Sample records for environment uv-shielding properties

  1. Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Taoye; Chen Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Rohani, Sohrab, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO{sub 2} layer and a top fully covered protective SiO{sub 2} layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165 deg. after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm{sup -2} for 12 h.

  2. Transparent nanostructured coatings with UV-shielding and superhydrophobicity properties (United States)

    Wang, Taoye; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Chen, Jianfeng; Rohani, Sohrab


    Visible light transparent, UV-shielding and superhydrophobic nanostructured coatings have been successfully fabricated through a facile layer-by-layer deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles. The coatings are composed of an underlying UV-shielding TiO2 layer and a top fully covered protective SiO2 layer. The resulting coatings can block 100% of UVB and UVC and almost 85% of UVA. The fabricated surfaces have contact angles exceeding 165° after coating with organic PTES (1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane) molecules. The transparent superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit extremely strong UV stability. All coatings retain the initial UV-shielding and superhydrophobic properties even after exposure to 275 nm UV light with a light intensity of 75 mW cm - 2 for 12 h.

  3. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny


    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  4. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina


    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  5. Effect of adjustable molecular chain structure and pure silica zeolite nanoparticles on thermal, mechanical, dielectric, UV-shielding and hydrophobic properties of fluorinated copolyimide composites (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liao, Guangfu; Zhang, Shulai; Pang, Long; Tong, Hao; Zhao, Wenzhe; Xu, Zushun


    A series of polyimide (PI) films, polyimide/pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (PSZN) blend films and polyimide/amine-functionalized pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (APSZN) composite films were successfully prepared by random copolycondensation. Thereinto, PSZN were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The polyimides were derived from 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA), and three adjustable molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) of 2,2-bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl] propane dianhydride (BPADA) and 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA). The effects of PSZN, APSZN and different chain structure on PI films were specifically evaluated in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, dielectric and UV-shielding properties, etc. Comparison was given among pure PI flims, PI/PSZN blend films and PI/APSZN composite flims. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of PI films were drastically impaired after adding PSZN. On the contrary, the strength, toughness and thermal stability were improved after adding APSZN. Moreover, the dielectric constants of the PI/APSZN composite flims were lowered but UV-shielding properties were enhanced. Interestingly, we found that the greatest effects were obtained through introducing APSZN in PI derived by the 1:1 ratio of BPADA:6FDA. The corresponding PI/APSZN composite flim exhibited the most reinforced and toughened properties, the largest decrement of dielectric constant and the best UV-shielding efficiency, which made the composite flim be used as ultraviolet shielding material in outer space filled with high temperature and intensive ultraviolet light. Meanwhile, this work also provided a facile way to synthesize composite materials with adjustable performance.

  6. Superhydrophilic poly (styrene co acrylonitrile)-ZnO nanocomposite surfaces for UV shielding and self-cleaning applications (United States)

    Singh, Rajender; Sharma, Ramesh; Barman, P. B.; Sharma, Dheeraj


    UV shielding based super hydrophilic material is developed in the present formulation by in situ emulsion polymerization of poly (styrene-acrylonitrile) with ZnO nanoparticles. The ESI-MS technique confirms the structure of polymer nanocomposite by their mass fragments. The XRD study confirms the presence of ZnO phase in polymer matrix. PSAN/ZnO nanocomposite leads to give effective UV shielding (upto 375 nm) and visible luminescence with ZnO content in polymer matrix. The FESEM and TEM studies confirm the symmetrical, controlled growth of PNs. The incorporation of ZnO nanofillers into PSAN matrix lead to restructuring the PNs surfaces into superhydrophilic surfaces in water contact angle (WCA) from 70° to 10°. We believe our synthesized PSAN/ZnO nanocomposite could be potential as UV shielding, luminescent and super hydrophilic nature based materials in related commercial applications.

  7. Facile and Low-Temperature Fabrication of Thermochromic Cr2O3/VO2 Smart Coatings: Enhanced Solar Modulation Ability, High Luminous Transmittance and UV-Shielding Function. (United States)

    Chang, Tianci; Cao, Xun; Li, Ning; Long, Shiwei; Gao, Xiang; Dedon, Liv R; Sun, Guangyao; Luo, Hongjie; Jin, Ping


    In the pursuit of energy efficient materials, vanadium dioxide (VO2) based smart coatings have gained much attention in recent years. For smart window applications, VO2 thin films should be fabricated at low temperature to reduce the cost in commercial fabrication and solve compatibility problems. Meanwhile, thermochromic performance with high luminous transmittance and solar modulation ability, as well as effective UV shielding function has become the most important developing strategy for ideal smart windows. In this work, facile Cr2O3/VO2 bilayer coatings on quartz glasses were designed and fabricated by magnetron sputtering at low temperatures ranging from 250 to 350 °C as compared with typical high growth temperatures (>450 °C). The bottom Cr2O3 layer not only provides a structural template for the growth of VO2 (R), but also serves as an antireflection layer for improving the luminous transmittance. It was found that the deposition of Cr2O3 layer resulted in a dramatic enhancement of the solar modulation ability (56.4%) and improvement of luminous transmittance (26.4%) when compared to single-layer VO2 coating. According to optical measurements, the Cr2O3/VO2 bilayer structure exhibits excellent optical performances with an enhanced solar modulation ability (ΔTsol = 12.2%) and a high luminous transmittance (Tlum,lt = 46.0%), which makes a good balance between ΔTsol and Tlum for smart windows applications. As for UV-shielding properties, more than 95.8% UV radiation (250-400 nm) can be blocked out by the Cr2O3/VO2 structure. In addition, the visualized energy-efficient effect was modeled by heating a beaker of water using infrared imaging method with/without a Cr2O3/VO2 coating glass.

  8. A Novel UV-Shielding and Transparent Polymer Film: When Bioinspired Dopamine-Melanin Hollow Nanoparticles Join Polymers. (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Su, Jing; Li, Ting; Ma, Piming; Bai, Huiyu; Xie, Yi; Chen, Mingqing; Dong, Weifu


    Ultraviolet (UV) light is known to be harmful to human health and cause organic materials to undergo photodegradation. In this Research Article, bioinspired dopamine-melanin solid nanoparticles (Dpa-s NPs) and hollow nanoparticles (Dpa-h NPs) as UV-absorbers were introduced to enhance the UV-shielding performance of polymer. First, Dpa-s NPs were synthesized through autoxidation of dopamine in alkaline aqueous solution. Dpa-h NPs were prepared by the spontaneous oxidative polymerization of dopamine solution onto polystyrene (PS) nanospheres template, followed by removal of the template. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Dpa nanocomposite films were subsequently fabricated by a simple casting solvent. UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of Dpa-s versus Dpa-h NPs. In contrast to PVA/Dpa-s films, PVA/Dpa-h films exhibit stronger UV-shielding capabilities and can almost block the complete UV region (200-400 nm). The excellent UV-shielding performance of the PVA/Dpa-h films mainly arises from multiple absorption because of the hollow structure and large specific area of Dpa-h NPs. Moreover, the wall thickness of Dpa-h NPs can be simply controlled from 28 to 8 nm, depending on the ratio between PS and dopamine. The resulting films with Dpa-h NPs (wall thickness = ∼8 nm) maintained relatively high transparency to visible light because of the thinner wall thickness. The results indicate that the prepared Dpa-h NPs can be used as a novel UV absorber for next-generation transparent UV-shielding materials.

  9. Quantum dots/silica/polymer nanocomposite films with high visible light transmission and UV shielding properties (United States)

    Mumin, Md Abdul; Xu, William Z.; Charpentier, Paul A.


    The dispersion of light-absorbing inorganic nanomaterials in transparent plastics such as poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) is of enormous current interest in emerging solar materials, including photovoltaic (PV) modules and commercial greenhouse films. Nanocrystalline semiconductor or quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to absorb UV light and selectively emit visible light, which can control plant growth in greenhouses or enhance PV panel efficiencies. This work provides a new and simple approach for loading mesoporous silica-encapsulated QDs into PEVA. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm size were synthesized using a modified facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single-molecule precursors and capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS. To make both the bare and core-shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interactions. By careful experimental tuning, this encapsulation technique enhanced the quantum yield (˜65%) and photostability compared to the bare QDs. Both the encapsulated bare and core-shell QDs were then melt-mixed with EVA pellets using a mini twin-screw extruder and pressed into thin films with controlled thickness. The results demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous silica not only enhanced the quantum yield and photostability of the QDs but also improved the compatibility and dispersibility of QDs throughout the PEVA films. The novel light selective films show high visible light transmission (˜90%) and decreased UV transmission (˜75%).

  10. Enhanced Interfacial Strength and UV Shielding of Aramid Fiber Composites through ZnO Nanoparticle Sizing. (United States)

    Patterson, Brendan A; Sodano, Henry A


    Here, a simple zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle sizing is reported for aramid fibers that simultaneously provides interfacial reinforcement and UV absorption to develop improved fiber-reinforced composites. Through a one-step nanoparticle deposition, the modified aramid fiber showed an increase in interfacial shear strength of 18.9% with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles when tested by single-fiber pullout. The aramid fibers were then treated with a hydrolysis process common to aramid fibers to oxidize the surface and elucidate the importance of oxygen functional groups at the interface. These oxidized fibers proved to further enhance the interface between the fiber surface and nanoparticle, leading to a 33.3% increase relative to the bare fiber. Additionally, due to the absorption properties of ZnO, the retainment of mechanical properties of coated fibers was determined after exposure to an artificial UV light source. After 24 h of exposure, fibers coated with ZnO nanoparticles retained 25% more tensile strength and 21% more modulus than uncoated bare fibers. This work shows that ZnO nanoparticles may serve as a novel, yet simple, multifunctional fiber sizing with which to increase the interfacial strength of aramid fiber composites and improve the resistance to UV irradiation, enabling stronger and more-durable structural fiber composites.

  11. A facile approach to fabrication of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite leads to excellent UV-shielding ability and lower catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed, E-mail: [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Kurayama, Fumio [Utsunomiya University, Center for Optical Research and Education (Japan); Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide [Utsunomiya University, Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Siddiquey, Iqbal Ahmed [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Hossain, Md. Mufazzal [University of Dhaka, Department of Chemistry (Bangladesh); Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan)


    This study reports the development of a fast and facile route for the synthesis of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite particles using microwave (MW) irradiation of the mixture of commercial CeO{sub 2}, titanium-tetra-n-butoxide (TBOT) and aqueous ammonia. Solutions of TBOT in ethanol and ammonia were mixed with dispersed CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ethanol, and the mixture was rapidly MW irradiated at 70 Degree-Sign C for 2 min. The resulting nanocomposite particles were characterized in terms of phase, shell thickness, composition, surface charge, morphology, and chemical state of the elements by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM, Zeta potential analyzer, XRF, and FT-IR. Conventional methods of the synthesis of CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite require a long time, and TiO{sub 2} is rarely found as a coated material. In contrast, the MW method was able to synthesize CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocompsite particles within a very short time. CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite particles were fairly unaggregated with an average titania layer thickness of 2-5 nm. The obtained nanocomposites retained the crystalline cubic phase of CeO{sub 2}, and the phase of coated TiO{sub 2} was amorphous. The catalytic activities of uncoated and TiO{sub 2}-coated CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles for the oxidation of organic compounds were evaluated by the degradation study of methylene blue in air atmosphere at 403 K. The enhanced UV-shielding ability and visible transparency of the nanocomposite obtained by UV visible spectroscopic measurements suggested that the core-shell material has novel characteristics for using as a sunscreen material.

  12. Environments perceived as obesogenic have lower residential property values. (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V


    Studies have tried to link obesity rates and physical activity with multiple aspects of the built environment. To determine the relation between residential property values and multiple perceived (self-reported) measures of the obesogenic environment. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) used a telephone survey of a representative, geographically distributed sample of 2,001 King County adults, collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Home addresses were geocoded. Residential property values at the tax parcel level were obtained from the King County tax assessor. Mean residential property values within a 10-minute walk (833-m buffer) were calculated for each respondent. Data on multiple perceived measures of the obesogenic environment were collected by self-report. Correlations and multivariable linear regression analyses, stratified by residential density, were used to examine the associations among perceived environmental measures, property values, and BMI. Perceived measures of the environment such as crime, heavy traffic, and proximity to bars, liquor stores, and fast food were all associated with lower property values. By contrast, living in neighborhoods that were perceived as safe, quiet, clean, and attractive was associated with higher property values. Higher property values were associated, in turn, with lower BMIs among women. The observed associations between perceived environment measures and BMI were largely attenuated after accounting for residential property values. Environments perceived as obesogenic are associated with lower property values. Studies in additional locations need to explore to what extent other perceived environment measures can be reflected in residential property values. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete in marine environment. (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaotian; Wu, Pengcheng; Guo, Zhiying


    Experimental work was carried out to develop information about mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) in marine environment. By using the seawater and dry-wet circulation to simulate the marine environment, specimens of RC were tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. Based on the analysis of the stress-strain curves (SSCs) and compressive strength, it is revealed that RC' peak value and elastic modulus decreased with the increase of replacement percentage and corroding time in marine environment. And the failure of recycled concrete was speeded up with more obvious cracks and larger angles of 65° to 85° in the surface when compared with normal concrete. Finally, the grey model (GM) with equal time intervals was constructed to investigate the law of compressive strength of recycled concrete in marine environment, and it is found that the GM is accurate and feasible for the prediction of RC compressive strength in marine environment.

  14. Material Property Measurement in Hostile Environments using Laser Acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Telschow


    Acoustic methods are well known and have been used to measure various intrinsic material properties, such as, elastic coefficients, density, crystal axis orientation, microstructural texture, and residual stress. Extrinsic properties, such as, dimensions, motion variables or temperature are also readily determined from acoustic methods. Laser acoustics, employing optical generation and detection of elastic waves, has a unique advantage over other acoustic methods—it is noncontacting, uses the sample surface itself for transduction, requires no couplant or invasive sample surface preparation and can be utilized in any hostile environment allowing optical access to the sample surface. In addition, optical generation and detection probe beams can be focused to the micron scale and/or shaped to alter the transduction process with a degree of control not possible using contact transduction methods. Laser methods are amenable to both continuous wave and pulse-echo measurements and have been used from Hz to 100’s of GHz (time scales from sec to psec) and with amplitudes sufficient to fracture materials. This paper shall review recent applications of laser acoustic methods to determining material properties in hostile environments that preclude the use of contacting transduction techniques. Example environments include high temperature (>1000C) sintering and molten metal processing, thin film deposition by plasma techniques, materials moving at high velocity during the fabrication process and nuclear high radiation regions. Recent technological advances in solid-state lasers and telecommunications have greatly aided the development and implementation of laser acoustic methods, particularly at ultra high frequencies. Consequently, laser acoustic material property measurements exhibit high precision and reproducibility today. In addition, optical techniques provide methods of imaging acoustic motion that is both quantitative and rapid. Possible future directions for

  15. Tensile properties of ADI material in water and gaseous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnovic, Dragan, E-mail: [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Balos, Sebastian; Sidjanin, Leposava [Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 6, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Eric Cekic, Olivera [Innovation Centre, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade (Serbia); Grbovic Novakovic, Jasmina [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)


    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is an advanced type of heat treated ductile iron, having comparable mechanical properties as forged steels. However, it was found that in contact with water the mechanical properties of austempered ductile irons decrease, especially their ductility. Despite considerable scientific attention, the cause of this phenomenon remains unclear. Some authors suggested that hydrogen or small atom chemisorption causes the weakening of the surface atomic bonds. To get additional reliable data of that phenomenon, in this paper, two different types of austempered ductile irons were tensile tested in various environments, such as: argon, helium, hydrogen gas and water. It was found that only the hydrogen gas and water gave a statistically significant decrease in mechanical properties, i.e. cause embrittlement. Furthermore, the fracture surface analysis revealed that the morphology of the embrittled zone near the specimen surface shares similarities to the fatigue micro-containing striation-like lines, which indicates that the morphology of the brittle zone may be caused by cyclic local-chemisorption, micro-embrittlement and local-fracture. - Highlights: • In contact with water and other liquids the ADI suddenly exhibits embrittlement. • The embrittlement is more pronounced in water than in the gaseous hydrogen. • The hydrogen chemisorption into ADI surface causes the formation of a brittle zone. • The ADI austempered at lower temperatures (300 °C) is more resistant to embrittlement.

  16. Properties and depositional environment of the Neogene Elhovo Lignite, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdravkov, Alexander; Kortenski, Jordan [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    Several Mio-Pliocene aged lignite seams occur as part of a non-marine transgressive sequence in the Elhovo graben in south-eastern Bulgaria. The present study is focused on 45 samples collected from three boreholes in the eastern part of the basin. Petrographic data along with ash and sulphur contents were used in order to determine the lateral and vertical variations of the coal facies and depositional environment of the Elhovo lignite. The lignite seams accumulated in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with high pH value and are characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. Despite of the neutral to weakly alkaline environment the bacterial activity was limited and the tissue preservation and gelification were mainly controlled by the redox conditions. Vegetation rich in decay resistant conifers dominated in the Elhovo basin together with mesophytic angiosperm species. The absence of algal remains and sapropelic coal indicated that open water areas were not present during peat accumulation. The latter processed in an environment, characterized by low subsidence rate, in which prior to the burial the woods were subjected to severe mechanical destruction. According to our interpretation, the enhanced impregnation of the tissues bacteria and fungi played only a secondary role in the process of humification. The lignite from borehole 122 and partly from BH 145 deposited in an environment characterized by relatively low (ground)water table, whereas to the south an area dominated by a flooded forest swamp (BH 104) formed. This is suggested by the better tissue preservation and gelification of the organic matter in BH 104. The vertical variation of the maceral composition in the studied lignite is interpreted as a consequence of vegetational changes, rather than to changes in the depositional environment. The low contents of inertinite macerals indicate that despite of the low water level the environment was relatively wet and the thermal and oxidative destruction

  17. Quantum probes for the spectral properties of a classical environment (United States)

    Benedetti, Claudia; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G. A.


    We address the use of simple quantum probes for the spectral characterization of classical noisy environments. In our scheme a qubit interacts with a classical stochastic field describing environmental noise and is then measured after a given interaction time in order to estimate the characteristic parameters of the noise. In particular, we address estimation of the spectral parameters of two relevant kinds of non-Gaussian noise: random telegraph noise with a Lorentzian spectrum and colored noise with a 1/fα spectrum. We analyze in detail the estimation precision achievable by quantum probes and prove that population measurement on the qubit is optimal for noise estimation in both cases. We also evaluate the optimal interaction times for the quantum probe, i.e., the values maximizing the quantum Fisher information (QFI) and the quantum signal-to-noise ratio. For random telegraph noise the QFI is inversely proportional to the square of the switching rate, meaning that the quantum signal-to-noise ratio is constant and thus the switching rate may be uniformly estimated with the same precision in its whole range of variation. For colored noise, the precision achievable in the estimation of "color," i.e., of the exponent α, strongly depends on the structure of the environment, i.e., on the number of fluctuators describing the classical environment. For an environment modeled by a single random fluctuator estimation is more precise for pink noise, i.e., for α =1, whereas by increasing the number of fluctuators, the quantum signal-to-noise ratio has two local maxima, with the largest one drifting towards α =2, i.e., brown noise.

  18. Nanosilver: Properties, Applications and Impacts on Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F. M. Nogueira


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has developed rapidly in the last decade as a multidisciplinary field, with a myriad of applications in strategic areas including energy, electronics, medi-cine, biotechnology, among others. In modern days, the high commercial demand of silver nanoparticles (NPAg, in particular, has motivated a broad debate in the scientific community. This review gives a brief survey of the applications, commercialization and possible impacts of NPAg to human health and environment, with focus on their toxicity, transformation, and bioavailability. We also present a description of the current international laws and regulations regarding commercialization of nanomaterials.

  19. Seasonal variations in the sediment biogenic properties of a tropical mangrove environment, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, M.; Jacob, J.; Nisha, P.A.; Martin, G.D.; Srinivas, K.; Sheeba, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.

    environments. Principal component analysis showed that the biochemical properties are uniformly influenced by seasonal and spatial variations. Higher concentrations of sediment protein over carbohydrate indicate an efficient mineralization leading to the non...

  20. Physicochemical properties of quinolone antibiotics in various environments. (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Ryun; Kim, Tae Heung; Bark, Ki-Min


    The progress and photosensitivity of quinolone antibiotics are briefly described. By the photolysis of nalidixic acid, the loss of -COOH group is observed. The photoreaction of fluoroquinolones involves heterolytic C-F bond fragmentation. The protonation and divalent cation complexation equilibria are also examined. The spectroscopic properties of these drugs are intensively investigated in biological mimetic systems such as AOT reverse micelle, and H(2)O-CH(3)OH and H(2)O-CH(3)CN mixed solvents. For ofloxacin and norfloxacin, the excited-state intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) is observed. So, fluorescence spectra exhibit reverse solvatochromism in mixed solvents. The change of radiative and non-radiative rate constant can also be explained using this ICT. The influence of dielectric effects of solvent is more significant compared with the specific hydrogen bonding interaction. Theoretical treatments support all of these results.

  1. Local electric fields and molecular properties in heterogeneous environments through polarizable embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Kongsted, Jacob


    the additional effective external field effect, i.e., the manifestations of the environment polarization induced by the external field, which allows for the calculation of properties defined in terms of the external field. Within a response framework, we report calculations of the one- and two-photon absorption......In spectroscopies, the local field experienced by a molecule embedded in an environment will be different from the externally applied electromagnetic field, and this difference may significantly alter the response and transition properties of the molecule. The polarizable embedding (PE) model has...... previously been developed to model the local field contribution stemming from the direct molecule-environment coupling of the electromagnetic response properties of molecules in solution as well as in heterogeneous environments, such as proteins. Here we present an extension of this approach to address...

  2. A Hybrid Density Functional Theory/Molecular Mechanics Approach for Linear Response Properties in Heterogeneous Environments. (United States)

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ågren, Hans


    We introduce a density functional theory/molecular mechanical approach for computation of linear response properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments, such as metal surfaces or nanoparticles embedded in solvents. The heterogeneous embedding environment, consisting from metallic and nonmetallic parts, is described by combined force fields, where conventional force fields are used for the nonmetallic part and capacitance-polarization-based force fields are used for the metallic part. The presented approach enables studies of properties and spectra of systems embedded in or placed at arbitrary shaped metallic surfaces, clusters, or nanoparticles. The capability and performance of the proposed approach is illustrated by sample calculations of optical absorption spectra of thymidine absorbed on gold surfaces in an aqueous environment, where we study how different organizations of the gold surface and how the combined, nonadditive effect of the two environments is reflected in the optical absorption spectrum.

  3. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment


    Murosaki, T.; Noguchi, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Kakugo, A.; Kurokawa, T.; Saito, J.; Chen, Y. M.; Furukawa, H.; Gong, J. P.


    In marine environment, the antifouling properties against marine sessile organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles, etc.) were tested on various kinds of hydrogels in a long term. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can ensure at least 2 months in marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited amazing antifouling activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles as long as 330 days. The antifouling ability of hydrogels to barnac...

  4. Nanotribological and Nanomechanical Properties Changes of Tooth After Bleaching and Remineralization in Wet Environment (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Gao, Shanshan; Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Gao, Shuai; Yu, Haiyang


    Teeth bleaching cases had increased with people's desire for oral aesthetic; however, bleached teeth would still undertake chewing actions and remineralizing process in saliva. Nanotribological and nanomechanical properties are proper displays for dental performance of bleached teeth. The purpose of the research was to reveal the effect of bleaching and remineralization on the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of teeth in wet environment. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the bleaching products used: 12 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) (12HP group); 15 % carbamide peroxide (CP) (15CP group); 35 % CP (35CP group); and artificial saliva (control group). The nanotribological and nanomechanical property changes of tooth enamel after bleaching and remineralization were evaluated respectively by nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests in wet environment, imitating the wet oral environment. The morphology changes were evaluated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After bleaching, 12HP group and 15CP group showed increased scratch depth with more pile ups on the scratch edges, decreased nanohardness, and corroded surface appearance. While the 35CP group showed an increase in nanoscratch depth, no change in nanohardness and surface appearance was observed. The control group showed no change in these measurements. After remineralization, the three bleaching groups showed decreased nanoscratch depth and no change of nanohardness compared with the bleached teeth. And the control group showed no changes in nanotribological and nanomechanical properties. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of the 12HP group and 15CP group were affected by bleaching, but the nanotribological properties recovered partly and the nanomechanical properties got no change after 1 week of remineralization. As for the 35CP group, the nanotribological properties were influenced and the nanomechanical properties were not

  5. The effect of space environment exposure on the properties of polymer matrix composite materials (A0180) (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.


    The objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of various lengths of exposure to a space environment on the mechanical properties of selected commercial polymer matrix composite materials. Fiber materials will include graphite, boron, S-glass, and PRD-49. The mechanical properties to be investigated are orthotropic elastic constants, strength parameters (satisfying the tensor polynomial relation), coefficients of thermal expansion, impact resistance, crack propagation, and fracture toughness. In addition, the effect of laminate thickness on property changes will also be investigated.

  6. Properties and environment of radio-emitting galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardelli, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčic, V.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Mignoli, M.; Halliday, C.; Kovač, K.; Ciliegi, P.; Caputi, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bondi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Abbas, U.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Guzzo, L.; Leauthaud, A.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Memeo, P.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Porciani, C.; Scaramella, R.; Capak, P.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Jahnke, K.

    Aims: We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterparts from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic informations, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination.

  7. Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Spacecraft Polyimide Film Exposed to Radiation Environments (United States)

    Zicai, Shen; Yuming, Liu; Weiquan, Feng; Chunqing, Zhao; Yigang, Ding

    Polyimide films are widely used in spacecraft, but their mechanical properties would degrade in radiation environments that include electrons, protons, atomic oxygen, near ultraviolet or far ultraviolet, etc. Implications of using polyimide films in spacecraft are reviewed in this paper. The degradation of mechanical properties of Kapton film exposed to electrons and far ultraviolet radiation environments were studied. It is known that the tensile strength and the rupture elongation of Kapton film decrease with the increase of the tensile deformation rate and the electron and far ultraviolet radiation. The far ultraviolet radiation will cause the rupture and cross linkage of molecular bonds in the film, deoxidation of C-CO, denitrification of C-N. The increase of C-H percentage is attributed mainly to the mechanical property degradation of Kapton film under far ultraviolet irradiation.

  8. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of The Classroom Assessment Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Alkharusi


    Full Text Available Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study reports on the development and datametric properties of a scale measuring students' perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. A total of 450 students enrolled in the tenth grade English language classes at Muscat public schools in Oman completed the scale. Results yielded two subscales of the perceived classroom assessment environment: learning-, and performance-oriented environments. The correlations between them suggested that they represented unique aspects of the classroom assessment environment as perceived by the students. Additional validity evidence was obtained through gender differences and correlations of the subscales scores with the total scores received in the subject at end of the semester. Reliability analyses showed that the subscales' scores had relatively moderate levels of internal consistency. Implications and recommendations for classroom instruction and assessment as well as for future research are discussed.

  9. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail:


    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. - Highlights: • Environment dependent (dry-wet) properties of shrimp exoskeleton are analyzed. • Mechanical properties are correlated with the structure and composition. • Presence of water leads to lower reduced modulus and hardness. • SEM images shows the Bouligand pattern based structure. • Creep-relaxation of polymer chains, interface slip is high in presence of water.

  10. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara


    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  11. Built environment and Property Crime in Seattle, 1998–2000: A Bayesian Analysis (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-chuan; Hayslett-McCall, Karen L.; Ruback, R. Barry


    The past decade has seen a rapid growth in the use of a spatial perspective in studies of crime. In part this growth has been driven by the availability of georeferenced data, and the tools to analyze and visualize them: geographic information systems (GIS), spatial analysis, and spatial statistics. In this paper we use exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) tools and Bayesian models to help better understand the spatial patterning and predictors of property crime in Seattle, Washington for 1998–2000, including a focus on built environment variables. We present results for aggregate property crime data as well as models for specific property crime types: residential burglary, nonresidential burglary, theft, auto theft, and arson. ESDA confirms the presence of spatial clustering of property crime and we seek to explain these patterns using spatial Poisson models implemented in WinBUGS. Our results indicate that built environment variables were significant predictors of property crime, especially the presence of a highway on auto theft and burglary. PMID:24737924

  12. Analysis Of The Properties Of Hydrotechnical Concrete Employed In The Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunė Lebedeva


    Full Text Available Hydrotechnical concrete employed in the marine environmentis strongly influenced by environmental effects such as air temperaturefluctuations, seawater temperature fluctuations, winddirection and speed. All these factors must be analyzed andevaluated designing the composition of hydrotechnical concreteoperating in marine water. The paper is aimed at assessing theproperties of the concrete operated in the marine environment andat analysing the properties of hydrotechnical concrete affectedby seawater with reference to recommendations on designingit. On these grounds, the examination of the impact of sea andriver water has been carried out and the properties of the aboveintroduced two types of water have been compared.

  13. Synergistic effect of functionally active methacrylate polymer and ZnO nanoparticles on optical and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilangovan, Pugazhenthi; Sakvai, Mohammed Safiullah; Kottur, Anver Basha, E-mail:


    A crucial need to design a functionally active polymer hybrid for the protection of material structure that are exposing to harmful Ultra Violet radiation (UV). In this paper a poly(pyridine-4-yl-methyl) methacrylate ZnO nanocomposite (PPyMMA/ZnO) was developed by in-situ solution polymerization. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that the nanocomposite is homogeneous with good compatibility between the two counterparts. The morphological variation arises owing to the incorporation of OA-ZnO in the PPyMMA were observed by using electron microscope techniques. The thermal behaviour of PPyMMA and its ZnO nanocomposites were analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric properties of the polymer and its ZnO nanocomposites were studied over a wide range of temperature (30–300 °C) at frequency 100 KHz. An optical study was carried out to test the optical properties of PPyMMA/ZnO (2, 5 and 5%), which reveals that 2% ZnONPs loading exhibits an excellent UV shielding properties. - Highlights: • The PPyMMA/ZnO was prepared by in-situ solution polymerization. • The OA-ZnO were incorporated during the solution polymerization of PPyMMA. • The PPyMMA/ZnO nanocomposite exhibit an improved dielectric property. • The PPyMMA with OA-ZnO nanocomposite show an excellent UV-shielding.

  14. Properties and environment of Radio Emitting Galaxies in the VLA-zCOSMOS survey


    Bardelli, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolcic, V.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Mignoli, M; Halliday, C.; Kovac, K.; Ciliegi, P.; Caputi, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bondi, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Vergani, D.


    Aims. We investigate the properties and the environment of radio sources with optical counterparts from the combined VLA-COSMOS and zCOSMOS samples. The advantage of this sample is the availability of optical spectroscopic informations, high quality redshifts, and accurate density determination. Methods. By comparing the star formation rates estimated from the optical spectral energy distribution with those based on the radio luminosity, we divide the radio sources in to three fam...

  15. Comparison of High-Performance Fiber Materials Properties in Simulated and Actual Space Environments (United States)

    Finckernor, M. M.


    A variety of high-performance fibers, including Kevlar, Nomex, Vectran, and Spectra, have been tested for durability in the space environment, mostly the low Earth orbital environment. These materials have been tested in yarn, tether/cable, and fabric forms. Some material samples were tested in a simulated space environment, such as the Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility and solar simulators in the laboratory. Other samples were flown on the International Space Station as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment. Mass loss due to atomic oxygen erosion and optical property changes due to ultraviolet radiation degradation are given. Tensile test results are also presented, including where moisture loss in a vacuum had an impact on tensile strength.

  16. [Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)--properties, distribution and behavior in the environment. I. Chemical and toxicological properties of NTA]. (United States)

    Jedra, M; Malanowska, M


    The reason of the interest shown in the properties of NTA is the possibility of its use for the replacement of polyphosphates in washing powders which are the cause of water eutrophization. In the light of literature data the chemical properties of NTA and the conditions influencing the course of the reaction of complex formation with metal ions in aqueous solutions are discussed Equilibrium constants of these reactions are presented, with diagrams obtained in computer assisted analysis of the conditions of equilibrium of NTA reaction with metal ions in the solutions occurring in physiological conditions and in the environment. On the basis of the opinions of expert committees the toxicity of NTA for mammalian organisms are described. It has been shown that NTA has no teratogenic or mutagenic action, however, in 2-year observations of mice and rats the intake of NTA produced lesions of uroepithelium with development of tumours. This effect of NTA has been demonstrated to be closely connected with its property of complex formation with metal ions. Experiments are described in which confirmation was obtained of the hypothesis that pathological lesions of renal tabules are caused by accumulation of zinc and bladder tumours are caused by binding by NTA of calcium from epithelial cells.

  17. Properties of dark matter haloes as a function of local environment density (United States)

    Lee, Christoph T.; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Hellinger, Doug; Dekel, Avishai


    We study how properties of discrete dark matter haloes depend on halo environment, characterized by the mass density around the haloes on scales from 0.5 to 16 h-1 Mpc. We find that low-mass haloes (those less massive than the characteristic mass MC of haloes collapsing at a given epoch) in high-density environments have lower accretion rates, lower spins, higher concentrations and rounder shapes than haloes in median density environments. Haloes in median- and low-density environments have similar accretion rates and concentrations, but haloes in low-density environments have lower spins and are more elongated. Haloes of a given mass in high-density regions accrete material earlier than haloes of the same mass in lower density regions. All but the most massive haloes in high-density regions are losing mass (i.e. being stripped) at low redshifts, which causes artificially lowered NFW scale radii and increased concentrations. Tidal effects are also responsible for the decreasing spins of low-mass haloes in high-density regions at low redshifts z spins because they lack nearby haloes whose tidal fields can spin them up. We also show that the simulation density distribution is well fit by an extreme value distribution, and that the density distribution becomes broader with cosmic time.

  18. Effects of a Pseudophysiological Environment on the Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Collagen Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Meghezi


    Full Text Available Vascular tissue engineering focuses on the replacement of diseased small-diameter blood vessels with a diameter less than 6 mm for which adequate substitutes still do not exist. One approach to vascular tissue engineering is to culture vascular cells on a scaffold in a bioreactor. The bioreactor establishes pseudophysiological conditions for culture (medium culture, 37°C, mechanical stimulation. Collagen gels are widely used as scaffolds for tissue regeneration due to their biological properties; however, they exhibit low mechanical properties. Mechanical characterization of these scaffolds requires establishing the conditions of testing in regard to the conditions set in the bioreactor. The effects of different parameters used during mechanical testing on the collagen gels were evaluated in terms of mechanical and viscoelastic properties. Thus, a factorial experiment was adopted, and three relevant factors were considered: temperature (23°C or 37°C, hydration (aqueous saline solution or air, and mechanical preconditioning (with or without. Statistical analyses showed significant effects of these factors on the mechanical properties which were assessed by tensile tests as well as stress relaxation tests. The last tests provide a more consistent understanding of the gels' viscoelastic properties. Therefore, performing mechanical analyses on hydrogels requires setting an adequate environment in terms of temperature and aqueous saline solution as well as choosing the adequate test.

