundamentally different in the context of solving a particular computational problem. Specifically, we consider the graph isomorphism problem, in which one wishes to determine whether two graphs are isomorphic (related to each other by a relabeling of the graph vertices), and focus on a class of graphs with particularly high symmetry called strongly regular graphs (SRGs). We study the Green's functions that characterize the dynamical evolution single-particle and two-particle quantum walks on pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs and show that interacting particles can distinguish nonisomorphic graphs that noninteracting particles cannot. We obtain the following specific results. (1) We prove that quantum walks of two noninteracting particles, fermions or bosons, cannot distinguish certain pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs. (2) We demonstrate numerically that two interacting bosons are more powerful than single particles and two noninteracting particles, in that quantum walks of interacting bosons distinguish all nonisomorphic pairs of SRGs that we examined. By utilizing high-throughput computing to perform over 500 million direct comparisons between evolution operators, we checked all tabulated pairs of nonisomorphic SRGs, including graphs with up to 64 vertices. (3) By performing a short-time expansion of the evolution operator, we derive distinguishing operators that provide analytic insight into the power of the interacting two-particle quantum walk.
Kumar, N. Pradeep; Balu, Radhakrishna; Laflamme, Raymond; Chandrashekar, C. M.
2018-01-01
We study the dynamics of discrete-time quantum walk using quantum coin operations, C ̂(θ1) and C ̂(θ2) , in time-dependent periodic sequence. For the two-period quantum walk with the parameters θ1 and θ2 in the coin operations we show that the standard deviation [σθ1,θ2(t ) ] is the same as the minimum of standard deviation obtained from one of the one-period quantum walks with coin operations θ1 or θ2, σθ1,θ2(t ) =min {σθ1(t) ,σθ 2(t ) } . Our numerical result is analytically corroborated using the dispersion relation obtained from the continuum limit of the dynamics. Using the dispersion relation for one- and two-period quantum walks, we present the bounds on the dynamics of three- and higher-period quantum walks. We also show that the bounds for the two-period quantum walk will hold good for the split-step quantum walk which is also defined using two coin operators using θ1 and θ2. Unlike the previous known connection of discrete-time quantum walks with the massless Dirac equation where coin parameter θ =0 , here we show the recovery of the massless Dirac equation with nonzero θ parameters contributing to the intriguing interference in the dynamics in a totally nonrelativistic situation. We also present the effect of periodic sequence on the entanglement between coin and position space.
Continuous-Time Classical and Quantum Random Walk on Direct Product of Cayley Graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salimi, S.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.
2009-01-01
In this paper we define direct product of graphs and give a recipe for obtaining probability of observing particle on vertices in the continuous-time classical and quantum random walk. In the recipe, the probability of observing particle on direct product of graph is obtained by multiplication of probability on the corresponding to sub-graphs, where this method is useful to determining probability of walk on complicated graphs. Using this method, we calculate the probability of continuous-time classical and quantum random walks on many of finite direct product Cayley graphs (complete cycle, complete K n , charter and n-cube). Also, we inquire that the classical state the stationary uniform distribution is reached as t → ∞ but for quantum state is not always satisfied. (general)
Localization and recurrence of a quantum walk in a periodic potential on a line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou Chung-I; Ho Choon-Lin
2014-01-01
We present a numerical study of a model of quantum walk in a periodic potential on a line. We take the simple view that different potentials have different affects on the way in which the coin state of the walker is changed. For simplicity and definiteness, we assume that the walker's coin state is unaffected at sites without the potential, and rotated in an unbiased way according to the Hadamard matrix at sites with the potential. This is the simplest and most natural model of a quantum walk in a periodic potential with two coins. Six generic cases of such quantum walks are studied numerically. It is found that, of the six cases, four cases display significant localization effect where the walker is confined in the neighborhood of the origin for a sufficiently long time. Associated with such a localization effect is the recurrence of the probability of the walker returning to the neighborhood of the origin. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Dawei; Peng Xinhua; Du Jiangfeng; Zhu Jing; Zou Ping; Yu Yihua; Zhang Shanmin; Chen Qun
2010-01-01
An important quantum search algorithm based on the quantum random walk performs an oracle search on a database of N items with O(√(phN)) calls, yielding a speedup similar to the Grover quantum search algorithm. The algorithm was implemented on a quantum information processor of three-qubit liquid-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the case of finding 1 out of 4, and the diagonal elements' tomography of all the final density matrices was completed with comprehensible one-dimensional NMR spectra. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions.
Investigation of continuous-time quantum walk via modules of Bose-Mesner and Terwilliger algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafarizadeh, M A; Salimi, S
2006-01-01
The continuous-time quantum walk on the underlying graphs of association schemes has been studied, via the algebraic combinatorics structures of association schemes, namely semi-simple modules of their Bose-Mesner and Terwilliger algebras. It is shown that the Terwilliger algebra stratifies the graph into a (d + 1) disjoint union of strata which is different from the stratification based on distance, except for distance regular graphs. In underlying graphs of association schemes, the probability amplitudes and average probabilities are given in terms of dual eigenvalues of association schemes, such that the amplitudes of observing the continuous-time quantum walk on all sites belonging to a given stratum are the same, therefore there are at most (d + 1) different observing probabilities. The importance of association scheme in continuous-time quantum walk is shown by some worked out examples such as arbitrary finite group association schemes followed by symmetric S n , Dihedral D 2m and cyclic groups. At the end it is shown that the highest irreducible representations of Terwilliger algebras pave the way to use the spectral distributions method of Jafarizadeh and Salimi (2005 Preprint quant-ph/0510174) in studying quantum walk on some rather important graphs called distance regular graphs
Implementing Parrondo’s paradox with two-coin quantum walks
Rajendran, Jishnu
2018-01-01
Parrondo’s paradox is ubiquitous in games, ratchets and random walks. The apparent paradox, devised by J. M. R. Parrondo, that two losing games A and B can produce a winning outcome has been adapted in many physical and biological systems to explain their working. However, proposals on demonstrating Parrondo’s paradox using quantum walks failed for a large number of steps. In this work, we show that instead of a single coin if we consider a two-coin initial state which may or may not be entangled, we can observe a genuine Parrondo’s paradox with quantum walks. Furthermore, we focus on reasons for this and pin down the asymmetry in initial two-coin state or asymmetry in shift operator, either of which is necessary for observing a genuine Parrondo’s paradox. We extend our work to a three-coin initial state too with similar results. The implications of our work for observing quantum ratchet-like behaviour using quantum walks are also discussed. PMID:29515873
Environment-assisted precision measurement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.
2011-01-01
We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are ...... achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond...
Quantum mechanics by walking 1. Foundations; Quantenmechanik zu Fuss 1. Grundlagen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pade, Jochen [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany)
2012-11-01
Quantum mechanics by walking introduces to the foundations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This book applies to studyings of teaching physics as well as all studyings of physics, who look for an appropriate, easy, fresh, and modern approach to the field. In the present first volume the essential principles of quantum mechanics are worked out. in order to be able to develop their mathematical formulation as fastly and clearly as possible, systematically between wave mechanics and algebraic presentation is changed. Beside themes, which are traditionally in textbooks of quantum mechanics, extensively actual aspects like interaction-free quantum measurement, neutrino oscillations, or quantum cryptography are considered as well as fundamental problems and epistemological questions discussed, as they occur in connection with the measurement process. The list of the postulates of quantum mechanics closes this volume; they form the framework for the extensions and applications, which are discussed in the second volume. The required mathematical aids are introduced step by step. In the appendix the most important mathematical tools are compactly collected, so that supplementing literature can be far reachingly abandoned. Furthermore in the appendix supplementing themes are deepened as for instance the Quantum Zeno effect or delayed-choice experiments.
Transport properties of continuous-time quantum walks on Sierpinski fractals.
Darázs, Zoltán; Anishchenko, Anastasiia; Kiss, Tamás; Blumen, Alexander; Mülken, Oliver
2014-09-01
We model quantum transport, described by continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs), on deterministic Sierpinski fractals, differentiating between Sierpinski gaskets and Sierpinski carpets, along with their dual structures. The transport efficiencies are defined in terms of the exact and the average return probabilities, as well as by the mean survival probability when absorbing traps are present. In the case of gaskets, localization can be identified already for small networks (generations). For carpets, our numerical results indicate a trend towards localization, but only for relatively large structures. The comparison of gaskets and carpets further implies that, distinct from the corresponding classical continuous-time random walk, the spectral dimension does not fully determine the evolution of the CTQW.
Distribution of chirality in the quantum walk: Markov process and entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, Alejandro
2010-01-01
The asymptotic behavior of the quantum walk on the line is investigated, focusing on the probability distribution of chirality independently of position. It is shown analytically that this distribution has a longtime limit that is stationary and depends on the initial conditions. This result is unexpected in the context of the unitary evolution of the quantum walk as it is usually linked to a Markovian process. The asymptotic value of the entanglement between the coin and the position is determined by the chirality distribution. For given asymptotic values of both the entanglement and the chirality distribution, it is possible to find the corresponding initial conditions within a particular class of spatially extended Gaussian distributions.
Limitations of discrete-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional infinite chain
Lin, Jia-Yi; Zhu, Xuanmin; Wu, Shengjun
2018-04-01
How well can we manipulate the state of a particle via a discrete-time quantum walk? We show that the discrete-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional infinite chain with coin operators that are independent of the position can only realize product operators of the form eiξ A ⊗1p, which cannot change the position state of the walker. We present a scheme to construct all possible realizations of all the product operators of the form eiξ A ⊗1p. When the coin operators are dependent on the position, we show that the translation operators on the position can not be realized via a DTQW with coin operators that are either the identity operator 1 or the Pauli operator σx.
Renormalization of discrete-time quantum walks with a non-Grover coin
Boettcher, Stefan; Pughe-Sanford, Joshua L.
2018-03-01
We present an in-depth analytic study of discrete-time quantum walks driven by a non-reflective coin. Specifically, we compare the properties of the widely-used Grover coin {{\\mathcal C}}G that is unitary and reflective ({{\\mathcal C}}_G2={I} ) with those of a 3×3 ‘rotational’ coin {{\\mathcal C}}60 that is unitary but non-reflective ({{\\mathcal C}}602\
Geometrical aspects of quantum walks on random two-dimensional structures.
Anishchenko, Anastasiia; Blumen, Alexander; Mülken, Oliver
2013-12-01
We study the transport properties of continuous-time quantum walks (CTQWs) over finite two-dimensional structures with a given number of randomly placed bonds and with different aspect ratios (ARs). Here, we focus on the transport from, say, the left side to the right side of the structure where absorbing sites are placed. We do so by analyzing the long-time average of the survival probability of CTQWs. We compare the results to the classical continuous-time random walk case (CTRW). For small ARs (landscape configurations) we observe only small differences between the quantum and the classical transport properties, i.e., roughly the same number of bonds is needed to facilitate the transport. However, with increasing ARs (portrait configurations) a much larger number of bonds is needed in the CTQW case than in the CTRW case. While for CTRWs the number of bonds needed decreases when going from small ARs to large ARs, for CTQWs this number is large for small ARs, has a minimum for the square configuration, and increases again for increasing ARs. We explain our findings by analyzing the average eigenstates of the corresponding structures: The participation ratios allow us to distinguish between localized and nonlocalized (average) eigenstates. In particular, for large ARs we find for CTQWs that the eigenstates are localized for bond numbers exceeding the bond numbers needed to facilitate transport in the CTRW case. Thus, a rather large number of bonds is needed in order for quantum transport to be efficient for large ARs.
Continuous-time quantum walks: Models for coherent transport on complex networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muelken, Oliver, E-mail: muelken@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Blumen, Alexander
2011-05-15
This paper reviews recent advances in continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW) and their application to transport in various systems. The introduction gives a brief survey of the historical background of CTQW. After a short outline of the theoretical ideas behind CTQW and of its relation to classical continuous-time random walks (CTRW), implications for the efficiency of the transport are presented. This paper gives an overview of different types of networks on which CTQW have been studied so far. Extensions of CTQW to systems with long-range interactions and with static disorder are also discussed. Systems with traps, i.e., systems in which a walker's probability to remain inside the system is not conserved, are presented. Relations to similar approaches to the transport are studied. This paper closes with an outlook on possible future directions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pade, Jochen [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany)
2012-11-01
Quantum mechanics by walking introduces to the foundations of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. This book applies to studyings of teaching physics as well all studyings of physics, who look for an appropriate, easy, fresh, and modern approach to the field. After in the first volume the essential principles were worked out, in the present second volume applications and extensions are considered. Beside themes, which are traditionally presented in textbooks of quantum mechanics like symmetries or many-particle systems, extensively actual aspects like entanglement, Bell's inequalities, decoherence, or different facts from the field of quantum information are treated. Furthermore extensively fundamental problems and epistemological questions are discussed as they occur for instance in the framework of the debate of realism. A chapter about interpretations of quantum mechanics closes this volume. Again the required mathematical aids are introduced step by step; in case in the appendix the most important mathematical tools are compactly collected. Furthermore in the appendix supplementing themes are deepened like for instance Lenz's vector, Hardys experiment, and Shor algorithm.
Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks
Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.
Spatial Search by Quantum Walk is Optimal for Almost all Graphs.
Chakraborty, Shantanav; Novo, Leonardo; Ambainis, Andris; Omar, Yasser
2016-03-11
The problem of finding a marked node in a graph can be solved by the spatial search algorithm based on continuous-time quantum walks (CTQW). However, this algorithm is known to run in optimal time only for a handful of graphs. In this work, we prove that for Erdös-Renyi random graphs, i.e., graphs of n vertices where each edge exists with probability p, search by CTQW is almost surely optimal as long as p≥log^{3/2}(n)/n. Consequently, we show that quantum spatial search is in fact optimal for almost all graphs, meaning that the fraction of graphs of n vertices for which this optimality holds tends to one in the asymptotic limit. We obtain this result by proving that search is optimal on graphs where the ratio between the second largest and the largest eigenvalue is bounded by a constant smaller than 1. Finally, we show that we can extend our results on search to establish high fidelity quantum communication between two arbitrary nodes of a random network of interacting qubits, namely, to perform quantum state transfer, as well as entanglement generation. Our work shows that quantum information tasks typically designed for structured systems retain performance in very disordered structures.
Analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position quantum walk with decoherent position
Annabestani, Mostafa
2018-02-01
We have derived an analytical expression for variance of homogeneous-position decoherent quantum walk with general form of noise on its position, and have shown that, while the quadratic (t^2) term of variance never changes by position decoherency, the linear term ( t) does and always increases the variance. We study the walker with ability to tunnel out to d nearest neighbors as an example and compare our result with former studies. We also show that, although our expression has been derived for asymptotic case, the rapid decay of time-dependent terms causes the expressions to be correct with a good accuracy even after dozens of steps.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sephton, Bereneice
2017-12-01
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Novo, Leonardo; Chakraborty, Shantanav; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut; Omar, Yasser
2015-09-01
Continuous time quantum walks provide an important framework for designing new algorithms and modelling quantum transport and state transfer problems. Often, the graph representing the structure of a problem contains certain symmetries that confine the dynamics to a smaller subspace of the full Hilbert space. In this work, we use invariant subspace methods, that can be computed systematically using the Lanczos algorithm, to obtain the reduced set of states that encompass the dynamics of the problem at hand without the specific knowledge of underlying symmetries. First, we apply this method to obtain new instances of graphs where the spatial quantum search algorithm is optimal: complete graphs with broken links and complete bipartite graphs, in particular, the star graph. These examples show that regularity and high-connectivity are not needed to achieve optimal spatial search. We also show that this method considerably simplifies the calculation of quantum transport efficiencies. Furthermore, we observe improved efficiencies by removing a few links from highly symmetric graphs. Finally, we show that this reduction method also allows us to obtain an upper bound for the fidelity of a single qubit transfer on an XY spin network.
Novo, Leonardo; Chakraborty, Shantanav; Mohseni, Masoud; Neven, Hartmut; Omar, Yasser
2015-09-02
Continuous time quantum walks provide an important framework for designing new algorithms and modelling quantum transport and state transfer problems. Often, the graph representing the structure of a problem contains certain symmetries that confine the dynamics to a smaller subspace of the full Hilbert space. In this work, we use invariant subspace methods, that can be computed systematically using the Lanczos algorithm, to obtain the reduced set of states that encompass the dynamics of the problem at hand without the specific knowledge of underlying symmetries. First, we apply this method to obtain new instances of graphs where the spatial quantum search algorithm is optimal: complete graphs with broken links and complete bipartite graphs, in particular, the star graph. These examples show that regularity and high-connectivity are not needed to achieve optimal spatial search. We also show that this method considerably simplifies the calculation of quantum transport efficiencies. Furthermore, we observe improved efficiencies by removing a few links from highly symmetric graphs. Finally, we show that this reduction method also allows us to obtain an upper bound for the fidelity of a single qubit transfer on an XY spin network.
Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. II. Radical-pair reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana
Chia, A.; Górecka, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Paterek, T.; Kaszlikowski, D.
2016-03-01
We apply the quantum-walk approach proposed in the preceding paper [A. Chia et al., preceding paper, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032407 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032407] to a radical-pair reaction where realistic estimates for the intermediate transition rates are available. The well-known average hitting time from quantum walks can be adopted as a measure of how quickly the reaction occurs and we calculate this for varying degrees of dephasing in the radical pair. The time for the radical pair to react to a product is found to be independent of the amount of dephasing introduced, even in the limit of no dephasing where the transient population dynamics exhibits strong coherent oscillations. This can be seen to arise from the existence of a rate-limiting step in the reaction and we argue that in such examples, a purely classical model based on rate equations can be used for estimating the time scale of the reaction but not necessarily its population dynamics.
Coherent chemical kinetics as quantum walks. I. Reaction operators for radical pairs.
Chia, A; Tan, K C; Pawela, Ł; Kurzyński, P; Paterek, T; Kaszlikowski, D
2016-03-01
Classical chemical kinetics uses rate-equation models to describe how a reaction proceeds in time. Such models are sufficient for describing state transitions in a reaction where coherences between different states do not arise, in other words, a reaction that contains only incoherent transitions. A prominent example of a reaction containing coherent transitions is the radical-pair model. The kinetics of such reactions is defined by the so-called reaction operator that determines the radical-pair state as a function of intermediate transition rates. We argue that the well-known concept of quantum walks from quantum information theory is a natural and apt framework for describing multisite chemical reactions. By composing Kraus maps that act only on two sites at a time, we show how the quantum-walk formalism can be applied to derive a reaction operator for the standard avian radical-pair reaction. Our reaction operator predicts the same recombination dephasing rate as the conventional Haberkorn model, which is consistent with recent experiments [K. Maeda et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234309 (2013)], in contrast to previous work by Jones and Hore [J. A. Jones and P. J. Hore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 488, 90 (2010)]. The standard radical-pair reaction has conventionally been described by either a normalized density operator incorporating both the radical pair and reaction products or a trace-decreasing density operator that considers only the radical pair. We demonstrate a density operator that is both normalized and refers only to radical-pair states. Generalizations to include additional dephasing processes and an arbitrary number of sites are also discussed.
Optimal state encoding for quantum walks and quantum communication over spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haselgrove, Henry L.
2005-01-01
Recent work has shown that a simple chain of interacting spins can be used as a medium for high-fidelity quantum communication. We describe a scheme for quantum communication using a spin system that conserves z spin, but otherwise is arbitrary. The sender and receiver are assumed to directly control several spins each, with the sender encoding the message state onto the larger state space of her control spins. Given that the encoding for the 'zero' message basis state is chosen to be the all-spin-down state, we show how to find the encoding for the 'one' basis state that maximizes the fidelity of communication, using a simple method based on the singular-value decomposition. Also, we show that this solution can be used to increase communication fidelity in a rather different circumstance: where no encoding of initial states is used, but where the sender and receiver control exactly two spins each and vary the interactions on those spins over time. The methods presented are computationally efficient, and numerical examples are given for systems having up to 300 spins
Systematic dimensionality reduction for continuous-time quantum walks of interacting fermions
Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.
2017-09-01
To extend the continuous-time quantum walk (CTQW) to simulate P distinguishable particles on a graph G composed of N vertices, the Hamiltonian of the system is expanded to act on an NP-dimensional Hilbert space, in effect, simulating the multiparticle CTQW on graph G via a single-particle CTQW propagating on the Cartesian graph product G□P. The properties of the Cartesian graph product have been well studied, and classical simulation of multiparticle CTQWs are common in the literature. However, the above approach is generally applied as is when simulating indistinguishable particles, with the particle statistics then applied to the propagated NP state vector to determine walker probabilities. We address the following question: How can we modify the underlying graph structure G□P in order to simulate multiple interacting fermionic CTQWs with a reduction in the size of the state space? In this paper, we present an algorithm for systematically removing "redundant" and forbidden quantum states from consideration, which provides a significant reduction in the effective dimension of the Hilbert space of the fermionic CTQW. As a result, as the number of interacting fermions in the system increases, the classical computational resources required no longer increases exponentially for fixed N .
Rudner, Mark; Levitov, Leonid
2009-03-01
We analyze a quantum walk on a bipartite one-dimensional lattice, in which the particle can decay whenever it visits one of the two sublattices. The corresponding non-Hermitian tight-binding problem with complex potential for the decaying sites exhibits two distinct phases, distinguished by a winding number defined in terms of the Bloch eigenstates in the Brillouin zone [1]. We find that the mean displacement of a particle initially localized on one of the non-decaying sites is quantized as an integer, changing from zero to one at the critical point. By mapping this problem onto a Jaynes-Cummings-type model with decay, we find that the topological transition is relevant for a variety of experimental settings, in particular for superconducting qubits coupled to high quality resonators [2]. The quantized behavior stands in contrast with the smooth dependence expected for a classical random walk, and can serve as a hallmark of coherent quantum dynamics in ladder-like multilevel systems. A real-space implementation of the quantum walk may help to verify quantum coherence in vortex transport in Josephson arrays [3]. [1] M. S. Rudner, L. S. Levitov, arXiv:0807.2048. [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162-167 (2004). [3] A. van Oudenaarden, S. J. K. Vardy, and J. E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4257 (1996).
Jacq, Thomas S.; Lardizabal, Carlos F.
2017-11-01
In this work we consider open quantum random walks on the non-negative integers. By considering orthogonal matrix polynomials we are able to describe transition probability expressions for classes of walks via a matrix version of the Karlin-McGregor formula. We focus on absorbing boundary conditions and, for simpler classes of examples, we consider path counting and the corresponding combinatorial tools. A non-commutative version of the gambler's ruin is studied by obtaining the probability of reaching a certain fortune and the mean time to reach a fortune or ruin in terms of generating functions. In the case of the Hadamard coin, a counting technique for boundary restricted paths in a lattice is also presented. We discuss an open quantum version of Foster's Theorem for the expected return time together with applications.
Kravtsov, V E; Yevtushenko, O M; Snajberk, P; Cuevas, E
2012-08-01
We employ the method of virial expansion to compute the retarded density correlation function (generalized diffusion propagator) in the critical random matrix ensemble in the limit of strong multifractality. We find that the long-range nature of the Hamiltonian is a common root of both multifractality and Lévy flights, which show up in the power-law intermediate- and long-distance behaviors, respectively, of the density correlation function. We review certain models of classical random walks on fractals and show the similarity of the density correlation function in them to that for the quantum problem described by the random critical long-range Hamiltonians.
Environment-assisted error correction of single-qubit phase damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Helm, Julius; Strunz, Walter T.
2011-01-01
Open quantum system dynamics of random unitary type may in principle be fully undone. Closely following the scheme of environment-assisted error correction proposed by Gregoratti and Werner [J. Mod. Opt. 50, 915 (2003)], we explicitly carry out all steps needed to invert a phase-damping error on a single qubit. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to a mixed-state environment. Surprisingly, we find cases for which the uncorrected state is closer to the desired state than any of the corrected ones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-01-28
In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.
Levi, Paul
2015-01-01
Remarkable biological examples of molecular robots are the proteins kinesin-1 and dynein, which move and transport cargo down microtubule "highways," e.g., of the axon, to final nerve nodes or along dendrites. They convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical forces and can thereby push them forwards or backwards step by step. Such mechano-chemical cycles that generate conformal changes are essential for transport on all different types of substrate lanes. The step length of an individual molecular robot is a matter of nanometers but the dynamics of each individual step cannot be predicted with certainty (as it is a random process). Hence, our proposal is to involve the methods of quantum field theory (QFT) to describe an overall reliable, multi-robot system that is composed of a huge set of unreliable, local elements. The methods of QFT deliver techniques that are also computationally demanding to synchronize the motion of these molecular robots on one substrate lane as well as across lanes. Three different challenging types of solutions are elaborated. The impact solution reflects the particle point of view; the two remaining solutions are wave based. The second solution outlines coherent robot motions on different lanes. The third solution describes running waves. Experimental investigations are needed to clarify under which biological conditions such different solutions occur. Moreover, such a nano-chemical system can be stimulated by external signals, and this opens a new, hybrid approach to analyze and control the combined system of robots and microtubules externally. Such a method offers the chance to detect mal-functions of the biological system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul eLevi
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Remarkable biological examples of molecular robots are the proteins kinesin-1 and dynein, which move and transport cargo down microtubule highways, e.g. of the axon, to final nerve nodes or along dendrites. They convert the energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical forces and can thereby push them forwards or backwards step by step. Such mechano-chemical cycles that generate conformal changes are essential for transport on all different types of substrate lanes. The step length of an individual molecular robot is a matter of nanometers but the dynamics of each individual step cannot be predicted with certainty (as it is a random process. Hence, our proposal is to involve the methods of quantum field theory (QFT to describe an overall reliable, multi–robot system that is composed of a huge set of unreliable, local elements. The methods of QFT deliver techniques that are also computationally demanding to synchronize the motion of these molecular robots on one substrate lane as well as across lanes.Three different challenging types of solutions are elaborated. The impact solution reflects the particle point of view; the two remaining solutions are wave based. The second solution outlines coherent robot motions on different lanes. The third solution describes running waves. Experimental investigations are needed to clarify under which biological conditions such different solutions occur.Moreover, such a nano-chemical system can be stimulated by external signals, and this opens a new, hybrid approach to analyze and control the combined system of robots and microtubules externally. Such a method offers the chance to detect mal-functions of the biological system. In our framework, such defects can be characterized by the distortion of typical features of dynamic systems like attractive fixed points, limit cycles, etc. However, such additional details would overload this presentation and obscure the essentials that we wish to point out.
Limit Theorems For the Grover Walk Without Memory
Ampadu, Clement
2011-01-01
We consider the Grover walk as a 4-state quantum walk without memory in one dimension. The walker in our 4-state quantum walk moves to the left or right. We compute the stationary distribution of the walk, in addition, we obtain the weak limit theorem
Zaburdaev, V.; Denisov, S.; Klafter, J.
2015-04-01
Random walk is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from quantum physics to econometrics. Remarkably, one specific model of random walks appears to be ubiquitous across many fields as a tool to analyze transport phenomena in which the dispersal process is faster than dictated by Brownian diffusion. The Lévy-walk model combines two key features, the ability to generate anomalously fast diffusion and a finite velocity of a random walker. Recent results in optics, Hamiltonian chaos, cold atom dynamics, biophysics, and behavioral science demonstrate that this particular type of random walk provides significant insight into complex transport phenomena. This review gives a self-consistent introduction to Lévy walks, surveys their existing applications, including latest advances, and outlines further perspectives.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chaobin; Petulante, Nelson
2011-01-01
Consider a discrete-time quantum walk on the N-cycle subject to decoherence both on the coin and the position degrees of freedom. By examining the evolution of the density matrix of the system, we derive some conclusions about the asymptotic behavior of the system. When N is odd, the density matrix of the system tends, in the long run, to the maximally mixed state, independent of the initial state. When N is even, although the behavior of the system is not necessarily asymptotically stationary, in this case too an explicit formulation is obtained of the asymptotic dynamics of the system. Moreover, this approach enables us to specify the limiting behavior of the mutual information, viewed as a measure of quantum entanglement between subsystems (coin and walker). In particular, our results provide efficient theoretical confirmation of the findings of previous authors, who have arrived at their results through extensive numerical simulations. Our results can be attributed to an important theorem which, for a generalized random unitary operation, explicitly identifies the structure of all of its eigenspaces corresponding to eigenvalues of unit modulus.
Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.
2003-01-01
We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.
Schürmann, Michael
2008-01-01
This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.
Random walk polynomials and random walk measures
van Doorn, Erik A.; Schrijner, Pauline
1993-01-01
Random walk polynomials and random walk measures play a prominent role in the analysis of a class of Markov chains called random walks. Without any reference to random walks, however, a random walk polynomial sequence can be defined (and will be defined in this paper) as a polynomial sequence{Pn(x)}
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Fernández Marmisole
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Since 2009, and as part of the Neighborhood Law (Ley de Barrios of Catalonia there is a strategic plan to integrate neighborhoods Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor in the city of Barcelona. The guidelines of the plan are to improve public space and to better connect neighborhoods to each other and the adjoining districts and municipalities. Within the strategy includes opening the Besos River to the urban territory through green corridors and installation of equipment. In this sense, the argument is to provide qualified public space to encourage the urban cohesiveness of the neighborhoods through the creation of a new Riverside Walk. The project consists in converting an urban highway into a pacified walk. The stroll also attempts to pacify the area by removing the visual and acoustic pollution caused by the Ronda Litoral (Highway next to the Besos River. In response to this problem the project consists in covering the Ronda Litoral, creating 1.5km of qualified public space, where a set of vegetation and the generation of sun areas will create different spaces that invigorate the territory and connect the neighborhoods. The platform covering the Ronda Litoral includes peaceful meetings with each and every one of the streets that are right with it. The Riverside Walk will be found within less than 400m from 4 metro stations and will have three pedestrian walkways as an access to Barcelona from the neighboring municipality of Santa Coloma. The installation of common equipment, to be shared by the two neighborhoods in the central part of the Riverside Walk is a guiding principle of the integrated strategy. Within the guidelines of the plan for the area of Ley de Barrios lies the importance of public participation; in that sense it is contemplated a participatory process from the initial design phase of the stroll, where subject for debate, reflection and proposal neighbors will design the walk and their equipment. The process will contemplate since the
... normally, toe walking is unlikely to be a cause for concern. Toe walking sometimes can result from certain conditions, including cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy and autism spectrum disorder. Symptoms Toe walking is walking on the toes ...
Strain gradient plasticity-based modeling of hydrogen environment assisted cracking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; P. Gangloff, Richard
2016-01-01
to predict hydrogen environment assisted crack growth properties. SGP elevates crack tip geometrically necessary dislocation density and flow stress, with enhancement declining with increasing alloy strength. Elevated hydrostatic stress promotes high-trapped H concentration for crack tip damage......Finite element analysis of stress about a blunt crack tip, emphasizing finite strain and phenomenologicaland mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity (SGP) formulations, is integrated with electrochemical assessment of occluded-crack tip hydrogen (H) solubility and two H-decohesion models......; it is imperative to account for SGP in H cracking models. Predictions of the threshold stress intensity factor and H-diffusion limited Stage II crack growth rate agree with experimental data for a high strength austenitic Ni-Cusuperalloy (Monel®K-500) and two modern ultra-high strength martensitic steels (Aer...
Photonic Quantum Information Processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walther, P.
2012-01-01
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...
Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an AL-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Young, G A; Scully, J R
2002-04-09
Precipitation hardenable Al-Zn-Mg alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength but overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Results show that overaging the copper bearing alloys both inhibits hydrogen ingress from oxide covered surfaces and decreases the apparent hydrogen diffusion rates in the metal.
Celestial Walk: A Terminating Oblivious Walk for Convex Subdivisions
Kuijper, Wouter; Ermolaev, Victor; Devillers, Olivier
2017-01-01
We present a new oblivious walking strategy for convex subdivisions. Our walk is faster than the straight walk and more generally applicable than the visibility walk. To prove termination of our walk we use a novel monotonically decreasing distance measure.
Cáceres, Manuel O.
2017-04-01
The concept of continuous-time random walk is generalized into the quantum approach using a completely positive map. This approach introduces in a phenomenological way the concept of disorder in the transport problem of a quantum open system. If the waiting-time of the continuous-time renewal approach is exponential we recover a semigroup for a dissipative quantum walk. Two models of non-Markovian evolution have been solved considering different types of waiting-time functions. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.
Willey, David
2010-01-01
This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…
Factors Affecting the Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking Resistance of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G.A. Young; J.R. Scully
2001-09-12
It is well established that Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) aluminum alloys are susceptible to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC) when exposed to aqueous environments. In Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, overaged tempers are commonly used to increase HEAC resistance at the expense of strength. Overaging has little benefit in low copper alloys. However, the mechanism or mechanisms by which overaging imparts HEAC resistance is poorly understood. The present research investigated hydrogen uptake, diffusion, and crack growth rate in 90% relative humidity (RH) air for both a commercial copper bearing Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (AA 7050) and a low copper variant of this alloy in order to better understand the factors which affect HEAC resistance. Experimental methods used to evaluate hydrogen concentrations local to a surface and near a crack tip include nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), focused ion beam, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (FIB/SIMS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). When freshly bared coupons of AA 7050 are exposed to 90 C, 90% RH air, hydrogen ingress follows inverse-logarithmic-type kinetics and is equivalent for underaged (HEAC susceptible) and overaged (HEAC resistant) tempers. However, when the native oxide is allowed to form (24 hrs in 25 C, 40% RH lab air) prior to exposure to 90 C, 90% RH air, underaged alloy shows significantly greater hydrogen ingress than the overaged alloy. Humid air is a very aggressive environment producing local ({approx}1{micro}m) hydrogen concentrations in excess of 10,000 wt. ppm at 90 C. In the copper bearing alloy, overaging also effects the apparent diffusivity of hydrogen. As AA 7050 is aged from underaged {yields} peak aged {yields} overaged, the activation energy for hydrogen diffusion increases and the apparent diffusivity for hydrogen decreases, In the low copper alloy, overaging has little effect on hydrogen diffusion. Comparison of the apparent activation energies for hydrogen diffusion and for K independent (stage II) crack growth
Pseudo Goldstone Bosons Phenomenology in Minimal Walking Technicolor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hapola, Tuomas; Mescia, Federico; Nardecchia, Marco
2012-01-01
of the underlying gauge group. We concentrate on the Minimal Walking Technicolor quantum number assignments with respect to the standard model symmetries. We demonstrate that for, any choice of the quantum numbers, consistent with gauge and Witten anomalies the spectrum of the pseudo Goldstone Bosons contains...
Towards non-classical walks with bright laser pulses
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sephton, Bereneice C
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In the avid search for means to increase computational power in comparison to that which is currently available, quantum walks (QWs) have become a promising option with derived quantum algorithms providing an associated speed up compared to what...
Gait or Walking Problems the basic facts multiple sclerosis Many people with MS will experience difficulty with walking, which is also called ambulation. The term “gait” refers more specifically to the manner or pattern ...
... pneumonia: What does it mean? What is walking pneumonia? How is it different from regular pneumonia? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Walking pneumonia is an informal term for pneumonia that isn' ...
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2003-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the environment-assisted cracking threshold stress intensity factor parameters, KIEAC and KEAC, for metallic materials from constant-force testing of fatigue precracked beam or compact fracture specimens and from constant-displacement testing of fatigue precracked bolt-load compact fracture specimens. 1.2 This test method is applicable to environment-assisted cracking in aqueous or other aggressive environments. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength as long as specimens are of sufficient thickness and planar size to meet the size requirements of this test method. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size may be variable and adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness is a variable independent of planar size. 1.5 Specimen configurations other than those contained in this test method may be used, provided that well-established stress ...
Quantum independent increment processes
Franz, Uwe
2006-01-01
This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.
Snell's law and walking droplets
Bush, John; Pucci, Giuseppe; Aubin, Benjamin; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Faria, Luiz
2016-11-01
Droplets walking on the surface of a vibrating bath have been shown to exhibit a number of quantum-like features. We here present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of such droplets crossing a linear step corresponding to a reduction in bath depth. When the step is sufficiently large, the walker reflects off the step; otherwise, it is refracted as it crosses the step. Particular attention is given to an examination of the regime in which the droplet obeys a form of Snell's Law, a behavior captured in accompanying simulations. Attempts to provide theoretical rationale for the dependence of the effective refractive index on the system parameters are described. Supported by NSF through CMMI-1333242.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2012-07-31
This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking. Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/7/2012.
Finch, Peter Dallas
2010-01-01
The continuum of learning walks can be viewed in stages with various dimensions including frequency, participants, purpose and the presence of an instructional framework within which the instructional practice is viewed. Steps in the continuum progress as the learning walks are conducted more frequently. One way to ensure this is accomplished is…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
Research-baseret audio walk om revolutionen i Cairo med start på Teater Grob (første version, 2011) og Helsingør Teater (anden version, 2012).......Research-baseret audio walk om revolutionen i Cairo med start på Teater Grob (første version, 2011) og Helsingør Teater (anden version, 2012)....
Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte
2006-01-01
The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....
Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke
2017-09-01
Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.
When Human Walking is a Random Walk
Hausdorff, J. M.
1998-03-01
The complex, hierarchical locomotor system normally does a remarkable job of controlling an inherently unstable, multi-joint system. Nevertheless, the stride interval --- the duration of a gait cycle --- fluctuates from one stride to the next, even under stationary conditions. We used random walk analysis to study the dynamical properties of these fluctuations under normal conditions and how they change with disease and aging. Random walk analysis of the stride-to-stride fluctuations of healthy, young adult men surprisingly reveals a self-similar pattern: fluctuations at one time scale are statistically similar to those at multiple other time scales (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1995). To study the stability of this fractal property, we analyzed data obtained from healthy subjects who walked for 1 hour at their usual pace, as well as at slower and faster speeds. The stride interval fluctuations exhibited long-range correlations with power-law decay for up to a thousand strides at all three walking rates. In contrast, during metronomically-paced walking, these long-range correlations disappeared; variations in the stride interval were uncorrelated and non-fractal (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1996). To gain insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for this fractal property, we examined the effects of aging and neurological impairment. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we computed α, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. α was significantly lower in healthy elderly subjects compared to young adults (p < .003) and in subjects with Huntington's disease, a neuro-degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, compared to disease-free controls (p < 0.005) (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1997). α was also significantly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r=0.78). Recently, we have observed that just as
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Agarwal, G. S
2013-01-01
.... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...
Walking - Sensing - Participation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David
2014-01-01
Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider ...... set of experiential or ‘felt’ qualities of living with mobile technologies. Moving from reflections on the value of walking with people, the paper outlines some affordances of a smartphone application built to capture place experiences through walking.......Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.
2007-01-01
Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars, pseudoscal......Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Bissen
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Since 2010, @matthewalking (Bissen, 2013 has published real-time public texts of walks in the city. This text-based Twitter feed has developed a narrative of a particular everyday life and developed a space of interface with others that represents a centering of perspective within an urban landscape. Walking the city provides a spatial, tactile, social, and embodied knowledge of the environment as each of us emerges into a space, orients ourselves, and determines a path that is highly localized, but is in connection with distant spaces and cultures. According to Ben Jacks in “Walking the City: Manhattan Projects,” “for urban dwellers and designers, walking is a fundamental tool for laying claim to, understanding, and shaping a livable city. Walking yields bodily knowing, recovers place memory, creates narrative, prioritizes human scale, and reconnects people to places” (75. @matthewalking’s walks, at times for as long as 5 hours, attempt to center an experience of an urban existence in a spatial narrative of the city that at once prioritizes a connection to place, but also is projected outward into a mediated relationship with others. The project is a series of unbounded walks, or dérives (drift, through the city that are logged on Twitter and traced to create an archive map of a set of particular urban experiences. The dérive concept as outlined in “The Theory of the Dérive,” by Guy Debord is when “one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there” (62.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg
2014-01-01
perception of ‘walkability’ is based upon a subjective judgement of different physical factors, such as sidewalk width, traffic volumes and building height (Ewing and Handy 2009:67). And iIn order to understand the act of walking it is therefore necessary to create a vocabulary to understand how and why...... the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or if other influencing...... factors like lifestyle and life situation should be addressed in order to understand ‘walkability’ fully. The challenge is to approach issues linked to the ‘more-than representational’ (Thrift 2007; Vannini 2012) act of walking and thereby understand pedestrian behaviour in general, but also...
Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine
2013-01-01
A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan
2016-01-01
technologies. Drawing on insights from non-representational theory, we develop a partial vocabulary with which to engage with qualities of pedestrian mobility, and we outline how taking more mindful approaches to walking may enrich and inform the design space of handheld technologies.......It seems logical to argue that mobile computing technologies are intended for use "on-the-go." However, on closer inspection, the use of mobile technologies pose a number of challenges for users who are mobile, particularly moving around on foot. In engaging with such mobile technologies...... and their envisaged development, we argue that interaction designers must increasingly consider a multitude of perspectives that relate to walking in order to frame design problems appropriately. In this paper, we consider a number of perspectives on walking, and we discuss how these may inspire the design of mobile...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Browning, David; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking.......We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Mads Toudal
2007-01-01
I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the under......I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from...
Fitness Club
2011-01-01
Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch
Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.
BENEŠ, Václav
2010-01-01
This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...