  19. Environment and genotype effects on antioxidant properties of organically grown wheat varieties: a 3-year study. (United States)

    Di Silvestro, Raffaella; Di Loreto, Alessandro; Bosi, Sara; Bregola, Valeria; Marotti, Ilaria; Benedettelli, Stefano; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Dinelli, Giovanni


    Wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses significant amounts of antioxidants that contribute to the dietary antiradical protection against a number of chronic diseases. Despite the increasing interest in organic food among both consumers and scientists, the availability of literature studies concerning the environment effect under organic management is still scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat varieties by considering the genotype response to different environmental factors under biodynamic management. The soluble fraction of phenolic compounds was mainly determined by the environment, whereas a major genotypic effect was observed for the bound forms, which were present at higher amounts in red grain varieties. Moreover, a predominant effect of genotype was observed for yellow pigment content and antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP method. Despite some changes induced by environment, most genotypes had stable antioxidant properties and different phenolic profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for the old variety Inallettabile, which was the most sensitive to environmental fluctuations. The red grain varieties Andriolo, Gentil rosso and Verna were identified as the most promising breeding material for the development of varieties with high nutraceutical value under low-input management. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan


    Full Text Available Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditions. In this paper the authors present a parametric study investigating influence of material properties on a car cabin environment. The Matlab version of the car cabin heat load model has been developed and used. The model was extended by simple graphical user interface and it was deployed into the stand alone executable application. The aim of this parametric study is to identify most important material properties and its effect on the cabin environment during specific operational conditions of car. By means of a sensitive analysis it can identified which material parameters have to be defined precisely and which parameters are not so important for the prediction of the air temperature inside cabin.

  1. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in hydrogen-containing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppett, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    A systematic study has been initiated to evaluate the performance of several V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure to environments containing hydrogen at various partial pressures. The goal is to correlate the chemistry of the exposure environment with the hydrogen uptake in the samples and its influence on the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloys. At present, four heats of alloys (BL-63, BL-71, and T87, plus 44 from General Atomics) are being evaluated. Other variables of interest are the effect of initial grain size on hydrogen uptake and tensile properties, and the synergistic effects of oxygen and hydrogen on the tensile behavior of the alloys. Experiments conducted thus far on specimens of various V-Cr-Ti alloys exposed to pH{sub 2} levels of 0.01 and 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} torr showed negligible effect of H{sub 2} on either maximum engineering stress of uniform/total elongation. Further, preliminary tests on specimens annealed at different temperatures showed that grain size variation by a factor of {approx}2 had a negligible effect on tensile properties.

  2. Thermal Properties of Starch From New Corn Lines as Impacted by Environment and During Line Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, Elizabeth M [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The objectives of this research were to further characterize exotic by adapted corn inbreds by studying the impact of environment on their starch thermal properties, and investigating the development of starch thermal properties during kernel maturation by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A method to expedite identification of unusual starch thermal traits was investigated by examining five corn kernels at a time, instead of one kernel, which the previous screening methods used. Corn lines with known thermal functions were blended with background starch (control) in ratios of unique starch to control starch, and analyzed by using DSC. Control starch was representative of typical corn starch. The values for each ratio within a mutant type were unique (α < 0.01) for most DSC measurements. These results supported the five-kernel method for rapidly screening large amounts of corn germplasm to identify unusual starch traits. The effects of 5 growing locations on starch thermal properties from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines were studied using DSC. The warmest location, Missouri, generally produced starch with greater gelatinization onset temperature (ToG), narrower range of gelatinization (RG), and greater enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔHG). The coolest location, Illinois, generally resulted in starch with lower ToG, wider RG, and lower ΔHG. Starch from the Ames 1 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Illinois, whereas starch from the Ames 2 farm had thermal properties similar to those of Missouri. The temperature at Ames 2 may have been warmer since it was located near a river; however, soil type and quality also were different. Final corn starch structure and function change during development and maturity. Thus, the changes in starch thermal properties during 5 stages of endosperm development from exotic by adapted corn and Corn Belt lines at two locations were

  3. A Universal Correlation between Star Formation Activity and Molecular Gas Properties Across Environments (United States)

    Koyama, Shuhei; Koyama, Yusei; Yamashita, Takuji; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Matsuhara, Hideo; Nakagawa, Takao; Hayashi, Masao; Kodama, Tadayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Suzuki, Tomoko L.; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Ichi; Yamamoto, Moegi


    We present the molecular gas mass fraction ({f}{{{H}}2}) and star formation efficiency (SFE) of local galaxies on the basis of our new CO(J=1-0) observations with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope, combined with the COLDGASS galaxy catalog, as a function of galaxy environment defined as the local number density of galaxies measured with SDSS DR7 spectroscopic data. Our sample covers a wide range in the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR), and also covers a wide environmental range over two orders of magnitude. This allows us to conduct the first systematic study of environmental dependence of molecular gas properties in galaxies from the lowest- to the highest-density environments in the local universe. We confirm that both {f}{{{H}}2} and SFE have strong positive correlations with the SFR offset from the star-forming main sequence (ΔMS) and, most importantly, we find that these correlations are universal across all environments. Our result demonstrates that star formation activity within individual galaxies is primarily controlled by their molecular gas content, regardless of their global environment. Therefore, we claim that one always needs to be careful about the ΔMS distribution of the sample when investigating the environmental effects on the H2 gas content in galaxies.

  4. Influence of fuels, weather and the built environment on the exposure of property to wildfire (United States)

    Penman, Trent D.; Collins, Luke S.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Bradstock, Ross A.


    Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment – either fuel reduction (prescribed fire) or fuel removal (fuel breaks). Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates.

  5. Influence of fuels, weather and the built environment on the exposure of property to wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D Penman

    Full Text Available Wildfires can pose a significant risk to people and property. Billions of dollars are spent investing in fire management actions in an attempt to reduce the risk of loss. One of the key areas where money is spent is through fuel treatment--either fuel reduction (prescribed fire or fuel removal (fuel breaks. Individual treatments can influence fire size and the maximum distance travelled from the ignition and presumably risk, but few studies have examined the landscape level effectiveness of these treatments. Here we use a Bayesian Network model to examine the relative influence of the built and natural environment, weather, fuel and fuel treatments in determining the risk posed from wildfire to the wildland-urban interface. Fire size and distance travelled was influenced most strongly by weather, with exposure to fires most sensitive to changes in the built environment and fire parameters. Natural environment variables and fuel load all had minor influences on fire size, distance travelled and exposure of assets. These results suggest that management of fuels provided minimal reductions in risk to assets and adequate planning of the changes in the built environment to cope with the expansion of human populations is going to be vital for managing risk from fire under future climates.

  6. Work environment impact scale: testing the psychometric properties of the Swedish version. (United States)

    Ekbladh, Elin; Fan, Chia-Wei; Sandqvist, Jan; Hemmingsson, Helena; Taylor, Renée


    The Work Environment Impact Scale (WEIS) is an assessment that focuses on the fit between a person and his or her work environment. It is based on Kielhofner's Model of Human Occupation and designed to gather information on how clients experience their work environment. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the WEIS assessment instrument. In total, 95 ratings on the 17-item WEIS were obtained from a sample of clients with experience of sick leave due to different medical conditions. Rasch analysis was used to analyze the data. Overall, the WEIS items together cohered to form a single construct of increasingly challenging work environmental factors. The hierarchical ordering of the items along the continuum followed a logical and expected pattern, and the participants were validly measured by the scale. The three occupational therapists serving as raters validly used the scale, but demonstrated a relatively high rater separation index, indicating differences in rater severity. The findings provide evidence that the Swedish version of the WEIS is a psychometrically sound assessment across diagnoses and occupations, which can provide valuable information about experiences of work environment challenges.

  7. Tribological properties of fish scale inspired underwater superoleophobic hierarchical structure in aqueous environment (United States)

    Lian, Zhongxu; Xu, Jinkai; Wan, Yanling; Li, Yiquan; Yu, Zhanjiang; Liu, Qimeng; Yu, Huadong


    Underwater superoleophobic surfaces are becoming increasingly important in regard to self-cleaning, anti-fouling, oil droplet transportation and water/oil separation. Although a great number of underwater superoleophobic surfaces have been demonstrated, their tribological properties remain impractical for the purposes of real-life applications. Herein, a two-step method of high speed wire electrical discharge machining and boiling water treatment was adopted to fabricate fish scale inspired underwater oil repellent hierarchical structure on an aluminum (Al) alloy 5083 surface. The hierarchical roughness and hydroxyl groups were obtained on the surface, and the surface exhibited the ability to prevent contact with organic fluids when submerged in water. Moreover, the tribological properties of underwater superoleophobic Al surfaces in aqueous environments were analyzed. The average friction coefficient of underwater superoleophobic surfaces was decreased compared with the polished Al surface. We believe that this research will contribute to the engineering application of underwater superoleophobic surfaces in the future.

  8. Study The Properties and Weight Loss Degradation of The Blend LDPE/Cellulose in Soil Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Jabbar Abdul Ameer


    Full Text Available Wider applications of polyethylene (PE in packaging and agriculture have raised serious issue of waste disposal and pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to raise its biodegradability by additives.In this study, we will add cellulose to low density polyethylene to prepare polymer blend have ability to degradation in soil environment.The samples were prepared by using twin screw extruder.LDPE and CELL have been mixing with different weight proportions, and studied their properties in order to determine its compliance with the required specifications to be able to be used biodegradable polymers. To improve the viability of decomposition PEG has been added to the resulting blend. Several tests were applied to identify those properties such as tensile,hardness, density and creep test. FTIR, digital microscope and SEM test acheved in order to determine the miscibility and blend morphology befor and after degradation.The results show that,the blend weight loss increase with increasing CELL percent.

  9. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in hydrogen-containing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    A systematic study has been initiated at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the performance of several V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure to environments containing hydrogen at various partial pressures. The goal is to correlate the chemistry of the exposure environment with hydrogen uptake in the samples and its influence on the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloys. At present, the principal effort has focused on the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy of heat identified as BL-71; however other alloys (V-5Cr-5Ti alloy of heats BL-63, and T87, plus V-4Cr-4Ti alloy from General Atomics [GA]) are also being evaluated. Other variables of interest are the effect of initial grain size on the tensile behavior of the alloys. Experiments conducted on specimens of various V-Cr-Ti alloys exposed to pH{sub 2} levels of 0.01 and 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} torr showed negligible effect of H{sub 2} on either maximum engineering stress or uniform and total elongation. However, uniform and total elongation decreased substantially when the alloys were exposed to 1.0 torr H{sub 2} pressure. Preliminary data from sequential exposures of the materials to low-pO{sub 2} and several low-pH{sub 2} environments did not reveal an adverse effect on the maximum engineering stress or on uniform and total elongation. Further, tests in H{sub 2} environments on specimens annealed at different temperatures showed that grain-size variation by a factor of {approx}2 had little or no effect on tensile properties.

  10. Psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the clinical learning environment. (United States)

    Boor, K; Scheele, F; van der Vleuten, C P M; Scherpbier, A J J A; Teunissen, P W; Sijtsma, K


    The clinical learning environment is an influential factor in work-based learning. Evaluation of this environment gives insight into the educational functioning of clinical departments. The Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) is an evaluation tool consisting of a validated questionnaire with 3 subscales. In this paper we further investigate the psychometric properties of the PHEEM. We set out to validate the 3 subscales and test the reliability of the PHEEM for both clerks (clinical medical students) and registrars (specialists in training). Clerks and registrars from different hospitals and specialties filled out the PHEEM. To investigate the construct validity of the 3 subscales, we used an exploratory factor analysis followed by varimax rotation, and a cluster analysis known as Mokken scale analysis. We estimated the reliability of the questionnaire by means of variance components according to generalisability theory. A total of 256 clerks and 339 registrars filled out the questionnaire. The exploratory factor analysis plus varimax rotation suggested a 1-dimensional scale. The Mokken scale analysis confirmed this result. The reliability analysis showed a reliable outcome for 1 department with 14 clerks or 11 registrars. For multiple departments 3 respondents combined with 10 departments provide a reliable outcome for both groups. The PHEEM is a questionnaire measuring 1 dimension instead of the hypothesised 3 dimensions. The sample size required to achieve a reliable outcome is feasible. The instrument can be used to evaluate both single and multiple departments for both clerks and registrars.

  11. The Properties of HPMC:PEO Extended Release Hydrophilic Matrices and their Response to Ionic Environments. (United States)

    Hu, Anran; Chen, Chen; Mantle, Michael D; Wolf, Bettina; Gladden, Lynn F; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Missaghi, Shahrzad; Mason, Laura; Melia, Colin D


    Investigate the extended release behaviour of compacts containing mixtures of hydrophilic HPMC and PEO in hydrating media of differing ionic strengths. The extended release behaviour of various HPMC:PEO compacts was investigated using dissolution testing, confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, with respect to polymer ratio and ionic strength of the hydrating media. Increasing HPMC content gave longer extended release times, but a greater sensitivity to high ionic dissolution environments. Increasing PEO content reduced this sensitivity. The addition of PEO to a predominantly HPMC matrix reduced release rate sensitivity to high ionic environments. Confocal microscopy of early gel layer development showed the two polymers appeared to contribute independently to gel layer structure whilst together forming a coherent and effective diffusion barrier. There was some evidence that poorly swollen HPMC particles added a tortuosity barrier to the gel layer in high ionic strength environments, resulting in prolonged extended release. MRI provides unique, non-invasive spatially resolved information from within the HPMC:PEO compacts that furthers our understanding of USP 1 and USP 4 dissolution data. Confocal microscopy and MRI data show that combinations of HPMC and PEO have advantageous extended release properties, in comparison with matrices containing a single polymer.

  12. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment (United States)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.


    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  13. Frames as visual links between paintings and the museum environment: an analysis of statistical image properties (United States)

    Redies, Christoph; Groß, Franziska


    Frames provide a visual link between artworks and their surround. We asked how image properties change as an observer zooms out from viewing a painting alone, to viewing the painting with its frame and, finally, the framed painting in its museum environment (museum scene). To address this question, we determined three higher-order image properties that are based on histograms of oriented luminance gradients. First, complexity was measured as the sum of the strengths of all gradients in the image. Second, we determined the self-similarity of histograms of the orientated gradients at different levels of spatial analysis. Third, we analyzed how much gradient strength varied across orientations (anisotropy). Results were obtained for three art museums that exhibited paintings from three major periods of Western art. In all three museums, the mean complexity of the frames was higher than that of the paintings or the museum scenes. Frames thus provide a barrier of complexity between the paintings and their exterior. By contrast, self-similarity and anisotropy values of images of framed paintings were intermediate between the images of the paintings and the museum scenes, i.e., the frames provided a transition between the paintings and their surround. We also observed differences between the three museums that may reflect modified frame usage in different art periods. For example, frames in the museum for 20th century art tended to be smaller and less complex than in the two other two museums that exhibit paintings from earlier art periods (13th–18th century and 19th century, respectively). Finally, we found that the three properties did not depend on the type of reproduction of the paintings (photographs in museums, scans from books or images from the Google Art Project). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the relation between frames and paintings by measuring physically defined, higher-order image properties. PMID:24265625

  14. A humidity controlled Nephelometer system to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols in the marine environment (United States)

    Vaishya, Aditya; O'Dowd, Colin; Jennings, S. Gerard


    A Humidograph system has been designed to study the hygroscopic properties of aerosols for different air-masses and for different seasons in the marine environment. Since ambient marine aerosols are likely to be found in a metastable state, and in accordance with recommendations of WMO/GAW to sample dry aerosol, a drying unit (Nafion based) is placed just after the inlet to dry the aerosols to a relative humidity (RH) operate at RH operate under varying RH conditions. Software developed in LabVIEW is used to control the hardware components and to log the data in a predefined format. Results of the performance of the Humidograph system in the laboratory and at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station are presented.

  15. Exploration of PM2.5 filtration property of filter bag for environment protection (United States)

    Zhu, Ruitian; Zheng, Jinwei; Ni, Bingxuan; Zhang, Peng


    In this paper, filter bag of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) needle punched nonwoven for environment protection was investigated. The results showed that air permeability of sample was linear rise with the increase of the pressure drop. During the testing process, the residual pressure drop rose with the increase of cycles because of test dust attaching on the surface of the filter. The PM2.5 filtration efficiency was obtained of 99.854%, which was smaller than the dust filtration efficiency of 99.971% because of the fine particles taking larger proportion of the dust through the sample. Results show that this method of evaluating the PM2.5 filtration property is feasible.

  16. Ultrasonic techniques for measuring physical properties of fluids in harsh environments (United States)

    Pantea, Cristian

    Ultrasonic-based measurement techniques, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain, include a wide range of experimental methods for investigating physical properties of materials. This discussion is specifically focused on ultrasonic methods and instrumentation development for the determination of liquid properties at conditions typically found in subsurface environments (in the U.S., more than 80% of total energy needs are provided by subsurface energy sources). Such sensors require materials that can withstand harsh conditions of high pressure, high temperature and corrosiveness. These include the piezoelectric material, electrically conductive adhesives, sensor housings/enclosures, and the signal carrying cables, to name a few. A complete sensor package was developed for operation at high temperatures and pressures characteristic to geothermal/oil-industry reservoirs. This package is designed to provide real-time, simultaneous measurements of multiple physical parameters, such as temperature, pressure, salinity and sound speed. The basic principle for this sensor's operation is an ultrasonic frequency domain technique, combined with transducer resonance tracking. This multipurpose acoustic sensor can be used at depths of several thousand meters, temperatures up to 250 °C, and in a very corrosive environment. In the context of high precision measurement of sound speed, the determination of acoustic nonlinearity of liquids will also be discussed, using two different approaches: (i) the thermodynamic method, in which precise and accurate frequency domain sound speed measurements are performed at high pressure and high temperature, and (ii) a modified finite amplitude method, requiring time domain measurements of the second harmonic at room temperature. Efforts toward the development of an acoustic source of collimated low-frequency (10-150 kHz) beam, with applications in imaging, will also be presented.

  17. On the properties of dust and gas in the environs of V838 Monocerotis (United States)

    Exter, K. M.; Cox, N. L. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Matsuura, M.; Mayer, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.


    Aims: We aim to probe the close and distant circumstellar environments of the stellar outburst object V838 Mon. Methods: Herschel far-infrared imaging and spectroscopy were taken at several epochs to probe the central point source and the extended environment of V838 Mon. PACS and SPIRE maps were used to obtain photometry of the dust immediately around V838 Mon, and in the surrounding infrared-bright region. These maps were fitted in 1d and 2d to measure the temperature, mass, and β of the two dust sources. PACS and SPIRE spectra were used to detect emission lines from the extended atmosphere of the star, which were then modelled to study the physical conditions in the emitting material. HIFI spectra were taken to measure the kinematics of the extended atmosphere but unfortunately yielded no detections. Results: Fitting of the far-infrared imaging of V838 Mon reveals 0.5-0.6 M⊙ of ≈19 K dust in the environs (≈2.7 pc) surrounding V838 Mon. The surface-integrated infrared flux (signifying the thermal light echo), and derived dust properties do not vary significantly between the different epochs. We measured the photometry of the point source. As the peak of the SED (Spectral Energy Distribution) lies outside the Herschel spectral range, it is only by incorporating data from other observatories and previous epochs that we can usefully fit the SED; with this we explicitly assume no evolution of the point source between the epochs. We find that warm dust with a temperature 300 K distributed over a radius of 150-200 AU. We fit the far-infrared lines of CO arising from the point source, from an extended environment around V838 Mon. Assuming a model of a spherical shell for this gas, we find that the CO appears to arise from two temperature zones: a cold zone (Tkin ≈ 18 K) that could be associated with the ISM or possibly with a cold layer in the outermost part of the shell, and a warm (Tkin ≈ 400 K) zone that is associated with the extended environment of V838

  18. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprisiu Ioana


    Full Text Available Abstract The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties. The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  19. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM). (United States)

    Oprisiu, Ioana; Novotarskyi, Sergii; Tetko, Igor V


    The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties.The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope) and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points) using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  20. Effect of arid environment on radiative properties of greenhouse polyethylene cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Helal, Ibrahim M.; Alhamdan, Abdullah M. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)


    Degradation of the radiative properties of a 200 {mu}m-polyethylene film caused by exposure to the harsh environment of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has been investigated over a period of 13 months. Measurements of global solar radiation (GSR), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and relative humidity were made inside and outside two single-polyethylene-covered model structures. Each model structure was 1 m wide, 1 m long, and 0.75 m high. The east side of each model structure was open for natural ventilation. One of the model structures was exposed to the environment during the 13-month period, while the other was kept indoor in a room to protect the polyethylene film from environment and was used as a control when measurements were carried out. Results showed that exposure to the environment reduced the polyethylene film transmittance to GSR and PAR. The reduction in solar radiation transmitted minimized air temperatures inside the structure. The average summer daytime temperature inside the exposed structure was 45.7 C, as compared to 46.9 C inside the control structure, while the average of outside temperature was 38.2 C. The degradation of the polyethylene transmittance progresses rapidly during the first three months of exposure. The relative losses of GSR and PAR transmittance were 9% and 15.3%, respectively, after three months. However, the losses decreased to 5% and 8%, respectively, after 11 months due to rainfall in the area. Radiation transmittance was found to be dependent on season of the year. The averages (standard deviations) of GSR and PAR transmittance for the control film during winter months were 0.8 (0.01) and 0.75 (0.00), respectively. Whereas, during summer months, the averages (standard deviations) were 0.75 (0.02) and 0.71 (0.02), respectively. The averages (standard deviations) of GSR and PAR transmittance for the exposed film during winter months were 0.77 (0.03) and 0.70 (0.03), respectively, as compared to 0.68 (0

  1. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Gon, E-mail: [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young [Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  2. Relationships between the Raindrop Size Distribution and Properties of the Environment and Clouds Inferred from TRMM (United States)

    Munchak, Stephen Joseph; Kummerow, Christian; Elsaesser, Gregory


    Variability in the raindrop sized distribution (DSD) has long been recognized as a source of uncertainty in relationships between radar reflectivity Z and rain rate R. In this study, we analyze DSD retrievals from two years of data gathered by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and processed with a combined radar-radiometer retrieval algorithm over the global oceans equatorward of 35?. Numerous variables describing properties of each reflectivity profile, large-scale organization, and the background environment are examined for relationships to the reflectivity-normalized median drop diameter, epsilonDSD. In general, we find that higher freezing levels and relative humidities are associated with smaller epsilonDSD. Within a given environment, the mesoscale organization of precipitation and the vertical profile of reflectivity are associated with DSD characteristics. In the tropics, the smallest epsilonDSD values are found in large but shallow convective systems, where warm rain formation processes are thought to be predominant, whereas larger sizes are found in the stratiform regions of organized deep convection. In the extratropics, the largest epsilonDSD values are found in the scattered convection that occurs when cold, dry continental air moves over the much warmer ocean after the passage of a cold front. The geographical distribution of the retrieved DSDs is consistent with many of the observed regional Z-R relationships found in the literature as well as discrepancies between the TRMM radar-only and radiometer-only precipitation products. In particular, mid-latitude and tropical regions near land tend to have larger drops for a given reflectivity, whereas the smallest drops are found in the eastern Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone.

  3. Hydration Properties of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS Under Different Hydration Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua LIU


    Full Text Available The hydration properties of various cementitious materials containing Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, two alkali-activated slag cements (AAS-1 and AAS-2 in which sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide act as alkaline activators respectively, supersulfated cement (SSC and slag Portland cement(PSC, are compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC to investigate the effect of activating environment on the hydration properties in this study by determining the compressive strength of the pastes, the hydration heat of binders within 96 hours, and the hydration products at age of 28 days. The results show that C-S-H gels are the main hydrated products for all cementitious systems containing GGBS. Ca(OH2 is the hydration products of OPC and PSC paste. However, ettringite and gypsum crystals instead of Ca(OH2 are detected in SSC paste. Additionally, tobermorite, a crystalline C-S-H, and calcite are hydrated products in AAS-1. Tobermorite, cowlesite and calcite are hydrated products of AAS-2 as well. Based on strength results, AAS-1 paste exhibits the highest compressive strength followed by POC, PSC, SSC in order at all testing ages and AAS-2 give the lowest compressive strength except for the early age at 3 days, which is higher than SSC but still lower than PSC. From hydration heat analysis, alkalinity in the reaction solution is a vital factor influencing the initial hydration rate and the initial hydration rate from higher to lower is AAS-2, AAS-1, OPC, PSC and SSC. Although AAS possesses a faster reaction rate in the initial hours, cumulative hydration heat of AAS is comparably lower than that of OPC, but higher than those of PSC and SSC in turn, which indicates that the hydration heat of clinkers is much higher than that of slag.DOI:

  4. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Swanston


    Full Text Available Produced from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel in the absence of oxygen, black carbon (BC is the collective term for a range of carbonaceous substances encompassing partly charred plant residues to highly graphitized soot. Depending on its form, condition of origin and storage (from the atmosphere to the geosphere, and surrounding environmental conditions, BC can influence the environment at local, regional and global scales in different ways. In this paper, we review and synthesize recent findings and discussions on the nature of these different forms of BC and their impacts, particularly in relation to pollution and climate change. We start by describing the different types of BCs and their mechanisms of formation. To elucidate their pollutant sorption properties, we present some models involving polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic carbon. Subsequently, we discuss the stability of BC in the environment, summarizing the results of studies that showed a lack of chemical degradation of BC in soil and those that exposed BC to severe oxidative reactions to degrade it. After a brief overview of BC extraction and measurement methods and BC use for source attribution studies, we reflect upon its significance in the environment, first by going over a theory that it could represent parts of what is called the ‘missing sink’ of carbon in global carbon cycle models. Elaborating upon the relationship of BC with polycyclic hydrocarbons, we show its significance for the sorption and transport of pollutants. A description of pulmonary-respiratory health effects of soot BC inhalation is followed by a discussion on its impact on climate and climate change. We explain how soot BC acts as a global warming agent through light (and heat absorption and how it reduces the snow’s albedo and promotes its uncharacteristic thawing. On a more positive note, we conclude this review by illustrating recent observations and simulations of how

  5. Fogs: Physical Basis, Characteristic Properties, and Impacts on the Environment and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pérez-Díaz


    Full Text Available This work presents a selective overview of natural fogs in terms of fog types, forms and states of occurrence, physical, micro-physical, chemical and dynamic properties, basic characterizing parameters, etc. In focus are related achievements and contributions reported mainly during the last decade and a half, as a result of both laboratory studies and field observations. Processes of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation are analyzed in the aspects of condensation, nuclei diversity and specifics, as related to the activation, growth and deposition of fog droplets. The effect is highlighted of the water vapor’s partial pressure on the surface tension of the liquid water–air interface and the freezing point of the water droplets. Some problems and aspects of fog modeling, parameterization, and forecasting are outlined and discussed on the examples of newly developed relevant 1D/3D theoretical models. Important issues of fog impacts on the air quality, ecosystems, water basins, societal life, and human health are also addressed and discussed, particularly in cases of anthropogenically modified (chemical, radioactive, etc. fogs. In view of reducing the possible negative effects of fogs, conclusions are drawn concerning the new demands and challenges to fog characterization imposed by the changing natural and social environment and the needs for new data on and approaches to more adequate observations of fog-related events.

  6. On some physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles in marine environment. (United States)

    Chubarenko, I; Bagaev, A; Zobkov, M; Esiukova, E


    Simplified physical models and geometrical considerations reveal general physical and dynamical properties of microplastic particles (0.5-5mm) of different density, shape and size in marine environment. Windage of extremely light foamed particles, surface area and fouling rate of slightly positively buoyant microplastic spheres, films and fibres and settling velocities of negatively buoyant particles are analysed. For the Baltic Sea dimensions and under the considered idealised external conditions, (i) only one day is required for a foamed polystyrene particle to cross the sea (ca. 250km); (ii) polyethylene fibres should spend about 6-8months in the euphotic zone before sinking due to bio-fouling, whilst spherical particles can be retained on the surface up to 10-15years; (iii) for heavy microplastic particles, the time of settling through the water column in the central Gotland basin (ca. 250m) is less than 18h. Proper physical setting of the problem of microplastics transport and developing of physically-based parameterisations are seen as applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.


    The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide the experimentally-based, durability-driven design guidelines necessary to assure long-term structural integrity of automotive composite components. The initial focus of the ORNL Durability Project was on composite materials consisting of polyurethane reinforced with E-glass. Current focus of the project is on composite materials reinforced with carbon fibers. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test date. Basic mechanical property testing and results for two chopped-fiber composite materials, one reinforced with glass- and the other with carbon fiber are provided. Both materials use the same polyurethane matrix. Preforms for both materials were produced using the P4 process. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. Effects of prior short-time loads and of prior thermal cycling are discussed.

  8. Electrochemical performance and transport properties of a Nafion membrane in a hydrogen-bromine cell environment (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.


    The overall energy conversion efficiency of a hydrogen-bromine energy storage system is highly dependent upon the characteristics and performance of the ion-exchange membrane utilized as a half-cell separator. The electrochemical performance and transport properties of a duPont Nafion membrane in an aqueous HBr-Br2 environment were investigated. Membrane conductivity data are presented as a function of HBr concentration and temperature for the determination of ohmic voltage losses across the membrane in an operational cell. Diffusion-controlled bromine permeation rates and permeabilities are presented as functions of solution composition and temperature. Relationships between the degree of membrane hydration and the membrane transport characteristics are discussed. The solution chemistry of an operational hydrogen-bromine cell undergoing charge from 45% HBr to 5% HBr is discussed, and, based upon the experimentally observed bromine permeation behavior, predicted cell coulombic losses due to bromine diffusion through the membrane are presented as a function of the cell state-of-charge.

  9. Seasonal variations of concentrations and optical properties of water soluble HULIS collected in urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baduel


    Full Text Available Major contributors to the organic aerosol include water-soluble macromolecular compounds (e.g. HULISWS: Water Soluble Humic LIke Substances. The nature and sources of HULISWS are still largely unknown. This work is based on a monitoring in six different French cities performed during summer and winter seasons. HULISWS analysis was performed with a selective method of extraction complemented by carbon quantification. UV spectroscopy was also applied for their chemical characterisation. HULISWS carbon represent an important contribution to the organic aerosol mass in summer and winter, as it accounts for 12–22% of Organic Carbon and 34–40% of Water Soluble Organic Carbon. We found strong differences in the optical properties (specific absorbance at 250, 272, 280 nm and E2/E3 ratio and therefore in the chemical structure between HULISWS from samples of summer- and wintertime. These differences highlight different processes responsible for emissions and formation of HULISWS according to the season, namely biomass burning in winter, and secondary processes in summer. Specific absorbance can also be considered as a rapid and useful indicator of the origin of HULISWS in urban environment.

  10. Assessment of Mechanical Properties and Damage of High Performance Concrete Subjected to Magnesium Sulfate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Cang


    Full Text Available Sulfate attack is one of the most important problems affecting concrete structures, especially magnesium sulfate attack. This paper presents an investigation on the mechanical properties and damage evolution of high performance concrete (HPC with different contents of fly ash exposure to magnesium sulfate environment. The microstructure, porosity, mass loss, dimensional variation, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of HPC were investigated at various erosion times up to 392 days. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV propagation in HPC at different erosion time was determined by using ultrasonic testing technique. A relationship between damage and UPV of HPC was derived according to damage mechanics, and a correlation between the damage of HPC and erosion time was obtained eventually. The results indicated that (1 the average increasing amplitude of porosity for HPCs was 34.01% before and after exposure to magnesium sulfate solution; (2 the damage evolution of HPCs under sulfate attack could be described by an exponential fitting; (3 HPC containing 20% fly ash had the strongest resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  11. Instruments evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environment in nursing education: A systematic review of psychometric properties. (United States)

    Mansutti, Irene; Saiani, Luisa; Grassetti, Luca; Palese, Alvisa


    The clinical learning environment is fundamental to nursing education paths, capable of affecting learning processes and outcomes. Several instruments have been developed in nursing education, aimed at evaluating the quality of the clinical learning environments; however, no systematic review of the psychometric properties and methodological quality of these studies has been performed to date. The aims of the study were: 1) to identify validated instruments evaluating the clinical learning environments in nursing education; 2) to evaluate critically the methodological quality of the psychometric property estimation used; and 3) to compare psychometric properties across the instruments available. A systematic review of the literature (using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines) and an evaluation of the methodological quality of psychometric properties (using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines). The Medline and CINAHL databases were searched. Eligible studies were those that satisfied the following criteria: a) validation studies of instruments evaluating the quality of clinical learning environments; b) in nursing education; c) published in English or Italian; d) before April 2016. The included studies were evaluated for the methodological quality of the psychometric properties measured and then compared in terms of both the psychometric properties and the methodological quality of the processes used. The search strategy yielded a total of 26 studies and eight clinical learning environment evaluation instruments. A variety of psychometric properties have been estimated for each instrument, with differing qualities in the methodology used. Concept and construct validity were poorly assessed in terms of their significance and rarely judged by the target population (nursing students). Some properties were rarely considered (e.g., reliability, measurement error

  12. The dependence of lead-salt nanocrystal properties on morphology and dielectric environment (United States)

    Bartnik, Adam Christopher

    The IV-VI semiconductors, and specifically the lead-salts (PbS, PbSe, and PbTe), are a natural choice for nanocrystal science. In nanocrystals, because of their narrow band gap, small effective masses, and large dielectric constants, they offer a unique combination of both strong confinement and strong dielectric contrast with their environment. Studying how these two effects modify optical and electrical properties of nanocrystals will be the topic of this dissertation. We begin with a summary of the synthesis of high-quality PbS and PbSe nanocrystals. Special care is taken to explain the chemical procedures in detail to an audience not expected to have significant prior chemistry knowledge. The synthesized nanocrystals have bright and tunable emission that spans the edge of the visible to the near-IR spectrum (700--1800 nm), and they are capped with organic ligands making them easily adaptable to different substrates or hosts. This combination of high optical quality and flexible device engineering make them extremely desirable for application. Moving beyond single-material nanocrystals, we next explore nanocrystal heterostructures, specifically materials with a spherical core of one semiconductor and a shell of another. Core-shell structures are commonly used in nanocrystals as a method to separate the core material, where the electrons and holes are expected to stay, from interfering effects at the surface. This typically results in improvements in stability and fluorescence quantum efficiency. To that end, we develop a model to explain how confinement plays out across abrupt changes in material, focusing on the optical and electrical properties of recently synthesized PbSe/PbS core-shell quantum dots. We show that for typical sizes of these nanocrystals, a novel type of nanocrystal heterostructure is created, where electrons and holes extend uniformly across the abrupt material boundary, and the shell does not act as a protecting layer. For very large sizes

  13. 30 CFR 250.107 - What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do to protect health, safety, property, and the environment? 250.107 Section 250.107 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General Performance Standards § 250.107 What must ...

  14. Anomalies in the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of correlated ions in complex molecular environments (United States)

    Mahakrishnan, Sathiya; Chakraborty, Subrata; Vijay, Amrendra


    Emergent statistical attributes, and therefore the equations of state, of an assembly of interacting charge carriers embedded within a complex molecular environment frequently exhibit a variety of anomalies, particularly in the high-density (equivalently, the concentration) regime, which are not well understood, because they do not fall under the low-concentration phenomenologies of Debye-Hückel-Onsager and Poisson-Nernst-Planck, including their variants. To go beyond, we here use physical concepts and mathematical tools from quantum scattering theory, transport theory with the Stosszahlansatz of Boltzmann, and classical electrodynamics (Lorentz gauge) and obtain analytical expressions both for the average and the frequency-wave vector-dependent longitudinal and transverse current densities, diffusion coefficient, and the charge density, and therefore the analytical expressions for (a) the chemical potential, activity coefficient, and the equivalent conductivity for strong electrolytes and (b) the current-voltage characteristics for ion-transport processes in complex molecular environments. Using a method analogous to the notion of Debye length and thence the electrical double layer, we here identify a pair of characteristic length scales (longitudinal and the transverse), which, being wave vector and frequency dependent, manifestly exhibit nontrivial fluctuations in space-time. As a unifying theme, we advance a quantity (inverse length dimension), gscat(a ), which embodies all dynamical interactions, through various quantum scattering lengths, relevant to molecular species a, and the analytical behavior which helps us to rationalize the properties of strong electrolytes, including anomalies, in all concentration regimes. As an example, the behavior of gscat(a ) in the high-concentration regime explains the anomalous increase of the Debye length with concentration, as seen in a recent experiment on electrolyte solutions. We also put forth an extension of the

  15. Development and Datametric Properties of a Scale Measuring Students' Perceptions of the Classroom Assessment Environment (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain


    Each classroom has its own assessment environment perceived by the students and springs from the teacher's assessment practices. Although students' perceptions of the assessment environment may influence their achievement-related outcomes, little attention has been given to the measurement of perceived classroom assessment environment. This study…

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide plasma immersion ion implantation on the electrochemical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy in physiological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Yang, Xiongbo; Zhang, Xuming; Wang, Mei; Li, Penghui; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Guosong; Chu, Paul K., E-mail:


    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) is conducted to improve the intrinsically poor corrosion properties of biodegradable AZ31 magnesium alloy in the physiological environment. Carbon dioxide is implanted into the samples and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize the materials. The corrosion properties are systematically studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests in two simulated physiological environments, namely simulated body fluids and cell culture medium. The plasma-implanted materials exhibit a lower initial corrosion rate. Being a gaseous ion PIII technique, conformal ion implantation into an object with a complex shape such as an orthopedic implant can be easily accomplished and CO{sub 2} PIII is a potential method to improve the biological properties of magnesium and its alloys in clinical applications.

  17. The importance of evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of a contaminant for remediating environments affected by chemical incidents. (United States)

    Wyke, S; Peña-Fernández, A; Brooke, N; Duarte-Davidson, R


    In the event of a major chemical incident or accident, appropriate tools and technical guidance need to be available to ensure that a robust approach can be adopted for developing a remediation strategy. Remediation and restoration strategies implemented in the aftermath of a chemical incident are a particular concern for public health. As a result an innovative methodology has been developed to help design an effective recovery strategy in the aftermath of a chemical incident that has been developed; the UK Recovery Handbook for Chemical Incidents (UKRHCI). The handbook consists of a six-step decision framework and the use of decision trees specifically designed for three different environments: food production systems, inhabited areas and water environments. It also provides a compendium of evidence-based recovery options (techniques or methods for remediation) that should be selected in relation to their efficacy for removing contaminants from the environment. Selection of effective recovery options in this decision framework involves evaluating the physicochemical and toxicological properties of the chemical(s) involved. Thus, the chemical handbook includes a series of tables with relevant physicochemical and toxicological properties that should be assessed in function of the environment affected. It is essential that the physicochemical properties of a chemical are evaluated and interpreted correctly during the development of a remedial plan in the aftermath of a chemical incident to ensure an effective remedial response. This paper presents a general overview of the key physicochemical and toxicological properties of chemicals that should be evaluated when developing a recovery strategy. Information on how physicochemical properties have impacted on previous remedial responses reported in the literature is also discussed and a number of challenges for remediation are highlighted to include the need to develop novel approaches to remediate sites contaminated

  18. Properties of fly ashes in wet environment; Flygaskors egenskaper i vaat miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broemssen, M. von; Lindstroem, N.; Hedman, K.; Svensson, M.


    This report describes how inorganic elements are mobilised from fly ashes that are placed under water, i.e. what are the properties and processes that governs the mobilisation. This knowledge may serve as basic data for decision making when fly ashes from e.g. bio-, industrial- and municipal solid wastes are to be used in civil engineering applications in wet environments. The composition of ashes varies in a vide range of concentrations and depends on the fuel and the type of incinerator. The main contents of fly ashes are calcium oxide, silicic acid and aluminium compounds. Several environmental hazardous elements are also present in varying concentrations. The pH of fishily is often very high. A number of chemical processes occur when flyashes is mixed with water. When the pH-value increases, mainly due to hydratisation of calcium oxide (CaO), many metals will precipitate as metal hydroxides. The objective of this study was to, within a rather short time period (8 month), describe the processes governing mobilisation of different elements from fly ashes placed under water. The work included chemical equilibrium modelling with PHREEQC, the model was used to determine what minerals may control solubility of different elements. Three fly ashes were used for the study, one flyash from industrial- and municipal waste with no CaO or ammonia added, one flyash from municipal waste with CaO and ammonia added and one fly ash from solid biofuels with chalk added. The fly ashes, ca 300 kg, was mixed with water in 1000 l plastic containers and filled with water. Two batches per flyash were used; i) in the first batch surplus water were not replaced, ii) in the second batch the surplus water was replaced with fresh water five times during the test. Measured pH-values in the batches with industrial and municipal waste were stabilised at a pH-value around 9.5 indicating carbonation is complete. The pH-values in the bio flyash were higher. Four categories of elements were

  19. A systematic review of the psychometric properties of instruments for assessing the quality of the physical environment in healthcare. (United States)

    Elf, Marie; Nordin, Susanna; Wijk, Helle; Mckee, Kevin J


    To identify instruments measuring the quality of the physical healthcare environment, describe their psychometric properties. The physical healthcare environment is regarded as a quality factor for health care. To facilitate evidence-based design there is a need for valid and usable instruments that can evaluate the design of the healthcare environment. Systematic psychometric review. A systematic literature search in Medline, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Avery index and reference lists of eligible papers (1990-2016). Consensus based standards for selection of health measurement instruments guidelines were used to evaluate psychometric data reported. Twenty-three instruments were included. Most of the instruments are intended for healthcare environments related to the care of older people. Many of the instruments were old, lacked strong, contemporary theoretical foundations, varied in the extent to which they had been used in empirical studies and in the degree to which their validity and reliability had been evaluated. Although we found many instruments for measuring the quality of the physical healthcare environment, none met all of our criteria for robustness. Of the instruments, The Multiphasic environmental assessment procedure, The Professional environment assessment protocol and The therapeutic environment screening have been used and tested most frequently. The Perceived hospital quality indicators are user centred and combine aspects of the physical and social environment. The Sheffield care environment assessment matrix has potential as it is comprehensive developed using a theoretical framework that has the needs of older people at the centre. However, further psychometric and user-evaluation of the instrument is required. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vertical Gradient in Photosynthetic Properties of Spinach Chloroplasts Dependent on Intra-Leaf Light Environment


    Ichiro, TERASHIMA; Yorinao, Inoue; Laboratory of Ecology, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo; Solar Energy Research Group, RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research


    A spinach leaf piece was planed into 10 layers parallel with leaf surface. The biochemical and ultrastructural properties of the chloroplasts of these 10 layers were compared. Results showed that both the biochemical and ultrastructural properties of the chloroplasts change gradually and continuously from sun- to shade-type with the depth from the adaxial surface.

  1. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus. (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E


    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Physical properties of select explosive components for assessing their fate and transport in the environment (United States)

    Information on physical properties of munitions compounds is necessary for assessing their environmental distribution and transport, and predict potential hazards. This information is also needed for selection and design of successful physical, chemical or biological environmental remediation proces...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Л. Бірюкова


    In our opinion, the use of distance education programs primarily to build interaction of educational and library establishments in the electronic environment. To achieve this goal, through the interaction of the system Library Education created and signed to the practice of teaching subjects at the Documentation and information activities department Odessa National Polytechnic University methodological development, there are student groups whose work promotes the assimilation of theoretical material in practice, just in the information institution, adapting to the professional environment, provided the possibility of passing the full production and pre-diploma practice.

  4. Hygroscopic properties of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol particles measured with H-TDMA instruments in various environments-a review (United States)

    Swietlicki, E.; Hansson, H.-C.; Hämeri, K.; Svenningsson, B.; Massling, A.; McFiggans, G.; McMurry, P. H.; Petäjä, T.; Tunved, P.; Gysel, M.; Topping, D.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.; Rissler, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.


    The hygroscopic properties play a vital role for the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate, as well as the health effects of particulate matter (PM) by modifying the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the humid human respiratory tract. Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) instruments have been used in field campaigns in various environments globally over the last 25 yr to determine the water uptake on submicrometre particles at subsaturated conditions. These investigations have yielded valuable and comprehensive information regarding the particle hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol, including state of mixing. These properties determine the equilibrium particle size at ambient relative humidities and have successfully been used to calculate the activation of particles at water vapour supersaturation. This paper summarizes the existing published H-TDMA results on the size-resolved submicrometre aerosol particle hygroscopic properties obtained from ground-based measurements at multiple marine, rural, urban and free tropospheric measurement sites. The data is classified into groups of hygroscopic growth indicating the external mixture, and providing clues to the sources and processes controlling the aerosol. An evaluation is given on how different chemical and physical properties affect the hygroscopic growth.

  5. Disentangling above- and below-ground facilitation drivers in arid environments: the role of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microhabitat. (United States)

    Lozano, Yudi M; Armas, Cristina; Hortal, Sara; Casanoves, Fernando; Pugnaire, Francisco I


    Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil. Seeds of annual plants were sown into the microcosms. Germination, survival and biomass were monitored. Soil bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing. Germination in living Retama inoculum was nearly double that of germination in sterile inoculum. Germination was greater under Retama canopies than in gaps. Biomass was up to three times higher in nurse than in gap soils. Soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate showed a range of positive to negative effects on understory plants depending on species identity and life stage. Nurse soil microorganisms promoted germination, but the effect was smaller than the positive effects of soil properties and microclimate under nurses. Nurse below-ground environment (soil properties and microorganisms) promoted plant growth and survival more than nurse microhabitat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang


    Full Text Available The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10mM and 22˚C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli. A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli. Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli.

  7. A Sound Working Environment : Optimizing the Acoustic Properties of Open Plan Workspaces Using Parametric Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaun, N.J.V.; van Waart, A.; Tenpierik, M.J.; Turrin, M.; Attar, Ramtin; Chronis, Angelos; Hanna, Sean; Turrin, Michela


    Optimizing the acoustic environment of open plan offices is a complex task due to the large number of design parameters that must be considered. In current practice, acoustic analysis – even in a simplified form – is not naturally integrated into the design process of office spaces. Applying digital

  8. Chemical, Mechanical, and Durability Properties of Concrete with Local Mineral Admixtures under Sulfate Environment in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Nie


    Full Text Available Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from this study indicated that the sulfate resistance of concrete was effectively improved by adding local class F fly ash and slag, or by applying sulfate resistance cement to the mixtures. It is noteworthy that concrete containing local mineral admixtures exhibited much lower permeability (in terms of chloride ion penetration than ordinary portland cement concrete while retaining the same mechanical properties; whereas concrete mixtures made with sulfate resistance cement had significantly reduced strength and much increased chloride penetration comparing to the other mixtures. Hence, the use of local mineral admixtures in Northwest China in concrete mixtures would be beneficial to the performance of concrete, as well as to the protection of environment.

  9. Estimations of the thermodynamic properties of halogenated benzenes as they relate to their environment mobility. (United States)

    Monte, Manuel J S; Almeida, Ana R R P


    In this work, several simple new equations for predicting important environmental mobility properties, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for halogenated benzenes: standard Gibbs energy of hydration, aqueous solubility, octanol-water partition coefficients, and Henry's law constants. A discussion on our previous estimates of other related properties (standard Gibbs energy and vapor pressure of sublimation and of vaporization) and their relation with entropy of fusion is also presented. As we aimed to estimate these properties for any of the ca. 1500 halogenated benzenes that may exist theoretically, an equation for estimating the temperature of fusion was also derived, since some of the proposed predictive equations (solubility of solids and Gibbs energy of sublimation) require its knowledge. For the other estimated properties just the number of each halogen that replaces hydrogen atoms in the halogenated benzene is needed. It was found that the coefficients that multiply the number of halogen atoms in the predictive equations vary linearly with the volume of the halogen atom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of nitrogen rate and the environment on physicochemical properties of selected high amylose rice cultivars (United States)

    Genetic marker haplotypes for the Waxy and alk genes are associated with amylose content and gelatinization temperature, respectively, and are used by breeders to develop rice cultivars that have physicochemical properties desired by the parboiling and canning industries. Cultivars that provide cons...

  11. Toxic Chemicals in the Soil Environment. Volume 1. Chemical Properties and Characterization of Soils (United States)


    SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITTAN (Brown, 1955). I. Amorphous (noncrxstalline cliys) Allophane (examnr1C, Ando soils of Japan) II. Crystalline Minerals A. Two...Lhis silica is usually contaminated with Al to form allophane and imogolite and similar soil mi;nerals. allophane and imogolite are gel- like...1977. Allophane and imogolite. In Minerals in Soil Environments, ed. J. B. Dixon and S. B. Weed. Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of America

  12. Definition and properties to assess multi-agent environments as social intelligence tests


    Insa-Cabrera, Javier; Hernández-Orallo, José


    Social intelligence in natural and artificial systems is usually measured by the evaluation of associated traits or tasks that are deemed to represent some facets of social behaviour. The amalgamation of these traits is then used to configure the intuitive notion of social intelligence. Instead, in this paper we start from a parametrised definition of social intelligence as the expected performance in a set of environments with several agents, and we assess and derive tests from it. This defi...

  13. Acrylic bone cements: influence of time and environment on physical properties. (United States)

    Nottrott, Markus


    Acrylic bone cements are in extensive use in joint replacement surgery. They are weight bearing and load transferring in the bone-cement-prosthesis complex and therefore, inter alia, their mechanical properties are deemed to be crucial for the overall outcome. In spite of adequate preclinical test results according to the current specifications (ISO, ASTM), cements with inferior clinical results have appeared on the market. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to predict the long term clinical performance of acrylic bone cement on the basis of mechanical in vitro testing. We performed in vitro quasistatic testing of cement after aging in different media and at different temperatures for up to 5 years. Dynamic creep testing and testing of retrieved cement were also performed. Testing under dry conditions, as required in current standards, always gave higher values for mechanical properties than did storage and testing under more physiological conditions. We could demonstrate a continuous increase in mechanical properties when testing in air, while testing in water resulted in a slight decrease in mechanical properties after 1 week and then levelled out. Palacos bone cement showed a higher creep than CMW3G and the retrieved Boneloc specimens showed a higher creep than retrieved Palacos. The strength of a bone cement develops more slowly than the apparent high initial setting rate indicates and there are changes in mechanical properties over a period of five years. The effect of water absorption is important for the physical properties but the mechanical changes caused by physical aging are still present after immersion in water. The established standards are in need of more clinically relevant test methods and their associated requirements need better definition. We recommend that testing of bone cements should be performed after extended aging under simulated physiological conditions. Simple quasistatic and dynamic creep tests seem unable

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete in seawater environment. (United States)

    Yue, Pengjun; Tan, Zhuoying; Guo, Zhiying


    This study aims to conduct research about the microstructure and basic properties of recycled aggregate concrete under seawater corrosion. Concrete specimens were fabricated and tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. The basic properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) including the compressive strength, the elastic modulus, and chloride penetration depth were explicitly investigated. And the microstructure of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) was revealed to find the seawater corrosion by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that higher amount of the RCA means more porosity and less strength, which could lower both the compressive strength and resistance to chloride penetration. This research could be a guide in theoretical and numerical analysis for the design of RAC structures.

  15. Formation, Structure and Properties of Amorphous Carbon Char from Polymer Materials in Extreme Atmospheric Reentry Environments (United States)

    Lawson, John W.


    Amorphous carbonaceous char produced from the pyrolysis of polymer solids has many desirable properties for ablative heat shields for space vehicles. Molecular dynamics simulations are presented to study the transformation of the local atomic structure from virgin polymer to a dense, disordered char [1]. Release of polymer hydrogen is found to be critical to allow the system to collapse into a highly coordinated char structure. Mechanisms of the char formation process and the morphology of the resulting structures are elucidated. Thermal conductivity and mechanical response of the resulting char are evaluated [2]. During reenty, the optical response and oxidative reactivity of char are also important properties. Results of ab initio computations of char optical functions [3] and char reactivity [4] are also presented.

  16. Systematic review on measurement properties of questionnaires assessing the neighbourhood environment in the context of youth physical activity behaviour. (United States)

    Reimers, Anne K; Mess, Filip; Bucksch, Jens; Jekauc, Darko; Woll, Alexander


    High-quality measurement instruments for assessing the neighbourhood environment are a prerequisite for identifying associations between the neighbourhood environment and a person's physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to identify reliable and valid questionnaires assessing neighbourhood environmental attributes in the context of physical activity behaviours in children and adolescents. In addition, current gaps and best practice models in instrumentation and their evaluation are discussed. We conducted a systematic literature search using six databases (Web of Science, Medline, TRID, SportDISCUS, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO). Two independent reviewers screened the identified English-language peer-reviewed journal articles. Only studies examining the measurement properties of self- or proxy-report questionnaires on any aspects of the neighbourhood environment in children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklists. We identified 13 questionnaires on attributes of the neighbourhood environment. Most of these studies were conducted in the United States (n = 7). Eight studies evaluated self-report measures, two studies evaluated parent-report measures and three studies included both administration types. While eight studies had poor methodological quality, we identified three questionnaires with substantial test-retest reliability and two questionnaires with acceptable convergent validity based on sufficient evidential basis. Based on the results of this review, we recommend that cross-culturally adapted questionnaires should be used and that existing questionnaires should be evaluated especially in diverse samples and in countries other than the United States. Further, high-quality studies on measurement properties should be promoted and measurement models (formative vs. reflexive) should be specified to ensure that appropriate methods for psychometric


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R; Ps Lam, P; Andrew Duncan, A; Bruce Wiersma, B; Karthik Subramanian, K; James Elder, J


    Discovery of aging phenomena in the materials of a structure may arise after its design and construction that impact its structural integrity. This condition can be addressed through a demonstration of integrity with the material-specific degraded conditions. Two case studies of development of fracture and crack growth property data, and their application in development of in-service inspection programs for nuclear structures in the defense complex are presented. The first case study covers the development of fracture toughness properties in the form of J-R curves for rolled plate Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel filler in the application to demonstrate the integrity of the reactor tanks of the heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The fracture properties for the base, weld, and heat-affected zone of the weldments irradiated at low temperatures (110-150 C) up to 6.4 dpa{sub NRT} and 275 appm helium were developed. An expert group provided consensus for application of the irradiated properties for material input to acceptance criteria for ultrasonic examination of the reactor tanks. Dr. Spencer H. Bush played a lead advisory role in this work. The second case study covers the development of fracture toughness for A285 carbon steel in high level radioactive waste tanks. The approach in this case study incorporated a statistical experimental design for material testing to address metallurgical factors important to fracture toughness. Tolerance intervals were constructed to identify the lower bound fracture toughness for material input to flaw disposition through acceptance by analysis.

  18. Experimental Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of Individual Micron/Submicron-Size Dust Grains in Astrophysical Environments (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.


    Dust grains constitute a significant component of matter in the universe, and play an important and crucial role in the formation and evolution of the stellar/planetary systems in interstellar dust clouds. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of dust grains is required for understanding of a variety of processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. The currently available and generally employed data on the properties of dust grains is based on bulk materials, with analytical models employed to deduce the corresponding values for individual small micron/submicron-size dust grains. However, it has been well-recognized over a long period, that the properties of individual smallsize dust grains may be very different from those deduced from bulk materials. This has been validated by a series of experimental investigations carried out over the last few years, on a laboratory facility based on an Electrodynamic Balance at NASA, which permits levitation of single small-size dust grains of desired composition and size, in vacuum, in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present a brief review of the results of a series of selected investigations carried out on the analogs of interstellar and planetary dust grains, as well as dust grains obtained by Apollo-l1-17 lunar missions. The selected investigations, with analytical results and discussions, include: (a) Direct measurements of radiation on individual dust grains (b) Rotation and alignments of dust grains by radiative torque (c) Charging properties of dust grains by: (i) UV Photo-electric emissions (ii) Electron Impact. The results from these experiments are examined in the light of the current theories of the processes involved.

  19. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments. (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze


    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical and Durability Properties of Fly Ash Based Concrete Exposed to Marine Environment (United States)

    Kagadgar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Saha, Suman; Rajasekaran, C.


    Efforts over the past few years for improving the performance of concrete suggest that cement replacement with mineral admixtures can enhance the strength and durability of concrete. Feasibility of producing good quality concrete by using alccofine and fly ash replacements is investigated and also the potential benefits from their incorporation were looked into. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess the performance of concrete in severe marine conditions exposed upto a period of 150 days. This work investigates the influence of alccofine and fly ash as partial replacement of cement in various percentages (Alccofine - 5% replacement to cement content) and (fly ash - 0%, 15%, 30%, 50% & 60% to total cementitious content) on mechanical and durability properties (Permit ion permeability test and corrosion current density) of concrete. Usage of alccofine and high quantity of fly ash as additional cementitious materials in concrete has resulted in higher workability of concrete. Inclusion of alccofine shows an early strength gaining property whereas fly ash results in gaining strength at later stage. Concrete mixes containing 5% alccofine with 15% fly ash replacement reported greater compressive strength than the other concrete mixes cured in both curing conditions. Durability test conducted at 56 and 150 days indicated that concrete containing higher percentages of fly ash resulted in lower permeability as well lesser corrosion density.

  1. X-ray Properties and the Environment of Compact Radio Sources. (United States)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sobolewska, Malgorzata; Guainazzi, Matteo; Hardcastle, Martin; Migliori, Giulia; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Lukasz


    Compact extragalactic radio sources provide important insights into the initial stages of radio source evolution and probe states of a black hole activity at the time of the formation of the relativistic outflow. Such outflows propagate out to hundreds kpc distances from the origin and impact environment on many scales, and thus influence evolution of structures in the universe. These compact sources show radio features typically observed in large-scale radio galaxies (jets, lobes, hot spots), but contained within the central 1 kpc region of the host galaxy. Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs, a subclass of GigaHertz Peaked spectrum radio sources) are symmetric and not affected by beaming. Their linear radio size can be translated into a source age if one measures the expansion velocity of the radio structures. Such ages has been measured for a small sample of CSOs. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton we observed a pilot samples of 16 CSOs in X-rays (6 for the first time). Our results show heterogeneous nature of the CSOs X-ray emission indicating a range of AGN luminosities and a complex environment. In particular, we identified four Compton Thick sources with a dense medium (equivalent column > 1e24 cm^-2) capable of disturbing/slowing down the jet and confining the jet to a small region. Thus for the first time we gain the observational evidence in X-ray domain in favor of the hypothesis that in a sub-population of CSOs the radio jets may be confined by the dense X-ray obscuring medium. As a consequence, the kinematic ages of these CSOs may be underestimated.. We discuss the implications of our results on the emission models of CSOs, the earliest stages of the radio source evolution, jet interactions with the ISM, diversity of the environments in which the jets expand, and jet-galaxy co-evolution.Partial support for this work was provided by the NASA grants GO1-12145X, GO4-15099X, NNX10AO60G, NNX17AC23G and XMM AO15 project 78461. This work supported

  2. Real-Time Measurement of Material Elastic Properties in a High Gamma Irradiation Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Telschow; Rob Schley; Dave Cottle


    This paper describes the first noncontact elastic vibration measurements of an object in a high gamma radiation field. Using a laser-coupled resonant ultrasound technique, the vibration modes of an Inconel hollow capped cylinder were measured as the gamma radiation field was increased to 104 Gy/h. This measurement technique allowed shifts in the resonant frequency of the sample’s vibration modes to be tracked over a 170-h period. The vibration mode frequencies changed in a manner consistent with the temperature dependence of the elastic stiffness coefficients of the material. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the laser approach for real-time resonant ultrasound measurements in this severely hostile nuclear environment.

  3. Influence of the charge properties on the milling tools wear during intensive milling in liquid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Števulová Nadežda


    Full Text Available Grinding belongs to the basic technological operations in the treatment and processing of minerals. The method of the intensive grinding in a liquid environment has become attractive for the preparation of technologically advanced materials of the high fineness. Its choice was motivated by the intensification of dispersion and by the protection of ground powder against oxidation. The result of energy and material interactions among the grinding media and grinding environment is the wear of the grinding media and contamination of the ground material. The hardness of the particles has an important influence on the rate of wear. Particles with hardness lower than that of the surface of milling tools cause much less wear than harder particles. The wear rate becomes much more sensitive to the ratio of the abrasive hardness Ha to the surface hardness Hs when Ha/Hs <¡­1.The paper deals with the influence of four minerals with various microhardness (corundum, quartz, silicon and magnesite on the steel milling tools wear during intensive milling.. Experiments were performed in a vibration mill in methanol under same conditions. The grinding time was changed in a geometric sequence from 0,125 to 4 hours. The newly created surface area providesa basic information on grinding. The specific surface area was determined by the standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method using the appratus Gemini 2360 (Sylab, Austria. The concentration of iron was determined by AAS (SpectrAA-30, Varian, Australia. It was confirmed that the rate of ball wear depends on the hardness of feed materials. It was found that the relation between the contamination of the ground powders by wear and the specific surface area increment is linear and the slope depends on the microhardness of the ground material.

  4. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in oxygen-containing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    A systematic study was conducted to evaluate the oxidation kinetics of V-4Cr-4Ti (44 alloy) and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys (55 alloy) and to establish the role of oxygen ingress on the tensile behavior of the alloys at room temperature and at 500 C. The oxidation rate of the 44 alloy is slightly higher than that of the 55 alloy. The oxidation process followed parabolic kinetics. Maximum engineering stress for 55 alloy increased with an increase in oxidation time at 500 C. The maximum stress values for 55 alloy were higher at room temperature than ta 500 C for the same oxidation treatment. Maximum engineering stresses for 44 alloy were substantially lower than those for 55 alloy in the same oxidation {approx}500 h exposure in air at 500 C; the same values were 4.8 and 6.1%, respectively, at 500 C after {approx}2060 h oxidation in air at 500 C. Maximum engineering stress for 44 alloy at room temperature was 421.6--440.6 MPa after {approx}250 h exposure at 500 C in environments with a pO{sub 2} range of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 760 torr. The corresponding uniform and total elongation values were 11--14.4% and 14.5--21.7%, respectively. Measurements of crack depths in various specimens showed that depth is independent of pO{sub 2} in the preexposure environment and was of 70--95 {micro}m after 250--275 h exposure at 500 C.

  5. Influence of contrasting environments on seed composition of two quinoa genotypes: nutritional and functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda


    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Chile represents a source of germplasm with high nutritional value. However, there is little information available related to quinoa seed quality grown under contrasting environments. In this study we evaluated the changes on seed composition of seeds of two lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes grown under arid (Vicuna and cold-temperate (Temuco conditions in Chile. Results showed that in the case of 'Regalona Baer' and 'Villarrica' genotypes the arid location (with irrigation led to a significant increase (P < 0.05 in grain yield (4.2 and 5.1 t ha-1, respectively, soluble dietary fiber (16.8 ± 0.4 and 28.9 ± 2.1 g kg-1 DM, respectively, vitamin B3 (2.44 ± 0.005 and 2.26 ± 0.04 mg 100 g-1 DM, respectively, saponins (3.22 ± 0.38 mg 100 g-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer', phenolic compounds (19.2 ± 5.48 and 31.92 ± 1.14 mg gallic acid 100 g-1 DM, respectively and components of proximate analysis, except protein content. The cold-temperate climate (rainfed affected positively seed size (2.22 ± 0.17 mm 'Villarrica' and 1000 seed weight (3.08 ± 0.08 and 3.29 ± 0.08 g, respectively, as well as insoluble dietary fiber content (112.3 ± 23.8 g kg-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer'. Furthermore, vitamin C was higher in 'Regalona Baer' genotype at arid locality (31.22 ± 4.2 mg 100 g-1 DM, but much higher content was registered in 'Villarrica' genotype at cold-temperate climate (49.3 ± 5.36 mg 100 g-1 DM. The environment-induced relationship among variables and genotypes was consistent with principal component analysis (PCA. The arid region of Vicuna in Chile represents a potential area for quinoa cultivation for lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes, whose nutritional and functional features were affected positively, due to the much more stressing climatic conditions.

  6. Effects of Chemical Environment on the Optical Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Chun

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) dispersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SOS) suspensions exhibit diameter-dependent oxidative quenching of their E11 fluorescence. This behavior can be substantially changed to become a near diameter independent quenching phenomenon in the presence of electron-withdrawing nitroaromatic compounds. This change is measured as a function of pH and concentration of oxidizing agents for SWNTs suspended either in SDS or in Nafion. Benzene, toluene, phenol, and nitromethane do not show such change. This suggests the possibility of forming an electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex, where the SWNT is the electron donor and nitroaromatic compounds are the acceptor, and the resulting supramolecular complex exhibits different redox behavior than the uncomplexed SWNT. Next, the dispersion of SWNTs in Nafion aqueous system is sustainable in ethanol and in salt solutions for observing well-resolved NIR fluorescence peaks of SWNTs. The optical property of the SWNT/Nafion suspension is studied by means of reversible oxidative quenching behavior with different oxidants including H2O2 and I2. Additionally, a simple and rapid one-step method for encapsulating SWNT/Nafion suspension into silica for fluorescence studies is also described. The redox reactions of fluorescent SWNT/silica composite with H2O2 and I2, either in water or in air, are studied with respect to time. Under this condition, the fluorescence of SWNT/silica composite shows the exponential decay and the dependence on the thickness of the silica composite. Furthermore, solvent effect on the fluorescence properties of the surfactant-dispersed SWNT in the aqueous solution is investigated by addition of DMSO, DMF, and THF, respectively. By mixing with certain amount of water soluble organic solvents, the fluorescence intensity of Nafion-dispersed SWNTs shows significant enhancement because the conformational change of fluorinated backbone of Nafion can improve the dispersion of SWNTs in the

  7. Thermal Properties and Structural Stability of LaCoO3 in Reducing and Oxidizing Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Miladin [ORNL; Speakman, Scott A [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Kriven, Waltraud M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lloyd, John [Drexel University; Fegely, Laura C [Drexel University; Orlovskaya, Nina [University of Central Florida


    Thermal expansion of LaCoO3 perovskite in air and 4% H2/96% Ar reducing atmosphere has been studied by Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA). The thermal behavior of LaCoO3 in air exhibits a non-linear expansion in 100 400 C temperature range. A significant increase of CTE measured in air both during heating and cooling experiments occurs in the 200 250 C temperature range, corresponding to a known spin state transition. LaCoO3 is found to be unstable in a reducing atmosphere. It undergoes a series of expansion and contractions due to phase transformations beginning around 500 C with very intensive chemical/phase changes at 850oC and above. These expansions and contractions are directly related to the formation of La3Co3O8, La2CoO4, La4Co3O10, La2O3, CoO, and other Co compounds due to the reducing atmosphere. Although LaCoO3 is a good ionic and electronic conductor and catalyst, its high thermal expansion as well structural instability in reducing environments presents a serious restriction for its application in solid oxide fuel cells, sensors or gas separation membranes.

  8. The Dependence of Constitutive Properties on Temperature and Effective Normal Stress in Seismogenic Environments (United States)

    Kato, Aitaro; Yoshida, Shingo; Ohnaka, Mitiyasu; Mochizuki, Hiromine

    We have evaluated how the parameters prescribing the slip-dependent constitutive law are affected by temperature and effective normal stress, by conducting the triaxial fracture experiments on Tsukuba-granite samples in seismogenic environments, which correspond to a depth range to 15 km. The normalized critical slip displacement Dc almost remains constant below 300oC (insensitive to both temperature and effective normal stress σneff) Dc increases with increasing temperature above 300 °C, and the rate of Dc increase with temperature tends to be largest at higher σneff. The breakdown stress drop Δτb for the granite at constant σneff is roughly 80 MPa below 300 °C, and does not depend on σneff. Above 300 °C, Δτb decreases gradually with increasing temperature, and the rate of Δτb reduction with temperature increases at higher σneff. The peak shear strength τp increases nearly linearly with increasing σneff below 300 °C. However, τp becomes lower above 300 °C, deviating from the linear relation extrapolated from below 300 °C. This is consistent with the onset of crystal plastic deformation mechanisms of Tsukuba granite.

  9. Magnetic properties and environment sites in Fe doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, S., E-mail: [Instituto de Tecnología y Ciencias de la Ingeniería “Ing. Hilario Fernández Long”, UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ingeniería, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pampillo, L.G. [Instituto de Tecnología y Ciencias de la Ingeniería “Ing. Hilario Fernández Long”, UBA-CONICET, Facultad de Ingeniería, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saccone, F.D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, UBA, Av. Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) were synthesized by co-precipitation. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction images showed that only rutile type phase was present in the samples. Electron microscopy was used as a tool for revealing morphology, distribution size and structure characteristics of the nanoparticles; while Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy analysis confirmed the selected stoichiometry. {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy at Room Temperature showed a lattice disorder induced by the incorporation of Fe ions in the structure. No magnetic hyperfine ordering was detected for {sup 57}Fe probes and the asymmetry in their quadrupolar splittings is explained as a texture effect at the nanoparticles shells. Quadrupolar splitting at {sup 119}Sn probe reached a maximum for x = 0.1, being this fact attributable to a highest distorted environment. Magnetic hysteresis loops were measured at different temperatures showing, for Fe doped samples, a combination of paramagnetism and weak ferromagnetism. - Highlights: • The production of nanoparticles of Fe-doped tin dioxide with rutile structure. • The non-observation of secondary phases (even in Mössbauer Spectroscopy). • The asymmetry in doublets observed in {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer which means texture effect. • The magnetic behavior as mainly paramagnetism plus weak ferromagnetism. • The decrease of ferromagnetism with Fe doping fraction.