10 CFR 431.302 - Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers.
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in... FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers § 431.302 Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. Walk-in cooler and walk-in freezer mean an...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Mattias Borg
2014-01-01
Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...
2011-12-01
Using a real-life setting, WalkBostons project focused on developing and testing techniques to broaden the scope and range of public participation in transportation planning in a large neighborhood in Boston. The team explored methods of seeking o...
Walking - Sensing - Participation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David
Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...
Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam
In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....
Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking
Pospíšilová, Petra
2009-01-01
Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes
Fitness Club
2015-01-01
Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch
Fractional random walk lattice dynamics
Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.
2017-02-01
We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n = 1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.
Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.
1990-01-01
Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.
Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196
Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.
2015-01-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508
Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.
2015-09-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.
Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doern, Sebastian
2008-02-04
This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)
Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doern, Sebastian
2008-01-01
This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)
Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo for molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lester, W.A. Jr.
1986-07-01
A quantum mechanical Monte Carlo method has been used for the treatment of molecular problems. The imaginary-time Schroedinger equation written with a shift in zero energy [E/sub T/ - V(R)] can be interpreted as a generalized diffusion equation with a position-dependent rate or branching term. Since diffusion is the continuum limit of a random walk, one may simulate the Schroedinger equation with a function psi (note, not psi 2 ) as a density of ''walks.'' The walks undergo an exponential birth and death as given by the rate term. 16 refs., 2 tabs
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
Walking trajectory in neglect patients
Huitema, RB; Brouwer, WH; Hof, AL; Dekker, R; Mulder, T; Postema, K
A lateral deviation of the walking trajectory is often observed in stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect. However, existing research appears to be contradictory regarding the direction of this deviation. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the walking trajectory of
Trautmann, N.; Hauke, P.
2018-02-01
The transport of excitations governs fundamental properties of matter. Particularly rich physics emerges in the interplay between disorder and environmental noise, even in small systems such as photosynthetic biomolecules. Counterintuitively, noise can enhance coherent quantum transport, which has been proposed as a mechanism behind the high transport efficiencies observed in photosynthetic complexes. This effect has been called "environment-assisted quantum transport". Here, we propose a quantum simulation of the excitation transport in an open quantum network, taking advantage of the high controllability of current trapped-ion experiments. Our scheme allows for the controlled study of various different aspects of the excitation transfer, ranging from the influence of static disorder and interaction range, over the effect of Markovian and non-Markovian dephasing, to the impact of a continuous insertion of excitations. Our paper discusses experimental error sources and realistic parameters, showing that it can be implemented in state-of-the-art ion-chain experiments.
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
2005-01-01
The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Grigoryeva
2011-08-01
Full Text Available It is noteworthy that this country develops through two types of events: either through a jubilee or through a catastrophe.It seems that Irkutsk Airport will be built only after the next crash. At least the interest to this problem returns regularly after sad events, and this occurs almost half a century (a jubilee, too! – the Council of Ministers decided to relocate the Airport away from the city as long ago as 1962. The Airport does not relate to the topic of this issue, but an attentive reader understands that it is our Carthage, and that the Airport should be relocated. The Romans coped with it faster and more effectively.Back to Irkutsk’s jubilee, we should say that we will do without blare of trumpets. We will just make an unpretentious walk around the city in its summer 350. Each our route covers new (some of them have been completed by the jubilee and old buildings, some of them real monuments. All these buildings are integrated into public spaces of different quality and age.We will also touch on the problems, for old houses, especially the wooden ones often provoke a greedy developer to demolish or to burn them down. Thus a primitive thrift estimates an output of additional square meters. Not to mention how attractive it is to seize public spaces without demolition or without reallocation of the dwellers. Or, rather, the one who is to preserve, to cherish and to improve such houses for the good of the citizens never speaks about this sensitive issue. So we have to do it.Walking is a no-hurry genre, unlike the preparation for the celebration. Walking around the city you like is a pleasant and cognitive process. It will acquaint the architects with the works of their predecessors and colleagues. We hope that such a walk may be interesting for Irkutsk citizens and visitors, too. Isn’t it interesting to learn “at first hand” the intimate details of the restoration of the Trubetskoys’ estate
Human treadmill walking needs attention
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Olivier
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.
Hartle, James B.
2018-01-01
A quantum theory of the universe consists of a theory of its quantum dynamics and a theory of its quantum state The theory predicts quantum multiverses in the form of decoherent sets of alternative histories describing the evolution of the universe's spacetime geometry and matter content. These consequences follow: (a) The universe generally exhibits different quantum multiverses at different levels and kinds of coarse graining. (b) Quantum multiverses are not a choice or an assumption but ar...
Kolobov, Mikhail I
2007-01-01
Quantum Imaging is a newly born branch of quantum optics that investigates the ultimate performance limits of optical imaging allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Using the methods and techniques from quantum optics, quantum imaging addresses the questions of image formation, processing and detection with sensitivity and resolution exceeding the limits of classical imaging. This book contains the most important theoretical and experimental results achieved by the researchers of the Quantum Imaging network, a research programme of the European Community.
Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.
2005-01-01
When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...
Why Do Knuckle-Walking African Apes Knuckle-Walk?
Simpson, Scott W; Latimer, Bruce; Lovejoy, C Owen
2018-03-01
Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial. While many anatomical correlates of knuckle-walking have been identified, a functional explanation of this unusual locomotor pattern has yet to be proposed. Here, we argue that it was adopted by African apes as a means of ameliorating the consequences of repetitive impact loadings on the soft and hard tissues of the forelimb by employing isometric and/or eccentric contraction of antebrachial musculature during terrestrial locomotion. Evidence of this adaptation can be found in the differential size and fiber geometry of the forearm musculature, and differences in torso shape between the knuckle-walking and non-knuckle-walking apes (including humans). We also argue that some osteological features of the carpus and metacarpus that have been identified as adaptations to knuckle-walking are consequences of cartilage remodeling during ontogeny rather than traits limiting motion in the hand and wrist. An understanding of the functional basis of knuckle-walking provides an explanation of the locomotor parallelisms in modern Pan and Gorilla. Anat Rec, 301:496-514, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2014-01-01
The present wave of interest in quantum foundations is caused by the tremendous development of quantum information science and its applications to quantum computing and quantum communication. It has become clear that some of the difficulties encountered in realizations of quantum information processing have roots at the very fundamental level. To solve such problems, quantum theory has to be reconsidered. This book is devoted to the analysis of the probabilistic structure of quantum theory, probing the limits of classical probabilistic representation of quantum phenomena.
Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons
Kröger, H.
2003-01-01
We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.
Twin beams, nonlinearity, and walk-off in optical parametric oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zambrini, Roberta; San Miguel, Maxi
2002-01-01
We study the quantum properties of the spatially tilted macroscopic signal beams in the transverse pattern formed in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator above threshold. We show that walk-off leads to an imbalance in the intensities and fluctuations of these beams when nonlinear multimode interactions are effective. Still, quantum correlations between the two beams are preserved, so that their intensity difference exhibits sub-Poissonian statistics
Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior
Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.
2009-01-01
Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974
Constraining walking and custodial technicolor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco
2008-01-01
We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...... cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor Udgivelsesdato: 19 May...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.
1997-01-01
This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bill Phillips
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself
Lanzagorta, Marco
2011-01-01
This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w
Walking around to grasp interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2013-01-01
-alongs the research-ers acted as facilitators and partners in the engagement with the sound installa-tions. The study provided good insight into advantages and challenges with the walk-along method, for instance the importance of shared, embodied sensing of space for the understanding of the experience. The common......The paper presents experiences from a study using walk-alongs to provide insight into museum visitors’ experience with interactive features of sound art installations. The overall goal of the study was to learn about the participants’ opinions and feelings about the possibility of interaction...... with the sound installations. The aim was to gain an understanding of the role of the in-teraction, if interaction makes a difference for the understanding of the sound art. 30 walking interviews were carried out at ZKM, Karlsruhe with a total of 57 museum guests, individuals or groups. During the walk...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1988-12-01
Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs
Walking behavior in technicolored GUTs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doff, A.
2009-01-01
There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Walking behavior in technicolored GUTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR-COMAT, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)
2009-03-15
There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Walking and Sustainable Urban Transportation
Khashayar Kashani Jou
2012-01-01
Walking as a type of non-motorized transportation has various social, economical and environmental privileges. Also, today different aspects of sustainable development have been emphasized and promotion of sustainable transportation modes has been considered according to this approach. Therefore, the objective of this research is exploring the circumstance of relationship between walking and sustainable urban transportation.For writing this article, the most important res...
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-01-01
Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. Here we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects...... visually guided walking....
Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper
Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren
2010-01-01
The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, S.F.
1989-01-01
Recent work on technicolor theories with small β-functions has shown that the flavour changing neutral current problem which besets any realistic extended technicolor model might be solved by Holdom's original suggestion of raising the extended technicolor scales. In this paper we apply these field theoretic ideas to the problem of constructing a realistic model of the quark and lepton mass spectrum. We discuss two closely related models: (1) An extended technicolor model based on the gauge group SO(10) ETC x SO(10) GUT ; (2) A composite/elementary extended technicolor model based on the gauge group SO(10) MC x SO(10) ETC x SU(5) GUT . Model (1) is relatively simple, and contains three families of quarks and leptons plus an SO(7) TC family of technifermions. The technicolor sector corresponds to one of the examples of walking technicolor discussed by Appelquist et al. The model is fully discussed with particular emphasis on the resulting quark and lepton mass spectrum. Charged lepton masses are adequately described, but the quark masses are degenerate in pairs with zero mixig angles. Model (2) shares the desirable low energy spectrum of Model (1) but in addition provides a mechanism for enhancing the mass of u-type quarks relative to d-type quarks, based on non-perturbative compositeness corrections. We discuss these compositeness corrections, as far as a perturbative treatment allows, and develop techniques for calculating quark masses and mixing angles. We apply these techniques to the first two families of quarks, and are encouraged to find that we can reproduce the observed features of u-d mass inversion for the first family, and Cabibbo mixing. Model (2) leads to the prediction of D 0 -anti D 0 mixing, K L → e ± μ -+ , K + → π + e - μ + , all at rates close to current experimental limits. The model also predicts three families and a top quark mass m t ≅ 50 GeV. (orig.)
Pfeiffer, P.; Egusquiza, I. L.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.
2016-01-01
Technology based on memristors, resistors with memory whose resistance depends on the history of the crossing charges, has lately enhanced the classical paradigm of computation with neuromorphic architectures. However, in contrast to the known quantized models of passive circuit elements, such as inductors, capacitors or resistors, the design and realization of a quantum memristor is still missing. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum memristor as a quantum dissipative device, whose decoherence mechanism is controlled by a continuous-measurement feedback scheme, which accounts for the memory. Indeed, we provide numerical simulations showing that memory effects actually persist in the quantum regime. Our quantization method, specifically designed for superconducting circuits, may be extended to other quantum platforms, allowing for memristor-type constructions in different quantum technologies. The proposed quantum memristor is then a building block for neuromorphic quantum computation and quantum simulations of non-Markovian systems. PMID:27381511
Gómez Muñoz, J. L.; Delgado, F.
2016-03-01
This paper introduces QUANTUM, a free library of commands of Wolfram Mathematica that can be used to perform calculations directly in Dirac braket and operator notation. Its development started several years ago, in order to study quantum random walks. Later, many other features were included, like operator and commutator algebra, simulation and graphing of quantum computing circuits, generation and solution of Heisenberg equations of motion, among others. To the best of our knowledge, QUANTUM remains a unique tool in its use of Dirac notation, because it is used both in the input and output of the calculations. This work depicts its usage and features in Quantum Computing and Quantum Hamilton Dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muñoz, J L Gómez; Delgado, F
2016-01-01
This paper introduces QUANTUM, a free library of commands of Wolfram Mathematica that can be used to perform calculations directly in Dirac braket and operator notation. Its development started several years ago, in order to study quantum random walks. Later, many other features were included, like operator and commutator algebra, simulation and graphing of quantum computing circuits, generation and solution of Heisenberg equations of motion, among others. To the best of our knowledge, QUANTUM remains a unique tool in its use of Dirac notation, because it is used both in the input and output of the calculations. This work depicts its usage and features in Quantum Computing and Quantum Hamilton Dynamics. (paper)
Randomness at the root of things 1: Random walks
Ogborn, Jon; Collins, Simon; Brown, Mick
2003-09-01
This is the first of a pair of articles about randomness in physics. In this article, we use some variations on the idea of a `random walk' to consider first the path of a particle in Brownian motion, and then the random variation to be expected in radioactive decay. The arguments are set in the context of the general importance of randomness both in physics and in everyday life. We think that the ideas could usefully form part of students' A-level work on random decay and quantum phenomena, as well as being good for their general education. In the second article we offer a novel and simple approach to Poisson sequences.
Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duc Cong Dang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.
Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors.
Dang, Duc Cong; Suh, Young Soo
2018-01-15
A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.
Quantum computers and quantum computations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiev, Kamil' A
2005-01-01
This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)
Quantum robots and quantum computers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benioff, P.
1998-07-01
Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.
Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks
Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.
2017-01-01
Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.
Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara
2008-01-01
We give an introduction into quantum cosmology with emphasis on its conceptual parts. After a general motivation we review the formalism of canonical quantum gravity on which discussions of quantum cosmology are usually based. We then present the minisuperspace Wheeler--DeWitt equation and elaborate on the problem of time, the imposition of boundary conditions, the semiclassical approximation, the origin of irreversibility, and singularity avoidance. Restriction is made to quantum geometrodyn...
Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J
2005-01-20
As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It was suggested that the dynamics of quantum systems could be used to perform computation in a much more efficient way. After this initial excitement, things slowed down for some time till 1994 when Peter Shor announced his polynomial time factorization algorithm 1 which uses quantum dynamics. The study of quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quantum dynamics. The study of quantum systems for computation has come into its own since then. In this article we will look at a few concepts which make this framewor k so powerful. 2. Quantum Physics Basics. Consider an electron (say, in a H atom) with two energy levels (ground state and one excited state). In general ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the first part of this article, we had looked at how quantum physics can be harnessed to make the building blocks of a quantum computer. In this concluding part, we look at algorithms which can exploit the power of this computational device, and some practical difficulties in building such a device. Quantum Algorithms.
Pedagogies of the Walking Dead
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael A. Peters
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the trope of the zombie and the recent upsurge in popular culture surrounding the figure of the zombie described as the “walking dead”. We investigate this trope and figure as a means of analyzing the “pedagogy of the walking dead” with particular attention to the crisis of education in the era of neoliberal capitalism. In particular we examine the professionalization and responsibilization of teachers in the new regulative environment and ask whether there is any room left for the project of critical education.
Walk Score(TM), Perceived Neighborhood Walkability, and walking in the US.
Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William
2015-03-01
To investigate both the Walk Score(TM) and a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability ("Perceived Neighborhood Walkability") as estimators of transport and recreational walking among Americans. The study is based upon a survey of a nationally-representative sample of 1224 American adults. The survey gauged walking for both transport and recreation and included a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability and each respondent's Walk Score(TM). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on the data. The Walk Score(TM) is associated with walking for transport, but not recreational walking nor total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability is associated with transport, recreational and total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability captures the experiential nature of walking more than the Walk Score(TM).
Quantum dynamics of quantum bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Bich Ha
2011-01-01
The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)
Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana V
2017-09-01
Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina. The final sample consisted of 2621 persons from 2011 to 2012. Total minutes of walking for travel or leisure, attitude toward walking, and perceptions of the neighborhood environments were self-reported. Street Smart (SS) Walk Score (a measure of walkability derived from a variety of geographic data) was obtained for each residential location. Linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Attitude toward walking was positively associated with walking for both purposes. Walking for travel was significantly associated with SS Walk Score, whereas walking for leisure was not. The SS Walk Score and selected perceived environment characteristics were associated with walking in people with a very positive attitude toward walking but were not associated with walking in people with a less positive attitude. Attitudes toward walking and neighborhood environments interact to affect walking behavior.
Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2016-06-01
We propose the idea of a quantum cheque scheme, a cryptographic protocol in which any legitimate client of a trusted bank can issue a cheque, that cannot be counterfeited or altered in anyway, and can be verified by a bank or any of its branches. We formally define a quantum cheque and present the first unconditionally secure quantum cheque scheme and show it to be secure against any no-signalling adversary. The proposed quantum cheque scheme can been perceived as the quantum analog of Electronic Data Interchange, as an alternate for current e-Payment Gateways.
Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
∗-homomorphic flow. 2. 4. Construction of QRW for uniformly continuous QDS on a unital von Neumann algebra. Let Tt be a uniformly continuous conservative QDS on a von Neumann algebra A ⊆ B(h). Here the generator is a bounded conditionally completely positive (CCP) map and by [5] it admits a unique structure.
An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Author Affiliations. DEBAJYOTI SARKAR1 NILADRI PAUL1 KAUSHIK BHATTACHARYA2 TARUN KANTI GHOSH2. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India; Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.
1998-01-01
Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)
On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk
Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.
2006-01-01
This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.
Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 11. Taking Light For a Walk. Anita R Warrier C Vijayan. General Article Volume 18 Issue 11 November 2013 pp 1015-1031. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/11/1015-1031 ...
Random walk over a hypersphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. C. Joshi
1985-01-01
A generalization of Hammersley's result has also been developed. The main purpose of the paper is to show that although the use of characteristic functions, using the method of Bochner, is available in problems of random walk yet distributional S. M. Joshi transform can be used as a natural tool has been proved for the first time in the paper.
Gustafson, John A.
1984-01-01
Describes a field exercise using nature poetry to enlarge and give emotional content to ecological ideas. The trip involves walking in silence (except during poetry readings) through a natural area where objects or situations illustrated in the poetry are found. Recommended readings on specific details and ideas are provided. (BC)
Nine walks (photo series / web page)
Robinson, Andrew
2015-01-01
'Nine Walks' is a body of work resulting from my engagement with the Media Arts Research Walking Group at Sheffield Hallam University who are exploring the role of walking in as a social, developmental and production space for the creative arts. / My participation in the walking group is an extension of my investigation of the journey as a creative, conceptual and contemplative space for photography which in turn reflects an interest in the role of the accident, instinct and intuition and the...
Treadmill walking with body weight support
Aaslund, Mona Kristin
2012-01-01
Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...
Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen
2012-10-01
This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.
Development of independent walking in toddlers
Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco
Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an
Random walks in a random environment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...
Walking Beliefs in Women With Fibromyalgia: Clinical Profile and Impact on Walking Behavior.
Peñacoba, Cecilia; Pastor, María-Ángeles; López-Roig, Sofía; Velasco, Lilian; Lledo, Ana
2017-10-01
Although exercise is essential for the treatment of fibromyalgia, adherence is low. Walking, as a form of physical exercise, has significant advantages. The aim of this article is to describe, in 920 women with fibromyalgia, the prevalence of certain walking beliefs and analyze their effects both on the walking behavior itself and on the associated symptoms when patients walk according to a clinically recommended way. The results highlight the high prevalence of beliefs related to pain and fatigue as walking-inhibitors. In the whole sample, beliefs are associated with an increased perception that comorbidity prevents walking, and with higher levels of pain and fatigue. In patients who walk regularly, beliefs are only associated with the perception that comorbidity prevents them from walking. It is necessary to promote walking according to the established way (including breaks to prevent fatigue) and to implement interventions on the most prevalent beliefs that inhibit walking.
Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arun Kumar Pati
Quantum Information. These are resources which can be used to design quantum computer, quantum information processor, quantum communication and quantum information technology. Merging of quantum mechanics and information theory —quantum information science – with important developments like quantum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari
2016-01-01
This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....
Gilbert, Gerald; Hamrick, Michael
2013-01-01
This book provides a detailed account of the theory and practice of quantum cryptography. Suitable as the basis for a course in the subject at the graduate level, it crosses the disciplines of physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering. The theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject are derived from first principles, and attention is devoted to the practical development of realistic quantum communications systems. The book also includes a comprehensive analysis of practical quantum cryptography systems implemented in actual physical environments via either free-space or fiber-optic cable quantum channels. This book will be a valuable resource for graduate students, as well as professional scientists and engineers, who desire an introduction to the field that will enable them to undertake research in quantum cryptography. It will also be a useful reference for researchers who are already active in the field, and for academic faculty members who are teaching courses in quantum information s...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei; Klein, Moshe; Mor, Tal
2010-01-01
In number theory, a partition of a positive integer n is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). Inspired by quantum information processing, we extend the concept of partitions in number theory as follows: for an integer n, we treat each partition as a basis state of a quantum system representing that number n, so that the Hilbert-space that corresponds to that integer n is of dimension p(n); the 'classical integer' n can thus be generalized into a (pure) quantum state ||ψ(n) > which is a superposition of the partitions of n, in the same way that a quantum bit (qubit) is a generalization of a classical bit. More generally, ρ(n) is a density matrix in that same Hilbert-space (a probability distribution over pure states). Inspired by the notion of quantum numbers in quantum theory (such as in Bohr's model of the atom), we then try to go beyond the partitions, by defining (via recursion) the notion of 'sub-partitions' in number theory. Combining the two notions mentioned above, sub-partitions and quantum integers, we finally provide an alternative definition of the quantum integers [the pure-state |ψ'(n)> and the mixed-state ρ'(n),] this time using the sub-partitions as the basis states instead of the partitions, for describing the quantum number that corresponds to the integer n.