  10. Effect of Simulated High Hydrogen Content Combustion Environments on Abradable Properties of Ceramic Turbine Coatings (United States)

    Basu Majumder, Madhura

    Air plasma sprayed (APS) abradable coatings are used in the turbine hot section to reduce the stator-rotor gap, minimizing gas leakage. These coatings are designed to exhibit controlled removal of material in thin layers when the turbine blades sweep through the coating, which protects the mechanical integrity of the turbine blade. In an effort to lower CO2 emissions, high H2 content fuel is being explored. This change in chemical composition of the fuel may affect the microstructure, abradability and durability of the coatings at turbine operational temperatures. The presence of high water vapor in the combustion chamber leads to accelerated degradation of the sacrificial coating materials. In this work, zirconia based composite materials with a machinable phase and varied porosity have been used to study microstructural evolution, thermal and chemical stability of the phases and abradable characteristics of baseline coating systems in both humid and dry environments. Investigation of the mechanisms that control the removal of materials and performance of abradable coatings through thermo-mechanical tests will be discussed.

  11. The Effects of Aggressive Environments on the Properties of Fly Ash based Geopolymers (United States)

    Baščarević, Z.; Komljenović, M.; Nikolić, V.; Marjanović, N.


    This paper analyzes the effects of two different aggressive environments, concentrated ammonium nitrate solution (480 g/dm3) and sodium sulphate solution (50 g/dm3), on the structure and mechanical strength of fly ash based geopolymers. Geopolymer samples were subjected to the aggressive solutions over a period of 365 days. It was found that exposure to the NH4NO3 and Na2SO4 solutions caused small decrease in geopolymer strength (10-20%). The most valuable insight into the structural changes caused by testing of the geopolymer samples in the aggressive solutions was provided by means of 29Si MAS NMR. It was found that the immersion of geopolymer samples in the NH4NO3 solution caused breaking of Si-O-Al bonds in the aluminosilicate geopolymer gel structure. On the other hand, treatment of the geopolymer samples with the Na2SO4 solution resulted in breaking of Si-O-Si bonds in geopolymer gel structure and leaching of Si. It was concluded that the major changes in the geopolymer structure were associated with the changes in the pH values of aggressive solutions during the testing.

  12. The properties and transport phenomena in oxide films on iron, nickel, chromium and their alloys in aqueous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.; Betova, I.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    The construction materials used in coolant systems in nuclear power plants become covered with oxide films as a result of exposure to the aqueous environment. The susceptibility of the materials to different forms of corrosion, as well as the extent of the incorporation of radioactive species on the surfaces of the primary circuit, are greatly influenced by the physical and chemical properties of these oxide films. The composition and characteristics of the oxide films in turn depend on the applied water chemistry. This work was undertaken in order to collect and evaluate the present views on the structure and behaviour of oxide films formed on iron- and nickel-based materials in aqueous environments. This survey should serve to recognise the areas in which more understanding and research effort is needed. The review begins with a discussion on the bulk oxides of iron, nickel and chromium, as well as their mixed oxides. In addition to bulk oxides, the structure and properties of oxide films forming on pure iron, nickel and chromium and on iron- and nickel-based engineering alloys are considered. General approaches to model the structure and growth of oxide films on metals are discussed in detail. The specific features of the oxide structures, properties and growth at high temperatures are presented with special focus on the relevance of existing models. Finally, the role of oxide films in localised corrosion, oxide breakdown pitting. Stress corrosion cracking and related phenomena is considered. The films formed on the surfaces of iron- and nickel-based alloys in high-temperature aqueous environments generally comprise two layers, i.e. the so-called duplex structure. The inner part is normally enriched in chromium and has a more compact structure, while the outer part is enriched in iron and has a cracked or porous structure. The information collected clearly indicates the effect of the chemical environment on the properties of oxide films growing on metal surfaces

  13. Effect of different electrodes on the transport properties of ZnO nanofibers under humid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Imran


    Full Text Available Relative humidity (RH sensing properties of zinc oxide nanofibers (ZNF, synthesized using electrospinning technique, were studied by impedance spectroscopy. RH sensors were fabricated with two different electrodes (Au and Ni using lithography on top of the nanofibers deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate. Compare with the Ni electrode sensor, Au electrode sensor exhibits larger sensitivity and quicker response/recovery. Capacitance, electrical conductivity and electrical modulus were studied at 40%-90% RH as a function of the frequency of the applied AC signal in the frequency range of 10−2-106 Hz. The corresponding response and recovery times are 3s and 5s for Au, and 6s and 10s for Ni electrode sensor, respectively. The sensors exhibited a reversible response with small hysteresis of less than 4% and 12% for Au and Ni electrodes respectively. Stability of the sensor device with Au electrode was confirmed by testing the device for 13 days. The excellent sensing characteristics and comparison of sensors with different electrode materials may offer an effective route for designing and optimizing RH sensors.

  14. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)


    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  15. Relationship between the adhesive properties of bacteria and their transport and colonization in the subsurface environment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, M.


    The adhesion of bacteria to sediment particle or rock surfaces considerably effects their transport in subsurface environments. This research focuses on the macromolecular properties of bacteria that determine their adhesiveness and on the significance of adhesion in transport of subsurface bacteria. Specific objectives include (1) to obtain adhesion mutants of subsurface Pseudomonas species altered in surface adhesives; (2) to determine alterations in adhesives in selected mutants; (3) to evaluate the effect of adhesiveness on transport and long-term distribution and colonization of bacteria in porous media. Primary methods will be tranposon mutagenesis to generate adhesion mutants, biochemical analyses of cell surface polymers, and the use of laboratory columns containing subsurface materials to study the distribution and transport of bacteria along flow paths over time.

  16. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.


    Powerful radio Galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/FRII and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/FRII and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star forming, with more evidence for disc-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/FRII LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle-tailed, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  17. Polyethylene glycol-coated blue-emitting silicon dots with improved properties for uses in aqueous and biological environments. (United States)

    Rodríguez Sartori, Damián; Lillo, Cristian R; Romero, Juan J; Laura Dell Arciprete, María; Miñán, Alejandro; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica; Gonzalez, Mónica C


    Grafting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to ultrasmall photoluminescent silicon dots (SiDs) is expected to improve and expand the applications of these particles to aqueous environments and biological systems. Herein we report a novel one-pot synthesis of robust, highly water compatible PEG-coated SiDs (denoted as PEG-SiDs) of (3.3 ± 0.5) nm size. The nanoparticles' synthesis is based on the liquid phase oxidation of magnesium silicide using PEG as reaction media and leading to high PEG density grafting. PEG-SiDs enhanced photophysical, photosensitising, and solution properties in aqueous environments are described and compared to those of 2 nm size PEG-coated SiDs with low PEG density grafting (denoted as PEG-NHSiDs) obtained from a multistep synthesis strategy. PEG-SiDs form highly dispersed suspensions in water showing stable photoluminescence and quantum yields of Φ = 0.13 ± 0.04 at 370 nm excitation in air-saturated suspensions. These particles exhibited the capacity of photosensitising the formation of singlet molecular oxygen, not observed for PEG-NHSiDs. PEG robust shielding of the silicon core luminescent properties is further demonstrated in bio-imaging experiments stressing the strong interaction between PEG-SiDs and Staphylococcus aureus smears by observing the photoluminescence of particles. PEG-SiDs were found to be nontoxic to S. aureus cells at concentrations of 100 mg ml(-1), though a bacteriostatic effect on S. aureus biofilms was observed upon UV-A irradiation under conditions where light alone has no effect.

  18. The properties of radio galaxies and the effect of environment in large-scale structures at z ˜ 1 (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Miller, Neal A.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Tomczak, Adam R.; Lubin, Lori M.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Becker, Robert H.; Gal, Roy R.; Wu, Po-Feng.; Squires, Gordon


    In this study, we investigate 89 radio galaxies that are spectroscopically confirmed to be members of five large-scale structures (LSSs) in the redshift range of 0.65 ≤ z ≤ 0.96. Based on a two-stage classification scheme, the radio galaxies are classified into three sub-classes: active galactic nucleus (AGN), Hybrid, and star-forming galaxy (SFG). We study the properties of the three radio sub-classes and their global and local environmental preferences. We find AGN hosts are the most massive population and exhibit quiescence in their star formation activity. The SFG population has a comparable stellar mass to those hosting a radio AGN but are unequivocally powered by star formation. Hybrids, though selected as an intermediate population in our classification scheme, were found in almost all analyses to be a unique type of radio galaxies rather than a mixture of AGN and SFGs. They are dominated by a high-excitation radio galaxy population. We discuss environmental effects and scenarios for each sub-class. AGN tend to be preferentially located in locally dense environments and in the cores of clusters/groups, with these preferences persisting when comparing to galaxies of similar colour and stellar mass, suggesting that their activity may be ignited in the cluster/group virialized core regions. Conversely, SFGs exhibit a strong preference for intermediate-density global environments, suggesting that dusty starbursting activity in LSSs is largely driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions and merging.

  19. Effect of calcination environments and plasma treatment on structural, optical and electrical properties of FTO transparent thin films (United States)

    Kafle, Madhav; Kapadi, Ramesh K.; Joshi, Leela Pradhan; Rajbhandari, Armila; Subedi, Deepak P.; Gyawali, Gobinda; Lee, Soo W.; Adhikari, Rajendra; Kafle, Bhim P.


    The dependence of the structural, optical and electrical properties of the FTO thin films on the film thickness (276 nm - 546 nm), calcination environment, and low temperature plasma treatment were examined. The FTO thin films, prepared by spray pyrolysis, were calcinated under air followed by either further heat treatment under N2 gas or treatment in low temperature atmospheric plasma. The samples before and after calcination under N2, and plasma treatment will be represented by Sair, SN2 and SPl, respectively, hereafter. The thin films were characterized by measuring the XRD spectra, SEM images, optical transmittance and reflectance, and sheet resistance of the films before and after calcination in N2 environment or plasma treatment. The presence of sharp and narrow multiple peaks in XRD spectra hint us that the films were highly crystalline (polycrystalline). The samples Sair with the thickness of 471 nm showed as high as 92 % transmittance in the visible range. Moreover, from the tauc plot, the optical bandgap Eg values of the Sair found to be noticeably lower than that of the samples SN2. Very surprisingly, the electrical sheet resistance (Rsh) found to decrease following the trend as Rshair > RshN2 > RshPl. The samples exposed to plasma found to possess the lowest RshPl (for film with thickness 546 nm, the RshPl was 17 Ω /sq.).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B.


    The Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites Project was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines to assure the long-term (15-year) structural integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. The project addressed characterization and modeling the durability of a progression of carbon-reinforced thermoset materials, each of which has the same urethane matrix. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the individual specimen test data. Basic mechanical property testing and results for a reference [{+-}45{sup o}]{sub 3S} crossply composite and a quasi-isotropic, [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S} version of the reference crossply are provided. The matrix and individual {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats are the same in both cases. Although the composite utilized aerospace-grade carbon-fiber reinforcement, it was made by a rapid-molding process suitable for high-volume automotive use. Behavioral trends, effects of temperature and environment, and corresponding design knockdown factors are established for both materials. The reference crossply is highly anisotropic with two dominant fiber orientations--0/90{sup o} and {+-}45{sup o}. Therefore properties were developed for both orientations.

  1. Environment Modulated Crystallization of Cu2O and CuO Nanowires by Electrospinning and their Charge Storage Properties. (United States)

    Harilal, Midhun; G Krishnan, Syam; Pal, Bhupender; Reddy, Mogalahalli Venkatashamy; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Yusoff, Mashitah Mohd; Jose, Rajan


    This article reports synthesis of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and cupric oxide (CuO) nanowires by controlling calcination environment of electrospun polymeric nanofibers and their charge storage properties. The Cu2O nanowires showed higher surface area (86 m2 g-1) and pore size than the CuO nanowires (36 m2 g-1). Electrochemical analysis was carried out in 6 M KOH and both the electrodes showed battery-type charge storage mechanism. The electrospun Cu2O electrodes delivered high discharge capacity (126 mA h g-1) than CuO (72 mA h g-1) at a current density of 2.4 mA cm-2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show almost similar charge transfer resistance in Cu2O (1.2 Ω) and CuO (1.6 Ω); however, Cu2O showed an order of magnitude higher ion diffusion. The difference in charge storage between these electrodes is attributed to the difference in surface properties and charge kinetics at the electrode. The electrode also shows superior cyclic stability (98%) and coulombic efficiency (98%) after 5000 cycles.

  2. Impact of an intense rainfall event on soil properties following a wildfire in a Mediterranean environment (North-East Spain). (United States)

    Francos, Marcos; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Úbeda, Xavier


    Intense rainfall events after severe wildfires can have an impact on soil properties, above all in the Mediterranean environment. This study seeks to examine the immediate impact and the effect after a year of an intense rainfall event on a Mediterranean forest affected by a high severity wildfire. The work analyses the following soil properties: soil aggregate stability, total nitrogen, total carbon, organic and inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio, carbonates, pH, electrical conductivity, extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, available phosphorous and the sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR). We sampled soils in the burned area before, immediately after and one year after the rainfall event. The results showed that the intense rainfall event did not have an immediate impact on soil aggregate stability, but a significant difference was recorded one year after. The intense precipitation did not result in any significant changes in soil total nitrogen, total carbon, inorganic carbon, the C/N ratio and carbonates during the study period. Differences were only registered in soil organic carbon. The soil organic carbon content was significantly higher after the rainfall than in the other sampling dates. The rainfall event did increase soil pH, electrical conductivity, major cations, available phosphorous and the SPAR. One year after the fire, a significant decrease in soil aggregate stability was observed that can be attributed to high SPAR levels and human intervention, while the reduction in extractable elements can be attributed to soil leaching and vegetation consumption. Overall, the intense rainfall event, other post-fire rainfall events and human intervention did not have a detrimental impact on soil properties in all probability owing to the flat plot topography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Substrate-Versatile Approach to Robust Antireflective and Superhydrophobic Coatings with Excellent Self-Cleaning Property in Varied Environments. (United States)

    Ren, Tingting; He, Junhui


    Robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings are highly desired in wide applications, such as optical devices, solar cell panels, architectural and automotive glasses, lab-on chip systems, and windows for electronic devices. Meanwhile, simple, low-cost, and substrate-versatile fabrication is also essential toward real applications of such coatings. Herein, we developed a substrate-versatile strategy to fabricate robust antireflective and superhydrophobic coatings with excellent self-cleaning property in varied environments, including air and oil and after oil contamination. A mixed ethanol suspension, which consists of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane modified dual-sized silica nanoparticles and acid-catalyzed silica precursor, was first synthesized. The acid-catalyzed silica precursor could help to form a highly cross-linked silica network by connecting the silica nanoparticles, thus significantly enhancing the robustness of coatings. The as-prepared coatings were able to withstand a water drop impact test, sand abrasion test, tape adhesion test, and knife and pencil scratching tests. More importantly, it was also found that the wettability and self-cleaning property of coatings after oil contamination were surprisingly different from those in air and oil. These observations are explainable by the alteration of interface; i.e., the alteration of interface has significant effects on the functional properties of coatings. Additionally, the mixed suspension could be sprayed onto various hard and soft substrates including glass, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), opening up a feasible route toward varied practical applications in solar cell panels, optical devices, architectural and automotive glasses, droplet manipulators, and fluid control.

  4. Spectroscopic properties of a series of Co(II) coordination polymers and the influence of Co(II) coordination environment on photoelectric property. (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Gong, Yuanyuan; Li, Lei; Han, Xiao; Meng, Qin; Liu, Yonghua; Niu, Shuyun


    Four Co(II) coordination polymers, [Co(suc)]n 1, [Co(pdc)]n 2, {[Co7(suc)4(OH)6(H2O)3]·8H2O}n 3, {[Co(bdc)(phen)(H2O)]·H2O}n 4 (H2suc=succinic acid, H2pdc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc=1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS), electrical conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ultraviolet visible and near-infrared absorption spectrum (UV-Vis-NIR), infrared spectrum (IR), and elemental analysis. The structural analyses indicate that the coordination numbers of the Co(II) ions are 4, 5, 6 and 6 for the polymers 1-4, respectively. And polymers 1 and 2 exhibit 3D structure formed by suc(2-) and pdc(2-) anions bridging Co(II) ions, respectively. Polymer 3 exhibits a 2D structure with suc(2-) anions bridging seven-nuclear [Co7(OH)6(H2O)3](3-) unit and polymer 4 is a 1D structure bridged by bdc(2-) anions. The surface photoelectric properties of the cobalt polymers were mainly studied by SPS. The results of SPS reveal that all polymers possess certain photoelectric conversion property in the range of 300-800 nm. The influences of the structure, coordination micro-environment of central metal ion and structural dimensionality on response bands of SPS were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Is optimality in stomatal conductance an endogenous process or an emergent property arising from interactions with the environment? (United States)

    Resco de Dios, Victor; Gessler, Arthur; Ferrio, Juan Pedro; Bahn, Michael; Milcu, Alexandru; Tissue, David; Voltas, Jordi; Roy, Jacques


    Plants are sessile and poikilothermic organisms that need to respond and adjust promptly to an ever-changing environment. Over a single 24 h period, a plant may experience the same level of variation in radiation as in its entire life-time and, in some climates, the oscillation in day-night temperature and vapor pressure deficit might be of similar magnitude to that experienced across a full year. Plants need to maintain a positive C balance without depleting soil water reserves in the face of such a diverse environment, and feedbacks between assimilation (A) and water losses (E) are thought to have evolved to optimize stomatal conductance (gs). In short, the optimal conductance hypothesis proposes that cross-talks between A and stomatal conductance gs lead to a constant marginal water use (λ) during a day, such that A is maximized and E minimized. The biological mechanism by which biochemical processes would feedback gs remains unknown, but multiple studies have shown empirical support for this hypothesis, leading to its current consideration of theory by many. Here we test whether optimal stomatal conductance is an endogenous property, that is, driven solely by factors internal to the plant, and in the absence of environmental fluctuations. After 5 days of entrainment, where monoculture canopies of bean and of cotton were subjected to the average environmental conditions of an August sunny day in Montpellier (at the CNRS European Ecotron, FR), we kept temperature, relative humidity and photosynthetically active radiation constant for 48 h at the values observed at noon. During this period, we monitored leaf gas exchange continuously every two minutes, and canopy gas exchange every 15 minutes. We observed a periodic oscillation in λ, showing a 24 h period, and consistent with a circadian regulation of water use efficiency. Hourly variations in λ could thus not be explained by the optimal stomatal hypothesis. Moreover, the pattern of variation (of maximal water

  6. Estimation of environment-related properties of chemicals for design of sustainable processes: Development of group-contribution+ (GC+) models and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent


    The aim of this work is to develop group-3 contribution+ (GC+)method (combined group-contribution (GC) method and atom connectivity index (CI)) based 15 property models to provide reliable estimations of environment-related properties of organic chemicals together with uncertainties of estimated...... property values. For this purpose, a systematic methodology for property modeling and uncertainty analysis is used. The methodology includes a parameter estimation step to determine parameters of property models and an uncertainty analysis step to establish statistical information about the quality......, poly functional chemicals, etc.) taken from the database of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and from the database of USEtox is used. For property modeling and uncertainty analysis, the Marrero and Gani GC method and atom connectivity index method have been considered. In total, 22...

  7. Physicochemical properties of the Ljungan virus prototype virion in different environments: inactivated by heat but resistant to acidic pH, detergents and non-physiological environments such as Virkon-containing solutions. (United States)

    Ekström, Jens-Ola; Tolf, Conny; Edman, Kjell-A; Lindberg, A Michael


    It is of great importance to know how a virus particle is affected by environmental conditions. Physicochemical properties of the virion will affect the virus viability in different environments, viral transmission between hosts, and will also be important for safe handling of the virus. The physicochemical properties of the Ljungan virus (LV) prototype, 87-012, adapted to grow in cell culture were evaluated using both LV in crude cell extracts and purified virions. Replication of LV was completely inhibited by heat. Titers of LV were unaffected by acidic pH, reduced but not completely abolished by alkaline pH, and unaffected by exposure to the detergents Triton X-100 and SDS. Surprisingly, viable LV was still detected after incubation in the acidic, oxidising and detergent-containing environment produced by the commonly used disinfectant Virkon. In conclusion, LV is resilient to extreme pH, detergents and also to oxidising environments, but is sensitive to heat treatment.

  8. Properties and local environment of p-type and photoluminescent rare earths implanted into ZnO single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Rita, EMC; Wahl, U; Soares, JC

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the local environment of p-type and Rare- Earth dopants implanted in ZnO single-crystals (SCs). Various nuclear and bulk property techniques were combined in the following evaluations: Implantation damage annealing was evaluated in ZnO SCs implanted with Fe, Sr and Ca. P-type dopants Cu and Ag implanted ZnO SCs were studied revealing that the solubility of Cu in substituting Zn is considerably higher than that of Ag. These results are discussed within the scope of the ZnO p-type doping problematic with these elements. Experimental proofs of the As “anti-site” behavior in ZnO were for the first time attained, i.e., the majority of As atoms are substitutional at the Zn site (SZn), possibly surrounded by two Zn vacancies (VZn). This reinforces the theoretical prediction that As acts as an acceptor in ZnO via the AsZn-2VZn complex formation. The co-doping of ZnO SC with In (donor) and As (acceptor) was addressed. The most striking result is the possible In-As “p...

  9. Contrasty Tests on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451 in Pooding Environment of Fuel Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kuang


    Full Text Available Fatigue properties in typical corrosion environments are the premise of fatigue life design for metallic structures in aircraft. Therefore, fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens subjected to constant amplitude loading in two environments of dry air and fuel tank ponding respectively to determine pure and corrosion fatigue properties of aluminum alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451. Corrosion fatigue properties in the two environments were analyzed and compared with each other, and the interaction mechanisms between corrosion and fatigue were deduced from fractographical studies by using scanning election microscope (SEM. It is showed that fuel tank ponding has a detrimental influence on fatigue properties and the adverse effect increases with the decreasing stress level. In addition, the notch of specimen enhances the severity of corrosion effects. Fatigue crack is easily initiate from the corrosion pits on the rough fatigue surface, and crack propagation is enhanced by the corrosion products and the hydrogen embrittlement effects at crack tips, thus the degradation of fatigue properties and the reduction of fatigue life are caused.

  10. Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand (United States)

    Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.


    In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m

  11. Analysis of the Pseudoalteromonas tunicata genome reveals properties of a surface-associated life style in the marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Thomas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonisation of sessile eukaryotic host surfaces (e.g. invertebrates and seaweeds by bacteria is common in the marine environment and is expected to create significant inter-species competition and other interactions. The bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a successful competitor on marine surfaces owing primarily to its ability to produce a number of inhibitory molecules. As such P. tunicata has become a model organism for the studies into processes of surface colonisation and eukaryotic host-bacteria interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To gain a broader understanding into the adaptation to a surface-associated life-style, we have sequenced and analysed the genome of P. tunicata and compared it to the genomes of closely related strains. We found that the P. tunicata genome contains several genes and gene clusters that are involved in the production of inhibitory compounds against surface competitors and secondary colonisers. Features of P. tunicata's oxidative stress response, iron scavenging and nutrient acquisition show that the organism is well adapted to high-density communities on surfaces. Variation of the P. tunicata genome is suggested by several landmarks of genetic rearrangements and mobile genetic elements (e.g. transposons, CRISPRs, phage. Surface attachment is likely to be mediated by curli, novel pili, a number of extracellular polymers and potentially other unexpected cell surface proteins. The P. tunicata genome also shows a utilisation pattern of extracellular polymers that would avoid a degradation of its recognised hosts, while potentially causing detrimental effects on other host types. In addition, the prevalence of recognised virulence genes suggests that P. tunicata has the potential for pathogenic interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome analysis has revealed several physiological features that would provide P. tunciata with competitive advantage against other members of the surface

  12. Nano-MgO reinforced chitosan nanocomposites for high performance packaging applications with improved mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. (United States)

    De Silva, R T; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Ratnayake, S P; Amaratunga, G A J; de Silva, K M Nalin


    Chitosan nanocomposite thin films were fabricated by incorporating MgO nanoparticles to significantly improve its physical properties for potential packaging applications. A novel in-situ method was developed to synthesise spherical shaped MgO nanoparticles by heat-treating magnesium carbonate/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite precursor. Optimum mechanical properties of chitosan composites were yielded at 5 (w/w%) of MgO concentration, where tensile stress and elastic modulus significantly improved by 86% and 38%, respectively, compared to those of pure chitosan films. These improvements are due to the interaction of hydroxyl and amine groups of chitosan with MgO as confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Fracture surface morphology indicated the interplay between MgO dispersion and aggregation on the mechanical properties at different MgO concentrations. Furthermore, the chitosan/MgO nanocomposites displayed remarkable thermal stability, flame retardant properties (satisfied V0 rating according to the UL-94 standards), UV shielding and moisture barrier properties, which could certainly add value to the packaging material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Right to an Ecologically Balanced Environment and the Right to Private Property: Exibility of Forest Reserve Legal in Urban Area and Urban Sprawl


    Guerra, Lais Batista; Monteiro, Rayanny Silva Siqueira


    To assure effectiveness of the right to an ecologically balanced environment the State must adopt certain measures opposite to some fundamental rights, among which the right to property. Among these administrative limitations, the Legal Forest Reserve LFR stands out, it has legal support in Law 12.651/12, as an area of restrictive use located within every rural real estate that intends to ensure the usage of the sustained resources inserted in the area. In this context, the present article ai...

  14. The Application of Intentional Subjective Properties and Mediated Communication Tools to Software Agents in Online Disputes Resolution Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Gobbin


    Full Text Available This paper examines the use of subjective properties in modeling an architecture for cooperative agents using Agent Communication Language (ACL that is used as a mediating tool for cooperative communication activities between and within software agents. The role that subjective and objective properties have in explaining and modeling agent internalization and externalization of ACL messages is investigated and related to Vygotsky’s developmental learning theories such as Mediated Activity Theory. A novel agent architecture ALMA (Agent Language Mediated Activity based on the integration of agents’ subjective and objective properties within an agent communication activity framework will be presented. The relevance of software agents subjective properties in modeling applications such as e-Law Online Dispute Resolution for e-business contractual arrangements using natural language subject/object relation in their communication patterns will be discussed.

  15. Intellectual property rights and research disclosure in the university environment: preserving the commercialization option and optimizing market interest. (United States)

    Patino, Robert


    Clinical and basic scientists at academic medical and biomedical research institutions often form ideas that could have both monetary and human health benefits if developed and applied to improvement of human wellbeing. However, such ideas lose much of their potential value in both regards if they are disclosed in traditional knowledge-sharing forums such as abstracts, posters, and oral presentations at research meetings. Learning the basics about intellectual property protection and obtaining professional guidance in the management of intellectual property from a knowledgeable technology management professional or intellectual property attorney can avoid such losses yet pose a minimal burden of confidentiality on the investigator. Knowing how to successfully navigate the early stages of intellectual property protection can greatly increase the likelihood that discoveries and knowledge will become available for the public good without diminishing the important mandate of disseminating knowledge through traditional knowledge-sharing forums.

  16. Carbon Biochemistry and the Ultraviolet Radiation Environments of F, G, and K Main Sequence Stars (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.


    The ultraviolet radiation environment of main sequence stars might be a factor in determining the suitability of extrasolar planets for biological evolution and the subsequent radiation of life in exposed habitats. Assuming the validity of the carbon-water chauvinism, the absorbance of DNA in the UV region of the spectrum is used as a theoretical biological dosimeter to elucidate in more detail the photobiological parameter space of anoxic planets orbiting F, G, and K main sequence stars. Planets within the habitable zones of K main sequence stars have particularly favorable UV environments, with biochemically effective irradiances an order of magnitude lower than those believed to have existed on the surface of Archean Earth. Even using the UV shielding and repair habits of present-day terrestrial organisms, the survivability of the photobiological environment of anoxic K star planets can be demonstrated. The biochemically effective irradiances received in the F star radiation environment are more severe, being 6 to 27 times higher than on Archean Earth. Nevertheless, a combination of UV mitigation strategies seen on the present-day Earth suggest that UV radiation is not a constraint on life even in the inner region of the habitable zone. Life in an ocean on an F-star planet could experience a UV radiation regime similar even to that for present-day Earth. These calculations, although limited by our assumptions on the course of biochemical evolution and the UV absorbance of complex extraterrestrial molecules, suggest that life can survive the UV radiation environments of most extrasolar planets.

  17. Lacustrine Environment Reservoir Properties on Sandstone Minerals and Hydrocarbon Content: A Case Study on Doba Basin, Southern Chad (United States)

    Sumery, N. F. Mohd; Lo, S. Z.; Salim, A. M. A.


    The contribution of lacustrine environment as the hydrocarbon reservoir has been widely known. However, despite its growing importance, the lacustrine petroleum geology has received far less attention than marine due to its sedimentological complexity. This study therefore aims in developing an understanding of the unique aspects of lacustrine reservoirs which eventually impacts the future exploration decisions. Hydrocarbon production in Doba Basin, particularly the northern boundary, for instance, has not yet succeeded due to the unawareness of its depositional environment. The drilling results show that the problems were due to the: radioactive sand and waxy oil/formation damage, which all are related to the lacustrine depositional environment. Detailed study of geological and petrophysical integration on wireline logs and petrographic thin sections analysis of this environment helps in distinguishing reservoir and non-reservoir areas and determining the possible mechanism causing the failed DST results. The interpretations show that the correlation of all types> of logs and rho matrix analysis are capable in identifying sand and shale bed despite of the radioactive sand present. The failure of DST results were due to the presence of arkose in sand and waxy oil in reservoir bed. This had been confirmed by the petrographic thin section analysis where the arkose has mineral twinning effect indicate feldspar and waxy oil showing bright colour under fluorescent light. Understanding these special lacustrine environment characteristics and features will lead to a better interpretation of hydrocarbon prospectivity for future exploration.

  18. The properties of protective oxide scales containing cerium on alloy 800H in oxidizing and oxidizing/sulphidizing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Geerdink, Bert; Gellings, P.J.; Stroosnijder, M.F.


    The corrosion protection of oxide scales formed by electrophoretic deposition in a cerium-containing sol on Alloy 800H, a 32Ni-20Cr steel, followed by firing in air at 1123 K was studied in oxidizing and mixed oxidizing/sulphidizing environments at elevated temperatures. In particular, the influence

  19. Properties of the steel-mortar interface derived by impedance spectroscopy in different environment and curing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.


    In practice, reinforced concrete structures may encounter different kinds of curing conditions
    due to the weather (sun radiation, air moisture and wind), nearby external environment
    (seawater, attack of stray current arising from nearby railways), or human factors (insufficient

  20. Can the job content questionnaire be used to assess structural and organizational properties of the work environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Roger; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene


    The theory behind the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) presumes that the "objective" social environment is measurable via self-report inventories such as the JCQ. Hence, it is expected that workers in identical work will respond highly similar. However, since no studies have evaluated this basic...... assumption, we decided to investigate whether workers performing highly similar work also responded similarly to the JCQ....

  1. Weathering effects on discontinuity properties in sandstone in a tropical environment : case study at Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tating, F.F.; Hack, H.R.G.K.; Jetten, V.G.


    The formation of mechanical discontinuities (i.e., bedding, joint planes) is one of the main effects of weathering in rock masses. It is also highly important for forecasting the geotechnical properties of a rock mass in the future. The effect is well known in most rock types, but the mechanisms of

  2. A review of the properties and processes determining the fate of engineered nanomaterials in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Baalousha, M.; Chen, J.; Chaudry, Q.; Kammer, von der F.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Nickel, C.; Quik, J.T.K.; Renkerg, M.; Koelmans, A.A.


    Proper understanding of the basic processes and specific properties of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) that modify the fate and effects of NMs is crucial for NM-tailored risk assessment. This in turn requires developers of NMs and for regulators to consider the most important parameters governing the

  3. A Review of the Properties and Processes Determining the Fate of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Aquatic Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Baalousha, M.; Chen, J.; Chaudry, Q.; Kammer, von der F.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lead, J.; Nickel, C.; Quik, J.T.K.; Renker, M.; Wang, Z.; Koelmans, A.A.


    Proper understanding of the basic processes and specific properties of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) that modify the fate and effects of NMs is crucial for NM-tailored risk assessment. This in turn requires developers of NMs and for regulators to consider the most important parameters governing the

  4. Testing the psychometric properties of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure using Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in an Australian registered nurse population. (United States)

    Reid, Carol; Courtney, Mary; Anderson, Debra; Hurst, Cameron


    A cross-sectional survey was conducted, and the construct validity and reliability of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure in an Australian sample of registered nurses were examined. Nurses were randomly selected from the database of an Australian nursing organization. The original 33 items of the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure were utilized to inform the psychometric properties using confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.938 for the total scale and ranged 0.657-0.887 for the subscales. A five-factor structure of the measure was confirmed, χ(2)  = 944.622, (P < 0.01), χ(2) /d.f. ratio = 2.845, Tucker Lewis Index 0.929, Root Mean Square Error = 0.061 and Comparative Fit Index = 0.906. The selected 28 items of the measure proved reliable and valid in measuring effects of the practice environment upon Australian nurses. The implications are that regular measurement of the practice environment using these 28 items might assist in the development of strategies which might improve job satisfaction and retention of registered nurses in Australia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations Part 1: Basic Properties, Cognitive Environment, Characteristics of the Princes

    CERN Document Server

    van Raan, Anthony F J


    A Sleeping Beauty in Science is a publication that goes unnoticed (sleeps) for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention (is awakened by a prince). In this paper we investigate important properties of Sleeping Beauties, particularly to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. Therefore, it is important to investigate the reasons for and processes related to delayed recognition. First we analyze basic properties of the SBs such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics (names of authors, country, institution), as well as the journals and fields of the SBs are analyzed. Next we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based ...

  6. Materials for the General Aviation Industry: Effect of Environment on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fabric/Rubber Toughened Vinyl Ester Laminates (United States)

    McBride, Timothy M.


    A screening evaluation is being conducted to determine the performance of several glass fabric/vinyl ester composite material systems for use in primary General Aviation aircraft structures. In efforts to revitalize the General Aviation industry, the Integrated Design and Manufacturing Work Package for General Aviation Airframe and Propeller Structures is seeking to develop novel composite materials and low-cost manufacturing methods for lighter, safer and more affordable small aircraft. In support of this Work Package, this study is generating material properties for several glass fabric/rubber toughened vinyl ester composite systems and investigates the effect of environment on property retention. All laminates are made using the Seemann Composites Resin Infusion Molding Process (SCRIMP), a potential manufacturing method for the General Aviation industry.