Barnett, Stephen M
2009-01-01
Quantum information- the subject- is a new and exciting area of science, which brings together physics, information theory, computer science and mathematics. "Quantum Information"- the book- is based on two successful lecture courses given to advanced undergraduate and beginning postgraduate students in physics. The intention is to introduce readers at this level to the fundamental, but offer rather simple, ideas behind ground-breaking developments including quantum cryptography,teleportation and quantum computing. The text is necessarily rather mathematical in style, but the mathema
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibard, J.; Joffre, M.
2008-01-01
All physics is quantum from elementary particles to stars and to the big-bang via semi-conductors and chemistry. This theory is very subtle and we are not able to explain it without the help of mathematic tools. This book presents the principles of quantum mechanics and describes its mathematical formalism (wave function, Schroedinger equation, quantum operators, spin, Hamiltonians, collisions,..). We find numerous applications in the fields of new technologies (maser, quantum computer, cryptography,..) and in astrophysics. A series of about 90 exercises with their answers is included. This book is based on a physics course at a graduate level. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodgers, P.
1998-01-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deutsch, D.
1992-01-01
As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)
Tartakovskii, Alexander
2012-07-01
Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by
High on Walking: Conquering Everyday Life.
Martinsen, Bente; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Norlyk, Annelise
2018-05-01
The aim of this study is to discuss the meaning of walking impairment among people who have previously been able to walk on their own. The study is based on findings from three different life situations: older people recovering after admission in intermediate care, people who have lost a leg, and people who live with Parkinson's disease. The analysis of the data is inspired by Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of interpretation. Four themes were identified: (a) I feel high in two ways; (b) Walking has to be automatic; (c) Every Monday, I walk with the girls in the park; and (d) I dream of walking along the street without sticks and things like that. The findings demonstrate that inability to walk profoundly affected the participants' lives. Other problems seemed small by comparison because walking impairment was at the same time experienced as a concrete physical limit and an existential deficit.
Nordic walking and chronic low back pain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis
2006-01-01
activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...
Groups, graphs and random walks
Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina
2017-01-01
An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...
Chemical Continuous Time Random Walks
Aquino, Tomás; Dentz, Marco
2017-12-01
Kinetic Monte Carlo methods such as the Gillespie algorithm model chemical reactions as random walks in particle number space. The interreaction times are exponentially distributed under the assumption that the system is well mixed. We introduce an arbitrary interreaction time distribution, which may account for the impact of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions, and in general stochastic reaction delay, which may represent the impact of extrinsic noise. This process defines an inhomogeneous continuous time random walk in particle number space, from which we derive a generalized chemical master equation. This leads naturally to a generalization of the Gillespie algorithm. Based on this formalism, we determine the modified chemical rate laws for different interreaction time distributions. This framework traces Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics back to finite-mean delay times, and predicts time-nonlocal macroscopic reaction kinetics as a consequence of broadly distributed delays. Non-Markovian kinetics exhibit weak ergodicity breaking and show key features of reactions under local nonequilibrium.
City Walks and Tactile Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mădălina Diaconu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.
Stable walking with asymmetric legs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre
2011-01-01
Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tone Huse
2017-03-01
Full Text Available I would like to take you for a walk, around the housing complex Blok P in the centre of Nuuk, Greenland. I encourage you to move and listen, to smell and touch. In the presence of your evoked senses, linger for a moment; turn your face towards the past. Let us explore urban nostalgia, not as an either/or reactionary, speculative, radical, or future-oriented but as the organizing narrative of our shared journey.
Spin lattices of walking droplets
Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John
2017-11-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.
Quantum computation with superconductors
Irastorza Gabilondo, Amaia
2017-01-01
Quantum computation using supercoducting qubits. Qubits are quantum bits used in quantum computers. Superconducting qubits are a strong option for building a quantum computer. But not just that, as they are macroscopic objects they question the limits of quantum physics.
Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenneker, Carsten
2012-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy
Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino
2013-01-01
It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.
Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.
Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco
2018-02-09
Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.
Fayolle, Guy; Malyshev, Vadim
2017-01-01
This monograph aims to promote original mathematical methods to determine the invariant measure of two-dimensional random walks in domains with boundaries. Such processes arise in numerous applications and are of interest in several areas of mathematical research, such as Stochastic Networks, Analytic Combinatorics, and Quantum Physics. This second edition consists of two parts. Part I is a revised upgrade of the first edition (1999), with additional recent results on the group of a random walk. The theoretical approach given therein has been developed by the authors since the early 1970s. By using Complex Function Theory, Boundary Value Problems, Riemann Surfaces, and Galois Theory, completely new methods are proposed for solving functional equations of two complex variables, which can also be applied to characterize the Transient Behavior of the walks, as well as to find explicit solutions to the one-dimensional Quantum Three-Body Problem, or to tackle a new class of Integrable Systems. Part II borrows spec...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Quantum Computing - Building Blocks of a Quantum Computer. C S Vijay Vishal Gupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 69-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Coecke, Bob
2010-01-01
Why did it take us 50 years since the birth of the quantum mechanical formalism to discover that unknown quantum states cannot be cloned? Yet, the proof of the 'no-cloning theorem' is easy, and its consequences and potential for applications are immense. Similarly, why did it take us 60 years to discover the conceptually intriguing and easily derivable physical phenomenon of 'quantum teleportation'? We claim that the quantum mechanical formalism doesn't support our intuition, nor does it elucidate the key concepts that govern the behaviour of the entities that are subject to the laws of quantum physics. The arrays of complex numbers are kin to the arrays of 0s and 1s of the early days of computer programming practice. Using a technical term from computer science, the quantum mechanical formalism is 'low-level'. In this review we present steps towards a diagrammatic 'high-level' alternative for the Hilbert space formalism, one which appeals to our intuition. The diagrammatic language as it currently stands allows for intuitive reasoning about interacting quantum systems, and trivialises many otherwise involved and tedious computations. It clearly exposes limitations such as the no-cloning theorem, and phenomena such as quantum teleportation. As a logic, it supports 'automation': it enables a (classical) computer to reason about interacting quantum systems, prove theorems, and design protocols. It allows for a wider variety of underlying theories, and can be easily modified, having the potential to provide the required step-stone towards a deeper conceptual understanding of quantum theory, as well as its unification with other physical theories. Specific applications discussed here are purely diagrammatic proofs of several quantum computational schemes, as well as an analysis of the structural origin of quantum non-locality. The underlying mathematical foundation of this high-level diagrammatic formalism relies on so-called monoidal categories, a product of a fairly
Random walks and diffusion on networks
Masuda, Naoki; Porter, Mason A.; Lambiotte, Renaud
2017-11-01
Random walks are ubiquitous in the sciences, and they are interesting from both theoretical and practical perspectives. They are one of the most fundamental types of stochastic processes; can be used to model numerous phenomena, including diffusion, interactions, and opinions among humans and animals; and can be used to extract information about important entities or dense groups of entities in a network. Random walks have been studied for many decades on both regular lattices and (especially in the last couple of decades) on networks with a variety of structures. In the present article, we survey the theory and applications of random walks on networks, restricting ourselves to simple cases of single and non-adaptive random walkers. We distinguish three main types of random walks: discrete-time random walks, node-centric continuous-time random walks, and edge-centric continuous-time random walks. We first briefly survey random walks on a line, and then we consider random walks on various types of networks. We extensively discuss applications of random walks, including ranking of nodes (e.g., PageRank), community detection, respondent-driven sampling, and opinion models such as voter models.
Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.
Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L
2014-06-01
Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Schwabl, Franz
2007-01-01
This represents the introductory course which would precede and so complements the author's book on Advanced Quantum Mechanics. The new edition has been up-dated and thoroughly revised throughout and now includes many new or newly drawn figures which will facilitate an easier understanding of subtle topics. The book meets students' needs in providing detailed mathematical steps along the way, with worked examples and applications throughout the text, and many problems for the reader at the end of each chapter. It contains nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and a short treatment of the quantization of the radiation field. In addition to the essentials, topics such as the theory of measurement, the Bell inequality, decoherence, entanglement and supersymmetric quantum mechanics are discussed. "Any student wishing to develop mathematical skills and deepen their understanding of the technical side of quantum theory will find Schwabl's Quantum Mechanics very helpful". Contemporary Physics
Rae, Alastair I M
2016-01-01
A Thorough Update of One of the Most Highly Regarded Textbooks on Quantum Mechanics Continuing to offer an exceptionally clear, up-to-date treatment of the subject, Quantum Mechanics, Sixth Edition explains the concepts of quantum mechanics for undergraduate students in physics and related disciplines and provides the foundation necessary for other specialized courses. This sixth edition builds on its highly praised predecessors to make the text even more accessible to a wider audience. It is now divided into five parts that separately cover broad topics suitable for any general course on quantum mechanics. New to the Sixth Edition * Three chapters that review prerequisite physics and mathematics, laying out the notation, formalism, and physical basis necessary for the rest of the book * Short descriptions of numerous applications relevant to the physics discussed, giving students a brief look at what quantum mechanics has made possible industrially and scientifically * Additional end-of-chapter problems with...
Kiefer, Claus
2012-01-01
The search for a quantum theory of the gravitational field is one of the great open problems in theoretical physics. This book presents a self-contained discussion of the concepts, methods and applications that can be expected in such a theory. The two main approaches to its construction - the direct quantisation of Einstein's general theory of relativity and string theory - are covered. Whereas the first attempts to construct a viable theory for the gravitational field alone, string theory assumes that a quantum theory of gravity will be achieved only through a unification of all the interactions. However, both employ the general method of quantization of constrained systems, which is described together with illustrative examples relevant for quantum gravity. There is a detailed presentation of the main approaches employed in quantum general relativity: path-integral quantization, the background-field method and canonical quantum gravity in the metric, connection and loop formulations. The discussion of stri...
Pearsall, Thomas P
2017-01-01
This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of nonlocality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...
Does walking in nature restore directed attention?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Aims: Mental fatigue is commonly understood and experienced as mental exhaustion, irritability and foggy thinking. Research indicates mental fatigue is indicative of depleted directed attention resources. Thus, restoration of directed attention is thought to alleviate mental fatigue. This research sought to determine if walking in nature compared to walking on a treadmill provided enhanced performance on tasks of directed attention. Method: Twenty-two participants completed a 30-min walk on a treadmill and a walk in the local Botanic Garden on separate days. Two directed attention tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP and Necker Cube reversal task were conducted both before and after each walk as well as a Perceived Arousal Scale and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: Total hits and sensitivity to a target on a RVIP task improved significantly in both locations F(1, 20 = 11.892, p = .003, F(1, 20 = 12.364, p = .002 respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the nature walk and the treadmill walk. Significant order effects were found for sensitivity to targets pre/post walks, F(1, 19 = 10.309, p = .005 and F(1, 19 = 8.578, p = .009 respectively. Necker cube baseline scores indicated a significant reduction in reversals after 30 minutes of walking in both locations. Arousal was higher overall in the nature walk compared to the treadmill walk, F(1, 20 = 11.626, p = .003. Conclusions: No evidence was obtained to suggest that walking in nature leads to improved directed attention compared to walking on a treadmill. Results indicate that improvements were due to significant learning affects. The significantly higher overall score on the arousal scale in the natural environment suggests that participants were more alert in this environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steane, Andrew
1998-01-01
The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from
Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism
Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav
There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.
The energy cost of quantum information losses
Romanelli, Alejandro; de Lima Marquezino, Franklin; Portugal, Renato; Donangelo, Raul
2018-05-01
We explore the energy cost of the information loss resulting from the passage of an initial density operator to a reduced one. We use the concept of entanglement temperature in order to obtain a lower bound for the energy change associated with this operation. We determine the minimal energy required for the case of the information losses associated with the trace over the space coordinates of a two-dimensional quantum walk.
Generalization of secure quantum information exchange to quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum entanglement makes possible many quantum information processing tasks, which are otherwise impossible in classical information theory. Quantum entanglement is widely used in quantum information processing tasks such as quantum teleportation. [5], quantum cryptography [6], quantum superdense coding [7], ...
Girold, Sébastien; Rousseau, Jérome; Le Gal, Magalie; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Le Henaff, Jacqueline
2017-07-01
With Nordic walking, or walking with poles, one can travel a greater distance and at a higher rate than with walking without poles, but whether the activity is beneficial for patients with cardiovascular disease is unknown. This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether Nordic walking was more effective than walking without poles on walk distance to support rehabilitation training for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients were recruited in a private specialized rehabilitation centre for cardiovascular diseases. The entire protocol, including patient recruitment, took place over 2 months, from September to October 2013. We divided patients into 2 groups: Nordic Walking Group (NWG, n=21) and Walking Group without poles (WG, n=21). All patients followed the same program over 4 weeks, except for the walk performed with or without poles. The main outcome was walk distance on the 6-min walk test. Secondary outcomes were maximum heart rate during exercise and walk distance and power output on a treadmill stress test. We included 42 patients (35 men; mean age 57.2±11 years and BMI 26.5±4.5kg/m 2 ). At the end of the training period, both groups showed improved walk distance on the 6-min walk test and treatment stress test as well as power on the treadmill stress test (Ptraining period, Nordic walking training appeared more efficient than training without poles for increasing walk distance on the 6-min walk test for patients with ACS and PAOD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Annegarn, Janneke; Spruit, Martijn A; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Willems, Paul J B; van de Bool, Coby; Schols, Annemie M W J; Wouters, Emiel F M; Meijer, Kenneth
2012-01-01
To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%). COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.
Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.
1991-01-01
This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups
Can psychology walk the walk of open science?
Hesse, Bradford W
2018-01-01
An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars. One of the more visible open data projects in the psychological sciences is the presidentially announced "Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies" (BRAIN) initiative. Lessons learned from initiatives such as these are instructive both from the perspective of open science within psychology and from the perspective of understanding the psychology of open science. Recommendations for creating better pathways to "walk the walk" in open science include (a) nurturing innovation and agile learning, (b) thinking outside the paradigm, (c) creating simplicity from complexity, and (d) participating in continuous learning evidence platforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.
1997-01-01
This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)
Cariolaro, Gianfranco
2015-01-01
This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: · development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; · general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system · particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...
A discrete random walk on the hypercube
Zhang, Jingyuan; Xiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weigang
2018-03-01
In this paper, we study the scaling for mean first-passage time (MFPT) of random walks on the hypercube and obtain a closed-form formula for the MFPT over all node pairs. We also determine the exponent of scaling efficiency characterizing the random walks and compare it with those of the existing networks. Finally we study the random walks on the hypercube with a located trap and provide a solution of the Kirchhoff index of the hypercube.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C
Blaha, Stephen
2002-01-01
We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.
Energy expenditure of nordic walking and conventional walking assessed by accelerometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mynarski Władysław
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Study aim: the objective was to assess and compare the energy expenditure (EE and exercise heart rate (EHR during Nordic Walking (NW, and conventional walking (W in physical education and tourism/recreation university students.
The Relationship Between Arm Movement and Walking Stability in Bipedal Walking
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Shibukawa, Miki
2001-01-01
... analysis of walking for use in rehabilitation programs. The analysis of walking movement has generally focused on the legs rather than the arms, probably due to a perception that the arms do not play an essential role in this movement...
Powell, John L
2015-01-01
Suitable for advanced undergraduates, this thorough text focuses on the role of symmetry operations and the essentially algebraic structure of quantum-mechanical theory. Based on courses in quantum mechanics taught by the authors, the treatment provides numerous problems that require applications of theory and serve to supplement the textual material.Starting with a historical introduction to the origins of quantum theory, the book advances to discussions of the foundations of wave mechanics, wave packets and the uncertainty principle, and an examination of the Schrödinger equation that includ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rae, A.I.M.
1981-01-01
This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)
Garrison, J C
2008-01-01
Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growing out of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of thesimple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally impor
Lowe, John P
1993-01-01
Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,
Chowdhury, Sujaul
2014-01-01
This book presents comprehensive account of the course for undergraduate students with thorough and complete calculations. The book has been written with the notion that a wave is associated with a material particle i.e. wave and particle coexist. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been described in light of this. A chapter is dedicated to mathematical structure of Quantum Mechanics followed by applications to one-dimensional (1D) problems. Orbital and general angular momentum are treated in two separate chapters, the latter also treats addition of angular momentum. Quantum theory of scattering, matrix formulation of Quantum Mechanics variational method and WKB approximation method have also been discussed.
Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciejczyk Marcin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.
Thermodynamics and entanglements of walks under stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janse van Rensburg, E J; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G
2009-01-01
We use rigorous arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to study the thermodynamics and the topological properties of self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice subjected to an external force f. The walks are anchored at one or both endpoints to an impenetrable plane at Z = 0 and the force is applied in the Z-direction. If a force is applied to the free endpoint of an anchored walk, then a model of pulled walks is obtained. If the walk is confined to a slab and a force is applied to the top bounding plane, then a model of stretched walks is obtained. For both models we prove the existence of the limiting free energy for any value of the force and we show that, for compressive forces, the thermodynamic properties of the two models differ substantially. For pulled walks we prove the existence of a phase transition that, by numerical simulation, we estimate to be second order and located at f = 0. By using a pattern theorem for large positive forces we show that almost all sufficiently long stretched walks are knotted. We examine the entanglement complexity of stretched and pulled walks; our numerical results show a sharp reduction with increasing pulling and stretching forces. Finally, we also examine models of pulled and stretched loops. We prove the existence of limiting free energies in these models and consider the knot probability numerically as a function of the applied pulling or stretching force
Lvovsky, A. I.; Sanders, B. C.; Tittel, W.
2010-01-01
Quantum memory is important to quantum information processing in many ways: a synchronization device to match various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a tool to convert heralded photons to photons-on-demand. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory would be instrumental for the implementation of long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the m...
Knee Stretch Walking Method for Biped Robot: Using Toe and Heel Joints to Increase Walking Strides
Sato, Takahiko; Shimmyo, Shuhei; Nakazato, Miki; Mikami, Kei; Sato, Tomoya; Sakaino, Sho; Ohnishi, Kouhei
This paper proposes a knee stretch walking method for biped robots; the method involves the use of the toes and heel joints to increase walking strides. A knee can be stretched by switching control variables. By a knee stretch walking with heel contacts to the ground and toe takeoffs from the ground, biped robots can increase their walking stride and speed. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices
Gamble, John King
In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques
Dynamic optimization of human walking.
Anderson, F C; Pandy, M G
2001-10-01
A three-dimensional, neuromusculoskeletal model of the body was combined with dynamic optimization theory to simulate normal walking on level ground. The body was modeled as a 23 degree-of-freedom mechanical linkage, actuated by 54 muscles. The dynamic optimization problem was to calculate the muscle excitation histories, muscle forces, and limb motions subject to minimum metabolic energy expenditure per unit distance traveled. Muscle metabolic energy was calculated by slimming five terms: the basal or resting heat, activation heat, maintenance heat, shortening heat, and the mechanical work done by all the muscles in the model. The gait cycle was assumed to be symmetric; that is, the muscle excitations for the right and left legs and the initial and terminal states in the model were assumed to be equal. Importantly, a tracking problem was not solved. Rather only a set of terminal constraints was placed on the states of the model to enforce repeatability of the gait cycle. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with patterns of body-segmental displacements, ground-reaction forces, and muscle activations obtained from experiment show that the simulation reproduces the salient features of normal gait. The simulation results suggest that minimum metabolic energy per unit distance traveled is a valid measure of walking performance.
Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie
2016-04-29
The study of human walking patterns mainly focuses on how control affects walking because control schemes are considered to be dominant in human walking. This study proposes that not only fine control schemes but also optimized body segment parameters are responsible for humans' low-energy walking. A passive dynamic walker provides the possibility of analyzing the effect of parameters on walking efficiency because of its ability to walk without any control. Thus, a passive dynamic walking model with a relatively human-like structure was built, and a parameter optimization process based on the gait sensitivity norm was implemented to determine the optimal mechanical parameters by numerical simulation. The results were close to human body parameters, thus indicating that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters. A quasi-passive walking prototype was built on the basis of the optimization results. Experiments showed that a passive robot with optimized parameters could walk on level ground with only a simple hip actuation. This result implies that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters with only simple control strategy implying that humans can opt to walk instinctively under a passive pattern.
Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors.
Brehm, Merel-Anne; Verduijn, Suzan; Bon, Jurgen; Bredt, Nicoline; Nollet, Frans
2017-11-21
To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed. Observational study. Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m. On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1-3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed. The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); pwalked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively. Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.
IMU-based ambulatory walking speed estimation in constrained treadmill and overground walking.
Yang, Shuozhi; Li, Qingguo
2012-01-01
This study evaluated the performance of a walking speed estimation system based on using an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. The walking speed estimation algorithm segments the walking sequence into individual stride cycles (two steps) based on the inverted pendulum-like behaviour of the stance leg during walking and it integrates the angular velocity and linear accelerations of the shank to determine the displacement of each stride. The evaluation was performed in both treadmill and overground walking experiments with various constraints on walking speed, step length and step frequency to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the system. Promising results were obtained in providing accurate and consistent walking speed/step length estimation in different walking conditions. An overall percentage root mean squared error (%RMSE) of 4.2 and 4.0% was achieved in treadmill and overground walking experiments, respectively. With an increasing interest in understanding human walking biomechanics, the IMU-based ambulatory system could provide a useful walking speed/step length measurement/control tool for constrained walking studies.
Walking, sustainability and health: findings from a study of a Walking for Health group.
Grant, Gordon; Machaczek, Kasia; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter
2017-05-01
Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not. Based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in Lincolnshire, UK, this paper considers the motivations and rewards of group walks for older people. Nineteen members of the walking group, almost all with long-term conditions, took part in tape-recorded interviews about the personal benefits of walking. The paper provides insights into the links between walking as a sustainable activity and health, and why a combination of personal adaptive capacities, design elements of the walks and relational achievements of the walking group are important to this understanding. The paper concludes with some observations about the need to reframe conventional thinking about adherence to physical activity programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Ba An
2006-01-01
Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack
Ladd, T D; Jelezko, F; Laflamme, R; Nakamura, Y; Monroe, C; O'Brien, J L
2010-03-04
Over the past several decades, quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for quantum computation. However, it remains unclear which technology, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain the major challenges for the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beenakker, C W J
2005-01-01
Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Franceschini
Full Text Available Walking ability, though important for quality of life and participation in social and economic activities, can be adversely affected by neurological disorders, such as Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis or Traumatic Brain Injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the energy cost of walking (CW, in a mixed group of chronic patients with neurological diseases almost 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation wards, can predict the walking performance and any walking restriction on community activities, as indicated by Walking Handicap Scale categories (WHS. One hundred and seven subjects were included in the study, 31 suffering from Stroke, 26 from Spinal Cord Injury and 50 from Multiple Sclerosis. The multivariable binary logistical regression analysis has produced a statistical model with good characteristics of fit and good predictability. This model generated a cut-off value of.40, which enabled us to classify correctly the cases with a percentage of 85.0%. Our research reveal that, in our subjects, CW is the only predictor of the walking performance of in the community, to be compared with the score of WHS. We have been also identifying a cut-off value of CW cost, which makes a distinction between those who can walk in the community and those who cannot do it. In particular, these values could be used to predict the ability to walk in the community when discharged from the rehabilitation units, and to adjust the rehabilitative treatment to improve the performance.
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can
2017-01-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)
Fractional quantum mechanics on networks: Long-range dynamics and quantum transport.
Riascos, A P; Mateos, José L
2015-11-01
In this paper we study the quantum transport on networks with a temporal evolution governed by the fractional Schrödinger equation. We generalize the dynamics based on continuous-time quantum walks, with transitions to nearest neighbors on the network, to the fractional case that allows long-range displacements. By using the fractional Laplacian matrix of a network, we establish a formalism that combines a long-range dynamics with the quantum superposition of states; this general approach applies to any type of connected undirected networks, including regular, random, and complex networks, and can be implemented from the spectral properties of the Laplacian matrix. We study the fractional dynamics and its capacity to explore the network by means of the transition probability, the average probability of return, and global quantities that characterize the efficiency of this quantum process. As a particular case, we explore analytically these quantities for circulant networks such as rings, interacting cycles, and complete graphs.
CERN Bulletin
2013-01-01
On April Fools' Day, CERN Quantum Diaries blogger Pauline Gagnon held a giveaway of microscopic proportion. Up for grabs? Ten Higgs bosons, courtesy of CERN. Pauline announced the winners last week; let's see what they'll really be getting in the mail... Custom-made Particle Zoo Higgs bosons were sent out to the winners. Read more about the prize in the Quantum Diaries post "Higgs boson lottery: when CERN plays April Fools' jokes".
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....
Predicting Home and Community Walking Activity Poststroke.
Fulk, George D; He, Ying; Boyne, Pierce; Dunning, Kari
2017-02-01
Walking ability poststroke is commonly assessed using gait speed categories developed by Perry et al. The purpose of this study was to reexamine factors that predict home and community ambulators determined from real-world walking activity data using activity monitors. Secondary analyses of real-world walking activity from 2 stroke trials. Home (100-2499 steps/d), most limited community (2500-4499 steps/d), least limited community (5000-74 999), and full community (≥7500 steps/d) walking categories were developed based on normative data. Independent variables to predict walking categories were comfortable and fast gait speed, 6-minute walk test, Berg Balance Scale, Fugl Meyer, and Stroke Impact Scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analyses to identify significant variables associated with walking categories, bootstrap method to select the most stable model and receiver-operating characteristic to identify cutoff values. Data from 441 individuals poststroke were analyzed. The 6-minute walk test, Fugl Meyer, and Berg Balance Scale combined were the strongest predictors of home versus community and limited versus unlimited community ambulators. The 6-minute walk test was the strongest individual variable in predicting home versus community (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve=0.82) and limited versus full community ambulators (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve=0.76). A comfortable gait speed of 0.49 m/s discriminated between home and community and a comfortable gait speed of 0.93 m/s discriminated between limited community and full community ambulators. The 6-minute walk test was better able to discriminate among home, limited community, and full community ambulators than comfortable gait speed. Gait speed values commonly used to distinguish between home and community walkers may overestimate walking activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 56; Issue 2-3. Quantum entanglement ... Arvind. Quantum information processing Volume 56 Issue 2-3 February-March 2001 pp 357-365 ... The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum ...
Quantum Computation and Quantum Spin Dynamics
Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji
2001-01-01
We analyze the stability of quantum computations on physically realizable quantum computers by simulating quantum spin models representing quantum computer hardware. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.
2015-01-01
Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect
Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas
2012-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...
Walking economy in people with Parkinson's disease.
Christiansen, Cory L; Schenkman, Margaret L; McFann, Kim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M
2009-07-30
Gait dysfunction is an early problem identified by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in gait may result in an increase in the energy cost of walking (i.e., walking economy). The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking economy is atypical in patients with PD when compared with healthy controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the associations of age, sex, and level of disease severity with walking economy in patients with PD. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and other responses to treadmill walking were compared in 90 patients (64.4 +/- 10.3 years) and 44 controls (64.6 +/- 7.3 years) at several walking speeds. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine relationships of age, sex, and disease state with walking economy in PD patients. Walking economy was significantly worse in PD patients than in controls at all speeds above 1.0 mph. Across all speeds, VO(2) was 6 to 10% higher in PD patients. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were correspondingly elevated. No significant relationship of age, sex, or UPDRS score with VO(2) was found for patients with PD. The findings suggest that the physiologic stress of daily physical activities is increased in patients with early to mid-stage PD, and this may contribute to the elevated level of fatigue that is characteristic of PD. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.
Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson's disease.
Eijkeren, F.J. van; Reijmers, R.S.; Kleinveld, M.J.; Minten, A.; Bruggen, J.P.; Bloem, B.R.
2008-01-01
Nordic walking may improve mobility in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects persist after the training period. We included 19 PD patients [14 men; mean age 67.0 years (range 58-76); Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3] who received a 6-week Nordic walking exercise
Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur
2012-01-01
Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds of int...
Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2016-01-01
Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques ...
Cognitive Resource Demands of Redirected Walking.
Bruder, Gerd; Lubas, Paul; Steinicke, Frank
2015-04-01
Redirected walking allows users to walk through a large-scale immersive virtual environment (IVE) while physically remaining in a reasonably small workspace. Therefore, manipulations are applied to virtual camera motions so that the user's self-motion in the virtual world differs from movements in the real world. Previous work found that the human perceptual system tolerates a certain amount of inconsistency between proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensation in IVEs, and even compensates for slight discrepancies with recalibrated motor commands. Experiments showed that users are not able to detect an inconsistency if their physical path is bent with a radius of at least 22 meters during virtual straightforward movements. If redirected walking is applied in a smaller workspace, manipulations become noticeable, but users are still able to move through a potentially infinitely large virtual world by walking. For this semi-natural form of locomotion, the question arises if such manipulations impose cognitive demands on the user, which may compete with other tasks in IVEs for finite cognitive resources. In this article we present an experiment in which we analyze the mutual influence between redirected walking and verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks using a dual-tasking method. The results show an influence of redirected walking on verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks, and we also found an effect of cognitive tasks on walking behavior. We discuss the implications and provide guidelines for using redirected walking in virtual reality laboratories.
Identifying particular places through experimental walking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrik Schultz
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Experimental walking can be used to identify particular places, design strategies and spatial visions for urban landscapes. Walking designers can explore sites and, in particular, their temporal dynamics and atmospheric particularities – both essential elements in making particular places. This article illustrates the benefits of this method, using the changing German city of Freiburg as an example.
The environmental benefits of bicycling and walking.
1993-01-01
Bicycling and walking are the two major non-fuel-consuming, non-polluting : forms of transportation in the United States. Millions of Americans ride : bicycles and/or walk for a wide variety of purposes --- commuting to work, as : part of their job, ...
Quantum computing: Quantum advantage deferred
Childs, Andrew M.
2017-12-01
A type of optics experiment called a boson sampler could be among the easiest routes to demonstrating the power of quantum computers. But recent work shows that super-classical boson sampling may be a long way off.
A weighted random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion
Lindstrøm, Tom
2007-01-01
We present a random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion where the increments of the fractional random walk are defined as a weighted sum of the past increments of a Bernoulli random walk.
A random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion
Lindstrøm, Tom
2007-01-01
We present a random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion where the increments of the fractional random walk are defined as a weighted sum of the past increments of a Bernoulli random walk.
Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan
The following sections are included: * Introduction * A Quantum Model of Free Will * Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge * Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm * Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition * Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness * Conclusion * Acknowledgements * References
Quantum Physics for Beginners.
Strand, J.
1981-01-01
Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)
Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.
Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E
2012-11-01
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Design Issues for Hexapod Walking Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franco Tedeschi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Hexapod walking robots have attracted considerable attention for several decades. Many studies have been carried out in research centers, universities and industries. However, only in the recent past have efficient walking machines been conceived, designed and built with performances that can be suitable for practical applications. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art on hexapod walking robots by referring both to the early design solutions and the most recent achievements. Careful attention is given to the main design issues and constraints that influence the technical feasibility and operation performance. A design procedure is outlined in order to systematically design a hexapod walking robot. In particular, the proposed design procedure takes into account the main features, such as mechanical structure and leg configuration, actuating and driving systems, payload, motion conditions, and walking gait. A case study is described in order to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed design procedure.
Exact and Efficient Sampling of Conditioned Walks
Adorisio, Matteo; Pezzotta, Alberto; de Mulatier, Clélia; Micheletti, Cristian; Celani, Antonio
2018-01-01
A computationally challenging and open problem is how to efficiently generate equilibrated samples of conditioned walks. We present here a general stochastic approach that allows one to produce these samples with their correct statistical weight and without rejections. The method is illustrated for a jump process conditioned to evolve within a cylindrical channel and forced to reach one of its ends. We obtain analytically the exact probability density function of the jumps and offer a direct method for gathering equilibrated samples of a random walk conditioned to stay in a channel with suitable boundary conditions. Unbiased walks of arbitrary length can thus be generated with linear computational complexity—even when the channel width is much smaller than the typical bond length of the unconditioned walk. By profiling the metric properties of the generated walks for various bond lengths we characterize the crossover between weak and strong confinement regimes with great detail.
Encouraging physical activity through dog walking: why don't some owners walk with their dog?
Cutt, Hayley; Giles-Corti, Billie; Knuiman, Matthew
2008-02-01
To identify factors associated with owners not walking with their dog. Dog owners (n=629) taking part in the RESIDE study, Perth, Western Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2005-06 that included items about the dog, dog-owner relationship, dog walking and intrapersonal and environmental factors associated with dog walking. Physical activity data were also collected using NPAQ. Overall, 23% of dog owners did not walk with their dog. More dog walkers achieved 150 min of physical activity/week than owners who did not walk with their dog (72% vs. 44%, p<0.001). Not walking with a dog was significantly more likely in owners who did not perceive that their dog provided motivation (OR 9.60, 95% CI: 4.37, 21.08) or social support (OR 10.84, 95% CI: 5.15, 22.80) to walk, independent of other well-known correlates of physical activity. There would be a significant impact on community physical activity levels if owners who do not walk with their dog could be persuaded to begin dog walking. Understanding the factors that discourage or facilitate owners to walk with their dog will assist in tailoring interventions designed to encourage both the uptake and maintenance of regular dog walking.
Talk the Walk: Does Socio-Cognitive Resource Reallocation Facilitate the Development of Walking?
Geva, Ronny; Orr, Edna
2016-01-01
Walking is of interest to psychology, robotics, zoology, neuroscience and medicine. Human's ability to walk on two feet is considered to be one of the defining characteristics of hominoid evolution. Evolutionary science propses that it emerged in response to limited environmental resources; yet the processes supporting its emergence are not fully understood. Developmental psychology research suggests that walking elicits cognitive advancements. We postulate that the relationship between cognitive development and walking is a bi-directional one; and further suggest that the initiation of novel capacities, such as walking, is related to internal socio-cognitive resource reallocation. We shed light on these notions by exploring infants' cognitive and socio-communicative outputs prospectively from 6-18 months of age. Structured bi/tri weekly evaluations of symbolic and verbal development were employed in an urban cohort (N = 9) for 12 months, during the transition from crawling to walking. Results show links between preemptive cognitive changes in socio-communicative output, symbolic-cognitive tool-use processes, and the age of emergence of walking. Plots of use rates of lower symbolic play levels before and after emergence of new skills illustrate reductions in use of previously attained key behaviors prior to emergence of higher symbolic play, language and walking. Further, individual differences in age of walking initiation were strongly related to the degree of reductions in complexity of object-use (r = .832, p walking; r = .729, p walking initiation (r = .901, pwalking.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra de Souza Miranda
2013-06-01
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the past few years, several clinical trials have been performed to analyze the effects of exercise training on walking ability in patients with intermittent claudication (IC. However, it remains unclear which type of physical exercise provides the maximum benefits in terms of walking ability. OBJECTIVE: To analyze, by means of a meta-analysis, the effects of walking and strength training on the walking capacity in patients with IC. METHODS: Papers analyzing the effects of walking and strength training programs in patients with IC were browsed on the Medline, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases. Randomized clinical trials scoring >4 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale and assessing claudication distance (CD and total walking distance (TWD were included in the review. RESULTS: Walking and strength training yielded increases in CD and TWD (P < 0.05. However, walking training yielded greater increases than strength training (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Walking and strength training improve walking capacity in patients with IC. However, greater improvements in TWD are obtained with walking training.
Dziuba, Alicja K; Żurek, Grzegorz; Garrard, Ian; Wierzbicka-Damska, Iwona
2015-01-01
Nordic Walking (NW) is a sport that has a number of benefits as a rehabilitation method. It is performed with specially designed poles and has been often recommended as a physical activity that helps reduce the load to limbs. However, some studies have suggested that these findings might be erroneous. The aim of this paper was to compare the kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW) at both low and high walking speeds. The study used a registration system, BTS Smart software and Kistler platform. Eleven subjects walked along a 15-metre path at low (below 2 m⋅s-1) and high (over 2 m⋅s-1) walking speeds. The Davis model was employed for calculations of kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters of lower limbs. With constant speed, the support given by Nordic Walking poles does not make the stroke longer and there is no change in pelvic rotation either. The only change observed was much bigger pelvic anteversion in the sagittal plane during fast NW. There were no changes in forces, power and muscle torques in lower limbs. The study found no differences in kinematic, kinetic and dynamic parameters between Natural Walking (W) and Nordic Walking (NW). Higher speeds generate greater ground reaction forces and muscle torques in lower limbs. Gait parameters depend on walking speed rather than on walking style.
Mandl, F.
1992-07-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Quantum Mechanics aims to teach those parts of the subject which every physicist should know. The object is to display the inherent structure of quantum mechanics, concentrating on general principles and on methods of wide applicability without taking them to their full generality. This book will equip students to follow quantum-mechanical arguments in books and scientific papers, and to cope with simple cases. To bring the subject to life, the theory is applied to the all-important field of atomic physics. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed. However, it would help most readers to have met some elementary wave mechanics before. Primarily written for students, it should also be of interest to experimental research workers who require a good grasp of quantum mechanics without the full formalism needed by the professional theorist. Quantum Mechanics features: A flow diagram allowing topics to be studied in different orders or omitted altogether. Optional "starred" and highlighted sections containing more advanced and specialized material for the more ambitious reader. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding. Hints and solutions to the problems are given at the end of the book.
Robust quantum memory via quantum control
Greentree, Andrew D.; Schirmer, S. G.; Solomon, A. I.
2001-01-01
A general scheme for building a quantum memory by transferring quantum information to an essentially decoherence-free memory transition using quantum control is presented and illustrated by computer simulations.
Symbolic walk in regular networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G
2015-01-01
We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach. (paper)
Random walks on reductive groups
Benoist, Yves
2016-01-01
The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.
Long distance quantum teleportation
Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2018-01-01
Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.
Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory
Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar
2008-01-01
Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...
Walk Score®: associations with purposive walking in recent Cuban immigrants.
Brown, Scott C; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José
2013-08-01
Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (mean age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (mean=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants' addresses, walking, and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant's residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buzek, Vladimir [Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovakia); Hillery, Mark [City University of New York (United States)
2001-11-01
It is impossible to make perfect copies or 'clones' of unknown quantum states, but approximate copies could still have many uses in quantum computing. A computer is a physical device that consists of components that are all subject to the laws of physics. Since computers deal exclusively in information, there is a close connection between information and physical systems. But what happens if the components inside the computer become so small that they must be described by quantum mechanics rather than classical physics? The seemingly unstoppable decrease in the size of transistors and other components will force the computer industry to confront this question in the near future. However, a small band of far-sighted physicists has been thinking about these problems for almost two decades. Starting with the work of Paul Benioff, Richard Feynman, David Deutsch and Charles Bennett in the mid-1980s, the field of 'quantum information' has grown to become one of the most exciting areas of modern physics. These early pioneers realized that the representation of information by quantum systems, such as single electrons or photons, was an opportunity rather than a problem. (U.K.)
Mullin, William J
2017-01-01
Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics -- calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary class...
Exner, Pavel
2015-01-01
This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isham, C.
1989-01-01
Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)
Ghosh, P K
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics, designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, mathematics and chemistry, provides a concise yet self-contained introduction to the formal framework of quantum mechanics, its application to physical problems and the interpretation of the theory. Starting with a review of some of the necessary mathematics, the basic concepts are carefully developed in the text. After building a general formalism, detailed treatment of the standard material - the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, symmetry transformations, approximation methods, identical particle and many-particle systems, and scattering theory - is presented. The concluding chapter discusses the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some of the important topics discussed in the book are the rigged Hilbert space, deformation quantization, path integrals, coherent states, geometric phases, decoherene, etc. This book is characterized by clarity and coherence of presentation.
Bény, Cédric
2018-02-01
We propose a method for stably removing noise from measurements of a quantum many-body system. The question is cast to a linear inverse problem by using a quantum Fischer information metric as figure of merit. This requires the ability to compute the adjoint of the noise channel with respect to the metric, which can be done analytically when the metric is evaluated at a Gaussian (quasi-free) state. This approach can be applied effectively to n-point functions of a quantum field theory. For translation invariant noise, this yields a stable deconvolution method on the first moments of the field which differs from what one would obtain from a purely classical analysis.
Walking With Death, Walking With Science, Walking With Living: Philosophical Praxis and Happiness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frances Gray
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the consequences of acknowledging that we are the dead walking with the dead. I argue that if we take the view that life frames death, rather than the view that death frames life, then we must refigure our living as ethical creatures. Using Aristotle's notion that we become virtuous by practising virtue, I argue that happiness, thought of in terms of ethical living, should temper our attitude to death as the inevitable end we must all encounter. Acknowledgement of our dying and our death enhances the ethical imperative to live virtuously and to promote human flourishing. I adopt a Buddhist reading of death and dying to interpret the Aristotelian perspective.