  7. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials (United States)

    Suh, Jong-ook


    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  8. An investigation on changes in chemical properties of pure ethylene-propylene-diene rubber in aqueous acidic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter


    The influence of two aqueous acidic environments on two types of pure ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber (i.e., elastomer) thin films is studied. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) results revealed the formation of several oxygenated species...... formation on the surface of EPDM rubbers compared to 20% H2SO4 under identical conditions. Complex formation on the surface of EPDM samples exposed to 20% Cr(VI)/H2SO4 through reactions of carboxylic groups (generated due to EPDM degradation) with Cr(III) (formed due to reduction of Cr(VI)) was also evident...

  9. Intellectual property Protection in the Digital Environment According to Point of View of Academic Professors in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Ulwy


    Full Text Available The digital revolution of technological information has started and would not stop. The use of information technology gives birth to new challenges and many problems in society, one of this case is, intellectual property for all digital intellectual receptacle witch to be affected in information society with law order. A new area, with new skills should be developed in the light of a care fully deeply through deontology to review and coordinate knowledge. The main skill is the reach information and knowledge but this value became an illegal penetrate to the privacy on cyberspace. This deontological problem throws many questions about the legal and deontological responsibility

  10. Influence of weathering effect in natural environment on thermal properties hybrid kenaf blast/glass fibre and unsaturated polyester composite (United States)

    Mohammed, M.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Beta, B. O.; Adam, T.; Osman, A. F.; Salem, I. A. S.; Dahham, O. S.; Al-Samarrai, M. N.; Mohammed, A. M.


    Unprecedented growing on environmental concern has put research on completive driven effort to quest for new material in various application, the effort toward producing thermally stable polymer is ever gaining considerable interest. Thus, this study proposed the integration of glass fiber with kenaf based polymer to improve thermal properties. Based on the TGA and DSC results, the composites show slow and steady initial weight loss until major weight loss at 360°C. Thus, with incorporation of glass fiber extend region of degradation until 260-360 °Cshow no exothermic or endothermic changes, this reflected that the composites thermally stability have been improved.

  11. Effect of the regional environment on the skin properties and the early wrinkles in young Chinese women. (United States)

    Kim, E J; Han, J Y; Lee, H K; He, Q Q; Cho, J C; Wei, L; Wang, X; Li, L; Wei, L; Liang, H; Gao, X; Kim, B J; Nam, G W


    There are ethnic differences in the skin characteristics, also the skin is susceptible to be influenced by the external environment such as UV radiation and the climates. It can be shown that the skin in same race or twins varies by the environment. This study was designed to investigate the skin characteristics and the early wrinkles of young Chinese women from four different regions, and to identify the correlation among the wrinkles, the other skin characteristics, and environmental conditions. A total of 441 healthy Chinese women aged between 20 and 35 years participated in the study: 110 from Beijing, 110 from Shanghai, 111 from Wuhan, and 110 from Guangzhou. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, pH, elasticity, and wrinkles were measured on the crow's feet area. There were regional differences in the skin characteristics and the wrinkles. Beijing women had dry skin and more wrinkles, but Guangzhou women had high sebum contents, low pH, and less wrinkles (P wrinkles' form (area, depth, and length) was different from region to region. Beijing women's wrinkles were deep and large, but Guangzhou women's wrinkles were shallow and small. The skin physical parameters that influenced the wrinkles were low sebum content and hydration, high TEWL, and pH (P wrinkle formation than skin elasticity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chemical and isotopic properties and origin of coarse airborne particles collected by passive samplers in industrial, urban, and rural environments (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volke; Gieré, Reto


    Passive air samplers have been installed in industrial, urban, rural and remote forested environments in order to collect coarse airborne particles for subsequent chemical characterization. To identify principal polluting sources, isotopic tracers, such as Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios, have been used. The mass deposition rates (MDRs) of trace metals, determined for each of the studied environments, clearly indicate that industrial and traffic sites are especially affected by air pollution. Elements such as V, Pb, Fe, Cr, Co, Mo, Cd, Ni, As, Sb and Zn are notably enriched in samples from industrial zones, whereas V, Mn, Ba, Sr, Al, U, Th, rare earth elements (REE), Zr, Y, Cs, Rb, Sb, Sn and Cu are principal components of the airborne particles collected close to areas influenced by heavy traffic. The chemical/isotopic baseline composition derived from the airborne particles is the result of mixing of particles from different industrial sources, traffic and fertilizers. The monthly analysis of trace-metal MDRs of the collected airborne particle samples from different stations around the industrial zone allows for the detection of distinct atmospheric dust-deposition events during the year, characterized by high MDRs. "Natural" dusts from regional soil re-suspension, including from more distant regions like the Sahara desert, might overprint the regional atmospheric baseline composition, as suggested by trace metal trajectories in ternary diagrams and by Sr, Nd and Pb isotope data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhang, Amin; Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Javadi, Atefeh; Molaeinezhad, Alireza; Tavasoli, Saeed; Habibi, Farhang; Kourkchi, Ehsan; Rezaei, Sara; Saberi, Maryam [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), PO Box 19395-5746 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Bailey, Mandy [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hardy, Liam, E-mail: [Isaac Newton Group, Apartado 321, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain)


    We present a new high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic survey of the Northern hemisphere to probe the Local Bubble and its surroundings using the λ5780 Å and λ5797 Å diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). We observed 432 sightlines to a distance of 200 pc over a duration of three years. In this study, we establish the λ5780 and λ5797 correlations with Na I, Ca II and E {sub B-V}, for both inside and outside the Local Bubble. The correlations show that among all neutral and ionized atoms, the correlation between Ca II and λ5780 is stronger than its correlation with λ5797, suggesting that λ5780 is more associated with regions where Ca{sup +} is more abundant. We study the λ5780 correlation with λ5797, which shows a tight correlation within and outside the Local Bubble. In addition, we investigate the DIB properties in UV irradiated and UV shielded regions. We find that, within and beyond the Local Bubble, λ5797 is located in denser parts of clouds, protected from UV irradiation, while λ5780 is located in the low-density regions of clouds.

  14. Ultrasonic Measurements of Unconsolidated Saline Sediments During Freeze/Thaw Cycles: The Seismic Properties of Cryopeg Environments (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.


    Saline permafrost and cryopegs (hypersaline unfrozen layers/zones within permafrost) are widespread in the Arctic coastal area as a result of marine transgression and regression in recent geological history. Owing to the freezing-point depression effect of soluble salts, they contain more unfrozen water than non-saline frozen sediments when subjected to the same permafrost temperatures (e.g., from 0 to -15 °C). Mapping subsurface cryopeg structure remains a challenging geophysical task due to the poor penetration of GPR in highly conductive fluids and related limitations for lower frequency EM techniques. Seismic profiling, particularly surface wave characterization, provides one possible approach to delineate the extent of cryopeg bodies. However, interpretation of such surveys is currently limited by the sparse database of measurements examining the seismic properties of unconsolidated materials saturated with saline fluids at sub-zero temperatures. We present the results of experiments examining seismic velocity in the ultrasonic range for both synthetic and natural permafrost sediments during freeze/thaw cycles; in these experiments, use of a range of brine salinities allows us to evaluate the properties of cryopeg sediments at in-situ conditions, a prerequisite for quantitative interpretation of seismic imaging results. Because of the abundant unfrozen water and less developed inter-granular ice structure, the seismic properties of saline permafrost typically falls between frozen and unfrozen soils. We conducted ultrasonic measurements of a freeze-thaw cycle on 20-30 Ottawa sand (grain size 590-840 μm) as well as natural mineral soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) saturated with brines of different salinities (0-2.5 M NaCl). For each salinity, seismic properties were measured using the ultrasonic (~1 MHz) pulse-transmission method in the temperature range from 20 to -30 °C. Similar to sediments saturated with low salinity fluids, seismic

  15. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Singh, T. Sanjoy [Department of Chemistry, Assam University, Silchar 788011, Assam (India); Baul, Tushar S. Basu [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India); Mitra, Sivaprasad, E-mail: [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya (India)


    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants.

  16. The effects of liquid environments on the optical properties of linear carbon chains prepared by laser ablation generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); D’Urso, L., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Fazio, E.; Patanè, S.; Neri, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Puglisi, O.; Compagnini, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)


    Linear carbon chains (LCCs) were successfully produced by laser generated plasmas in different solvents starting from graphite rods. An identification of the prepared carbon structures was carried out from the analysis of the UV–vis spectra. Moreover, a systematic analysis of the DFT computed structural and electronic response of both polyynic and cumulenic model molecules, as a function of the solvents with different polarity, was carried out. The comparison between the calculated UV–vis spectra of polyynes series with the experimental ones clearly indicates that polyynes are the dominant species produced by the ablation process. The optical limiting properties were investigated by the Z-scan method, using a nanosecond pulsed laser. Both the different solvents and the carbon chain length distribution have a driving role in the nonlinear optical response. Hence, the effect of the solvent polarity and acidity was taken into account to explain the nature of the optical limiting behaviour.

  17. Influence of urban surface properties and rainfall characteristics on surface water flood outputs - insights from a physical modelling environment (United States)

    Green, Daniel; Pattison, Ian; Yu, Dapeng


    Surface water (pluvial) flooding occurs when excess rainfall from intense precipitation events is unable to infiltrate into the subsurface or drain via natural or artificial drainage channels. Surface water flood events pose a major hazard to urban regions across the world, with nearly two thirds of flood damages in the UK being caused by surface water flood events. The perceived risk of surface water flooding appears to have increased in recent years due to several factors, including (i) precipitation increases associated with climatic change and variability; (ii) population growth meaning more people are occupying flood risk areas, and; (iii) land-use changes. Because urban areas are often associated with a high proportion of impermeable land-uses (e.g. tarmacked or paved surfaces and buildings) and a reduced coverage of vegetated, permeable surfaces, urban surface water flood risk during high intensity precipitation events is often exacerbated. To investigate the influence of urbanisation and terrestrial factors on surface water flood outputs, rainfall intensity, catchment slope, permeability, building density/layout scenarios were designed within a novel, 9m2 physical modelling environment. The two-tiered physical model used consists of (i) a low-cost, nozzle-type rainfall simulator component which is able to simulate consistent, uniformly distributed rainfall events of varying duration and intensity, and; (ii) a reconfigurable, modular plot surface. All experiments within the physical modelling environment were subjected to a spatiotemporally uniform 45-minute simulated rainfall event, while terrestrial factors on the physical model plot surface were altered systematically to investigate their hydrological response on modelled outflow and depth profiles. Results from the closed, controlled physical modelling experiments suggest that meteorological factors, such as the duration and intensity of simulated rainfall, and terrestrial factors, such as model slope

  18. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital The copyright, the intellectual property and the digital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib


    Full Text Available Ante el crecimiento acelerado y la expansión que se han manifestado en el campo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, no se puede dejar de considerar que la problemática de la propiedad intelectual y la seguridad de las transmisiones representan una porción sustancial a analizar dentro de dicha temática. En el marco de los actuales roles que le toca desempeñar al bibliotecario como intermediario entre los autores o creadores, los editores y los usuarios finales de la información, este profesional deberá cumplir funciones semejantes a las de antes, pero afrontando el cambio de los medios con los que va a realizarlas. Si el bibliotecario acepta esta nueva obligación de facilitar el acceso a la información a través de soportes digitales, y en particular, de Internet, deberá conocer y respetar profundamente los principios jurídicos para establecer contratos de transferencia de la información. Este trabajo pretende realizar un esbozo de la amplia temática de la propiedad intelectual en el mundo digital para que el bibliotecario pueda, a través de él, incursionar en esta área del derecho y avanzar en su profundización.In light of the accelerated growth and expansion of the field of information technology and communication, it is impossible to ignore that the problematic notions of intellectual property and transmission safety are a substantial part of what has to be analyzed in this field. In the framework of the roles that librarians presently play as mediators between authors or creators, editors, and consumers of information, this professional will fulfill similar functions as before, having to confront, however, the change in the media with which s/he carries them out. If the librarian takes on this new task of facilitating access to information through digital media, especially the Internet, s/he will have to really know and deeply respect the juridical principles behind the establishing of contracts on

  19. El derecho, la propiedad intelectual y el entorno digital = The Copyright, The intellectual Property and the Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Silberleib


    Full Text Available Ante el crecimiento acelerado y la expansión que se han manifestado en el campo de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, no se puede dejar de considerar que la problemática de la propiedad intelectual y la seguridad de las transmisiones representan una porción sustancial a analizar dentro de dicha temática. En el marco de los actuales roles que le toca desempeñar al bibliotecario como intermediario entre los autores o creadores, los editores y los usuarios finales de la información, este profesional deberá cumplir funciones semejantes a las de antes, pero afrontando el cambio de los medios con los que va a realizarlas. Si el bibliotecario acepta esta nueva obligación de facilitar el acceso a la información a través de soportes digitales, y en particular, de Internet, deberá conocer y respetar profundamente los principios jurídicos para establecer contratos de transferencia de la información. Este trabajo pretende realizar un esbozo de la amplia temática de la propiedad intelectual en el mundo digital para que el bibliotecario pueda, a través de él, incursionar en esta área del derecho y avanzar en su profundización = In light of the accelerated growth and expansion of the field of information technology and communication, it is impossible to ignore that the problematic notions of intellectual property and transmission safety are a substantial part of what has to be analyzed in this field. In the framework of the roles that librarians presently play as mediators between authors or creators, editors, and consumers of information, this professional will fulfill similar functions as before, having to confront, however, the change in the media with which s/he carries them out. If the librarian takes on this new task of facilitating access to information through digital media, especially the Internet, s/he will have to really know and deeply respect the juridical principles behind the establishing of contracts on

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence dating properties of Martian sediment analogue materials exposed to a simulated Martian solar spectral environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detschel, M.J. [Department of Physics, North Dakota State University, 218 South Engineering, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Department of Geosciences, North Dakota State University, 218 Stevens Hall, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)], E-mail:; Lepper, K. [Department of Geosciences, North Dakota State University, 218 Stevens Hall, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)], E-mail:


    Deciphering the geomorphic, climatic, and hydrologic history of Mars will require an extensive geochronology on numerous time scales from both returned samples and in-situ measurements. Optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL), or optical dating, is an established terrestrial geochronological method that is being developed as a member of a suite of dating tools for Mars. As part of this development process, we have built an optical system simulating the calculated Martian solar spectral irradiance taking into account seasonal variations due to attenuation of dust and the planet's orbital position and used it to catalogue the UV dosimetric response and optical dating behavior of a group of sediment analogues exposed to a simulated Martian spectral environment (SMSE) for the surface of the planet. Our results suggest that optical dating should not be compromised by the interaction of the enhanced UV radiation in the Martian spectrum with K-feldspar, Ca-feldspar, anhydrite, or hydrous Ca and Mg sulfates on Mars. However, Na-feldspar appears to be capable of acquiring and retaining an OSL signal under SMSE conditions, which could present a challenge for optical dating on Mars in sedimentary deposits containing more than a trace quantity of sodic feldspars.

  1. Initial evaluation of psychometric properties of a structured work task application for the Assessment of Work Performance in a constructed environment. (United States)

    Karlsson, Elin A; Liedberg, Gunilla M; Sandqvist, Jan L


    The Swedish Social Insurance Administration has developed a new assessment tool for sickness insurance. This study is a part of the initial evaluation of the application, called the Assessment of Work Performance, Structured Activities, and focuses on evaluation of the psychometric properties of social validity, content validity, and utility. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with occupational therapists. A convenience sample was used and participants who fulfilled inclusion criteria (n = 15) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis with a directed approach. The results indicate that the application provides valuable information and that it is socially valid. Assessors found work tasks suitable for a diverse group of clients and reported that clients accepted the assessments. Improvements were suggested, for example, expanding the application with more work tasks. The instrument has benefits; however, further development is desired. The use of a constructed environment in assessments may be a necessary option to supplement a real environment. But depending on organizational factors such as time and other resources, the participants had different opportunities to do so. Further evaluations regarding ecological validity are essential to ensure that assessments are fair and realistic when using constructed environments. Implications for rehabilitation This study indicates that assessment in a constructed environment can provide a secure and protected context for clients being assessed. Psychometric evaluations are a never-ending process and this assessment instrument needs further development. However, this initial evaluation provides guidance in development of the instrument but also what studies to give priority to. It is important to evaluate social validity in order to ensure that clients and assessors perceive assessment methods fair and meaningful. In this study, participants found the work tasks

  2. Evolution of Multispectral Aerosol Absorption Properties in a Biogenically-Influenced Urban Environment during the CARES Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul; Song, Chen; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra; Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Subramanian, R.; Moosmüller, Hans


    We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties as urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made during June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 870 nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From the 22nd to the 28th of June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.

  3. Mechanisms of nitrate capture in biochar: Are they related to biochar properties, post-treatment and soil environment? (United States)

    Cimo, Giulia; Haller, Andreas; Spokas, Kurt; Novak, Jeff; Ippolito, Jim; Löhnertz, Otmar; Kammann, Claudia


    we found (7)that this captured nitrate was well protected against leaching, (8)that repeated drying-wetting cycles increased nitrate capture, with the amount protected against leaching remaining more or less constant; and (9) that an organic "coating" (or application of the nitrate in an organic solution, here: black tea) increased biochars' capability of nitrate capture. Our results thus underline that the phenomenon of nitrate capture is not purely due to ionic mechanisms but may partly rely on physical interactions and the pore structure of the biochar. Acknowledgement: JC acknowledges funding by the COST action TD1107 (short term scientific mission), CK acknowledges the financial support of DFG grant no. Ka3442/1-1 and of the HMWK Hessia funded OptiChar4EcoVin project. 1-Haider, G., Steffens, D., Müller, C. & Kammann, C. I. Standard extraction methods may underestimate nitrate stocks captured by field aged biochar. J. Environ. Qual. 45, 1196-1204 (2016). 2-Kammann, C. I. et al. Plant growth improvement mediated by nitrate capture in co-composted biochar. Scientific Reports 5, doi: 10.1038/srep11080 (2015). 3-Haider, G., Steffens, D., Moser, G., Müller, C. & Kammann, C. I. Biochar reduced nitrate leaching and improved soil moisture content without yield improvements in a four-year field study. Agri. Ecosys. Environ. 237, 80-94 (2017).

  4. Taurolidine antiadhesive properties on interaction with E. coli; its transformation in biological environment and interaction with bacteria cell wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caruso

    Full Text Available The taurine amino-acid derivative, taurolidine, bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiabiazinyl-4methane, shows broad antibacterial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and some clinically relevant fungi. It inhibits, in vitro, the adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. Taurolidine is unstable in aqueous solution and breaks down into derivatives which are thought to be responsible for the biological activity. To understand the taurolidine antibacterial mechanism of action, we provide the experimental single crystal X-ray diffraction results together with theoretical methods to characterize the hydrolysis/decomposition reactions of taurolidine. The crystal structure features two independent molecules linked through intermolecular H-bonds with one of them somewhat positively charged. Taurolidine in a biological environment exists in equilibrium with taurultam derivatives and this is described theoretically as a 2-step process without an energy barrier: formation of cationic taurolidine followed by a nucleophilic attack of O(hydroxyl on the exocyclic C(methylene. A concerted mechanism describes the further hydrolysis of the taurolidine derivative methylol-taurultam. The interaction of methylol-taurultam with the diaminopimelic NH(2 group in the E. coli bacteria cell wall (peptidoglycan has a negative DeltaG value (-38.2 kcal/mol but a high energy barrier (45.8 kcal/mol suggesting no reactivity. On the contrary, taurolidine docking into E. coli fimbriae protein, responsible for bacteria adhesion to the bladder epithelium, shows it has higher affinity than mannose (the natural substrate, whereas methylol-taurultam and taurultam are less tightly bound. Since taurolidine is readily available because it is administered in high doses after peritonitis surgery, it may successfully compete with mannose explaining its effectiveness against bacterial infections at

  5. Taurolidine antiadhesive properties on interaction with E. coli; its transformation in biological environment and interaction with bacteria cell wall. (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Darnowski, James W; Opazo, Cristian; Goldberg, Alexander; Kishore, Nina; Agoston, Elin S; Rossi, Miriam


    The taurine amino-acid derivative, taurolidine, bis-(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiabiazinyl-4)methane, shows broad antibacterial action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria and some clinically relevant fungi. It inhibits, in vitro, the adherence of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. Taurolidine is unstable in aqueous solution and breaks down into derivatives which are thought to be responsible for the biological activity. To understand the taurolidine antibacterial mechanism of action, we provide the experimental single crystal X-ray diffraction results together with theoretical methods to characterize the hydrolysis/decomposition reactions of taurolidine. The crystal structure features two independent molecules linked through intermolecular H-bonds with one of them somewhat positively charged. Taurolidine in a biological environment exists in equilibrium with taurultam derivatives and this is described theoretically as a 2-step process without an energy barrier: formation of cationic taurolidine followed by a nucleophilic attack of O(hydroxyl) on the exocyclic C(methylene). A concerted mechanism describes the further hydrolysis of the taurolidine derivative methylol-taurultam. The interaction of methylol-taurultam with the diaminopimelic NH(2) group in the E. coli bacteria cell wall (peptidoglycan) has a negative DeltaG value (-38.2 kcal/mol) but a high energy barrier (45.8 kcal/mol) suggesting no reactivity. On the contrary, taurolidine docking into E. coli fimbriae protein, responsible for bacteria adhesion to the bladder epithelium, shows it has higher affinity than mannose (the natural substrate), whereas methylol-taurultam and taurultam are less tightly bound. Since taurolidine is readily available because it is administered in high doses after peritonitis surgery, it may successfully compete with mannose explaining its effectiveness against bacterial infections at laparoscopic lesions.

  6. Moral Intelligence in the Context of Its Questionnaire Psychometric Properties Verification and of Chosen Demographic Variables in the Slovak Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Kaliská


    Full Text Available The interest in intelligence construct operationalization is reflected in construction upon new intelligence concepts analyzing it in a wider social context. This scientific study offers the theoretical and empirical analysis of a newly created construct of moral intelligence. Moral intelligence concept was founded in the Multiple Intelligence Theory of H. Gardner (1985, being followed by L. Kuckovsky, A. Dobrin, V. Di Norcia and others in historical-philosophical-evolution-theological context, by D. Lennick, F. Kiel, C. Veach and others in successful management context and by A. Hass, M. Borba, R. Coles, J. Bradshaw and others in school-counselling context. Subsequently moral intelligence is defined as an individual's ability to solve ethical problems ethically right. The application of ethical principles in successful business management formed a theoretical base for moral intelligence characterized by D. Lennick a F. Kiel (2008. They created also a self-report questionnaire Moral Competence Inventory (MCI to assess personal moral competences as a base of moral intelligence. The study provides the results of psychometrical properties (factor structure and reliability in the sense of inner consistency and test-retest result stability of the Slovak, the only available, questionnaire for moral intelligence assessment at a chosen adolescent research sample (N=209. It also analyses the differences in total moral intelligence level and two newly extracted factors (personal and social moral competences in relation to gender, age and religious believes referring to the fact the MCI authors presupposed that there is no relation between moral competences and demographic factors (gender, age, nationality or religion, 2005. The findings prove the significant differences in the overall level of moral intelligence (p≤0,01 and in factors of personal (Standing up for what is right (Courage, p≤0,01 and social (Helping others (Service, p≤0,01 and Actively

  7. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2 and reducing gases (H2, NH3, as well as relative humidity (RH on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2 atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV excitation (λ = 390 nm at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation. The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles in resistive NO2 sensors.

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Properties of a Common Brand of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis Marketed in Nigerian Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosunde O. Funmilayo


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is aimed at determining chemical constituents and antimicrobial activities of a common brand of black tea (Lipton® in Nigeria. Methods: Standard methods were employed for testing carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and terpenes in the tea. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the tea on four standard strains of organisms: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis were also determined by standard methods. Results: Results showed that the tea contains tannin and reducing sugar. Concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous and methanolic extract of black tea were prepared and their zones of inhibition determined against the four test organisms using the cup plate method. This was compared with zones for standard disc Gentamicin (10 μg and Erythromycin (15 μg. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to 2% to 10% aqueous extracts and intermediate to 6%, 8% and 10% methanolic extracts. E. coli was intermediately sensitive to 6%, 8% and 10% aqueous extract and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis was intermediately sensitive to 4%, 6% and 8% aqueous extract and 4% to 10% methanolic extract but sensitive to 10% aqueous extract. Staph.aureus was intermediately sensitive to 4% to 10% aqueous extracts and 2% to 10% methanolic extracts. B. subtilis had the lowest MIC values of both aqueous and methanolic extracts. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that Lipton® has antimicrobial properties on E.coli, Staph.aureus, B.subtilis and Ps.aeruginosa and contains tannin and reducing sugar.

  9. Concentration-dependent optical properties of TGA stabilized CdTe Quantum dots synthesized via the single injection hydrothermal method in the ambient environment (United States)

    Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh, H. M.


    Thioglycolic acid (TGA) stabilized aqueous CdTe Quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a facile, cost efficient Single Injection Hydrothermal (SIH) method. The complete preparation of precursors and growth of QDs was carried out in the ambient environment without inter gas protection. The Cadmium and Tellurium precursors were prepared from cadmium nitrate and elemental tellurium powder with sodium borohydride as reducing agent respectively. A systematic investigation was carried out in order to study the effect of 0.04M and 0.08M TGA concentration on ease synthesis, stability and size-tunable optical absorbance, bandgap, photoluminescence (PL) and Quantum yield (QY) of CdTe QDs. The Structure of QDs was verified by XRD and optical properties by absorbance and PL spectra. Experimental results revealed that the 0.08M TGA QDs possess good chemical and optical stability with high luminescence and decent QY, ready to use in optoelectronics, photovoltaic and biological application.

  10. One of the Distinctive Properties of Ionic Liquids over Molecular Solvents and Inorganic Salts: Enhanced Basicity Stemming from the Electrostatic Environment and "Free" Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiwei [Zhejiang University; Xing, Huabin [ORNL; Bao, Zongbi [Zhejiang University; Su, Baogen [Zhejiang University; Zhang, Zhiguo [Zhejiang University; Yang, Yiwen [Zhejiang University; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Ren, Qilong [Zhejiang University


    The basicity of ionic liquids (ILs) underlies many important IL-based processes including the dissolution and conversion of cellulose, the capture of CO2, and metal catalysis. In this work, we have disclosed the nature of the basicity of ILs, i.e., the difference between the basicity of IL and the basicity of the molecular solvent and inorganic salt, through a quantitative electrostatic and electronic analysis of the molecular surface for the first time. The results reveal one of the distinctive properties of ILs (enhanced basicity over molecular solvents and inorganic salts with the same basic site) stemming from their special electrostatic environment and microstructure. The enhancement is significant, from either the electrostatic aspect or the covalent aspect of basicity. The peculiar electrostatic environment of ILs leads to stronger basicity than similar molecular solvents, and the relatively freer microstructure of ILs contributes to the enhancement of basicity over their inorganic analogues. These results are highly instructive for better understanding the unique value of ILs and designing novel ILs to improve the efficiency of basicity-related processes.

  11. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods (United States)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, CH Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop


    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems.

  12. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo


    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  13. Cellulose Nanocrystals/ZnO as a Bifunctional Reinforcing Nanocomposite for Poly(vinyl alcohol/Chitosan Blend Films: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Azizi


    Full Text Available In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and chitosan (Cs blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial effects of the bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. It demonstrated that CNCs/ZnO were compatible with PVA/Cs and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer blend matrix. CNCs/ZnO improved tensile strength and modulus of PVA/Cs significantly. Tensile strength and modulus of bio-nanocomposite films increased from 55.0 to 153.2 MPa and from 395 to 932 MPa, respectively with increasing nano-sized filler amount from 0 to 5.0 wt %. The thermal stability of PVA/Cs was also enhanced at 1.0 wt % CNCs/ZnO loading. UV light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PVA/Cs matrix, signifying that these bio-nanocomposite films show good UV-shielding effects. Moreover, the biocomposites films showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The improved physical properties obtained by incorporating CNCs/ZnO can be useful in variety uses.

  14. Properties of small instream wood as a logjam clogging agent: Implications for clogging dynamics based on wood density, water content, and depositional environment (United States)

    Haga, Hirokazu; Moriishida, Takuya; Morishita, Naoya; Fujimoto, Takaaki


    In cooperation with large instream wood (LW) within logjams, small instream wood (SW) can control downstream flux of sediment and particulate organic matter and can play an important role for stream ecosystems. However, information regarding the density and moisture content of SW-which affects wood transport, wood decay, and mass loading-is limited. Here we investigated the SW properties, i.e., density under field conditions (in situ density), basic density, volumetric water content, and depositional environment of SW sampled from five logjams and their backwater areas in two headwater streams (second- and third-order streams) surrounded by mixed broadleaf-conifer forests in western Japan. The in situ density ranged from 0.49 to 1.25 g cm- 3, and pieces with densities > 1.0 g cm- 3 accounted for 45% of all samples. Additionally, the in situ density of SW closely related to the volumetric water content (r2 = 0.76) rather than the basic density as an index of solidity or decay condition of wood. The SW that was partially submerged in water had a higher volumetric water content than SW exposed to air. These results indicate that a nonfloating transport cannot be ignored as an important mechanism for SW movement and that in situ density depends not on the solidity of the wood but on water sorption by SW. However, waterlogged SW should be well decayed because it has a lower basic density than air-exposed and sediment-buried SW. We conclude that the moisture conditions of the depositional environment can affect subsequent transport and decay processes of SW. Moreover, most waterlogged and sediment-buried SW, because of its high in situ density (> 1.0 g cm- 3), may contribute to clogging between the channel bed and LW that initiate a logjam during future movements.

  15. Electrochemical Behavior and Hydrophobic Properties of CrN and CrNiN Coatings in Simulated Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Jie


    Full Text Available The CrN and CrNiN coatings were prepared on the surface of 304 stainless steel by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering.X ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the coatings.The electrochemical corrosion properties under the simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell(PEMFC environment, interfacial contact resistance and hydrophobic properties of the two kinds of different coatings were investigated by electrochemical methods,contact resistance test and hydrophobic test,respectively.The results indicate that CrN coating mainly consists of CrN and Cr2N phase,CrN and Cr2N phases in the CrNiN coating are less compared to CrN film, and Ni exist as element in CrNiN coating; dynamic polarization tests show the coating is of better corrosion resistance,whereas the corrosion resistance of CrNiN coating is worse than that of CrN coating,constant potential polarization test shows the corrosion current density of CrN and CrNiN coatings are equivalent; CrN and CrNiN coatings significantly reduce the interfacial contact resistance of the 304 stainless steel,among which CrN coating has the smallest contact resistance; and CrNiN coating which has better hydrophobicity than that of CrN coating is more beneficial for the water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  16. Effect of SiC weight percentage on tribological properties of Al-SiC metal matrix composites under acid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smrutiranjan Pradhan


    Full Text Available In this paper, Al-SiC MMCs reinforced with different weight percentages of SiC content (5 wt.%, 7.5 wt.% and 10 wt.% are fabricated through the liquid stir casting method. The effect of weight percentage of SiC on friction and wear properties of Al-SiC MMC is investigated. Tribological tests are conducted under acid environment in a pin-on-disk tribotester by varying the design parameters (applied normal load and sliding speed while the duration of each experiment is kept constant for 30 minutes. It is seen from the result that wear increases with increase in applied load and sliding speed but friction coefficient shows a decreasing trend with increase in load. The addition of SiC reinforcement increases the wear resistance of the metal matrix composite. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX technique are used to analyse the wear mechanism of worn surface. From the microstructure study, it is seen that adhesive, abrasive and corrosive wear mechanisms are present for removal of material from the Al-SiC MMCs.

  17. Effects of dominant material properties on the stability and transport of TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in aquatic environment: From synthesis to fate (United States)

    Recently, increasing studies have focused on the environment stability, transport, and fate of the anthropogenic nanomaterials in the environment, which contributes to the understanding of the potential risks when released. However, applying nanomaterials from different manufactu...

  18. Patient safety in surgical environments: Cross-countries comparison of psychometric properties and results of the Norwegian version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nortvedt Monica W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background How hospital health care personnel perceive safety climate has been assessed in several countries by using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety (HSOPS. Few studies have examined safety climate factors in surgical departments per se. This study examined the psychometric properties of a Norwegian translation of the HSOPS and also compared safety climate factors from a surgical setting to hospitals in the United States, the Netherlands and Norway. Methods This survey included 575 surgical personnel in Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, an 1100-bed tertiary hospital in western Norway: surgeons, operating theatre nurses, anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists and ancillary personnel. Of these, 358 returned the HSOPS, resulting in a 62% response rate. We used factor analysis to examine the applicability of the HSOPS factor structure in operating theatre settings. We also performed psychometric analysis for internal consistency and construct validity. In addition, we compared the percent of average positive responds of the patient safety climate factors with results of the US HSOPS 2010 comparative data base report. Results The professions differed in their perception of patient safety climate, with anaesthesia personnel having the highest mean scores. Factor analysis using the original 12-factor model of the HSOPS resulted in low reliability scores (r = 0.6 for two factors: "adequate staffing" and "organizational learning and continuous improvement". For the remaining factors, reliability was ≥ 0.7. Reliability scores improved to r = 0.8 by combining the factors "organizational learning and continuous improvement" and "feedback and communication about error" into one six-item factor, supporting an 11-factor model. The inter-item correlations were found satisfactory. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the questionnaire need further investigations to be regarded as reliable in surgical environments. The operating


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Tišljar


    Full Text Available The Lower Cretaceous limestones from the Lakovići quarry belong to the basal part of the Aptian limestones. These limestones are the beginning of the second transgressive-regrcssive megasequence in Istria which followed a general Upper Aptian emersion event. Within the approximately 50 m thick limestone sequence that is quarried, four facies units were defined according to their petrographic and sedimen-tological features. The following facies units were devided: A- Micritic limestones, which were deposited as shallowing-upward cycles and which begin with breccias containing clay matrix or terminate with dark-gray clays sporadically accompanied by deposition and redeposi-lion of black terrestrial and swamp clays, as well as sediments from bogs and pools that were developed in isolated bays and/or laggons; B -Grain supported limestone deposited as fine-grained to coarse-grained carbonate sands in a predominantly high-energy shallows, bars and sandy beaches; C - Micritic limestones deposited in restricted low-energy shallow subtidal environments; D - Drain supported limestones deposited as fine grained carbonate sands in high-energy shallows and bars. The results of petrological, sedimentological and technological investigations show that the limestones from each individual facies unit have different technical properties, notably porosity, bulk density and water absorption, i.e. the wide range of technical quality of the limestones quarried is a direct consequence of their facies characteristics. The outlined facies units enable separation of rock mass in the quarry not only by their petrological characteristics but also according to the technical quality of the rock.

  20. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry. (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D


    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO 2 , fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO 2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH 4 , O 2 , and O 3 . At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO 2 levels. However, if SO 2 and/or H 2 S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H 2 O is a robust UV shield for λ levels of other atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H 2 O and is available across a broad range of [Formula: see text], meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H 2 O and CO 2 levels. Key Words: Radiative transfer-Origin of life-Planetary environments

  1. Changes in depositional environment for the past 35 years in the Thane Creek, central west coast of India: Inferences from REEs, metals and magnetic properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.L.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Parthiban, G.; Rao, V.P.

    The role of diagenetic processes in influencing the behaviour of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn), rare earth elements (REEs) and environmental magnetic parameters in two sediment cores from a polluted creek environment (the Thane Creek, Mumbai...

  2. Physical–chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of ‘emerging’ and ‘novel’ brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liagkouridis, Ioannis, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 21060, SE 100 31 Stockholm (Sweden); Cousins, Anna Palm [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 21060, SE 100 31 Stockholm (Sweden); Cousins, Ian T. [Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES), Stockholm University, SE 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical–chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical–chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called ‘novel’ and ‘emerging’ brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical–chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (P{sub ov}), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on P{sub ov} and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. - Highlights: • ‘Best-estimates’ of physical–chemical properties of alternative FRs are proposed. • The ‘SMURF’ model and the OECD ‘The Tool’ are used to estimate the environmental fate. • Many alternative BFRs and HOPFRs have similar environmental fate to PBDEs. • Among alternative FRs, certain low MW

  3. Constraints on the Early Terrestrial Surface UV Environment Relevant to Prebiotic Chemistry (United States)

    Ranjan, Sukrit; Sasselov, Dimitar D.


    The UV environment is a key boundary condition to abiogenesis. However, considerable uncertainty exists as to planetary conditions and hence surface UV at abiogenesis. Here, we present two-stream multilayer clear-sky calculations of the UV surface radiance on Earth at 3.9 Ga to constrain the UV surface fluence as a function of albedo, solar zenith angle (SZA), and atmospheric composition. Variation in albedo and latitude (through SZA) can affect maximum photoreaction rates by a factor of >10.4; for the same atmosphere, photoreactions can proceed an order of magnitude faster at the equator of a snowball Earth than at the poles of a warmer world. Hence, surface conditions are important considerations when computing prebiotic UV fluences. For climatically reasonable levels of CO2, fluence shortward of 189 nm is screened out, meaning that prebiotic chemistry is robustly shielded from variations in UV fluence due to solar flares or variability. Strong shielding from CO2 also means that the UV surface fluence is insensitive to plausible levels of CH4, O2, and O3. At scattering wavelengths, UV fluence drops off comparatively slowly with increasing CO2 levels. However, if SO2 and/or H2S can build up to the ≥1-100 ppm level as hypothesized by some workers, then they can dramatically suppress surface fluence and hence prebiotic photoprocesses. H2O is a robust UV shield for λ < 198 nm. This means that regardless of the levels of other atmospheric gases, fluence ≲198 nm is only available for cold, dry atmospheres, meaning sources with emission ≲198 (e.g., ArF excimer lasers) can only be used in simulations of cold environments with low abundance of volcanogenic gases. On the other hand, fluence at 254 nm is unshielded by H2O and is available across a broad range of NCO2, meaning that mercury lamps are suitable for initial studies regardless of the uncertainty in primordial H2O and CO2 levels.

  4. Creep-Rupture Properties and Corrosion Behaviour of 21/4 Cr-1 Mo Steel and Hastelloy X-Alloys in Simulated HTGR Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystrup, Aage; Rittenhouse, P. L.; DiStefano, J. R.

    Hastelloy X and 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel are being considered as structural alloys for components of a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) system. Among other mechanical properties, the creep behavior of these materials in HTGR primary coolant helium must be established to form part...... of the design criteria. This report describes the simulated HTGR-helium environmental creep facilities, summarizes preliminary creep properties of 2/sup 1///sub 4/ Cr-1 Mo steel and Hastelloy X generated in HTGR helium and compares these with data obtained by testing in air. Some corrosion characteristics...

  5. Self-Report Measures of the Home Learning Environment in Large Scale Research: Measurement Properties and Associations with Key Developmental Outcomes (United States)

    Niklas, Frank; Nguyen, Cuc; Cloney, Daniel S.; Tayler, Collette; Adams, Raymond


    Favourable home learning environments (HLEs) support children's literacy, numeracy and social development. In large-scale research, HLE is typically measured by self-report survey, but there is little consistency between studies and many different items and latent constructs are observed. Little is known about the stability of these items and…

  6. Diamond-Dispersed Fiber-Reinforced Composite for Superior Friction and Wear Properties in Extreme Environments and Method for Fabricating the Same (United States)

    Street, Kenneth (Inventor); Voronov, Oleg A (Inventor); Kear, Bernard H (Inventor)


    Systems, methods, and articles of manufacture related to composite materials are discussed herein. These materials can be based on a mixture of diamond particles with a matrix and fibers or fabrics. The matrix can be formed into the composite material through optional pressurization and via heat treatment. These materials display exceptionally low friction coefficient and superior wear resistance in extreme environments.

  7. 12CO(J = 1 \\to 0) On-the-fly Mapping Survey of the Virgo Cluster Spirals. II. Molecular Gas Properties in Different Density Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, Eun Jung; Yun, Min S.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Chung, Aeree


    This study investigated the properties of the molecular gas content and star formation activity of 17 Virgo spirals, 21 Ursa Major (UMa) spirals, 13 Pisces spiral galaxies, and a comparison sample of 11 field spiral galaxies with a spatially resolved gas and stellar distribution. The H I-deficient

  8. HTGR Base Technology Program. Task 2: concrete properties in nuclear environment. A review of concrete material systems for application to prestressed concrete pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.


    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are designed to serve as primary pressure containment structures. The safety of these structures depends on a correct assessment of the loadings and proper design of the vessels to accept these loadings. Proper vessel design requires a knowledge of the component (material) properties. Because concrete is one of the primary constituents of PCPVs, knowledge of its behavior is required to produce optimum PCPV designs. Concrete material systems are reviewed with respect to constituents, mix design, placing, curing, and strength evaluations, and typical concrete property data are presented. Effects of extreme loadings (elevated temperature, multiaxial, irradiation) on concrete behavior are described. Finally, specialty concrete material systems (high strength, fibrous, polymer, lightweight, refractory) are reviewed. 235 references.

  9. Polymer pipes for distributing mixtures of hydrogen and natural gas. Evolution of their transport and mechanical properties after an ageing under an hydrogen environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopffer, Marie-Helene [IFP (France); Berne, Philippe [CEA (France); Castagnet, Sylvie [ENSMA (France); Weber, Mathilde [Air Liquide (Canada); Hochstetter, Gilles [Arkema (France); Espuche, Eliane [INSA Lyon (France)


    With the development of hydrogen as an energy vector, its delivery and transport from the production site to the end user remains an issue. Indeed, the key challenge to overcome is the high hydrogen permeation through existing polymer infrastructures used for natural gas distribution (Polyethylene pipes, components as connecting parts). This high flow rate of hydrogen through polymer has to be taken into account for safety and economical requirements. This 3-year project investigates pure hydrogen gas and mixtures (20% CH4 - 80% H2) in pipelines made of engineering polymers to develop and assess material solutions to cope with today problems for H2 distribution. Materials such as polyethylene (PE100) and polyamide 11 (PA11) have been studied. PE100 is considered as a reference material as it is used today in natural gas distribution pipes. PA11 should allow a higher operating pressure combined with better gas-barrier performances. Test benches and protocols for testing materials in terms of mechanical and barrier properties were first developed. The materials have then been studied in terms of barrier, mechanical properties and on a microstructural point of view. The properties of the raw material and samples after ageing in presence of hydrogen in various conditions were compared to assess the long term behaviour in service. These results as well as the comparison between PA11 and PE are presented. (orig.)

  10. Material properties of Godula sandstones and forms and reasons of their deterioration in constructions in industrial environment of the Ostrava region (United States)

    Vavro, Martin; Souček, Kamil; Martinec, Petr; Vavro, Leona; Handzelová, Barbora


    The Upper Cretaceous green glauconitic sandstones, referred to as Godula or Těšín sandstones according to their stratigraphic position or area of mining, represent a traditional building and decorative stone widely used since the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries in constructions in the industrial region of Ostrava and adjacent part of the Těšín Silesia. In terms of their physical and mechanical properties, the sandstones can be characterized by high values of bulk density, low absorption capacity and low total porosity, high abrasion resistance, high to very high values of strength properties and high fracture toughness. Due to their high compactness and strength, they can get relatively good polish, as one of few sandstones mined in the Czech Republic. However, in contrast to high quality of physical and mechanical properties of the Godula sandstones, degree of their durability in the case of exterior use is often very low. Already after 5 to 10 years of exposure to weather, moreover in combination with road salting, almost total surface decay of the stone can occur. In order to determine the reasons of usually very rapid degradation of the Godula sandstones in exterior conditions, time-dependent water saturation and evaporation, and size distribution and shape parameters of rock pore space were determined using the Hg-porosimetry and the X-Ray computed micro-tomography. It has been found that typical for the Godula sandstones is a closed pore space with domination of small pores (rehabilitation or reconstruction of constructions.

  11. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong


    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  12. Aluminium Toxicity to Plants as Influenced by the Properties of the Root Growth Environment Affected by Other Co-Stressors: A Review. (United States)

    Siecińska, Joanna; Nosalewicz, Artur

    Aluminium toxicity to crops depends on the acidity of the soil and specific plant resistance. However, it is also strongly affected by other environmental factors that have to be considered to properly evaluate the resultant effects on plants. Observed weather perturbations and predicted climate changes will increase the probability of co-occurrence of aluminium toxicity and other abiotic stresses.In this review the mechanisms of plant-aluminium interactions are shown to be influenced by soil mineral nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter, oxidative stress and drought. Described effects of aluminium toxicity include: root growth inhibition, reduction in the uptake of mineral nutrients resulting from the inhibition of transport processes through ion channels; epigenetic changes to DNA resulting in gene silencing. Complex processes occurring in the rhizosphere are highlighted, including the role of soil organic matter and aluminium detoxification by mucilage.There is a considerable research gap in the understanding of root growth in the soil environment in the presence of toxic aluminium concentrations as affected by interactions with abiotic stressors. This knowledge is important for the selection of feasible methods aimed at the reduction of negative consequences of crop production in acidic soils affected by adverse growth environment.

  13. The Effects of a Liquid Sulfate/Chloride Environment on Superalloy Stress Rupture Properties at 1300 °F (704 °C) (United States)

    Whitlow, G. A.; Beck, C. G.; Viswanathan, R.; Crombie, E. A.


    Data from a stress rupture study on several nickel and cobalt base alloys in a corrosive sulfate/chloride melt at 1300 °F (704 °C) indicated that over the stress range 525 to 700 MPa (75 to 100 ksi), the presence of the environment resulted in considerable reductions in rupture life. Preferential intergranular attack was observed, associated with the diffusion of oxygen and sulfur down a grain boundary to form a sulfide spike, with the subsequent initiation of a crack leading to failure. In an attempt to prevent such effects, it has been found that the application of aluminide or aluminum-chromium diffusion coatings to, for example, a Udimet 710 alloy eliminates this effect, such that rupture life in the salt environment is essentially comparable to that for the uncoated Udimet 710 in air. Modification of the alloy composition with respect to boron and carbon contents, as for instance in a Udimet 720 alloy, has a similar effect. Both approaches are being used to insure the life and reliability of turbine components operating in the low temperature corrosion regime.

  14. Schottky Emission Distance and Barrier Height Properties of Bipolar Switching Gd:SiOx RRAM Devices under Different Oxygen Concentration Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Huang Chen


    Full Text Available In this study, the hopping conduction distance and bipolar switching properties of the Gd:SiOx thin film by (radio frequency, rf rf sputtering technology for applications in RRAM devices were calculated and investigated. To discuss and verify the electrical switching mechanism in various different constant compliance currents, the typical current versus applied voltage (I-V characteristics of gadolinium oxide RRAM devices was transferred and fitted. Finally, the transmission electrons’ switching behavior between the TiN bottom electrode and Pt top electrode in the initial metallic filament forming process of the gadolinium oxide thin film RRAM devices for low resistance state (LRS/high resistance state (HRS was described and explained in a simulated physical diagram model.

  15. Anti-icing properties of a superhydrophobic surface in a salt environment: an unexpected increase in freezing delay times for weak brine droplets. (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Emelyanenko, Kirill A; Maslakov, Konstantin I


    Superhydrophobic coatings on the aluminum alloy were fabricated by intensive nanosecond pulsed laser treatment and chemical surface hydrophobization, which are chemically stable in contact with 0.5 M NaCl aqueous solutions and mechanically durable against stresses arising in the repetitive freezing/thawing of brine. The statistics of the crystallization of ensembles of sessile supercooled droplets deposited on above superhydrophobic coatings indicate considerable anti-icing properties. The comparative analysis of crystallization statistics of deionized water and of brine at a temperature of -20 °C allows detecting a striking increase in freezing delay times for the latter case with freezing delay for brine droplets reaching more than 6 hours. We explain the observed phenomenon based on the structure of the double electric layer in the vicinity of the hydrophobic surface and the solution/air interface and on the concept of structure making/breaking ions.

  16. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in medical environment: Gaussian Derivative Frequency Modulation (GDFM) as a novel modulation technique with minimal interference properties. (United States)

    Rieche, Marie; Komenský, Tomás; Husar, Peter


    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in healthcare facilitate the possibility of contact-free identification and tracking of patients, medical equipment and medication. Thereby, patient safety will be improved and costs as well as medication errors will be reduced considerably. However, the application of RFID and other wireless communication systems has the potential to cause harmful electromagnetic disturbances on sensitive medical devices. This risk mainly depends on the transmission power and the method of data communication. In this contribution we point out the reasons for such incidents and give proposals to overcome these problems. Therefore a novel modulation and transmission technique called Gaussian Derivative Frequency Modulation (GDFM) is developed. Moreover, we carry out measurements to show the inteference properties of different modulation schemes in comparison to our GDFM.

  17. Seasonal cycle and source analyses of aerosol optical properties in a semi-urban environment at Puijo station in Eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leskinen


    Full Text Available We introduce a four-year (in 2006–2010 continuous data set of aerosol optical properties at Puijo in Kuopio, Finland. We study the annual and diurnal variation of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, hemispheric backscattering fraction, scattering Ångström exponent, and single scattering albedo, whose median values over this period were 7.2 Mm−1 (at 550 nm, 1.0 Mm−1 (at 637 nm, 0.15, 1.93 (between 450 and 550 nm, and 0.85, respectively. The scattering coefficient peaked in the spring and autumn, being 2–4 times those in the summer and winter. An exception was the summer of 2010, when the scattering coefficient was elevated to ~300 Mm−1 by plumes from forest fires in Russia. The absorption coefficient peaked in the winter when soot-containing particles derived from biomass burning were present. The higher relative absorption coefficients resulted in lower single scattering albedo in winter. The optical properties varied also with wind direction and time of the day, indicating the effect of the local pollutant sources and the age of the particles. Peak values in the single scattering albedo were observed when the wind blew from a paper mill and from the sector without local pollutant sources. These observations were linked, respectively, to the sulphate-rich aerosol from the paper mill and the oxygenated organics in the aged aerosol, which both are known to increase the scattering characteristics of aerosols. Decreases in the single scattering albedo in the morning and afternoon, distinct in the summertime, were linked to the increased traffic density at these hours. The scattering and absorption coefficients of residential and long-range transported aerosol (two separate cloud events were found to be decreased by clouds. The effect was stronger for the scattering than absorption, indicating preferential activation of the more hygroscopic aerosol with higher scattering characteristics.

  18. Optical properties and CCN activity of aerosols in a high-altitude Himalayan environment: Results from RAWEX-GVAX: CCN activity of aerosols over Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, Mukunda M. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Babu, S. Suresh [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Jayachandran, V. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram India; Moorthy, K. Krishna [Indian Space Research Organization Head Quarters, Bangalore India; Satheesh, S. K. [Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore India; Naja, Manish [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital India; Kotamarthi, V. R. [Environmental Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA


    The seasonality and mutual dependence of aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity under varying meteorological conditions at the high-altitude Nainital site (~2 km) in the Indo-Gangetic Plains were examined using nearly year-round measurements (June 2011 to March 2012) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) mobile facility as part of the RAWEX-GVAX experiment of the Indian Space Research Organization and the U.S. Department of Energy. The results from collocated measurements provided enhanced aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, CCN concentrations and total condensation nuclei (CN) concentrations during the dry autumn and winter months. The CCN concentration (at a supersaturation of 0.46) was higher during periods of high aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (SSA) < 0.80) than during periods of high aerosol scattering (SSA > 0.85), indicating that the aerosol composition seasonally changes and influences the CCN activity. The monthly mean CCN activation ratio (at a supersaturation of 0.46) was highest (> 0.7) in late autumn (November); this finding is attributed to the contribution of biomass-burning aerosols to CCN formation at high supersaturation conditions.

  19. Leukocyte inclusion within a platelet rich plasma-derived fibrin scaffold stimulates a more pro-inflammatory environment and alters fibrin properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Anitua

    Full Text Available One of the main differences among platelet-rich plasma (PRP products is the inclusion of leukocytes that may affect the biological efficacy of these autologous preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of leukocytes modified the morphological, biomechanical and biological properties of PRP under normal and inflammatory conditions. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF and leukocyte-platelet rich plasma (L-PRP scaffolds was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and was significantly increased under an inflammatory condition when leukocytes were included in the PRP. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts treated with L-PRP, under an inflammatory situation, underwent a greater activation of NFĸB pathway, proliferated significantly less and secreted a higher concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These cellular events were assessed through Western blot and fluorimetric and ELISA methods, respectively. Therefore, the inclusion of leukocytes induced significantly higher pro-inflammatory conditions.

  20. Degradation of 2DEG transport properties in GaN-capped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at 600 °C in oxidizing and inert environments (United States)

    Hou, Minmin; Jain, Sambhav R.; So, Hongyun; Heuser, Thomas A.; Xu, Xiaoqing; Suria, Ateeq J.; Senesky, Debbie G.


    In this paper, the electron mobility and sheet density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in both air and argon environments at 600 °C were measured intermittently over a 5 h duration using unpassivated and Al2O3-passivated AlGaN/GaN (with 3 nm GaN cap) van der Pauw test structures. The unpassivated AlGaN/GaN heterostructures annealed in air showed the smallest decrease (˜8%) in 2DEG electron mobility while Al2O3-passivated samples annealed in argon displayed the largest drop (˜70%) based on the Hall measurements. Photoluminescence and atomic force microscopy showed that minimal strain relaxation and surface roughness changes have occurred in the unpassivated samples annealed in air, while those with Al2O3 passivation annealed in argon showed significant microstructural degradations. This suggests that cracks developed in the samples annealed in air were healed by oxidation reactions. To further confirm this, Auger electron spectroscopy was conducted on the unpassivated samples after the anneal in air and results showed that extra surface oxides have been generated, which could act as a dislocation pinning layer to suppress the strain relaxation in AlGaN. On the other hand, similar 2DEG sheet densities were observed in passivated and unpassivated AlGaN/GaN samples at the end of the 5-h anneal in air or argon due to the combined impact of strain relaxation and changes in the ionized electronic states. The results support the use of unpassivated GaN-capped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as the material platform for high-temperature electronics and sensors used in oxidizing environmental conditions.

  1. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang


    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  2. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Zhang, Y.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.


    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign (PRIDE-PRD2006), covering the period of 1-30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10) were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively. Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ±standard deviation), the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm-1 (450 nm), 151±103 Mm-1 (550 nm) and 104±72 Mm-1 (700 nm) and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm-1 (532 nm). The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm) and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm) with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance of, as well as strong sources of light absorbing carbon (LAC). The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic). The daytime average single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value

  3. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing (United States)

    Garland, R. M.; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Nowak, A.; Achtert, P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Zhang, Y. H.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.


    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1 30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10) were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively. Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation), the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm-1 (450 nm), 151±103 Mm-1 (550 nm) and 104±72 Mm-1 (700 nm) and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm-1 (532 nm). The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm) and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm) with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC). The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic). The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is strongly influenced by fresh emissions into a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. In spite

  4. The relationship between environmental parameters of saline and underground karst - patients with different diseases in the course of speleotherapy - anthropogenic effect - keeping intact the underground environment and curative properties. (United States)

    Simionca, Iu.; Hoteteu, M.; Chonka, Ia.; Slavik, P.; Kubas, J.; Grudnicki, N.


    One of the non-pharmacological therapy in patients with bronchial asthma (AB) and other BPOC is speleotherapy (ST), recognized as a complementary therapy. The curative effect of ST depends on geophysic structure of massive salt or karst, of mine or cave cavities, lack of noxes and toxic gas, also on the lack of the plant and microbial allergen, on the microclimatic parameters, sanitary and other parameters of the underground environment, on the mechanism of curative factors in these specific environments, on the medical particularities and disease specific speleotherapeutic methodology. An essential role they have environmental studies of underground cavities that own speleotherapeutic properties and use in medical and balneoclimatic tourism purposes. Among these studies are: - Air temperature, soil and salt layer; - Atmospheric pressure and the difference from the outside; - Relative humidity of the air underground; - Velocity of air currents; - Concentration of positive and negative air ions; - Particle size and concentration of saline aerosol; - Concentration of microorganisms, including pathogens, conditioning-pathogenic and saprophytic in air, soil saline and salt walls in rooms designed for speleotherapy; - Concentration of allergens; - Concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide, the presence and concentration of ozone, the gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2, hydrocarbons and derivatives of ozone); - Radioactivity (type, value), the presence and concentration of radon. Taking into consideration the possibility of anthropogenic effect on the underground salt or karst environment produced by patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, respiratory or skin allergic diseases is needed to assess the underground environmental sanitary parameters in various main locations (the entrance in the underground, the artificial or natural air flow; the sanatory area " - the location where patients or tourists are keeped for a period of 1-3 or more hours, bathroom) and the

  5. Tunable electronic and optical properties of gas molecules adsorbed monolayer graphitic ZnO: Implications for gas sensor and environment monitoring (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Qikui; Zhang, Lifa


    Due to the large surface area and the peculiar electronic characters, great attention has been paid to 2D materials for the gas sensing applications. Here, using the hybrid density functional calculations, we systematically study the adsorptions of gas molecules on the monolayer graphitic ZnO (g-ZnO), including CO, H2, H2O, H2S, NH3, NO, NO2, O2, and SO2. For most of the molecules, g-ZnO shows superior sensing performance to the well-known MoS2, black phosphorus, blue phosphorus, antimonene, and germanene. H2S, NO, NO2, and SO2 act as charge acceptors, and CO, H2, H2O, and NH3 serve as charge donors. These molecules also induce distinct modifications to the electronic structures, work functions, and optical adsorptions. NO, NO2, and O2 form flat bands in the bandgaps of the spin-up or spin-down states, whereas other molecules mainly tune the bandgaps and the orbital couplings. In particular, g-ZnO is most likely to adsorb the atmospheric pollutant SO2, which has the strongest interaction through hybridizing its widely broadened 2p orbitals with the 3d orbitals of g-ZnO. Moreover, the improved visible light absorption is demonstrated in the NO2 adsorbed g-ZnO. Our results not only confirm that the electronic and optical properties of g-ZnO can be effectively tuned by the selective adsorption of gas molecules but also provide insightful guidance for the potential application of g-ZnO in the field of gas sensors.

  6. Examining the relative contribution of `blue carbon' to coastal shelf environments via optical properties of dissolved and base-extracted particulate organic matter (United States)

    Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Osburn, C. L.; Bianchi, T. S.; D'Sa, E. J.; Ko, D. S.; Ward, N. D.; Arellano, A.; Joshi, I.; Kinsey, J. D.


    Coastal wetlands represent a key interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the global landscape. `Blue carbon' is carbon accumulated in vegetated coastal wetlands through primary production. Although the contribution of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) to the coastal shelf is well documented, the focus has been on the role of rivers, and less is known about the export of `blue carbon' from coastal wetlands. We investigated the chemical characteristics of the organic matter (OM) in estuarine complexes of the Gulf of Mexico with the goal of shedding light on the relative contribution from riverine upland and wetland sources to the coastal ocean. We conducted synoptic sampling campaigns in the Apalachicola and Barataria Bays to determine the concentration and isotopic composition of the dissolved OC (DOC), and the absorbance and fluorescence of the dissolved OM (DOM) and base-extracted particulate OM (BEPOM). Preliminary results show clear differences in the biogeochemical properties of the OM within and between each bay. Apalachicola Bay samples from March 2015 suggest the presence of two sources of terrestrial DOM that we initially attribute to the Carabelle River and marsh production in the East Bay. Compared to Aplalachicola Bay, we found a lower humification index, higher slope ratio (indicative of lower molecular weight OM), and higher amino-acid fluorescence in the DOM from Barataria Bay, sampled in summer 2015. This contrast suggests key differences in the freshness and molecular weight of the DOM between bays. Ongoing work in these systems will help elucidate patterns associated with temporal drivers, while mixing models based on stable isotopes and PARAFAC analysis of the fluorescent OM will allow us to identify the potential OC sources to the coastal pool. The cumulative results of these field measurements, together with remote sensing efforts and other geochemical analyses conducted by collaborators in the project will help constrain carbon

  7. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.


    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  8. Encapsulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, Tom M.; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S.


    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  9. The environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pannozzo, Linda


    "In About Canada: The Environment, award-winning author Linda Pannozzo takes us on a whirlwind tour of the philosophical, economic, and ideological landscape forming the backdrop for our current environmental worldview...

  10. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar


    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...

  11. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.


    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  12. Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans l'environnement. Première partie. Propriété, origines, devenir Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment. Part One. Properties, Origins, Fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchez M.


    Full Text Available Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP sont des contaminants produits notamment dans les processus de combustion. Leur caractère ubiquiste et leur génotoxicité sont à l'origine d'une activité de recherche importante. Après avoir présenté les structures chimiques et les propriétés physico-chimiques et biologiques principales de ces composés, on résume les connaissances actuelles concernant leur présence dans l'environnement. Les critères géochimiques de leurs différentes origines pyrolytique, diagénétique ou pétrolière, sont exposés. On examine la contribution des différentes sources d'émission, le transport et la diffusion dans l'environnement de ces composés, ainsi que les modifications qu'ils subissent et leur sort ultime. La distribution qualitative et quantitative des HAP de combustion dans les sols d'environnements variés est présentée. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are environmental contaminants produced in particular in combustion processes. As a consequence of their genotoxicity and ubiquity, they are the subject of an important research activity. After a presentation of the chemical structures and of the main physico-chemical and biological properties of these compounds, the current knowledge regarding their presence in the environment is summarized. The geochernical criteria of the different,origins, pyrolytic, diagenetic and petroleum of PAH are presented. The respective contributions of their various emission sources are discussed , as well as the transfer and diffusion in the environment, the modifications undergone and the ultimate fate of these compounds. The qualitative and quantitative distribution of combustion PAH in soils in different environmental situations is presented.

  13. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon


    in different ways. The aim of this paper is to clarify the conceptions of environment in constructivist approaches, and thereby to assist the sciences of complex systems and complex environmental problems. Method: We describe the terms used for “the environment” in von Uexküll, Maturana & Varela, and Luhmann...

  14. Architecture & Environment (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael


    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  15. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  16. Fast neutron environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Lu, Ping; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Foiles, Stephen Martin; Puskar, Joseph David; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Boyce, Brad Lee; Clark, Blythe G.


    The goal of this LDRD project is to develop a rapid first-order experimental procedure for the testing of advanced cladding materials that may be considered for generation IV nuclear reactors. In order to investigate this, a technique was developed to expose the coupons of potential materials to high displacement damage at elevated temperatures to simulate the neutron environment expected in Generation IV reactors. This was completed through a high temperature high-energy heavy-ion implantation. The mechanical properties of the ion irradiated region were tested by either micropillar compression or nanoindentation to determine the local properties, as a function of the implantation dose and exposure temperature. In order to directly compare the microstructural evolution and property degradation from the accelerated testing and classical neutron testing, 316L, 409, and 420 stainless steels were tested. In addition, two sets of diffusion couples from 316L and HT9 stainless steels with various refractory metals. This study has shown that if the ion irradiation size scale is taken into consideration when developing and analyzing the mechanical property data, significant insight into the structural properties of the potential cladding materials can be gained in about a week.

  17. Quantum Darwinism in hazy environments (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech


    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. After a general introduction to this framework, we demonstrate how non-ideal initial states of the environment (e.g., mixed states) affect its ability to act as a communication channel for information about the system. The environment's capacity for transmitting information is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Therefore, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information. However, despite this, the environment almost always redundantly transmits information about the system.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Eu3+ exhibits different optical properties in various host lattices due to changes in the surrounding environment. In this paper, YInGe2O7:Eu3+ phosphors were prepared by the solid- state reaction method and then characterized. The luminescent properties of the phosphors were also investigated. EXPERIMENTAL.

  19. Nanomaterials in the environment (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena


    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  20. Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Shpresa Ibrahimi


    Full Text Available Montenue, a distinct French scholar of intellectual property, has suggested that IP is a “tool which surprisingly helps a lot”, and this definition on science, arts, culture, since the 16th century. Now, what would be the definition of intellectual property for the 21st century? Apparently not a “strange” tool, but a necessary tool, primary for enriching human knowledge, and for the new world order, especially in the global market sphere. Intellectual property is an integral part of international trade, and its importance keeps increasing, since effective use of knowledge is increasingly influencing the economic prosperity of peoples. One may say that there is little originality in the creative sphere. Naturally, this originality can only be reflected by individuality and human identity in intellectual creativity The author rights in the Kosovo legislation is a novelty, a necessity of developing a creative environment in the fields of science, arts and industrial property. First and foremost, the individual benefit, which is secured by the author as the creator of the work, is a moral and material right. Secondly, there is a need for harmonization, not only of values for the creator, but also for the development of science, culture, increased competitive advantage, and the public sphere, as a benefit for the public health and security, and the fiscal policy. The deficiency one must record is with the Office for Copy Rights, which is to play a strong role in implementing and protecting copy rights and other related rights by licensing collective management agencies, imposing administrative fines, awareness raising, provision of information, and other capacity building and educative measures. Naturally, the enactment of good legislation is a system without any meaning or sense if not associated with the court practice. Any establishment of a legal system not pursued with enforcement mechanisms remains only in legal frameworks.

  1. FUTY Journal of the Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the journal is to provide a forum for dissemination of research findings necessary for sound policy formulations towards a better environment. ... Preliminary Quantification of the Acoustic Properties of Some Selected Lecture Theatres in Federal University of Technology, Yola – Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  2. Surface phenomena in plasma environments (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.; Ferguson, D. C.


    Plasma interactions and their effects on materials depend on a number of factors, including the pre-existing environment, the properties of surface materials and the characteristics of the system. An additional dimension is the question of mission: some payloads may be much more sensitive to plasma interactions than others. As an example, a payload whose objective is to measure the ambient environment will be more sensitive to any effects than will a power system. Material specific effects include charging and its associated effects, which can result in short- and long-term damage. Selection of materials for a particular application requires consideration of all factors and assessment of effects due to all causes. Proper selection and suitability determination requires analysis to identify the actual environment combined with testing under exposure to single and combined environment factors.

  3. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming


    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  4. Distances with forming environments. (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Burke, David L; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, WeiKang


    The luminosities of type Ia supernovae (SNe), the thermonuclear explosions of white-dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and the rate at which they fade. From images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we identified SNe Ia that erupted in environments that have high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, we calibrate these SNe using their broadband optical light curves to within ~0.065 to 0.075 magnitude, corresponding to <4% in distance. The tight scatter, probably arising from a small dispersion among progenitor ages, suggests that variation in only one progenitor property primarily accounts for the relationship between their light-curve widths, colors, and luminosities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yichen [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Tan, Jonathan C., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    Even today in our Galaxy, stars form from gas cores in a variety of environments, which may affect the properties of the resulting star and planetary systems. Here, we study the role of pressure, parameterized via ambient clump mass surface density, on protostellar evolution and appearance, focusing on low-mass Sun-like stars and considering a range of conditions from relatively low pressure filaments in Taurus, to intermediate pressures of cluster-forming clumps like the Orion Nebula Cluster, to very high pressures that may be found in the densest infrared dark clouds or in the Galactic center. We present unified analytic and numerical models for the collapse of prestellar cores, accretion disks, protostellar evolution, and bipolar outflows, coupled with radiative transfer calculations and a simple astrochemical model to predict CO gas-phase abundances. Prestellar cores in high-pressure environments are smaller and denser and thus collapse with higher accretion rates and efficiencies, resulting in higher luminosity protostars with more powerful outflows. The protostellar envelope is heated to warmer temperatures, affecting infrared morphologies (and thus classification) and astrochemical processes like CO depletion onto dust grain ice mantles (and thus CO morphologies). These results have general implications for star and planet formation, especially via their effect on astrochemical and dust grain evolution during infall to and through protostellar accretion disks.

  6. From Personal Environment to Personal Learning Environment


    Charlier, Bernadette; Henry, France; Peraya, Daniel; Gillet, Denis


    In the scientific literature, the Personal Environment has been described as a “new” resource to the learning process and named Personal Learning Environment. However, it has not yet been demonstrated in what way and to what extent Personal Environments contribute significantly and efficiently to the learning processes and outcomes framed by Higher Education programs. Our position paper aims firstly at defining Personal Environment. Secondly, it will suggest conditions under which Personal En...

  7. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena


    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  8. Automated Environment Generation for Software Model Checking (United States)

    Tkachuk, Oksana; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Pasareanu, Corina S.


    A key problem in model checking open systems is environment modeling (i.e., representing the behavior of the execution context of the system under analysis). Software systems are fundamentally open since their behavior is dependent on patterns of invocation of system components and values defined outside the system but referenced within the system. Whether reasoning about the behavior of whole programs or about program components, an abstract model of the environment can be essential in enabling sufficiently precise yet tractable verification. In this paper, we describe an approach to generating environments of Java program fragments. This approach integrates formally specified assumptions about environment behavior with sound abstractions of environment implementations to form a model of the environment. The approach is implemented in the Bandera Environment Generator (BEG) which we describe along with our experience using BEG to reason about properties of several non-trivial concurrent Java programs.