Walking With Death, Walking With Science, Walking With Living: Philosophical Praxis and Happiness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frances Gray
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper explores the consequences of acknowledging that we are the dead walking with the dead. I argue that if we take the view that life frames death, rather than the view that death frames life, then we must refigure our living as ethical creatures. Using Aristotle's notion that we become virtuous by practising virtue, I argue that happiness, thought of in terms of ethical living, should temper our attitude to death as the inevitable end we must all encounter. Acknowledgement of our dying and our death enhances the ethical imperative to live virtuously and to promote human flourishing. I adopt a Buddhist reading of death and dying to interpret the Aristotelian perspective.
Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.
Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle
2011-12-01
To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nascimento, Lucas R; de Oliveira, Camila Quel; Ada, Louise; Michaelsen, Stella M; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F
2015-01-01
After stroke, is walking training with cueing of cadence superior to walking training alone in improving walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised or controlled trials. Adults who have had a stroke. Walking training with cueing of cadence. Four walking outcomes were of interest: walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry. This review included seven trials involving 211 participants. Because one trial caused substantial statistical heterogeneity, meta-analyses were conducted with and without this trial. Walking training with cueing of cadence improved walking speed by 0.23 m/s (95% CI 0.18 to 0.27, I(2)=0%), stride length by 0.21 m (95% CI 0.14 to 0.28, I(2)=18%), cadence by 19 steps/minute (95% CI 14 to 23, I(2)=40%), and symmetry by 15% (95% CI 3 to 26, random effects) more than walking training alone. This review provides evidence that walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length more than walking training alone. It may also produce benefits in terms of cadence and symmetry of walking. The evidence appears strong enough to recommend the addition of 30 minutes of cueing of cadence to walking training, four times a week for 4 weeks, in order to improve walking in moderately disabled individuals with stroke. PROSPERO (CRD42013005873). Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation
Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-04-01
Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.
Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.
2006-01-01
We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability
Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection
Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick
2018-04-01
Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.
Rae, Alastair I M
2007-01-01
PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC
Zagoskin, Alexandre
2015-01-01
Written by Dr Alexandre Zagoskin, who is a Reader at Loughborough University, Quantum Mechanics: A Complete Introduction is designed to give you everything you need to succeed, all in one place. It covers the key areas that students are expected to be confident in, outlining the basics in clear jargon-free English, and then providing added-value features like summaries of key ideas, and even lists of questions you might be asked in your exam. The book uses a structure that is designed to make quantum physics as accessible as possible - by starting with its similarities to Newtonian physics, ra
Walking modality, but not task difficulty, influences the control of dual-task walking.
Wrightson, J G; Smeeton, N J
2017-10-01
During dual-task gait, changes in the stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) are suggested to represent the allocation of cognitive control to walking [1]. However, contrasting effects have been reported for overground and treadmill walking, which may be due to differences in the relative difficulty of the dual task. Here we compared the effect of overground and treadmill dual-task walking on STV in 18 healthy adults. Participants walked overground and on a treadmill for 120s during single-task (walking only) and dual-task (walking whilst performing serial subtractions in sevens) conditions. Dual-task effects on STV, cognitive task (serial subtraction) performance and perceived task difficulty were compared between walking modalities. STV was increased during overground dual-task walking, but was unchanged during treadmill dual-task walking. There were no differences in cognitive task performance or perceived task difficulty. These results show that gait is controlled differently during overground and treadmill dual-task walking. However, these differences are not solely due to differences in task difficulty, and may instead represent modality dependent control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Does long-distance walking improve or deteriorate walking stability of transtibial amputees?
Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Lam, Wing Kai; Yeung, L F; Lee, Winson C C
2015-10-01
Falls are common in transtibial amputees which are linked to their poor stability. While amputees are encouraged to walk more, they are more vulnerable to fatigue which leads to even poorer walking stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic stability of amputees after long-distance walking. Six male unilateral transtibial amputees (age: 53 (SD: 8.8); height: 170cm (SD: 3.4); weight: 75kg (SD: 4.7)) performed two sessions (30minutes each) of treadmill walking, separated by a short period of gait tests. Gait tests were performed before the walking (baseline) and after each session of treadmill walking. Gait parameters and their variability across repeated steps at each of the three conditions were computed. There were no significant differences in walking speed, step length, stance time, time of occurrence, and magnitude of peak angular velocities of the knee and hip joint (P>0.05). However, variability of knee and hip angular velocity after 30-minute walking was significantly higher than the baseline (Pamputees to restore their walking stability after further continuous walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Increasing Walking in the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport: The Walk to Fly Study.
Fulton, Janet E; Frederick, Ginny M; Paul, Prabasaj; Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M
2017-07-01
To test the effectiveness of a point-of-decision intervention to prompt walking, versus motorized transport, in a large metropolitan airport. We installed point-of-decision prompt signage at 4 locations in the airport transportation mall at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Atlanta, GA) at the connecting corridor between airport concourses. Six ceiling-mounted infrared sensors counted travelers entering and exiting the study location. We collected traveler counts from June 2013 to May 2016 when construction was present and absent (preintervention period: June 2013-September 2014; postintervention period: September 2014-May 2016). We used a model that incorporated weekly walking variation to estimate the intervention effect on walking. There was an 11.0% to 16.7% relative increase in walking in the absence of airport construction where 580 to 810 more travelers per day chose to walk. Through May 2016, travelers completed 390 000 additional walking trips. The Walk to Fly study demonstrated a significant and sustained increase in the number of airport travelers choosing to walk. Providing signage about options to walk in busy locations where reasonable walking options are available may improve population levels of physical activity and therefore improve public health.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Reuter
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD progress despite optimized medical treatment. The present study investigated the effects of a flexibility and relaxation programme, walking, and Nordic walking (NW on walking speed, stride length, stride length variability, Parkinson-specific disability (UPDRS, and health-related quality of life (PDQ 39. 90 PD patients were randomly allocated to the 3 treatment groups. Patients participated in a 6-month study with 3 exercise sessions per week, each lasting 70 min. Assessment after completion of the training showed that pain was reduced in all groups, and balance and health-related quality of life were improved. Furthermore, walking, and Nordic walking improved stride length, gait variability, maximal walking speed, exercise capacity at submaximal level, and PD disease-specific disability on the UPDRS in addition. Nordic walking was superior to the flexibility and relaxation programme and walking in improving postural stability, stride length, gait pattern and gait variability. No significant injuries occurred during the training. All patients of the Nordic walking group continued Nordic walking after completing the study.
Urban walking: Perspectives of locals and tourists
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farkić Jelena
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Urban planners and architects have done extensive research on walk ability: what it means and how it correlates with urban design and quality of life of the locals, however, it has been hitherto neglected from the aspect of tourism studies. Many cities worldwide are or tend to be walkable as this leads to more sustainable and prosperous communities. In addition, walking-friendly environments greatly cater for leisure and tourism, as in many cities, walking is an integral part of tourist experience. Therefore, tourism industry can be of tremendous help for the city authorities in understanding walkers' needs and experiences. Taking into account both the locals and tourists, this research sought to: (1 determine the most frequently utilized modes of transportation in Novi Sad in Serbia and Koper in Slovenia; (2 assess thier reasons for walking and perception of the quality of pedestrian infrastructure; and (3 evaluate the psychometric properties of the questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study. The results show that the great majority of respondents walk in these two cities. The locals walk primarily to achieve physical fitness, whereas tourists walk primarily to explore the urban spaces. This makes more space for tourism as it combines a competitive supply able to meet visitors' expectations with a positive contribution to the sustainable development of cities and well-being of their residents. Furthermore, this study contributes to emphasizing walking as a sustainable form of mobility in urban environment and can be the impetus for profiling Novi Sad and Koper as walking-friendly cities.
Random walk statistics on fractal structures
Rammal, R.
1984-09-01
We consider some statistical properties of simple random walks on fractal structures viewed as networks of sites and bonds: range, renewal theory, mean first passage time, etc. Asymptotic behaviors are shown to be controlled by the fractal ( ¯d) and spectral ( ¯d) dimensionalities of the considered structure. A simple decimation procedure giving the value of ( ¯d) is outlined and illustrated in the case of the Sierpinski gaskets. Recent results for the trapping problem, the self-avoiding walk, and the true-self-avoiding walk are briefly reviewed. New numerical results for diffusion on percolation clusters are also presented.
Further results on self-avoiding walks
Temperley, H. N. V.
1994-05-01
A Gaussian model of self-avoiding walks is studied. Not only is any cluster integral exactly evaluable, but whole sub-series can be evaluated exactly in terms of associated Riemann zeta functions. The results are compared with information recently obtained on self-avoiding walks on the plane square and simple cubic lattices and, as expected, are very similar. Use is made of the author's recent result that the reciprocal of the walks generating function is the generating function for irreducible cluster-sums. This is split into sub-series all of which have the same radius of convergence, and the significance of this is discussed.
Quantum learning without quantum memory.
Sentís, G; Calsamiglia, J; Muñoz-Tapia, R; Bagan, E
2012-01-01
A quantum learning machine for binary classification of qubit states that does not require quantum memory is introduced and shown to perform with the minimum error rate allowed by quantum mechanics for any size of the training set. This result is shown to be robust under (an arbitrary amount of) noise and under (statistical) variations in the composition of the training set, provided it is large enough. This machine can be used an arbitrary number of times without retraining. Its required classical memory grows only logarithmically with the number of training qubits, while its excess risk decreases as the inverse of this number, and twice as fast as the excess risk of an "estimate-and-discriminate" machine, which estimates the states of the training qubits and classifies the data qubit with a discrimination protocol tailored to the obtained estimates.
Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology
Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos
2013-01-01
Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe. While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models. ...
Quantum biological information theory
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-01-01
This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...
Cheon, Taksu; Tsutsui, Izumi; Fülöp, Tamás
2004-09-01
We show that the point interactions on a line can be utilized to provide U(2) family of qubit operations for quantum information processing. Qubits are realized as states localized in either side of the point interaction which represents a controllable gate. The qubit manipulation proceeds in a manner analogous to the operation of an abacus.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosher, A.
1980-01-01
The symposium included lectures covering both the elements and the experimental tests of the theory of quantum chromdynamics. A three day topical conference was included which included the first results from PETRA as well as the latest reports from CERN, Fermilab, and SPEAR experiments. Twenty-one items from the symposium were prepared separately for the data base
Raedt, Hans De; Binder, K; Ciccotti, G
1996-01-01
The purpose of this set of lectures is to introduce the general concepts that are at the basis of the computer simulation algorithms that are used to study the behavior of condensed matter quantum systems. The emphasis is on the underlying concepts rather than on specific applications. Topics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Sergi
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.
Dowling, Jonathan P.
2000-01-01
Recently, several researchers, including yours truly, have been able to demonstrate theoretically that quantum photon entanglement has the potential to also revolutionize the entire field of optical interferometry, by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum entangled photon interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like 1/Sqrt[N], where N is the number of particles (photons, electrons, atoms, neutrons) passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of Sqrt[N] (square root of N) to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical (laser) interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. Applications are to tests of General Relativity such as ground and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO) and the European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1979-01-01
The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seligman, T.H.
1984-01-01
Some general points of view on the implication of chaotic behaviour of a classical Hamiltonian system for the corresponding quantum system are discussed. The relevance of spectral statistics emerges. Various results on this subject are reported that tend to support these considerations. Limitations of this point of view are discussed with particular attention to the question of localization
2016-03-24
FTIR ) spectroscopy. Quantum Well-Antenna Coupled System From our previous grant, and in collaboration with the group of Prof. Martin Wegener, we...Fan, A. P. Vasudev, J. S. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. A. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 821-835. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
To start the quantum algorithm we prepare a super- position of numbers from 0 to M - 1 using the Walsh-. Hadamard transformation on ... Hence, we create a state in which the ampli- tudes have the same period as f. This we do by measur- .... IT Business Incubator. Department of Physics. liT Powai,. Mumbai 400 076, India.
How do environmental factors influence walking in groups? A walk-along study.
Kassavou, Aikaterini; French, David P; Chamberlain, Kerry
2015-10-01
Insufficient attention has been given to the influence of context on health-related behaviour change. This article reports on walk-along interviews conducted with 10 leaders of walking groups while leading their groups to investigate the influence of contextual factors on walking behaviours in groups. Data analysis used ideas from thematic analysis and grounded theory, approaching the data inductively. We identified that characteristics of place influenced the type of walking that people do in groups and the processes used by walkers to make sense of their behaviours in the places they walk. This research provides insight into how place influences walking in groups. It also suggests recommendations for co-ordinators and policymakers that could be used to facilitate behaviour change, when designing interventions targeting public health within the community. © The Author(s) 2013.
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)
2016-01-01
textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer
Raedt, H. De; Hams, A.H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.; Saito, E.
2000-01-01
We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover’s database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms
Whittaker, William; Dowling, Kevin
1994-01-01
Carnegie Mellon University's Autonomous Planetary Exploration Program (APEX) is currently building the Daedalus robot; a system capable of performing extended autonomous planetary exploration missions. Extended autonomy is an important capability because the continued exploration of the Moon, Mars and other solid bodies within the solar system will probably be carried out by autonomous robotic systems. There are a number of reasons for this - the most important of which are the high cost of placing a man in space, the high risk associated with human exploration and communication delays that make teleoperation infeasible. The Daedalus robot represents an evolutionary approach to robot mechanism design and software system architecture. Daedalus incorporates key features from a number of predecessor systems. Using previously proven technologies, the Apex project endeavors to encompass all of the capabilities necessary for robust planetary exploration. The Ambler, a six-legged walking machine was developed by CMU for demonstration of technologies required for planetary exploration. In its five years of life, the Ambler project brought major breakthroughs in various areas of robotic technology. Significant progress was made in: mechanism and control, by introducing a novel gait pattern (circulating gait) and use of orthogonal legs; perception, by developing sophisticated algorithms for map building; and planning, by developing and implementing the Task Control Architecture to coordinate tasks and control complex system functions. The APEX project is the successor of the Ambler project.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver
2004-01-01
A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots
Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Christian, Hayley E
2014-08-20
Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are major threats to population health. A considerable proportion of people own dogs, and there is good evidence that dog ownership is associated with higher levels of physical activity. However not all owners walk their dogs regularly. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for correlates of dog walking so that effective interventions may be designed to increase the physical activity of dog owners. Published findings from 1990-2012 in both the human and veterinary literature were collated and reviewed for evidence of factors associated with objective and self-reported measures of dog walking behaviour, or reported perceptions about dog walking. Study designs included cross-sectional observational, trials and qualitative interviews. There is good evidence that the strength of the dog-owner relationship, through a sense of obligation to walk the dog, and the perceived support and motivation a dog provides for walking, is strongly associated with increased walking. The perceived exercise requirements of the dog may also be a modifiable point for intervention. In addition, access to suitable walking areas with dog supportive features that fulfil dog needs such as off-leash exercise, and that also encourage human social interaction, may be incentivising. Current evidence suggests that dog walking may be most effectively encouraged through targeting the dog-owner relationship and by providing dog-supportive physical environments. More research is required to investigate the influence of individual owner and dog factors on 'intention' to walk the dog as well as the influence of human social interaction whilst walking a dog. The effects of policy and cultural practices relating to dog ownership and walking should also be investigated. Future studies must be of a higher quality methodological design, including accounting for the effects of confounding between variables, and longitudinal designs and testing of
'Join the walk?': Short- and long-term effects of a walking program for mentally disordered
Vanroy, Jari; Seghers, Jan; Bogaerts, An; Boen, Filip
2015-01-01
Background & objectives: Physical activity (PA) has potentially beneficial effects on several domains of mental health. Furthermore, walking has been proposed as a promising strategy for improving the level of PA and mental health. A previous study by Pelssers and colleagues (2013) provided evidence for the short-term effectiveness of a structured walking program (‘Every Step Counts’) in a population of healthy elderly. This walking intervention program was embedded within a socio-cultura...
Time dependency of walking classification in stroke.
Kollen, B.; Kwakkel, G.; Lindeman, E.
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To facilitate optimal stroke rehabilitation, valid interpretation of observed functional recovery is required. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between comfortable walking speed and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC) scores for
Parent Safety Perceptions of Child Walking Routes.
Evers, Cody; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Schlossberg, Marc; Richey, David
2014-06-01
Walking rates to school remain low for U.S. children in large part due to parent concern for child safety. Little research has investigated the specific features of streets and intersection networks that parents associate with safe walking networks for children. To investigate which aspects of the child walking environment lead to parental concern, parent volunteers conducted an audit of streets leading to seven elementary schools in a suburban school district. Parents were most likely to feel concern about streets that lacked sidewalks or had sidewalks with obstructions. Wheelchair-accessible routes were seen as appropriate for walking children. Parents expressed concern over safety at intersections, particularly those involving large streets; traffic controls did not mollify their concern.
Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Mesot Liljehult, Jacob
2017-01-01
ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg......Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking...... higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more...
The random walk model of intrafraction movement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction Gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-Gaussian corrections from the random walk model. (paper)
The random walk model of intrafraction movement.
Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M
2013-04-07
The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-gaussian corrections from the random walk model.
Quantum channel construction with circuit quantum electrodynamics
Shen, Chao; Noh, Kyungjoo; Albert, Victor V.; Krastanov, Stefan; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang
2017-04-01
Quantum channels can describe all transformations allowed by quantum mechanics. We adapt two existing works [S. Lloyd and L. Viola, Phys. Rev. A 65, 010101 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.010101 and E. Andersson and D. K. L. Oi, Phys. Rev. A 77, 052104 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.052104] to superconducting circuits, featuring a single qubit ancilla with quantum nondemolition readout and adaptive control. This construction is efficient in both ancilla dimension and circuit depth. We point out various applications of quantum channel construction, including system stabilization and quantum error correction, Markovian and exotic channel simulation, implementation of generalized quantum measurements, and more general quantum instruments. Efficient construction of arbitrary quantum channels opens up exciting new possibilities for quantum control, quantum sensing, and information processing tasks.
Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye Tian-Yu
2014-01-01
How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)
Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knuiman Matthew W
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition
Effects of walking trainings on walking function among stroke survivors: a systematic review.
Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Bennett, Crystal; Franklin, Cheyanne
2018-03-01
Physical function is often compromised as a result of stroke event. Although interventions propose different strategies that seek to improve stroke survivors' physical function, a need remains to evaluate walking training studies aimed at improving such physical function. The aim of this review was to assess the available literature that highlights the impact of walking training on enhancing walking for stroke survivors. We performed a systematic literature review of online databases - Google Scholar, PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EBSCO - with the following inclusion criteria: manuscript published from 2005 to 2016, written in English, with treatment and control groups, for walking training studies aimed at improving physical function among stroke survivors. Findings indicated that walking speed, walking distance, and gait speed were the most used outcome variables for measuring improved physical function among stroke survivors. Importantly, proposed interventions involved either overground or treadmill walking trainings, if not both. Preserved locomotor improvements were not noted in all interventions at follow-up. Some interventions that used walking treadmill training augmented by auditory stimulations reported significant improvements in physical function compared with overground walking training augmented by auditory stimulations. The imperative to improve physical function among stroke survivors with physical impairment is paramount, as it allows survivors to be socially, emotionally, and physically more independent. In general, we note an insufficiency of research on the interaction between physical function and socialization among stroke survivors.
Stauffer, Y; Allemand, Y; Bouri, M; Fournier, J; Clavel, R; Metrailler, P; Brodard, R; Reynard, F
2009-02-01
This paper presents a novel reeducation device for paraplegics that combines hybrid orthoses and closed-loop electrical muscle stimulation. Based on the so called Cyberthosis concept, the WalkTrainer enables an active muscular participation of the subject in the walking reeducation process by the mean of closed-loop muscle stimulation. The WalkTrainer is also equipped with a leg and pelvic orthosis, an active bodyweight support, and motorized wheels to allow true over ground deambulation. This paper will focus on the development of the WalkTrainer, the presentation of the control strategies, and also give some preliminary results of the first clinical trials.
Reliability and Validity of the 50-ft Walk Test for Idiopathic Toe Walking.
Christensen, Catie; Haddad, Amanda; Maus, Elizabeth
2017-07-01
To evaluate interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the 50-ft walk test (FWT) for children with idiopathic toe walking (ITW). Thirty children, 6 to 13 years old, with ITW participated. During the 50-FWT, an accelerometer counted total steps. A physical therapist counted the number of toe-walking steps. The number of toe-walking steps was divided by the total steps to calculate a toe-walking percentage. Interrater reliability was assessed by correlating the toe-walking percentage obtained by 2 raters using an intraclass correlation coefficient. Concurrent validity was evaluated by correlating the toe-walking percentage calculated by the GAITRite and therapist using a Spearman ρ. There was excellent interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Experience level did not impact the therapist's ability to identify a toe-walking step. The 50-FWT demonstrated excellent interrater reliability and concurrent validity. It can be used to obtain a percentage of toe walking in children 6-13 years of age with ITW.