  9. 40 CFR 30.37 - Property trust relationship. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property trust relationship. 30.37 Section 30.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Property trust relationship. Real property, equipment, intangible property and debt instruments that are...

  10. Intellectual Property. (United States)

    Swinson, John V.


    Intellectual property is a term that covers a number of different rights. Considers issues such as what are the basic forms of intellectual property; who owns the intellectual property created by a teacher; who owns intellectual property created by students; and use of downloaded materials from the internet. (Author/LM)

  11. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment. (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio


    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided Glomus mosseae-inoculated T. articulata plants to thrive in contaminated soil, mainly through an improvement in both nutrients uptake, mainly P and soil microbial function. In addition, the combined use of AM fungi plus COW could be a feasible strategy to be incorporated in phytoremediation programs because it promotes soil properties, a better performance of plants for supporting the stress in heavy metal-contaminated soils derived from the mining process, and also can be a good way for olive-mill waste disposal.

  12. 36 CFR 222.2 - Management of the range environment. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of the range environment. 222.2 Section 222.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... environment. (a) Allotments will be designated on the National Forest System and on other lands under Forest...

  13. The environment within

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, H. [Dr H Wright & Associates (United Kingdom)


    A significant reason why (i) the working environment in materials handling plants has been largely ignored in the past and (ii) the projected profits of retrofit projects are often not realized, is the widespread and continuing misconception that materials handling is easy and requires little or no technological input. Nothing could be further from the truth. The fact is that small changes in the feedstock or the properties of the feedstock can create a high risk scenario. Materials handling, particularly in the fossil or biomass power generating industry, represents a major risk to the profitability of the operator and the contractor. It is, however, a risk that can be mitigated by the application of known and proven technology that is currently available in the industry. A plant's internal environment along with its projected profits can be secured safe by the use of such knowledge which continually needs to be communicated widely amongst engineers. The cost of applying this knowledge is not great compared to the cost of lost revenue. The paper reports on key problems encountered during the handling of bulk and powdered materials at several UK coal-fired power plants visited by Dr. H. Wright & Associates. These were problems of coal spillage, especially at belt conveyor transfer points and chutes, problems caused by poor design of chutes, and blockage problems of coal and ash in storage bunkers. Comments are given on improving chute design and on chute linings. A series of 18 overheads/slides outlining the talk are reproduced in the proceedings. 5 refs., 4 photos.

  14. 3D bioprinting of urethra with PCL/PLCL blend and dual autologous cells in fibrin hydrogel: An in vitro evaluation of biomimetic mechanical property and cell growth environment. (United States)

    Zhang, Kaile; Fu, Qiang; Yoo, James; Chen, Xiangxian; Chandra, Prafulla; Mo, Xiumei; Song, Lujie; Atala, Anthony; Zhao, Weixin


    Urethral stricture is a common condition seen after urethral injury. The currently available treatments are inadequate and there is a scarcity of substitute materials used for treatment of urethral stricture. The traditional tissue engineering of urethra involves scaffold design, fabrication and processing of multiple cell types. In this study, we have used 3D bioprinting technology to fabricate cell-laden urethra in vitro with different polymer types and structural characteristics. We hypothesized that use of PCL and PLCL polymers with a spiral scaffold design could mimic the structure and mechanical properties of natural urethra of rabbits, and cell-laden fibrin hydrogel could give a better microenvironment for cell growth. With using an integrated bioprinting system, tubular scaffold was formed with the biomaterials; meanwhile, urothelial cells (UCs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were delivered evenly into inner and outer layers of the scaffold separately within the cell-laden hydrogel. The PCL/PLCL (50:50) spiral scaffold demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to the native urethra in rabbit. Evaluation of the cell bioactivity in the bioprinted urethra revealed that UCs and SMCs maintained more than 80% viability even at 7days after printing. Both cell types also showed active proliferation and maintained the specific biomarkers in the cell-laden hydrogel. These results provided a foundation for further studies in 3D bioprinting of urethral constructs that mimic the natural urethral tissue in mechanical properties and cell bioactivity, as well a possibility of using the bioprinted construct for in vivo study of urethral implantation in animal model. The 3D bioprinting is a new technique to replace traditional tissue engineering. The present study is the first demonstration that it is feasible to create a urethral construct. Two kinds of biomaterials were used and achieved mechanical properties equivalent to that of native rabbit urethra. Bladder

  15. Optical measures of dust velocities and direction during loss of vacuum accidents in confined environment and correlation between dust positions and properties with the resuspension degrees and the velocity modules (United States)

    Andrea, Malizia; Rossi, Riccardo; Gaudio, Pasquale


    Dust explosions are dangerous events that still today represent a risk to all the industries that produce and/or handle combustible dust like the agro-alimentary, pharmaceutical and energy ones. When a dust cloud is dispersed in an oxidant gas, like air, it may reach the explosive concentration range. A model to predict the dust critical conditions, that can cause explosions, is a key factor for safety of operators and the security of the plants. The key point to predict this dust resuspension is to measure the velocity vectors of dust under the accidental conditions. In order to achieve this goal the authors have developed an experimental facility, STARDUST-U, which allow to obtain different conditions of temperature and pressurization rates characteristic of accidents in confined environment. The authors have developed also optical methods and software to analyse different dust resuspension phenomena under different conditions in confined environment. In this paper, the author will present how they measure the dust velocity vectors in different experimental conditions (and for different type of dusts) and how they have related the dust characteristics and positions inside STARDUST-U with the resuspension degree and the velocity values.

  16. Property & Freedom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Property & Freedom. Pipes, Richard 1999. The Harvill Press, London. 328 pp. Reviewed by Kole Omotoso. The freedom that property confers on the owner has always been recognised in all cultures. The words of a propertied person ... effective way of setting limits to state authority.” Professor Pipes believes that the early ...

  17. Antifouling properties of hydrogels. (United States)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Ahmed, Nafees; Ping Gong, Jian


    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  18. 40 CFR 35.6335 - Property management standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property management standards. 35.6335... Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6335 Property management standards. The recipient must comply with the following property management standards for property purchased...

  19. 40 CFR 35.935-3 - Property. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 35.935-3 Section 35.935-3... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-3 Property. (a) The grantee must comply with the property provisions of § 30.810 et seq. of this subchapter with respect to all...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-12 - Property. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property. 35.925-12 Section 35.925-12... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-12 Property. That the... property requirements of § 35.935-3. ...

  1. Pattern Operators for Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Gomes


    Full Text Available A pattern based approach for developing applications in a Grid computing environment is presented, and is based on the ability to manage components and their interactions. The approach provides a formal way of combining recurrent themes in Grid applications, and provides a set of operators that may be used to manipulate the patterns. The operators may be applied to individual patterns or groups, and may be managed as an independent library. The patterns distinguish between service providers and users, and may be used to also analyse the properties of a collection of components, or to vary these properties subject to a set of predefined constraints. Patterns are expressed in the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and operators correspond to manipulation of components within each pattern.

  2. Environment, Trade, and Investment (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  3. Effect of evaporative weathering and oil-sediment interactions on the fate and behavior of diluted bitumen in marine environments. Part 1. Spill-related properties, oil buoyancy, and oil-particulate aggregates characterization. (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh S; Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E


    The fate and behavior of diluted bitumen spilled in marine conditions has recently become a topic of much interest, yet, only limited knowledge is available. One of the major issues of a diluted bitumen spill on water is whether the product will sink, especially when suspended sediment is present in the water column. This study demonstrated how weathering processes influenced the key spill-related properties of a diluted bitumen product (Cold Lake Blend-Winter), and how interaction of diluted bitumen with sediment affected its tendency to float or sink in water. This study showed that the weathering states of the oils as well as the size of sediment are important factors influencing oil-sediment interactions and the tendency of the formed oil-particulate aggregates for buoyancy. When mixing with fine- and medium-sized sediments, the fresh to moderately weathered oils formed oil-particulate aggregates and sank in saltwater, while the very heavily-weathered oil formed discrete free-floating tarballs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D


    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BULUÇ


    Full Text Available In this paper, the space environments where microbial terrestrial life could form and evolve in, were evaluted with the base of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, Earthial microbial life formation conditions in the interstellar medium and the other planets are investigated and the survival of microorganisms in the space environments are questioned. As a result, considering the aspects of terrestrial microbial life, we suggest that the space environment and other planets could not be a habitat for Earthial microorganisms.

  6. Computing environment logbook (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M


    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  7. Simulations of embodied evolving semiosis: Emergent semantics in artificial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.; Joslyn, C.


    As we enter this amazing new world of artificial and virtual systems and environments in the context of human communities, we are interested in the development of systems and environments which have the capacity to grow and evolve their own meanings in the context of this community of interaction. In this paper the authors analyze the necessary conditions to achieve systems and environments with these properties: (1) a coupled interaction between a system and its environment; (2) an environment with sufficient initial richness and structure to allow for; (3) embodied emergent classification of that environment system coupling; and (4) which is subject to pragmatic selection.

  8. Social welfare functions in a fuzzy environment


    Montero, Javier


    Fuzzy preference relations are considered and the concept of “fuzzy acyclity” is defined in order to measure their rationality. Such a concept is applied to study the properties of social welfare function in a fuzzy environment. In particular, the existence of non‐irrational aggregation rules is assured, in such a way that they can be used as a group decision aid.

  9. Shaping the Global Environment (United States)


    SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL MICHAEL D. ELLERBE United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT by Lieutenant Colonel Michael D. Ellerbe United States Army Colonel Jef Troxel Project Advisor The views expressed in this...Distribution is unlimited. ii ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Michael D. Ellerbe TITLE: SHAPING THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April

  10. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R


    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  11. Obesogenic Environments in Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny


    To effectively prevent and reduce childhood obesity through healthy community design, it is essential to understand which neighborhood environment features influence weight gain in various age groups...

  12. Urban Simulation Environment (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoor, Bradley J; Pruett, Stanley H; Duquette, Matthew M; Subr, Robert C; MtCastle, Tim


    .... The simulation environment will include multiple urban databases for visualization, UAV aerodynamics and control models, camera models, articulated human models, and ground vehicle models to serve...

  13. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob


    The objective of the paper is to examine the nature of students’ digital learning environments to understand the interplay of institutional systems and tools that are managed by the students themselves. The paper is based on a study of 128 students’ digital learning environments. The objectives...... used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally...... learning environments in relation to existing and emerging needs....

  14. luminescence properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    )-based phosphors which were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method, their crystal structures and luminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) showed that phosphors sintered at 1000 ◦C for ...

  15. SMashup Personal Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatti, Mohamed; Jarke, Matthias; Wang, Zhaohui; Specht, Marcus


    Chatti, M. A., Jarke, M., Wang, Z., & Specht, M. (2009). SMashup Personal Learning Environments. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, M. Palmér & D. Müller (Eds.), Proceedings of 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments (MUPPLE'09). Workshop in conjunction with 4th European Conference on Technology

  16. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane


    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  17. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... a too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation...... to current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  18. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    This paper examines the implications of the mutual causality between environmental quality and economic growth. While economic growth deteriorates the environment through increasing amounts of pollution, the deteriorated environment in turn limits the possibility of further economic growth....... In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  19. Intellectual property. (United States)

    Brown, W M


    "Intellectual property" (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all of which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors of such ideas (1). Intellectual property has many of the characteristics of real property (houses, buildings, and so forth); intellectual property can be bought, sold, assigned, and licensed. Additionally, the owner of IP can prevent "trespass" on his property by others, though in IP this is referred to as infringement. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, that is, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work (e.g., works of art, literature [fiction ornonfiction], music, lyrics, photographs), as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefitting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it; the most famous trade secret of all time is the formula for Coca-Cola, still a closely guarded secret to this day (2,3). Trade secrets have the advantage that they never expire, but special measures are required to ensure the continued secrecy, and should it be violated, there is little legal protection for the owner (2,3).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu


    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  1. Navigation in virtual environments (United States)

    Arthur, Erik; Hancock, Peter A.; Telke, Susan


    Virtual environments show great promise in the area of training. ALthough such synthetic environments project homeomorphic physical representations of real- world layouts, it is not known how individuals develop models to match such environments. To evaluate this process, the present experiment examined the accuracy of triadic representations of objects having learned them previously under different conditions. The layout consisted of four different colored spheres arranged on a flat plane. These objects could be viewed in either a free navigation virtual environment condition (NAV) or a single body position virtual environment condition. The first condition allowed active exploration of the environment while the latter condition allowed the participant only a passive opportunity to observe form a single viewpoint. These viewing conditions were a between-subject variable with ten participants randomly assigned to each condition. Performance was assessed by the response latency to judge the accuracy of a layout of three objects over different rotations. Results showed linear increases in response latency as the rotation angle increased from the initial perspective in SBP condition. The NAV condition did not show a similar effect of rotation angle. These results suggest that the spatial knowledge acquisition from virtual environments through navigation is similar to actual navigation.

  2. Thermophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, R.F.


    Numerous fluids have been identified as promising alternative refrigerants, but much of the information needed to predict their behavior as pure fluids and as components in mixtures does not exist. In particular, reliable thermophysical properties data and models are needed to predict the performance of the new refrigerants in heating and cooling equipment, and to design and optimize equipment to be reliable and energy efficient. Objective of this project is to provide highly accurate, selected thermophysical properties data for Refrigerants 32, 123, 124, and 125, and to use these data to fit simple and complex equations of state and detailed transport property models. The new data will fill gaps in the existing data sets and resolve the problems and uncertainties that exist in and between the data sets. This report describes the progress made during the third quarter of this fifteen-month project, which was initiated in late January, 1992.

  3. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp


    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  4. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens


    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  5. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge


    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... to a research agenda for ‘socio-ecological economics’. Sustainable consumption and global environmental change are already important areas of research for it. But ecological macroeconomics is also needed to formulate coordinated responses to multiple crises such as economic downturn, climate change and loss...

  6. Quantum harmonically kicked environments (United States)

    Custódio, M. S.; Strunz, W. T.; Beims, M. W.


    In this work we derive a generalized map which describes the time evolution of a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment composed by a finite number of free particles kicked harmonically at periodic times. Dissipation is introduced via the interaction between system and environment, which is switched on and off simultaneously at regular time intervals. The dynamics of the environmental particles occurs along rotated ellipsis in phase space and can be described by unrotated harmonic oscillators with a new frequency which depends on the kicking time. With the definition of a thermal bath we show that our quantum kicked environment induces an unusual fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  7. Biotechnology for the Environment (United States)


    02/06/2005 Final Technical 01-Jan-2003 thru 31 Dec 2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Biotechnology for the Environment N00014-03-1-0316 5b...Dr.Josephl. SPAGES A UU19b. TELEPH"ONVUMBER’(/•c/udearea code 9 405 - 325 5761 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) 20050624 193 Biotechnology for the Environment ONR...environmental biotechnology. From the Task Force, a smaller Working Group on Biotechnology for the Environment (Appendix 1) was formed that has been co- chaired

  8. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik


    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...

  9. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C


    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  10. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno


    in patents, trademarks, and industrial designs used by firms to protect their IP globally. We then show that IP protection remains fragmented; the quality of IP applications might be questionable; and developing a comprehensive IP footprint worldwide is very costly. Growing numbers of applications...

  11. Effect of Curing Temperature on the Durability of Concrete under Highly Geothermal Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang Tang; Hui Su; Shun Huang; Chunlai Qu; Jiaqi Yang


      To determine the durability of concrete in the actual temperature and humidity of the tunnel environment, this study investigates the mechanical properties, permeability of chloride ion, relative...

  12. Scene analysis in the natural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewicki, Michael S; Olshausen, Bruno A; Surlykke, Annemarie


    that hinder further progress. Here we take the view that scene analysis is a universal problem solved by all animals, and that we can gain new insight by studying the problems that animals face in complex natural environments. In particular, the jumping spider, songbird, echolocating bat, and electric fish......, all exhibit behaviors that require robust solutions to scene analysis problems encountered in the natural environment. By examining the behaviors of these seemingly disparate animals, we emerge with a framework for studying scene analysis comprising four essential properties: (1) the ability to solve...

  13. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  14. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio


    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  15. [Labor environment and heatstroke]. (United States)

    Nagata, Isao


    The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Heatstroke STUDY 2008 & 2010 regarding the characteristics of laborers who suffered and died from heatstroke demonstrated the involvement of more laborers who worked in construction, from July to August and at around 3 p.m. Also, more laborers who worked at around 11 a.m. got heatstroke, and there were more laborers who died from it within 1 week from starting to work. The results showed that the heat environment and the time and period when laborers started to be exposed to a hot environment adversely effect the development of heatstroke and subsequent heatstroke-related death. It is important to estimate and take measures against a hot environment and to make time to be acclimated to a hot environment.

  16. College residential sleep environment. (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew


    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  17. Wheel inspection system environment. (United States)


    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  18. Connected vehicle applications : environment. (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental : applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) : research program applications and road weather ap...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia


    SUMMARY: The association of organisms to their environments is a key issue in exploring biodiversity patterns. This knowledge has traditionally been scattered, but textual descriptions of taxa and their habitats are now being consolidated in centralized resources. However, structured annotations ...

  20. Space Environment Modeling (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  1. Environment and World Tourism. (United States)

    Larre, Dominique


    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  2. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth


    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...... in two-bed wardrooms and social contact with other hospitalized AYA. The winning project included an integrated concept for both wardrooms and the AYA day room, including logos and names for the rooms and an 'energy wall' in the day room. CONCLUSION: A hackathon event was an effective mode of youth...... participation. The design concepts and ideas were in line with current evidence regarding pleasing hospital environment and youth-friendly inpatient facilities and may be applicable to other young patients....

  3. Business Game Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Valcke, Martin; Van Vilsteren, Paul


    Kirschner, P. A., Valcke, M., & Van Vilsteren, P. (1997) Business Game Learning Environment. Design and development of a competency-based distance education business curriculum at the Open University of the Netherlands.

  4. Extreme environments and exobiology (United States)

    Friedmann, E. I.


    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  5. Clay properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.


    In this report an overview will be given of the basic properties of (suspended) clay particles. In section 2 the structure of clay minerals will be described. The forces between suspended particles (section 3) and the possible consequences of them, flocculation or deflocculation (sections 4 and 5)

  6. School Property. (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.; Forsberg, James R.

    The 1973 court cases relating to school property continued a trend toward litigating constitutional issues. For instance, a larger number of cases dealt with the relationship between the location and construction of school buildings and school desegregation plans. This chapter reviews the status and development of case law relating to school…

  7. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment


    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K. C.; Han, Y; Dash, R. K.; Yang, F; Beard, D. A.


    Summary: The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and met...

  8. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura


    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  9. Poetics of Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Glazychev


    Full Text Available Environment is assumed as both object-space surroundings in their sensibly given components, and surroundings of a human being in particularly social sense revealed in observed signs of distribution of roles and positions. When focusing on the first interpretation we face mostly the «still life» vision of the city. Here the city is equated to a landscape, for example in English terminology the word 'townscape' has this very fixed meaning. In the traditional art history estimation the townscape is easily analyzed both as a whole and elementarily. When focusing on the second interpretation the surroundings are usually intensively broken down into their constituent parts: Gogol's Nevsky Avenue is a poetically shaped social-psychological «section» of the street, almost absolutely free of its topographic definiteness.The general bivalence of the word 'environment' will not be an obstacle here, but on the contrary we will consider this very bivalence as an essential characteristic of the subject. How to research this subject with indistinct frames and eluding shape, if ambivalence is its essence? This task was perfectly carried out by Italo Calvino, a writer, his «Invisible Cities» are the broadest typology of all conceivable urban environments, a collection of their poetic 'models'. The urban environment – a dense clot of spontaneous impressions and respective mental constructions – cannot be researched in vitro, whereas it could be in the past and it can be now successfully studied by art. This wonderful ability of art, abstractedly from live concreteness of urban environment, may be expressed just by means of free art history interpretation, which is not strictly bounded by the rule of unity of object and language, time and place.When and under which conditions does the urban environment act as an object of aesthetic experience and understanding? What metamorphoses does the aesthetic development of urban environment experience depending

  10. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper


    into four different sub-environments and evolve controllers that generalize to traverse two larger environments composed of the sub-environments. We also study two strategies for presenting the sub-environments to the evolutionary algorithm: all sub-environments at the same time and in sequence. Results...

  11. Properties of Exercise Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gerdes


    Full Text Available Mathematical learning environments give domain-specific and immediate feedback to students solving a mathematical exercise. Based on a language for specifying strategies, we have developed a feedback framework that automatically calculates semantically rich feedback. We offer this feedback functionality to mathematical learning environments via a set of web services. Feedback is only effective when it is precise and to the point. The tests we have performed give some confidence about the correctness of our feedback services. To increase confidence in our services, we explicitly specify the properties our feedback services should satisfy, and, if possible, prove them correct. For this, we give a formal description of the concepts used in our feedback framework services. The formalisation allows us to reason about these concepts, and to state a number of desired properties of the concepts. Our feedback services use exercise descriptions for their instances on domains such as logic, algebra, and linear algebra. We formulate requirements these domain descriptions should satisfy for the feedback services to react as expected.

  12. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang


    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  13. Nanotechnology and the environment: A European perspective


    D.G. Rickerby et al


    The potential positive and negative effects of nanotechnology on the environment are discussed. Advances in nanotechnology may be able to provide more sensitive detection systems for air and water quality monitoring, allowing the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters and real time response capability. Metal oxide nanocatalysts are being developed for the prevention of pollution due to industrial emissions and the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles can be exp...

  14. Unionised labour market, environment and endogenous growth


    Bhattacharyya, Chandril; Gupta, Manash Ranjan


    In this paper, a model of endogenous economic growth is developed with special focus on the interaction between unionized labour market and environmental pollution. We introduce a trade union; and use both ‘Efficient Bargaining’ model and ‘Right to Manage’ model to solve the negotiation problem. Environmental pollution is the result of production; and the labour union bargains not only for wage and employment but also for the protection of environment. We derive properties of optimum income t...

  15. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  16. The hovercraft environment. (United States)

    Lovesey, E J


    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  17. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede


    regarding their stories of children’s environment and our informants are invited to participate throughout - also in the process of analysis. Preliminary findings from interviews with pedagogues point to a dual attention to children’s environment as either a number of pedagogical tools and demands...... of documentation that origin in the society outside the pedagogical institution or an integrated awareness in the pedagogical culture with roots back to the last century when the first ‘kindergartens’ were established inspired by Montessori’s and Froebel’s pedagogical ideas. Pedagogues practice with reference...... such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition...

  18. Evolutionary stability concepts in a stochastic environment (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Li, Cong; Lessard, Sabin; Tao, Yi


    Over the past 30 years, evolutionary game theory and the concept of an evolutionarily stable strategy have been not only extensively developed and successfully applied to explain the evolution of animal behaviors, but also widely used in economics and social sciences. Nonetheless, the stochastic dynamical properties of evolutionary games in randomly fluctuating environments are still unclear. In this study, we investigate conditions for stochastic local stability of fixation states and constant interior equilibria in a two-phenotype model with random payoffs following pairwise interactions. Based on this model, we develop the concepts of stochastic evolutionary stability (SES) and stochastic convergence stability (SCS). We show that the condition for a pure strategy to be SES and SCS is more stringent than in a constant environment, while the condition for a constant mixed strategy to be SES is less stringent than the condition to be SCS, which is less stringent than the condition in a constant environment.

  19. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment. (United States)

    Vanlier, J; Wu, F; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K C; Han, Y; Dash, R K; Yang, F; Beard, D A


    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and metal ion buffering. The software and a user manual (including several tutorial examples) are available at

  20. Environment as datascape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar


    as configuring carbon-as-dataspace, I argue, allows grasping adequately the contingency and constraints of managing carbon as a particular mate- rial-discursive form of environment. In conclusion I generalise the environmental management office as a space that can be configured to stage, beyond carbon, other......Ecological modernist approaches to climate change are premised upon knowing carbon emissions. I ask how corporate environmental managers know and do carbon, i.e., shape the reality of emissions. I argue that for managers’ practical purposes carbon exists as malleable data. Based on ethnographic...... global environments as well....

  1. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...... and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups...

  2. LHCb Dockerized Build Environment (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Belin, M.; Closier, J.; Couturier, B.


    Used as lightweight virtual machines or as enhanced chroot environments, Linux containers, and in particular the Docker abstraction over them, are more and more popular in the virtualization communities. The LHCb Core Software team decided to investigate how to use Docker containers to provide stable and reliable build environments for the different supported platforms, including the obsolete ones which cannot be installed on modern hardware, to be used in integration builds, releases and by any developer. We present here the techniques and procedures set up to define and maintain the Docker images and how these images can be used to develop on modern Linux distributions for platforms otherwise not accessible.

  3. FASCODE for the Environment (United States)


    the Environment (FASE) is the latest in a long line of atmospheric transmittance and radiance models developed by the Battlespace Environment Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), formerly known as the Optical Physics Division of the Geophysics Directorate, USAF Phillips Laboratory, and before that, the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL). FASE is a direct descendent of the line-by-line atmospheric transmittance/radiance model FASCOD3. It also incorporates recent developments from the similar model LBLRTM. This report presents the additions and

  4. Jupiter Environment Tool (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan


    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  5. Essentials of a productive nurse work environment. (United States)

    Schmalenberg, Claudia; Kramer, Marlene


    Staff nurse work environments must be improved. To do so, their quality must be measured. The Essential of Magnetism (EOM) tool measures eight characteristics of a productive and satisfying work environment identified by staff nurses in magnet hospitals as essential to quality patient care. The EOM items are based on grounded theory and are used to measure attributes of the work environment as functional processes. The EOMII is a revision of two of the subscales of the EOM. To test the hypotheses that staff nurses in hospitals designated as having excellent work environments (Magnet) will score significantly higher on the EOMII and on two outcome indicators than will their counterparts in Comparison hospitals. Additional aims include establishing the psychometric properties of the EOMII; updating the National Magnet Hospital Profile; ascertaining relationships between nurse attribute, work, and contextual variables and the characteristics of a productive work environment; and investigating the relationship between the magnet structure, care processes and relationships and two single-item indicators, overall job satisfaction, and nurse-assessed quality of patient care. This was a secondary analysis of aggregated data from 10,514 staff nurses in 34 hospitals who completed the EOMII and the two outcome indicators. The EOMII is a valid and reliable measure of the quality of work environment from a staff nurse perspective. The hypotheses were confirmed. There are differences in essentials and outcome variables by (a) context-nurses in magnet hospitals report the most productive work environment; (b) education-master's prepared nurses report the most favorable environments; (c) experience-the most inexperienced and the most experienced report the most satisfying, productive environments; and (d) clinical unit-medical and surgical specialty and outpatient units report the healthiest work environments. The primacy of magnet designation as a contextual variable indicating a

  6. America's Children and the Environment (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... notifications of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  7. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.


    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  8. Working Environment and Technological Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Nielsen, Klaus T.; Jensen, Per Langaa


    The paper describes the purpose, themes, overarching research questions and specific projects of the programme: Working Environment and Technological Development. The major research themes are:1) Management concepts and the working environment, which considers the visions...... and their and their concept of working environment2) Technology renewal, which considers the role of the working environment in connection with the development and use of concrete technologies3) Working environment planning, which considers the existing efforts to place the working environment in a planning process....

  9. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.


    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  10. Environment: Readings for Teachers. (United States)

    Ivany, J. W. George, Ed.

    Twenty-six articles or extracts from scholarly literature and one article written for this collection are contained in this anthology intended for teachers. The articles present the viewpoints of writers in a number of scientific and sociological fields concerning human interactions with their environment. Articles are arranged in the following…

  11. Developing a Motivating Environment. (United States)

    Gordon, George Kenneth


    The author presents some generalizations about nursing home employees and recommendations for cultivating and maintaining a motivating environment for staff. Recommendations concern nursing home administration, employee recruitment and selection, stability of work groups, supervisory training, employee recognition, and public relations. (CT)

  12. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA


    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  13. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...

  14. Changing the Malaria Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This sometimes involves the saturation of the environment with chemical pesticides such as carbamates, DDT, organophosphates ... use of chemical pesticides carry risks of toxicity to people and the ecosystem. Biological control, for example the ... available tools and weapons in the arsenal. Yes, we must support research ...

  15. Changing the Malaria Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Changing the Malaria Environment. On Friday, 21st ... that malaria exerts a great burden in Africa, but even the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledges the difficulty of counting ... Although selectivity and resistance also limits the deployment of biological control mechanisms, they represent local technologies.

  16. Designing Interactive Learning Environments. (United States)

    Akpinar, Y.; Hartley, J. R.


    Describes the design principles of computer-assisted learning (CAL) environments in which the software is interactive yet adaptable to different styles of learning and teaching, illustrated with a mathematics application. Following implementation, initial evaluation data taken from students showed marked performance improvements, and indicated how…

  17. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James


    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  18. Common HEP UNIX Environment (United States)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  19. Mercury in Your Environment (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  20. Working on the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria


    Organizations increasingly recognize that environmental problems will reduce if their employees would act more pro-environmentally, but struggle with the question how to realise this. This PhD project shows that employees act more pro-environmentally at work when they care about the environment, and

  1. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle (United States)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James


    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  2. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.


    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  3. Oral environment and cancer. (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi


    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  4. Aquaculture in mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    A general account of aquaculture of India in mangrove environment has been discussed. In-spite of being a none-too-tidal aquaculture site, the estuaries and backwaters fringEd. by mangrove vegetation have long been used for rearing and fattening...

  5. Designing Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar


    The main objective of this working paper is to present a conceptual model for media integrated communication in virtual learning environments. The model for media integrated communication is very simple and identifies the necessary building blocks for virtual place making in a synthesis of methods...

  6. Towards multilingual programming environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)


    htmlabstractSoftware projects consist of different kinds of artifacts: build files, configuration files, markup files, source code in different software languages, and so on. At the same time, however, most integrated development environments (IDEs) are focused on a single (programming) language.

  7. Towards Multilingual Programming Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)


    htmlabstractSoftware projects consist of different kinds of artifacts: build files, configuration files, markup files, source code in different software languages, and so on. At the same time, however, most integrated development environments (IDEs) are focused on a single (programming) language.

  8. Virtual Environments 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the joint 9th International Immersive Projection Technologies Workshop and the 11th EUROGRAPHICS Virtual Environments Workshop (IPTEGVE). The event was held in Aalborg, Denmark the 6. and 7. October 2005. It was organized at the VR Media Lab, Aalborg University...

  9. The Greenfoot Programming Environment (United States)

    Kolling, Michael


    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  10. Dependence of halo bias on mass and environment (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Sheth, Ravi K.


    The simplest analyses of halo bias assume that halo mass alone determines halo clustering. However, if the large-scale environment is fixed, then halo clustering is almost entirely determined by environment, and is almost completely independent of halo mass. We show why. Our analysis is useful for studies that use the environmental dependence of clustering to constrain cosmological and galaxy formation models. It also shows why many correlations between galaxy properties and environment are merely consequences of the underlying correlations between haloes and their environments, and provides a framework for quantifying such inherited correlations.

  11. Electronics for Extreme Environments (United States)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.


    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  12. The farrier's work environment. (United States)

    Löfqvist, Lotta; Pinzke, Stefan


    The horse industry in Sweden has rapidly expanded in recent years. This increasing number of horses implies a greater need for more farriers. Shoeing a horse is hard physical work, and includes awkward work postures and repetitive movements. It is well known that hard physical work increases the risk of injuries and musculoskeletal problems. The risk is especially high for musculoskeletal disorders when certain movements are constantly repeated. Heavy or repeated unilateral loads lead to considerable stress on the muscles, which can lead to rupture and fatigue that can cause long term problems. A case study showed that farriers worked 75% of their work time with their backs in bent positions (often more than 70 degrees). Farriers are also exposed to risk factors in their physical environment like dust, noise and poor lighting. Risk of kicks and bites, eye injuries and burns are other factors that make their work environment hazardous. There are only a few studies available that have documented the farriers' working environment and these are not of recent date. A US study from 1984 described kicks and bites from horses, metal splinters in the eyes, heat exhaustion and problematic postures to be perceived as the greatest risks in their work. The back, knees and wrists were the most exposed body regions. There is a need for more current and in-depth studies investigating the farriers' working conditions in order to gain more knowledge of their health and work environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the physical health and work environment of farriers. The investigation will use questionnaires, work load measurements and workplace analysis. The results will serve as a base for improvements concerning the design of the workplace, equipment, tools and aids as well as supplying recommendations about physical exercise and the correct work technique, etc. The results are planned to be incorporated in the education of farriers.

  13. The Plasma Environment at Mercury (United States)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; hide


    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  14. Selected Approaches to the Business Environment Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková


    Full Text Available This paper contains views of managers on the quality of business environment and also reflects the results of the World Bank, which annually assesses the conditions for doing business in different countries, including the Czech Republic. The business environment of the Czech Republic was evaluated based upon the results of the World Bank, which assesses conditions for doing business in various parts of the world. Secondly, views of SME managers on the quality of the business environment were presented. The World Bank’s „Doing Business 2011“ report puts the Czech Republic in the 63rd place (out of 183 examined countries when it comes to the quality of the business environment. The Czech Republic improved its score in two categories (Property Registration and Ending a Business compared to the same evaluation conducted in 2010. SME managers evaluated the business environment with SWOT Analysis. „Technical and technological development along with increase in demand for innovated products made by new technologies“ was perceived as the most significant opportunity (82% while „Competition and rivalry in the industry“ was identified as the most significant threat by almost all respondents (92% in their 2010 evaluation.

  15. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    with the possibility to generate and control his/her own preferred microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to avoid transport of pollution between occupants and especially to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents in exhaled air. This paper reviews the existing......The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  16. Securing collaborative environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, Mary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  17. Future integrated design environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Sørensen, Kristian Birch


    We are facing a probable great change in the way we carry through design in future ICT supported environments. The main driving forces are the digitalization of information handling leading to a paramount paradigm shift when information storage and access media are separated, building process...... on the development. Among the most important are missing ontologies both on business and Web/Internet service levels as well as their interrelations, poor user involvement in needs and requirements formulations on new ICT tools as well as in continuous user involvement in design and evaluation of new user...... environments, lack of interoperability within building process/product models, and the effects of local community behavior on global scale. The general competence level and preparedness for organizational and work change due to globalization and development of new common grounds for building design needs...

  18. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Hundebøl, Jesper


    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE's differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  19. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik


    Abstract: The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right know being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE......'s differ from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE's the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  20. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik


    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...... in schools. The other is moreover related to work-based learning in that it foresees a community of practitioners accessing, sharing and adding to knowledge and learning objects held within a pervasive business intelligence system. Limitations and needed developments of these and other systems are discussed...