Two- and 6-minute walk tests assess walking capability equally in neuromuscular diseases.
Andersen, Linda Kahr; Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Witting, Nanna; Vissing, John
2016-02-02
This methodologic study investigates if the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) can be a valid alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to describe walking capability in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Patients (n = 115) with different neuromuscular diseases were invited to participate on 2 test days, each consisting of 1 2MWT and 1 6MWT separated by a minimum 30-minute period of rest. The order of the walk tests was randomly assigned via sealed envelopes. A group of 38 healthy controls completed 1 6MWT. The mean walking distance for the 2MWT was 142.8 meters and for the 6MWT 405.3 meters. The distance walked in the 2MWT was highly correlated to the distance walked in the 6MWT (r = 0.99, p walking speed from the first to last minute in the 6MWT, both among patients and healthy controls, which was not evident in the 2MWT. Results were consistent across diagnoses and levels of disease severity. The 2MWT is a potential alternative to the 6MWT to describe walking capability among patients with neuromuscular diseases during clinical trials. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R
2014-03-01
Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, pwalk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Factors associated with daily walking of dogs
Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E.; Christley, Robert M.
2015-01-01
Background Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors asso...
Factors associated with daily walking of dogs.
Westgarth, Carri; Christian, Hayley E; Christley, Robert M
2015-05-19
Regular physical activity is beneficial to the health of both people and animals. The role of regular exercise undertaken together, such as dog walking, is a public health interest of mutual benefit. Exploration of barriers and incentives to regular dog walking by owners is now required so that effective interventions to promote it can be designed. This study explored a well-characterised cross-sectional dataset of 276 dogs and owners from Cheshire, UK, for evidence of factors associated with the dog being walked once or more per day. Factors independently associated with daily walking included: number of dogs owned (multiple (vs. single) dogs negatively associated); size (medium and possibly large dogs (vs. small) positively associated); and number of people in the household (more people negatively associated). Furthermore, a number of factors related to the dog-owner relationship and the dog's behaviour were associated with daily walking, including: having acquired the dog for a hobby (positively associated); dog lying on furniture (positively associated); dog lying on laps (negatively associated); growling at household members (negatively associated); and playing chase games with the dog (negatively associated). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the strength and nature of the human-dog relationship incentivises dog walking, and that behavioural and demographic factors may affect dog walking via this mechanism. Future studies need to investigate how dog demographic and behavioural factors, plus owner behavioural factors and perceptions of the dog, influence the dog-human relationship in respect to the perceived support and motivation a dog can provide for walking.
More Adults Are Walking PSA (:60)
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2012-07-31
This 60 second PSA is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking. Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/7/2012.
The Walking Egg non-profit organisation
Dhont, N.
2011-01-01
The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on “Developing countries and infertility” of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (E...
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-04-01
Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
A random walk down Main Street
David Matthew Levinson
2016-01-01
US suburbs have often been characterized by their relatively low walk accessibility compared to more urban environments, and US urban environments have been char- acterized by low walk accessibility compared to cities in other countries. Lower overall density in the suburbs implies that activities, if spread out, would have a greater distance between them. But why should activities be spread out instead of developed contiguously? This brief research note builds a positive model for the emerge...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob; Zerny, Ian
2011-01-01
To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions.......To celebrate the 20th anniversary of PEPM, we are inviting you to a walk in the semantic park and to inter-derive reduction-based and reduction-free negational normalization functions....
Many random walks are faster than one
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Alon, N.; Avin, Ch.; Koucký, Michal; Kozma, G.; Lotker, Z.; Tuttle, M.R.
2011-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 4 (2011), s. 481-502 ISSN 0963-5483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/07/P276; GA ČR GA201/05/0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : multiple random walks * parallel random walks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2011 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8280727
Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking
Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.
2012-01-01
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...
Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution
Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto
2011-01-01
Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…
Physical Strain: A New Perspective on Walking in Cerebral Palsy
Balemans, Astrid C.; Bolster, Eline A.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Dallmeijer, Annet J.
2017-01-01
Objectives: To describe (1) physical strain of walking, (2) the proportion of participants walking above the anaerobic threshold, and (3) 4 phenotypes of physical strain of walking on the basis of deviations in aerobic capacity and walking energy cost (EC) in children and adolescents with cerebral
Quantum computation by measurement and quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Michael A.
2003-01-01
What resources are universal for quantum computation? In the standard model of a quantum computer, a computation consists of a sequence of unitary gates acting coherently on the qubits making up the computer. This requirement for coherent unitary dynamical operations is widely believed to be the critical element of quantum computation. Here we show that a very different model involving only projective measurements and quantum memory is also universal for quantum computation. In particular, no coherent unitary dynamics are involved in the computation
Understanding Walking Behavior: Its Benefits and Barriers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatmawati
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Health survey demonstrates that 5.3 million people each year experienced a premature death due to physical inactivity (Lee et al., 2012. Data from Department of Health (2004 revealed that in the United Kingdom more than 60% of adult males and 75% of adult females did not perform enough physical activity. Hence, to minimize this problem, currently, health practitioners are trying to encourage people to be more physically active, especially by promoting several types of exercise, including walking (Marshall et al., 2009; Hallal et al., 2012. Regular walking is one of the essential predictors for long-term physical and mental health benefit. Some recent studies mention that there are lots of advantages if adults can maintain their regular walking (Gunnell, Knuiman, Divitini, & Cormie, 2014; Morgan, Tobar, & Synder, 2010; Roe & Aspinall, 2011; Shiue, 2015; Nagai et al., 2011. Regular walking minimum 10,000 steps each day can burn as much as 400 calories so that it may help overweight or obesity people to reduce their weight (NHS, 2014. However, most of the people perceive walking as one form of transport rather than exercise; therefore, this reason discourages them to walk sufficiently for healthy life purpose (Darker et al., 2007.
Quantum groups and quantum spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wess, Julius [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Muenchen (Germany)]|[Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik
1996-07-01
The lecture presents quantum groups and spaces, conjugation and SL{sub q}(2,C), q-Euclidean and q-Minkowski spaces. The concept of the quantum group SL{sub q}(2,C) prior developed is generalized to allow a conjugation, which is essential for physics. We have seen that quantum groups lead in a natural way to non-commutative spaces, a concept we feel should be exploited for physics, These non-commutative spaces have a well-defined mathematical structure, inherited from quantum group symmetries. As a first example, we have seen the q-deformed spinor space, the Manin plane. Spinors are the space of the fundamental representation of SU(2), and all other finite dimensional representations can be obtained by products of this representation. Spinors and their conjugates play the same role for S L(2,C). In this lecture we shall start from the Manin plane and discuss q-bi spinors, objects that span the q-Euclidean space for SU{sub q}(2) or the q-Minkowski space for SL{sub q}(2,C)
Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard
2014-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods...
Physics of quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.
2003-01-01
In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given
Spin network quantum simulator
Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario
2002-01-01
We propose a general setting for a universal representation of the quantum structure on which quantum information stands, whose dynamical evolution (information manipulation) is based on angular momentum recoupling theory. Such scheme complies with the notion of 'quantum simulator' in the sense of Feynmann, and is shown to be related with the topological quantum field theory approach to quantum computation.
2012-02-01
create simple single photon quantum optical gates. In the standard quantum circuit model ( QCM ) paradigm, quantum computations are executed by...substantially reduce the resource overhead in the standard QCM to photon-based quantum computation. Experimental: Photons are particularly desirable...sequence of reversible unitary gates in the usual quantum circuit model ( QCM ). The initial entanglement resources of the OWQC are called graph
Bojowald, Martin
The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W
Horemans, Herwin L. D.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.; Beelen, Anita; Stam, Henk J.; Nollet, Frans
2005-01-01
Objective: To compare walking test results with walking in daily life, and to investigate the relationships between walking tests, walking activity in daily life, and perceived mobility problems in patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Subjects: Twenty-four ambulant patients with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eileen G. Collins
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program ( or walking-with-poles program ( of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests ( traditional walking and walking-with-poles. Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from % prior to the treadmill test to % at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD.
Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S
2004-09-01
To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement of walking velocity and capacity. The treatment approach is recommended in patients meeting the inclusion criteria. A multicentre trial should follow to strengthen the evidence.
Baaquie, Belal E; Demongeot, J; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana; Martin, F; Teodorani, Massimo
2015-01-01
At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds". Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubairy, Suhail
2005-01-01
Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the
Weber, Timothy
1995-01-01
For extra credit or just for the fun of it-why not try a brainteaser? This collection brings together the first 100 brainteasers from Quantum magazine, published by the National Science Teachers Association in collaboration with the Russian magazine Kvant. Through its pages, you'll find number rebuses, geometry ticklers, logic puzzles, and quirky questions with a physics twist. Students and teachers alike will enjoy these fun quandaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serot, B.D.
1992-01-01
It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bernstein, Jeremy
1991-01-01
... excitement- that goes on in the advanced ﬁelds of physics.'' Neither Rabi nor I had any idea how rapidly this would change. We are now awash in public excitement about the ''advanced ﬁelds of physics'' and, above all, about quantum mechanics. One sometimes has the feeling that much of the general public, ranging from New Age gurus to playwrights, from litera...
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-01
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.
Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-06-02
Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.
Experimental quantum forgery of quantum optical money
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco
2017-03-01
Unknown quantum information cannot be perfectly copied (cloned). This statement is the bedrock of quantum technologies and quantum cryptography, including the seminal scheme of Wiesner's quantum money, which was the first quantum-cryptographic proposal. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, quantum money has not been tested experimentally yet. Here, we experimentally revisit the Wiesner idea, assuming a banknote to be an image encoded in the polarization states of single photons. We demonstrate that it is possible to use quantum states to prepare a banknote that cannot be ideally copied without making the owner aware of only unauthorized actions. We provide the security conditions for quantum money by investigating the physically-achievable limits on the fidelity of 1-to-2 copying of arbitrary sequences of qubits. These results can be applied as a security measure in quantum digital right management.
Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas
2012-01-01
digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...
Walking on fractals: diffusion and self-avoiding walks on percolation clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blavatska, V; Janke, W
2009-01-01
We consider random walks (RWs) and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on disordered lattices directly at the percolation threshold. Applying numerical simulations, we study the scaling behavior of the models on the incipient percolation cluster in space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. Our analysis yields estimates of universal exponents, governing the scaling laws for configurational properties of RWs and SAWs
Does walking strategy in older people change as a function of walking distance?
Najafi, Bijan; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, Kamiar
This study investigates whether the spatio-temporal parameters of gait in the elderly vary as a function of walking distance. The gait pattern of older subjects (n = 27) over both short (SWD <10 m) and long (LWD > 20 in) walking was evaluated using an ambulatory device consisting of body-worn
The effect of walking aids on muscle activation patterns during walking in stroke patients
Buurke, Jaap; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Erren-Wolters, C.V.; Nene, A.V.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle activation patterns with respect to timing and amplitude that occur when subjects with stroke walk with and without a walking aid. This knowledge could help therapists in deciding whether or not patients should use a cane or quad stick
Rothman, Linda; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; To, Teresa; Howard, Andrew
2014-02-01
The child active transportation literature has focused on walking, with little attention to risk associated with increased traffic exposure. This paper reviews the literature related to built environment correlates of walking and pedestrian injury in children together, to broaden the current conceptualization of walkability to include injury prevention. Two independent searches were conducted focused on walking in children and child pedestrian injury within nine electronic databases until March, 2012. Studies were included which: 1) were quantitative 2) set in motorized countries 3) were either urban or suburban 4) investigated specific built environment risk factors 5) had outcomes of either walking in children and/or child pedestrian roadway collisions (ages 0-12). Built environment features were categorized according to those related to density, land use diversity or roadway design. Results were cross-tabulated to identify how built environment features associate with walking and injury. Fifty walking and 35 child pedestrian injury studies were identified. Only traffic calming and presence of playgrounds/recreation areas were consistently associated with more walking and less pedestrian injury. Several built environment features were associated with more walking, but with increased injury. Many features had inconsistent results or had not been investigated for either outcome. The findings emphasise the importance of incorporating safety into the conversation about creating more walkable cities.
Two- and 6-minute walk tests assess walking capability equally in neuromuscular diseases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Linda Kahr; Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Witting, Nanna
2016-01-01
OBJECTIVE: This methodologic study investigates if the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) can be a valid alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to describe walking capability in patients with neuromuscular diseases. METHODS: Patients (n = 115) with different neuromuscular diseases were invited...... to participate on 2 test days, each consisting of 1 2MWT and 1 6MWT separated by a minimum 30-minute period of rest. The order of the walk tests was randomly assigned via sealed envelopes. A group of 38 healthy controls completed 1 6MWT. RESULTS: The mean walking distance for the 2MWT was 142.8 meters...... and for the 6MWT 405.3 meters. The distance walked in the 2MWT was highly correlated to the distance walked in the 6MWT (r = 0.99, p walking speed from the first to last minute in the 6MWT, both among patients and healthy controls, which was not evident in the 2MWT...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf
2014-01-01
Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques make it possible to facilitate relatively natural locomotion within immersive virtual environments that are larger than the physical interaction space. However, in order to facilitate natural walking experiences one needs to know how to map steps in place to virt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, Henry
2011-11-10
Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the
Pilar, Frank L
2003-01-01
Useful introductory course and reference covers origins of quantum theory, Schrödinger wave equation, quantum mechanics of simple systems, electron spin, quantum states of atoms, Hartree-Fock self-consistent field method, more. 1990 edition.
Lvovsky, Alexander I.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang
2009-12-01
Quantum memory is essential for the development of many devices in quantum information processing, including a synchronization tool that matches various processes within a quantum computer, an identity quantum gate that leaves any state unchanged, and a mechanism to convert heralded photons to on-demand photons. In addition to quantum computing, quantum memory will be instrumental for implementing long-distance quantum communication using quantum repeaters. The importance of this basic quantum gate is exemplified by the multitude of optical quantum memory mechanisms being studied, such as optical delay lines, cavities and electromagnetically induced transparency, as well as schemes that rely on photon echoes and the off-resonant Faraday interaction. Here, we report on state-of-the-art developments in the field of optical quantum memory, establish criteria for successful quantum memory and detail current performance levels.
QUANTUM: The Exhibition - quantum at the museum
Laforest, Martin; Olano, Angela; Day-Hamilton, Tobi
Distilling the essence of quantum phenomena, and how they are being harnessed to develop powerful quantum technologies, into a series of bite-sized, elementary-school-level pieces is what the scientific outreach team at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing was tasked with. QUANTUM: The Exhibition uses a series of informational panels, multimedia and interactive displays to introduce visitors to quantum phenomena and how they will revolutionize computing, information security and sensing. We'll discuss some of the approaches we took to convey the essence and impact of quantum mechanics and technologies to a lay audience while ensuring scientific accuracy.
Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires
Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A
2002-01-01
The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)
Quantum coherence and correlations in quantum system
Xi, Zhengjun; Li, Yongming; Fan, Heng
2015-01-01
Criteria of measure quantifying quantum coherence, a unique property of quantum system, are proposed recently. In this paper, we first give an uncertainty-like expression relating the coherence and the entropy of quantum system. This finding allows us to discuss the relations between the entanglement and the coherence. Further, we discuss in detail the relations among the coherence, the discord and the deficit in the bipartite quantum system. We show that, the one-way quantum deficit is equal to the sum between quantum discord and the relative entropy of coherence of measured subsystem. PMID:26094795
Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Warber, Sara L.
2013-01-01
The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a ...
Walk Score and Australian adults' home-based walking for transport.
Cole, Rachel; Dunn, Peter; Hunter, Ian; Owen, Neville; Sugiyama, Takemi
2015-09-01
The relationships of Walk Score, a publicly-accessible walkability assessment tool, with walking for transport to and from home were examined among a large representative sample of Australian adults aged 18-64 years (N=16,944). Residents in highly and somewhat walkable areas were twice and 1.4 times more likely to accumulate 30 min of walking per day compared to those in very car-dependent neighborhoods, respectively. Mean duration of walking was also longer for participants living in highly and somewhat walkable areas compared to those in very car-dependent areas. Walk Score has potential as a widely-applicable tool for identifying the walkability of local neighborhoods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gallo, Paul M; McIsaac, Tara L; Garber, Carol Ewing
2014-01-01
Gait impairments related to Parkinson's disease (PD) include variable step length and decreased walking velocity, which may result in poorer walking economy. Auditory cueing is a common method used to improve gait mechanics in PD that has been shown to worsen walking economy at set treadmill walking speeds. It is unknown if auditory cueing has the same effects on walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds. To determine if auditory cueing will affect walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds and at speeds slightly faster and slower than self-selected. Twenty-two participants with moderate PD performed three, 6-minute bouts of treadmill walking at three speeds (self-selected and ± 0.22 m·sec-1). One session used cueing and the other without cueing. Energy expenditure was measured and walking economy was calculated (energy expenditure/power). Poorer walking economy and higher energy expenditure occurred during cued walking at a self-selected and a slightly faster walking speed, but there was no apparent difference at the slightly slower speed. These results suggest that potential gait benefits of auditory cueing may come at an energy cost and poorer walking economy for persons with PD at least at some treadmill walking speeds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiefer, C.
2004-01-01
The following topics are dealt with: Particles and waves, the superposition principle and probability interpretation, the uncertainty relation, spin, the Schroedinger equation, wave functions, symmetries, the hydrogen atom, atoms with many electrons, Schroedinger's cat and the Einstein-podolsky-Rosen problem, the Bell inequalities, the classical limit, quantum systems in the electromagnetic field, solids and quantum liquids, quantum information, quantum field theory, quantum theory and gravitation, the mathematical formalism of quantum theory. (HSI)
Characterization of quantum logics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahti, P.J.
1980-01-01
The quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics is used to analyze the conceptual foundations of the traditional quantum theory. The universal quantum of action h>0 is incorporated into the theory by introducing the uncertainty principle, the complementarity principle, and the superposition principle into the framework. A characterization of those quantum logics (L,S) which may provide quantum descriptions is then given. (author)
Ventura, Dan; Martinez, Tony
1998-01-01
This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with a capacity exponential in the number of neurons. This paper combi...
Relativistic quantum cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molotkov, S. N.
2011-01-01
A new protocol of quantum key distribution is proposed to transmit keys through free space. Along with quantum-mechanical restrictions on the discernibility of nonorthogonal quantum states, the protocol uses additional restrictions imposed by special relativity theory. Unlike all existing quantum key distribution protocols, this protocol ensures key secrecy for a not strictly one-photon source of quantum states and an arbitrary length of a quantum communication channel.
Quantum circuits for quantum channels
Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger; Christandl, Matthias
2017-05-01
We study the implementation of quantum channels with quantum computers while minimizing the experimental cost, measured in terms of the number of controlled-not (cnot) gates required (single-qubit gates are free). We consider three different models. In the first, the quantum circuit model (QCM), we consider sequences of single-qubit and cnot gates and allow qubits to be traced out at the end of the gate sequence. In the second (RandomQCM), we also allow external classical randomness. In the third (MeasuredQCM) we also allow measurements followed by operations that are classically controlled on the outcomes. We prove lower bounds on the number of cnot gates required and give near-optimal decompositions in almost all cases. Our main result is a MeasuredQCM circuit for any channel from m qubits to n qubits that uses at most one ancilla and has a low cnot count. We give explicit examples for small numbers of qubits that provide the lowest known cnot counts.
Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook
2015-01-01
When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.
1996-01-01
Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru
1990-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical wor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flytzanis, C.
1988-01-01
The 1988 progress report of the Quantum Optics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program is focused on the behavior of dense and dilute materials submitted to short and high-intensity light radiation fields. Nonlinear optics techniques, with time and spatial resolution, are developed. An important research activity concerns the investigations on the interactions between the photon beams and the inhomogeneous or composite materials, as well as the artificial microstructures. In the processes involving molecular beams and surfaces, the research works on the photophysics of surfaces and the molecule-surface interactions, are included [fr
Getting mobile with a walking-help
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krummheuer, Antonia Lina; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
in Symbolic Interaction 33: 443-457. Latour, B. (2005).Reassembeling the social. An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press. Ryave, A. L. and J. N. Schenkein. (1974). Not es on the Art of Walking. In Turner, R. (ed.) Ethnomethodology. Selected Readings. Middlesex: Penguin, 265......Ethnomethodology has been one of the few fields were mundane experiences and social ordering such as walking have been a focus of interest (e.g. Ryave and Schenkein 1974). In the present paper we want to discuss how this mundane practice sometimes needs to be achieved through the help of technology...... of the technology (e.g. Gaver 1996), the bodily affordances (e.g. Sheller 2011) of the user and, furthermore, the scaffolding by an accompanying helper. The paper will discuss how movement as an enabled experience can be analysed as an entanglement of these three aspects. To do that, the situations of walk...
Modeling, simulation and optimization of bipedal walking
Berns, Karsten
2013-01-01
The model-based investigation of motions of anthropomorphic systems is an important interdisciplinary research topic involving specialists from many fields such as Robotics, Biomechanics, Physiology, Orthopedics, Psychology, Neurosciences, Sports, Computer Graphics and Applied Mathematics. This book presents a study of basic locomotion forms such as walking and running is of particular interest due to the high demand on dynamic coordination, actuator efficiency and balance control. Mathematical models and numerical simulation and optimization techniques are explained, in combination with experimental data, which can help to better understand the basic underlying mechanisms of these motions and to improve them. Example topics treated in this book are Modeling techniques for anthropomorphic bipedal walking systems Optimized walking motions for different objective functions Identification of objective functions from measurements Simulation and optimization approaches for humanoid robots Biologically inspired con...
Exotic states of bouncing and walking droplets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wind-Willassen, Øistein; Moláček, Jan; Harris, Daniel M.
2013-01-01
We present the results of an integrated experimental and theoretical investigation of droplets bouncing on a vibrating fluid bath. A comprehensive series of experiments provides the most detailed characterisation to date of the system's dependence on fluid properties, droplet size, and vibrational...... forcing. A number of new bouncing and walking states are reported, including complex periodic and aperiodic motions. Particular attention is given to the first characterisation of the different gaits arising within the walking regime. In addition to complex periodic walkers and limping droplets, we....... Molacek and J. W. M. Bush, J. Fluid Mech.727, 612-647 (2013)]10.1017/jfm.2013.280, which provide a basis for rationalising all observed bouncing and walking states....
Design of a bipedal walking robot
Pratt, Jerry; Krupp, Ben
2008-04-01
We present the mechanical design of a bipedal walking robot named M2V2, as well as control strategies to be implemented for walking and balance recovery. M2V2 has 12 actuated degrees of freedom in the lower body: three at each hip, one at each knee, and two at each ankle. Each degree of freedom is powered by a force controllable Series Elastic Actuator. These actuators provide high force fidelity and low impedance, allowing for control techniques that exploit the natural dynamics of the robot. The walking and balance recovery controllers will use the concepts of Capture Points and the Capture Region in order to decide where to step. A Capture Point is a point on the ground in which a biped can step to in order to stop, and the Capture Region is the locus of such points.
Idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing dysfunction.
Williams, Cylie M; Tinley, Paul; Curtin, Michael
2010-08-16
It is generally understood that toe walking involves the absence or limitation of heel strike in the contact phase of the gait cycle. Toe walking has been identified as a symptom of disease processes, trauma and/or neurogenic influences. When there is no obvious cause of the gait pattern, a diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking (ITW) is made. Although there has been limited research into the pathophysiology of ITW, there has been an increasing number of contemporary texts and practitioner debates proposing that this gait pattern is linked to a sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). The purpose of this paper is to examine the literature and provide a summary of what is known about the relationship between toe walking and SPD. Forty-nine articles were reviewed, predominantly sourced from peer reviewed journals. Five contemporary texts were also reviewed. The literature styles consisted of author opinion pieces, letters to the editor, clinical trials, case studies, classification studies, poster/conference abstracts and narrative literature reviews. Literature was assessed and graded according to level of evidence. Only one small prospective, descriptive study without control has been conducted in relation to idiopathic toe walking and sensory processing. A cross-sectional study into the prevalence of idiopathic toe walking proposed sensory processing as being a reason for the difference. A proposed link between ITW and sensory processing was found within four contemporary texts and one conference abstract. Based on the limited conclusive evidence available, the relationship between ITW and sensory processing has not been confirmed. Given the limited number and types of studies together with the growing body of anecdotal evidence it is proposed that further investigation of this relationship would be advantageous.
Characterizing and quantifying quantum chaos with quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We explore quantum signatures of classical chaos by studying the rate of information gain in quantum tomography. The tomographic record consists of a time series of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under the application of the Floquet operator of a quantum map that possesses (or lacks) time-reversal ...
Quantum cellular automaton for universal quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raussendorf, Robert
2005-01-01
This paper describes a quantum cellular automaton capable of performing universal quantum computation. The automaton has an elementary transition function that acts on Margolus cells of 2x2 qubits, and both the 'quantum input' and the program are encoded in the initial state of the system
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-01-01
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted
Quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics
Li, Nan; Luo, Shunlong; Mao, Yuanyuan
2018-04-01
We study quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics, where quantumness refers to the noncommutativity between the initial state and the evolving state. In terms of the commutator of the square roots of the initial state and the evolving state, we define a measure to quantify the quantumness-generating capability of quantum dynamics with respect to initial states. Quantumness-generating capability is absent in classical dynamics and hence is a fundamental characteristic of quantum dynamics. For qubit systems, we present an analytical form for this measure, by virtue of which we analyze several prototypical dynamics such as unitary dynamics, phase damping dynamics, amplitude damping dynamics, and random unitary dynamics (Pauli channels). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability are also identified. Finally, we compare these conditions for the monotonicity of quantumness-generating capability with those for various Markovianities and illustrate that quantumness-generating capability and quantum Markovianity are closely related, although they capture different aspects of quantum dynamics.
Quantum Steganography and Quantum Error-Correction
Shaw, Bilal A.
2010-01-01
Quantum error-correcting codes have been the cornerstone of research in quantum information science (QIS) for more than a decade. Without their conception, quantum computers would be a footnote in the history of science. When researchers embraced the idea that we live in a world where the effects of a noisy environment cannot completely be…
Quantum entanglement and quantum computational algorithms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped ...
Movement Behavior of High-Heeled Walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter Christian; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar
2012-01-01
The human locomotor system is flexible and enables humans to move without falling even under less than optimal conditions. Walking with high-heeled shoes constitutes an unstable condition and here we ask how the nervous system controls the ankle joint in this situation? We investigated the movement...... behavior of high-heeled and barefooted walking in eleven female subjects. The movement variability was quantified by calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) in the ankle joint angle and the standard deviation (SD) of the stride time intervals. Electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (SO) and tibialis...
The variability problem of normal human walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine
2012-01-01
a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...
Rhythmic walking interaction with auditory feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maculewicz, Justyna; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania
2015-01-01
We present an interactive auditory display for walking with sinusoidal tones or ecological, physically-based synthetic walking sounds. The feedback is either step-based or rhythmic, with constant or adaptive tempo. In a tempo-following experiment, we investigate different interaction modes...... and auditory feedback, based on the MSE between the target and performed tempo, and the stability of the latter. The results indicate that the MSE with ecological sounds is comparable to that with the sinusoidal tones, yet ecological sounds are considered more natural. Adaptive conditions result in stable...
Path probabilities of continuous time random walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eule, Stephan; Friedrich, Rudolf
2014-01-01
Employing the path integral formulation of a broad class of anomalous diffusion processes, we derive the exact relations for the path probability densities of these processes. In particular, we obtain a closed analytical solution for the path probability distribution of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) process. This solution is given in terms of its waiting time distribution and short time propagator of the corresponding random walk as a solution of a Dyson equation. Applying our analytical solution we derive generalized Feynman–Kac formulae. (paper)
Path probabilities of continuous time random walks
Eule, Stephan; Friedrich, Rudolf
2014-12-01
Employing the path integral formulation of a broad class of anomalous diffusion processes, we derive the exact relations for the path probability densities of these processes. In particular, we obtain a closed analytical solution for the path probability distribution of a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) process. This solution is given in terms of its waiting time distribution and short time propagator of the corresponding random walk as a solution of a Dyson equation. Applying our analytical solution we derive generalized Feynman-Kac formulae.
Topics in random walks in random environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sznitman, A.-S.
2004-01-01
Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heechul Kim
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between people’s actual walking experience and their social capital levels in order to examine the possibility of restoring weakened social functions of streets and public spaces in a walking-friendly urban environment. Based on the survey data of 591 residents of Seoul, we empirically analyzed the relationship between walking experience for various purposes and individual perceptions of social capital using one-way ANOVA and OLS regression models. As a result of the analysis, we found that the levels of neighborly trust and networking of people who experienced leisure walking were higher than those of people who did not, while there was no difference in the level of social capital according to walking experiences for other purposes. This result is significant in that it shows the basis for the restoration of the social function of neighborhoods through social capital formation of people as an effect of walking. Hence, it is important to create a walking environment that supports leisure activities.
Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.
Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan
2018-03-06
The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.
Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration
Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro
2014-01-01
Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...
Walk Score® and Transit Score® and walking in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari A; Evenson, Kelly R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V
2013-08-01
Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking ("walkability") and access to transportation. To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multicity and diverse population-based sample of adults. Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD, Chicago IL, Forsyth County NC, Los Angeles CA, New York NY, and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010-2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a "walker's paradise," lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Holle, Veerle; Simons, Dorien; Deridder, Riet; Clarys, Peter; Goubert, Liesbet; Nasar, Jack; Salmon, Jo; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte
2012-07-10
Current knowledge on the relationship between the physical environment and walking for transportation among older adults (≥ 65 years) is limited. Qualitative research can provide valuable information and inform further research. However, qualitative studies are scarce and fail to include neighborhood outings necessary to study participants' experiences and perceptions while interacting with and interpreting the local social and physical environment. The current study sought to uncover the perceived environmental influences on Flemish older adults' walking for transportation. To get detailed and context-sensitive environmental information, it used walk-along interviews. Purposeful convenience sampling was used to recruit 57 older adults residing in urban or semi-urban areas. Walk-along interviews to and from a destination (e.g. a shop) located within a 15 minutes' walk from the participants' home were conducted. Content analysis was performed using NVivo 9 software (QSR International). An inductive approach was used to derive categories and subcategories from the data. Data were categorized in the following categories and subcategories: access to facilities (shops & services, public transit, connectivity), walking facilities (sidewalk quality, crossings, legibility, benches), traffic safety (busy traffic, behavior of other road users), familiarity, safety from crime (physical factors, other persons), social contacts, aesthetics (buildings, natural elements, noise & smell, openness, decay) and weather. The findings indicate that to promote walking for transportation a neighborhood should provide good access to shops and services, well-maintained walking facilities, aesthetically appealing places, streets with little traffic and places for social interaction. In addition, the neighborhood environment should evoke feelings of familiarity and safety from crime. Future quantitative studies should investigate if (changes in) these environmental factors relate to
Quantum tight-binding chains with dissipative coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mogilevtsev, D; Slepyan, G Ya; Garusov, E; Kilin, S Ya; Korolkova, N
2015-01-01
We present a one-dimensional tight-binding chain of two-level systems coupled only through common dissipative Markovian reservoirs. This quantum chain can demonstrate anomalous thermodynamic behavior contradicting Fourier law. Population dynamics of individual systems of the chain is polynomial with the order determined by the initial state of the chain. The chain can simulate classically hard problems, such as multi-dimensional random walks. (paper)
Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki
2007-01-01
Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view
Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crutchfield, James P.; Wiesner, Karoline
2008-01-01
We introduce ways to measure information storage in quantum systems, using a recently introduced computation-theoretic model that accounts for measurement effects. The first, the quantum excess entropy, quantifies the shared information between a quantum process's past and its future. The second, the quantum transient information, determines the difficulty with which an observer comes to know the internal state of a quantum process through measurements. We contrast these with von Neumann entropy and quantum entropy rate and provide a closed-form expression for the latter for the class of deterministic quantum processes
Quantum Information Processing
Leuchs, Gerd
2005-01-01
Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions
Quantum computational supremacy.
Harrow, Aram W; Montanaro, Ashley
2017-09-13
The field of quantum algorithms aims to find ways to speed up the solution of computational problems by using a quantum computer. A key milestone in this field will be when a universal quantum computer performs a computational task that is beyond the capability of any classical computer, an event known as quantum supremacy. This would be easier to achieve experimentally than full-scale quantum computing, but involves new theoretical challenges. Here we present the leading proposals to achieve quantum supremacy, and discuss how we can reliably compare the power of a classical computer to the power of a quantum computer.
Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible
Cantwell, Christopher
Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?
Bohmian quantum mechanics with quantum trajectories
Jeong, Yeuncheol
The quantum trajectory method in the hydrodynamical formulation of Madelung-Bohm-Takabayasi quantum mechanics is an example of showing the cognitive importance of scientific illustrations and metaphors, especially, in this case, in computational quantum chemistry and electrical engineering. The method involves several numerical schemes of solving a set of hydrodynamical equations of motion for probability density fluids, based on the propagation of those probability density trajectories. The quantum trajectory method gives rise to, for example, an authentic quantum electron transport theory of motion to, among others, classically-minded applied scientists who probably have less of a commitment to traditional quantum mechanics. They were not the usual audience of quantum mechanics and simply choose to use a non-Copenhagen type interpretation to their advantage. Thus, the metaphysical issues physicists had a trouble with are not the main concern of the scientists. With the advantages of a visual and illustrative trajectory, the quantum theory of motion by Bohm effectively bridges quantum and classical physics, especially, in the mesoscale domain. Without having an abrupt shift in actions and beliefs from the classical to the quantum world, scientists and engineers are able to enjoy human cognitive capacities extended into the quantum mechanical domain.
Exploration of walking behavior in Vermont using spatial regression.
2015-06-01
This report focuses on the relationship between walking and its contributing factors by : applying spatial regression methods. Using the Vermont data from the New England : Transportation Survey (NETS), walking variables as well as 170 independent va...
CDC Vital Signs: More People Walk to Better Health
... exercise, or for activities such as walking the dog. The percentage of people who report walking at ... lower risk for heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Improving spaces and having ...
A smartphone-based system for automated detection of walking.
2015-08-01
Walking is the most effective mode of travel to access transit: transit hubs with higher residential and employment densities have higher : ridership levels because they serve areas where a large population is within a short walk of transit service. ...
Probability of walking in children with cerebral palsy in Europe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beckung, E.; Hagberg, G.; Uldall, P.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to describe walking ability in children with cerebral palsy from the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe common database through 21 years and to examine the association between walking ability and predicting factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anonymous data...... on 10042 children with cerebral palsy born between 1976 and 1996 were gathered from 14 European centers; 9012 patients were eligible for the analyses. RESULTS: Unaided walking as the primary way of walking at 5 years of age was reported for 54%, walking with assistive devices was reported for 16......%, and no walking ability was reported for 30%. The proportion of children who were unable to walk was rather stable over time in all of the centers, with a mean proportion of 28%. Walking ability related significantly to cerebral palsy types, that is, spastic unilateral, spastic bilateral, dyskinetic, and ataxic...
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-01-01
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum-dot based photonic quantum networks
Lodahl, Peter
2018-01-01
Quantum dots (QDs) embedded in photonic nanostructures have in recent years proven to be a very powerful solid-state platform for quantum optics experiments. The combination of near-unity radiative coupling of a single QD to a photonic mode and the ability to eliminate decoherence processes imply that an unprecedent light-matter interface can be obtained. As a result, high-cooperativity photon-emitter quantum interfaces can be constructed opening a path-way to deterministic photonic quantum gates for quantum-information processing applications. In the present manuscript, I review current state-of-the-art on QD devices and their applications for quantum technology. The overarching long-term goal of the research field is to construct photonic quantum networks where remote entanglement can be distributed over long distances by photons.
Introduction to topological quantum matter & quantum computation
Stanescu, Tudor D
2017-01-01
What is -topological- about topological quantum states? How many types of topological quantum phases are there? What is a zero-energy Majorana mode, how can it be realized in a solid state system, and how can it be used as a platform for topological quantum computation? What is quantum computation and what makes it different from classical computation? Addressing these and other related questions, Introduction to Topological Quantum Matter & Quantum Computation provides an introduction to and a synthesis of a fascinating and rapidly expanding research field emerging at the crossroads of condensed matter physics, mathematics, and computer science. Providing the big picture, this book is ideal for graduate students and researchers entering this field as it allows for the fruitful transfer of paradigms and ideas amongst different areas, and includes many specific examples to help the reader understand abstract and sometimes challenging concepts. It explores the topological quantum world beyond the well-know...
Quantum-to-quantum Bernoulli factory problem
Jiang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Jialin; Sun, Xiaoming
2018-03-01
Given a coin with unknown bias p ∈[0 ,1 ] , can we exactly simulate another coin with bias f (p ) ? The exact set of simulable functions has been well characterized 20 years ago. In this paper, we ask the quantum counterpart of this question: Given the quantum coin |p > =√{p }|0 > +√{1 -p }|1 > , can we exactly simulate another quantum coin |f (p ) > =√{f (p ) }|0 > +√{1 -f (p ) }|1 > ? We give the full characterization of simulable quantum state k0(p ) |0 > +k1(p ) |1 > from quantum coin |p > =√{p }|0 > +√{1 -p }|1 >, and present an algorithm to transform it. Surprisingly, we show that simulable sets in the quantum-to-quantum case and classical-to-classical case have no inclusion relationship with each other.
Optimal blind quantum computation.
Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F
2013-12-06
Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client's quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of 8/3 of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Vaes, Anouk W; Meijer, Kenneth; Delbressine, Jeannet M; Wiechert, Jozé; Willems, Paul; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A
2015-08-01
Walking aids, such as rollator or draisine, improve mobility and functional exercise performance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during an indoor 6-min walk test. However, this test does not reflect everyday walking, which is the most frequently reported problematic activity of daily life in individuals with COPD. To date, efficacy of walking aids during self-paced outdoor walking remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of a rollator and draisine on self-paced outdoor walking in individuals with COPD. Fifteen individuals with COPD (68% men; age: 63 ± 8 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 40 ± 14% predicted) performed three self-paced outdoor walking tests on two consecutive days: test 1 unaided, and tests 2 and 3 with rollator or draisine in random order. Participants had to walk as long as possible at their own pace. The test ended when participants needed to stop, with a maximum duration of 30 min. The use of rollator resulted in the highest walk distance and time (P walked significantly further and longer during an unaided test compared with a draisine aided test (P walking speed, fewer strides, greater stride length, and higher step and stride variability (P walk distance and time in individuals with moderate and advanced COPD and a poor functional exercise capacity, whereas the use of a draisine had a detrimental effect compared with unaided walking. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Random Walk Method for Potential Problems
Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.
2002-01-01
A local Random Walk Method (RWM) for potential problems governed by Lapalace's and Paragon's equations is developed for two- and three-dimensional problems. The RWM is implemented and demonstrated in a multiprocessor parallel environment on a Beowulf cluster of computers. A speed gain of 16 is achieved as the number of processors is increased from 1 to 23.
Random walk term weighting for information retrieval
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blanco, R.; Lioma, Christina
2007-01-01
We present a way of estimating term weights for Information Retrieval (IR), using term co-occurrence as a measure of dependency between terms.We use the random walk graph-based ranking algorithm on a graph that encodes terms and co-occurrence dependencies in text, from which we derive term weights...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
test of maximum oxygen intake which requires neither special equipment nor trained technical staff. Cooper's 12- minute walk or run procedure for predicting the maximum oxygen intake appears to fulfil these requirements.' All that is needed is a stop-watch and a level 440-yard track so that the distance which the individual ...
Adaptive Nonlinear Tracking for Robotic Walking
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dolinský, Kamil; Čelikovský, Sergej
2012-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 1 (2012), s. 28-35 ISSN 2223-7038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Adaptive control * Kalman filter * walking robots Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://lib.physcon.ru/doc?id=9e51935aa5bc
Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking
Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.
2012-01-01
In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…
A Random Walk on a Circular Path
Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.
2005-01-01
This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.
Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and Beyond
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and Beyond. Shama Sharma Vishwamittar. General Article Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 49-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 16-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0016-0034 ...
Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein. Sriram Ramaswamy. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 106-124. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/12/0106-0124 ...
Garden walking for depression: a research report.
McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William
2010-01-01
This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.
Iterated random walks with shape prior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma
2016-01-01
We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate th...
Walking training for intermittent claudication in diabetes
Ubels, FL; Links, TP; Sluiter, WJ; Smit, AJ
OBJECTIVE - Walking training (WT) is an established treatment for patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Abnormalities specific to diabetes, such as a relative preponderance of distal lesions and the contribution of microcirculatory disease, might well influence the results of WT. We compared
Assessment of a Solar System Walk
LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian
2010-01-01
The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…
Analysis, Control and Design of Walking Robots
van Oort, Gijs
2011-01-01
In this thesis five research questions are discussed that are related to the development of two-legged (bipedal) walking robots. The research questions are categorized in three main topics: analysis, control and actuation and design. The research questions are: - How can we analyze the behavior of a