  1. Population and Environment


    Theodore Panayotou


    The past fifty years have witnessed two simultaneous and accelerating trends: an explosive growth in population and a steep increase in resource depletion and environmental degradation. These trends have fueled the debate on the link between population and environment that began 150 years earlier, when Malthus voiced his concern about the ability of the earth and its finite resources to feed an exponentially growing population. The purpose of this study is to review the literature on populati...

  2. Extreme Environments: Why NASA? (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.


    Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for

  3. Performing with the Environment


    Ryan, Courtney Beth


    Focusing on twentieth through twenty-first century ecological theater, literature, film, and new media in the United States, I ask how humans may interact with the environment rather than only act upon it. While the nascent field of eco-theater recognizes the importance of space and place, this dissertation goes a step further, combining spatial theory and ecocriticism in order to generate a spatialized eco-performance. The project takes up the prefix trans- to consider human and nonhuman env...

  4. Environment control system (United States)

    Sammarone, Dino G.


    A system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere. In changing from a nitrogen to an air environment, oxygen is inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate which the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture is removed from the enclosed area. The nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture removed from the enclosed area is mixed with hydrogen, the hydrogen recombining with the oxygen present in the gas to form water. The water is then removed from the system and, if it contains any radioactive products, can be utilized to form concrete, which can then be transferred to a licensed burial site. The process gas is purified further by stripping it of carbon dioxide and then distilling it to remove any xenon, krypton, and other fission or non-condensable gases. The pure nitrogen is stored as either a cryogenic liquid or a gas. In changing from an air to nitrogen environment, the gas is removed from the enclosed area, mixed with hydrogen to remove the oxygen present, dried, passed through adsorption beds to remove any fission gases, and reinserted into the enclosed area. Additionally, the nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change, is inserted into the enclosed area, the nitrogen from both sources being inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate as the removal of the gas from the containment area. As designed, the amount of nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change substantially equals that required to replace oxygen removed during an air to nitrogen change.

  5. Cyber Operations Virtual Environment (United States)


    AFRL-RH-AZ-TR-2010-0027 Cyber Operations Virtual Environment Jennifer L. Winner Lisa S. Holt Jasmine Duran Eric Watz Lumir Research...CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-6502 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63227F 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer L. Winner Lisa S. Holt Jasmine Duran...performance of individuals and that of teams. Knowledge elicitation methods like Pathfinder and Air Superiority Knowledge Assessment System (ASKAS

  6. Mercury in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldwater, L.J.


    The global mercury cycle is diagrammed, and the movement of mercury in aquatic food chains is discussed. The methylation mechanisms in aquatic systems are diagrammed and discussed. The mercury flow in US society is diagrammed; the diagram shows the percentage contribution of various sources to the environment. Atmospheric levels of mercury are graphed, and the concentration of mercury in foodstuffs from various parts of the world are tabulated. The possibility of chromosome damage caused by mercury is briefly treated. 7 figures, 1 table.

  7. Carbon. Examples of Property Realization


    I.A. Kossko; A.A. Onoprienko; T.G. Kossko


    Examples of realization of carbon properties in formation of section near-surface boundaries defining the mechanism of oxidizing (normal) wear are presented. Synthesis of strengt hening diamond- lonsdaleite -carbene «frame» and graphite with function of solid lubricant on a friction surface in high-desperse carbon environment is reviewed. Prospects of carbon ap placation in implementation of the concept of electronics on one element, and also use of thin-film structures of amorphous carbon – ...

  8. Volcanoes and the Environment (United States)

    Marti, Edited By Joan; Ernst, Gerald G. J.


    Volcanoes and the Environment is a comprehensive and accessible text incorporating contributions from some of the world's authorities in volcanology. This book is an indispensable guide for those interested in how volcanism affects our planet's environment. It spans a wide variety of topics from geology to climatology and ecology; it also considers the economic and social impacts of volcanic activity on humans. Topics covered include how volcanoes shape the environment, their effect on the geological cycle, atmosphere and climate, impacts on health of living on active volcanoes, volcanism and early life, effects of eruptions on plant and animal life, large eruptions and mass extinctions, and the impact of volcanic disasters on the economy. This book is intended for students and researchers interested in environmental change from the fields of earth and environmental science, geography, ecology and social science. It will also interest policy makers and professionals working on natural hazards. An all-inclusive text that goes beyond the geological working of volcanoes to consider their environmental and sociological impacts Each chapter is written by one of the world's leading authorities on the subject Accessible to students and researchers from a wide variety of backgrounds

  9. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.


    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  10. Mycotoxins in the soil environment


    Elmholt, S.


    The paper outlines the current knowledge concerning fate of mycotoxins in the soil environment, including - outline of mycotoxins addressed (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin) - routes by which the mycotoxins enter the soil environment - routes by which they are immobilised or removed from the soil environment - mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in the soil environment

  11. Influence of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Soil Properties and Plant Reestablishment in Peri-Urban Environments Efecto de la Aplicación de Compost de Residuos Sólidos Municipales sobre las Propiedades de los Suelos y el Establecimiento de Plantas en Ambientes Peri-Urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Civeira


    Full Text Available Soils in urban areas often present characteristics that might submit these environments to erosion processes. Applying municipal solid wastes (MSW composts to soils have been suggested as a means to improve physical and chemical properties. A field experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted in a Typic Argiudoll from a degraded area in Buenos Aires City. The objective was to evaluate the effect of MSW compost application on soil properties, residue decomposition and Poa (Poa pratensis L. reestablishment. At the beginning of the trial, compost was prepared and applied in a bare soil on 0.25 m² square plots afterwards litterbags were incorporated and Poa was sown. Compost amounts were: 0 (control; 2 (low; 4 (medium and 7 kg m-2 (high on fresh matter basis. During the trial residue decomposition and aerial dry matter (DM: g treatment-1 were evaluated, at the end soil physical and chemical parameters were measured. Medium and high compost rates increased organic C, total N and extractable P. Addition of 2 kg m-2 affected soil organic C as well, but in a minor fee. Soil physical properties were improved after MSW compost addition. In medium and high doses, augmentations in organic matter reduced bulk densities and enhanced water infiltration. Aerial DM was significantly affected by treatments (p Los suelos de las áreas urbanas presentan características que pueden someter estos ambientes a procesos erosivos. La aplicación de composts de residuos sólidos urbanos (MSW a los suelos es una práctica que mejora sus propiedades. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del compost de MSW sobre las propiedades, la descomposición de residuos y el restablecimiento de la especie Poa (Poa pratensis L. en estos suelos. En un Argiudol típico degradado de la ciudad de Buenos Aires se realizó un ensayo con diseño completamente aleatorizado. Se preparó e incorporó compost en parcelas de 0,25 m² en las siguientes cantidades: 0

  12. FASCODE for the environment (FASE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, H.E.; Moncet, J.L. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Anderson, G.P.; Chetwynd, J.H. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFM, MD (United States)] [and others


    The Optical Physics Division of the Phillips Laboratory, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, is developing a state-of-the-art line-by-line atmospheric radiative transfer model as the successor to FASCODE. The goal of this project is to create a computationally efficient model which contains the most up-to-date atmospheric physics. The new model, known as FASCODE for the Environment, or {open_quotes}FASE{close_quotes}, will combine the best features of FASCODE and LBLRTM, the DOE`s standard radiative transfer model. FASE will also contain new features such as new cross-sections for heavy molecules, and improved solar irradiance model, and improvements to the Schumann-Runge bands and continuum. The code will be optimized for vectorized and/or parallel processing. put under configuration control for easy maintenance, and structured into separate modules for each function: atmospheric profiles, layer optical properties, radiative transfer, multiple-scattering, etc. This modular structure will allow for increased flexibility and easy customization of the code for specialized applications, such as a forward model for iterative inversion algorithms. Ease-of-use will be enhanced with improved input control structures and documentation to accommodate the needs of novice and advanced users. This paper addresses changes which have been made to FASCODE and LBLRTM to create FASE, and gives an overview of the modular structure and its capabilities.

  13. 32 CFR 643.28 - Policy-Historic and cultural environment. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Historic and cultural environment. 643.28... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.28 Policy—Historic and cultural environment. (a) Executive Order 11593... leadership in preserving, restoring and maintaining the historic and cultural environment of the Nation; that...

  14. Magnetic studies of dusts in the urban environment

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, S


    non-destructive magnetic measurements may be used as proxies for the organic matter content in street dust. Associations between magnetic properties and element concentrations are investigated by using correlation analysis and factor analysis, which may be a potential approach for source identification of magnetic material in the environment. The study suggests that ferrimagnetic minerals are the dominant magnetic component in Bootle dust samples. Both studied sites show similar magnetic properties, but they can be differentiated using some magnetic parameters, such as chi LF, SIRM, and Hcr / Hc. The difference of magnetic properties in two sites may provide a potential application of magnetic techniques in the study of dust sources in the urban environment. This study makes a useful contribution to environmental magnetism, especially the application of magnetic techniques to the study of dusts in the urban environment. The results also have practical implications for pollution studies in Liverpool and Bootle...

  15. School Property Management. (United States)

    Sampson, Howard L.


    Property management of surplus school district property retained for possible future use involves preserving the value of property while generating income. Steps for formulating and administrating a property management plan are provided. (Author/MLF)

  16. Formation and Controlled Growth of Bismuth Titanate Phases into Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: An Efficient Self-Sealing Nanosystem for UV Filtering in Cosmetic Formulation. (United States)

    Zaccariello, Gloria; Back, Michele; Zanello, Marta; Canton, Patrizia; Cattaruzza, Elti; Riello, Pietro; Alimonti, Alessandro; Benedetti, Alvise


    The application of nanosized inorganic UV filters in cosmetic field is limited by their high photocatalytic properties that could induce the degradation or dangerous transformation of the organic molecules in sunscreen formulations. To overcome this problem and simultaneously enlarge the window of filter's absorption, we propose the growth of bismuth titanates BixTiyOz into mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). We investigated the chemical-physical properties by means of XRPD, TEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, XPS, and SF-ICP-MS analysis, while the influence on the environment was evaluated through photocatalytic tests. The growing process of this new nanosystem is discussed underlining the key role of the Bi3+ ion that, acting as a low-melting point agent for the silica framework, led to a self-sealing mechanism. The excellent UV shielding properties combined with a radical suppression of the photocatalytic activity make the proposed nanosystem a perfect candidate for the development of the next generation nanomaterials for sunscreen formulations.

  17. Food environment and obesity. (United States)

    Mattes, Richard; Foster, Gary D


    The food environment plays an important and often dominant role in food choice, eating patterns, and ultimately, energy intake. The Obesity Society and the American Society for Nutrition jointly sponsored a series of reviews on topics of interest to both memberships. The goal was to consider the state of understanding on selected issues related to the food environment and obesity and to identify key knowledge gaps. The first article (not necessarily of importance) targeted energy density (ED) and focuses on the role of ED in the regulation of energy intake and body weight. It offers recommendations for prioritizing research. The second article addresses economic factors and examines food and beverage purchases as a function of price changes. It concludes that targeted food taxes and subsidies alone are unlikely to substantially affect obesity. The third article concerns sweetened beverages and points out the difficulty in establishing the strength of the association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain and obesity. In the fourth article, the contributions of palatability and variety to eating behavior and weight are reviewed. Article five explores the influence of portion size on energy intake and weight management. It finds that consumers generally tend to eat proportionally more as portion size increases. The sixth article focuses on the efficacy and effectiveness of eating frequency manipulations for body weight management and finds that such manipulations have consistently yielded null results. Finally, article seven identifies several limitations of the existing literature regarding neighborhood access to healthy foods. This series of reviews addresses important questions regarding the contribution of the food environment to obesity. Independent of physiological/genetic determinants, factors such as ED, cost, food form, palatability, variety, portion size, eating frequency, and access to healthy food are each evaluated for their role in



    Padma Upadhyay Dr. Saroj Mahajan


    In last 50 years when the scientist become more aware about the environment as a whole, and started analyzing the data of water pollution, they were shocked to know that, 2% to 50% of synthetic dyes used are not utilized and go as a waste in effluents of industries. These dyes are highly soluble in water, resulting in the deterioration of COD and BOD content of the water stream, in which these effluents meet, affecting the flora and fauna of the concern region [3]. Since India is the major ex...

  19. Ionophores in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland

    production. Ionophores are antibiotic drugs that form lipid soluble complexes with, primarily, alkali cations that inhibit or kill pathogenic parasites in livestock. Several reports have revealed that ionophores are emerging environmental contaminants in agricultural run-off waters, surface waters, sediments...... liquid extraction with integrated clean-up followed by solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem in space mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS). Halling-Sørensen B, Sengelov G, Tjornelund J (2002) Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 42: 3, p. 263-271. DOI: 10.1007/s00244...

  20. Securing the Vista Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Peter


    "Securing the Vista Environment" takes you on a quick tour of the most significant security features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in almost six years. You'll get background on threats and vulnerabilities that will make you think differently about security. Security is more than just the technology and configurations--it's about how we use the system that makes it secure or not. Then we'll cover Vista's security features, from user privileges to Windows Defender, User Account Control, and BitLocker, as well as strategies for protecting your information from unwanted disclo

  1. Soil property variability in a humid natural Mediterranean environment: La Rioja, Spain Varibilidad de las propiedades del suelo en ambiente mediterráneo húmedo: La Rioja, España Variabilidade espacial das propriedades do solo em ambiente úmido Mediterrâneo: La Rioja, Espanha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Jiménez-Ballesta


    Full Text Available

    Estimating the spatial variability of soil properties is significant for evaluating environmental impacts. For example, many soil properties are directly used in the modelling of environmental processes such as global climate change. These aspects have not previously been studied at this level in La Rioja (a region of Spain with a humid Mediterranean environment. The intention of this study was to provide quantitative information on soil assessment and mapping methods for natural soils in a humid Mediterranean environment. The properties considered included: pH and organic matter, calcium carbonate and clay contents. For testing, samples were selected from several different soil types which, in theory, were only affected by pedogenetic processes and had developed on different parent materials. More than half of the samples did not contain any CaCO3, while the rest of the samples presented a variety of CaCO3, forms, with high percentages being present in certain cases (up to 65% on the surface. It was possible to establish two different areas: one predominantly acidic and the other principally basic. The predominately basic samples were due to the high percentage of carbonate in the parent materials. The clay content on the surface was similar to that in the subsurface layers. Finally, the organic matter contents in the uppermost layers presented average values of 3.9%,with a range of from 0.3 to 17.5%. The major variations in soils were determined by soil type (therefore by soil forming processes, parent material composition, and vegetation type. This study reveals that these methods are useful to determine the spatial distribution of some soil properties in undisturbed soils. The contour maps of soil property variability could be used to improve future sampling designs and management

  2. Green valley galaxies as a transition population in different environments (United States)

    Coenda, Valeria; Martínez, Héctor J.; Muriel, Hernán


    We present a comparative analysis of the properties of passive, star-forming and transition (green valley) galaxies in four discrete environments: field, groups, the outskirts and the core of X-ray clusters. We construct samples of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in these environments so that they are bound to have similar redshift distributions. The classification of galaxies into the three sequences is based on the UV-optical colour NUV - r. We study a number of galaxy properties: stellar mass, morphology, specific star formation rate and the history of star formation. The analysis of green valley (GV) galaxies reveals that the physical mechanisms responsible for external quenching become more efficient moving from the field to denser environments. We confirm previous findings that GV galaxies have intermediate morphologies; moreover, we find that this appears to be independent of the environment. Regarding the stellar mass of GV galaxies, we find that they tend to be more massive in the field than in denser environments. On average, GV galaxies account for ∼ 20 per cent of all galaxies in groups and X-ray clusters. We find evidence that the field environment is inefficient in transforming low-mass galaxies. GV galaxies have average star formation histories intermediate between passive and star-forming galaxies, and have a clear and consistent dependence on the environment: both, the quenching time and the amplitude of the star formation rate, decrease towards higher density environments.

  3. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry


    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  4. Adaptation in stochastic environments

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Colib


    The classical theory of natural selection, as developed by Fisher, Haldane, and 'Wright, and their followers, is in a sense a statistical theory. By and large the classical theory assumes that the underlying environment in which evolution transpires is both constant and stable - the theory is in this sense deterministic. In reality, on the other hand, nature is almost always changing and unstable. We do not yet possess a complete theory of natural selection in stochastic environ­ ments. Perhaps it has been thought that such a theory is unimportant, or that it would be too difficult. Our own view is that the time is now ripe for the development of a probabilistic theory of natural selection. The present volume is an attempt to provide an elementary introduction to this probabilistic theory. Each author was asked to con­ tribute a simple, basic introduction to his or her specialty, including lively discussions and speculation. We hope that the book contributes further to the understanding of the roles of "Cha...

  5. Obesogenic environment - intervention opportunities. (United States)

    Fisberg, Mauro; Maximino, Priscila; Kain, Juliana; Kovalskys, Irina


    To evaluate environmental obesogenic-related factors, such as physical activity in neighborhoods and schools, nutritional behavior, and intervention programs. Critical analysis of literature with personal point of view from infant obesity experts and political advisors for public intervention. Although obesity is a public health problem affecting several age groups, it is among children and adolescents that it plays a more important role, due to treatment complexity, high likelihood of persistence into adulthood, and association with other non-transmissible diseases while still in early age. Environment is a main component of the genesis and outcomes in the near future or long term. Modification of intake with high-density food, meal skipping, and high intake of saturated fat, sugar, and salt, associated to high levels of sedentarism are main causes of obesity. Intervention opportunities are related to modifications in political, environmental, and individual settings. School and physical activities in the educational environment are intertwined with nutrition intervention in continuous education. A critical review of some different scenarios in Latin American countries is presented. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. The built environment and mental health. (United States)

    Evans, Gary W


    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple

  7. Copyright in Digital Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golamreza Fadaei Araghi


    Full Text Available The consensus among experts is that Iranian Copyright Laws are in dire need of review and revision given the new requirements and capabilities facing our young society. In order to arrive at well-written and operationally sound regulations governing generation and dissemination of digital information within the cyberspace – while protecting the rights of their author - one needs to have a better understanding of libraries’ mission (as repositories and distribution point for rich information, global trend of information exchange economization, and social conditions. Having a business plan and taking note of intellectual property, database managers and providers must draw up economic justification for their digital libraries. Thus a written strategic plan for development and management of intellectual property could be effective over a specific time period. The research infrastructure and foundations and existing capacity for absorbing scientific and technical knowledge, is weak in developing countries. This inevitably leads to these societies maintaining a less than desired low scientific output and development. New knowledge is generated in richer countries where research and development capital expenditure is higher. The present paper deals with the political and economic strategies involved in designing the information production, distribution and consumption cycle while protecting proprietary.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, M. E. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria–Universidad de La Laguna, CIE Canarias: Tri-Continental Atlantic Campus, Canary Islands (Spain); Almeida, J. Sánchez; Muñoz-Tuñón, C. [Instituto Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nuza, S. E.; Kitaura, F.; Heß, S., E-mail: [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)


    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H i component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H i gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H i gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation.

  9. Structural characterization of proteins using residue environments. (United States)

    Mooney, Sean D; Liang, Mike Hsin-Ping; DeConde, Rob; Altman, Russ B


    A primary challenge for structural genomics is the automated functional characterization of protein structures. We have developed a sequence-independent method called S-BLEST (Structure-Based Local Environment Search Tool) for the annotation of previously uncharacterized protein structures. S-BLEST encodes the local environment of an amino acid as a vector of structural property values. It has been applied to all amino acids in a nonredundant database of protein structures to generate a searchable structural resource. Given a query amino acid from an experimentally determined or modeled structure, S-BLEST quickly identifies similar amino acid environments using a K-nearest neighbor search. In addition, the method gives an estimation of the statistical significance of each result. We validated S-BLEST on X-ray crystal structures from the ASTRAL 40 nonredundant dataset. We then applied it to 86 crystallographically determined proteins in the protein data bank (PDB) with unknown function and with no significant sequence neighbors in the PDB. S-BLEST was able to associate 20 proteins with at least one local structural neighbor and identify the amino acid environments that are most similar between those neighbors. Proteins 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Radiation Environment of Phobos (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Clark, John H.; Sturner, Steven J.; Stubbs, Timothy; Wang, Yongli; Glenar, David A.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Farrell, William M.


    The innermost Martian moon Phobos is a potential way station for the human exploration of Mars and the solar system beyond the orbit of Mars. It has a similar radiation environment to that at 1 AU for hot plasma and more energetic particles from solar, heliospheric and galactic sources. In the past two decades there have been many spacecraft measurements at 1 AU, and occasionally in the Mars orbital region around the Sun, that can be used to define a reference model for the time-averaged and time-variable radiation environments at Mars and Phobos. Yearly to hourly variance comes from the eleven-year solar activity cycle and its impact on solar energetic, heliospheric, and solar-modulated galactic cosmic ray particles. We report progress on compilation of the reference model from U.S. and international spacecraft data sources of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), and from tissue-equivalent dosage rate measurements by the CRaTER instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Observer spacecraft now in lunar orbit. Similar dosage rate data are also available from the Mars surface via the NASA Planetary Data System archive from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The sub-Mars surface hemisphere of Phobos is slightly blocked from energetic particle irradiation by the body of Mars but there is a greater global variance of interplanetary radiation exposure as we have calculated from the known topography of this irregularly shaped moon. Phobos receives a relatively small flux of secondary radiation from galactic cosmic ray interactions with the Mars surface and atmosphere, and at plasma energies from pickup ions escaping out of the Mars atmosphere. The greater secondary radiation source is from cosmic ray interactions with the moon surface, which we have simulated with the GEANT radiation transport code for various cases of the surface regolith

  11. [Economic theory and the environment]. (United States)

    Yachir, F


    The environment, on the eve of a new century, has become a major theme for reflection and action in both developed and developing countries. Economists and economic theory have until recently neglected the environment and have implicitly assumed that nature offers unlimited space for expansion and an inexhaustible supply of resources. Among natural resources, economists have always distinguished between those whose supply is in no way related to human labor and which are therefore common property, such as air and water, and those whose effective supply depends on labor and for which the appropriation can be private, such as the products of the soil and subsoil. The founders of the discipline of economics defined economic goods as those resulting from the application of labor to nature and which formally belong to a specific individual or group. It has become increasingly clear, however, that economic activity can reduce the effective availability of resources not considered "economic." The growing scarcity of these common goods may then induce their privatization. The inability of economic science to conceive of the exhaustibility of natural resources or the possibility of their permanent reduction in quality through human activity reflects the specific historic and philosophic context of the development of economics as a science. England in the late 18th and 19th centuries, where economics largely originated, was a colonial power able to expand outward in its quest for resources. Industrial requirements for nonrenewable resources remained relatively limited in the early years of industrialization. Most significantly, the growing technological capability was accompanied by a new belief that human beings could be in control of nature. A critique of economic theory from an environmental perspective must therefore begin with a critique of its philosophical assumptions. A new vision of interaction between the economy and nature must be developed which acknowledges the

  12. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated environment for rapid design studies of small satellite missions will be developed. This environment will be designed to streamline processes at the...

  13. Affective appraisal of virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.M.


    Interactive navigable 3D visualisations of built and natural environments have become commonplace in design and planning of urban environments and landscapes, and are regarded as potent prototyping and communication tools. In training applications, for instance for fire fighters, virtual

  14. Benthic fauna of mangrove environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    The distribution, abundance and importance of benthic fauna in a mangrove environment has been discussed. This ecosystem is enriched with terrestrial, aquatic, marshy and mudflat species mangrove environment. Qualitative and quantitative...

  15. Investments in random environments (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, Jesús Emeterio; Cantero-Álvarez, Rubén; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Schweitzer, Frank


    We present analytical investigations of a multiplicative stochastic process that models a simple investor dynamics in a random environment. The dynamics of the investor's budget, x(t) , depends on the stochasticity of the return on investment, r(t) , for which different model assumptions are discussed. The fat-tail distribution of the budget is investigated and compared with theoretical predictions. We are mainly interested in the most probable value xmp of the budget that reaches a constant value over time. Based on an analytical investigation of the dynamics, we are able to predict xmpstat . We find a scaling law that relates the most probable value to the characteristic parameters describing the stochastic process. Our analytical results are confirmed by stochastic computer simulations that show a very good agreement with the predictions.

  16. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini


    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  17. CERN and the Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aymar, Robert


    The impact of CERN’s activities on the surrounding environment is carefully monitored by the Organization via a complete environmental monitoring programme, which is defined and run in agreement with the authorities of Switzerland and France. This programme covers both radiological and conventional aspects. So far the environmental impact of CERN was shown to be negligible. In particular, CERN’s radiological impact is a fraction of the variation of the natural exposure at different locations of the surrounding region. As the site of the Organization is on the territory of two countries and straddles the Swiss-French border, the implementation of its environmental policy requires specific procedures and a very transparent communication towards the Host States authorities and the public opinion. This paper reports the official CERN speech delivered for the opening of the international conference Enviroinfo 2004 that was held at CERN in October 2004.

  18. Refrigerants and environment (United States)

    Tsvetkov, O. B.; Laptev, Yu A.


    The refrigeration and air-conditioning industries are important sectors of the economy and represents about 15 % of global electricity consumptions. The chlorofluorocarbons also called CFCs are a class of refrigerants containing the halogens chlorine and/or fluorine on a carbon skeleton. Because of their environmental impact the Montreal Protocol was negotiated in 1987 to limit the production of certain CFCs and hydrochlirofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in developed and developing countries. The halogenated refrigerants are depleting the ozone layer also major contribution to the greenhouse effect. To be acceptable as a refrigerant a fluid must satisfy a variety of thermodynamic criteria and should be environment friendly with zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. The perspective of a future phase down of HFCs is considered in this report taking into account a strategy for the phase out of HCFCs and perspective of choosing of various refrigerant followed by safety issues.

  19. International security environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this article, according to the author, internationally, the end of the Cold War did not only mean the collapse of the international security architecture typical for the post-war period, based on the principles of intimidation and devastating global nuclear confrontation, but marked the transition to a unipolar world with a dominant position for the US, far away from any other state. This situation has led to a fragmentation of security efforts and transformed security environment in a process which now encompasses all the conditions, processes and phenomena of political, diplomatic, economic, military, socio-cultural, etc. Nature both domestically and internationally, that determines the protection level of the individual and the community to which it belongs.

  20. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders


    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  1. Sustainable built environments

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Dagmar


    Sustainable design is a collective process whereby the built environment achieves unprecedented levels of ecological balance through new and retrofit construction, with the goal of long-term viability and humanization of architecture. Focusing on the environmental context, sustainable design merges the natural, minimum resource conditioning solutions of the past (daylight, solar heat, and natural ventilation) with the innovative technologies of the present.  The desired result is an integrated “intelligent” system that supports individual control with expert negotiation for resource consciousness. International experts in the field address the fundamental questions of sustainable design and landscape management: How should the sustainability of landscapes and buildings be evaluated? Which targets have to be set and which thresholds should not be exceeded? What forms of planning and governance structures exist and to what extent do they further the goals of sustainability?  Gathering 30 peer-reviewed ent...

  2. Performative Urban Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Thomsen, Bo Stjerne


    temporary urban and architectural structures are better understood as complex nexuses of global-local flows and interactions. The paper explores how personal mobile technology and sensor technology can attach the individual perception of place to temporary structures acting as agents for urban experiences......The chapter explores how temporary architectural structures can become media for bottom-up approaches to urban development. Urban interactions in the city developed from the sidewalks were seen as locally bounded neighbourhoods. However, with the advent of contemporary network technologies...... becomes the political tool for incorporating change in urban spaces creating new ‘public domains'. Such conceptualization draws on the notion of ‘performative environments' that focuses on what a building does instead of what it is said to be. Architecture becomes dynamic and open and may act as self...

  3. Working environment interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Klaus T.


    is paid to why and how public and private organisations subsequently are to improve their working environment. This paper suggests a model which can bridge this gap. It is based on a combination of theories about basic policy instruments (regulation, incentives and information) with realistic analysis...... analysis of the case shows how various actors, including the authorities, employers, unions and bi-partite committees, developed a programme combining the policy instruments over a considerable period of time and that all three institutional mechanisms affected the outcome. This integration of various......, and the importance of joint messages from employers and unions. The model thus provides new insights into the relationship between policy instruments and workplace health and safety outcomes...

  4. Population and environment. (United States)


    This article discusses the recent February 1997 Mainichi Newspaper symposium entitled "Securing the Safety of the Biosphere: The Population Explosion and the Global Environment," held in Tokyo, Japan. The symposium was a tribute to the commitment of the newspaper company to global population and environmental issues. Dr. Fred Sai, past president of IPPF, was a guest speaker. Both Dr. Sai and the Mainichi were honored in 1993 with the UN Population Award. A symposium outcome was the "Tokyo Declaration." The declaration was developed by the 21st Century Environmental Crisis Warning Committee under the direction of the Mainichi Newspapers and by international experts. The declaration called for appropriate population policies, respect for women's full participation in society, gender equality, the rights of women to determine their own sexual and reproductive health, and the rights of children to a healthy mind and body. Other speakers included the executive coordinator of United National Reform, the chairman of the Earth Council, the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change, the president of the World Watch Institute, and the chairman of the Swaminathan Research Foundation. The director of the Study and Research Division of JOICFP spoke about including women's views into discussions about population and the environment. Women were credited with playing an important population control role at the grassroots level. It was argued that population is reduced best by meeting the unmet needs of women and providing reproductive health services. Women and couples should be guaranteed informed choice. The issue of abortion availability should not be based on religious or social values.

  5. [Environment and pediatric cancer]. (United States)

    Ferrís Tortajada, J; Ortega García, J A; Marco Macián, A; García Castell, J


    Cancer is the final result of the variable combination of two determinants: endogenous or constitutional factors and exogenous or environmental factors. Between 85 % and 96 % of pediatric cancers (PC) are probably associated with environmental risk factors (RF), most of which have not been identified. The spectacular progress made in survival in PC contrasts with the lack of knowledge of the RF implicated in its etiopathogenesis. 1) To analyze up-to-date knowledge of the interaction among environmental RF in the etiopathogenesis of PC, and 2) to inform pediatricians of the "Environment and Pediatric Cancer" research project directed by the Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit of the Hospital Infantil Universitari La Fe in Valencia (Spain). Current medical records focus almost exclusively on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The Pediatric Environmental Medical Record will contain the validated items required to document and presence or absence of endogenous and exogenous RF associated with PC described in the literature, as well as the main human cancerogenic agents identified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US National Toxicology Program. The project aims to determine the frequency of endogenous and exogenous RF associated with PC in Spain. This project will enable hypotheses to be formulated for future epidemiologic case-control and cohort studies in Spain and other European countries, thus stimulating the introduction of educational and preventive policies in the Spanish population. The project requires the aid of all hospital and non-hospital pediatricians involved in pediatric cancer in informing parents and offering them the possibility of voluntarily collaborating in the "Environment and Pediatric Cancer" project by contacting the Pediatric Health Specialty Unit (Unidad de Salud Medioambiental del Hospital Infantil La Fe de Valencia []). The collaboration of our colleagues will be essential in gaining

  6. Plants in alpine environments (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.


    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  7. [Environment: the other disaster]. (United States)


    The arid conditions started in the Sahel of Africa around 1960, but no attention was paid partly because of the low population size (1/2 of the 1990 figure), low level of urbanization, and inadequate social development. Development projects have contributed to the acceleration of the degradation of natural resources and to increasing pollution. At that time the alarming rate of desertification could not be proven by satellite photography, nor was enough known about the progression of global climate changes. A committee to combat Sahelian desertification was established only in 1970. The forces of desertification are controlled by the rainfall regularly deposited by the intertropical front which has receded 1000-1500 km in the last 10,000 years. In the last 20 years precipitation has decreased by 20% in Niamey, Niger. Contributory factors are the increase of temperature, the reduction of cloud masses, carbon gas emissions from human activities, deforestation for agriculture, construction, industrialization, and pollution from toxic chemicals. Development programs have resulted in the diversion of water volumes draining the Sahelian Nile and Niger valleys. Increased population and misguided government policies have increased socioeconomic pressures on the environment. The 1st plans to fight desertification were developed during 1984-1987. Effecting change, however, means a change of mentality. The objectives are food self-sufficiency by rehabilitation and utilization of the productive potential of water, soil, and human know-how; the preservation of the environment; a credible birth control policy; and promotion of small-scale integrated projects of 500-1500 and 10-2500 hectares depending on regions. The most threatened zones receive 250-400 mm of rain whose fate in the next 50 years is crucial.

  8. Managing hospitals in dynamic environments. (United States)

    Godiwalla, Y H; Batra, H C; Johnson, J A; Godiwalla, S Y


    Hospital environments have changed dramatically over the past two decades. Hospitals now have to contend with the dynamics of regulation, market forces, and quality and cost-conscious environments. The strategies proposed here emulate the changes pursued by much of US industry. Provides a framework for analysing hospital environments. Applies Deming's total quality management concepts to hospitals. Also suggests strategies to deal effectively with different types of hospital environments.

  9. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment


    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka?a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna


    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20?30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having p...

  10. Localized environment characterization device

    KAUST Repository

    Alzain, Hashim


    Various apparatuses and methods are provided for measuring the likely environmental impact of a particular geographic location on power generation properties of potential solar installations at the particular location. In an example embodiment of one such apparatus, a measurement device is provided. The measurement device includes a base portion comprising a base frame element disposed on a plurality of supporting legs, and a top panel comprising a series of connected members and one or more measurement modules whose planar dimensions are defined by the series of connected members. The top panel is connected to the base portion by a joint such that the top panel can rotate about the joint, and a panel support element is configured to fasten the top panel immovably at a desired degree of rotation in relation to the base portion.

  11. Humor Engineering in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Fukuda, Shuichi


    Enjoyment is one of the positive emotions we expect to have when visiting environments that have been designed to provide us with entertainment experiences. However, enjoyment is also part of our daily life, whether we are at home, in our office environment, in public environments or on the move

  12. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.


    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served

  13. Children and the Outdoor Environment (United States)

    Niklasson, Laila; Sandberg, Anette


    In this article we will discuss the outdoor environment for younger children with the help of two different concepts. The first concept, affordance, is well known in the discussion about outdoor environments. What the affordance in the outdoor environment is perceived as can differ between actors. How the affordance is used can be another source…

  14. Mineral Resources and the Environment. (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of panels created by the Committee on Mineral Resources and the Environment (COMRATE) to study four topic areas of mineral resources and the environment. The topic areas studied by the panels were: technology, supply, the environment, and demand. Section I, the report of the technology panel,…

  15. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple expressions of herbal property]. (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing


    Chinese herbal property is the highly summarized concept of herbal nature and pharmaceutical effect, which reflect the characteristics of herbal actions on human body. These herbal actions, also interpreted as presenting the information about pharmaceutical effect contained in herbal property on the biological carrier, are defined as herbal property expressions. However, the biological expression of herbal property is believed to possess complex features for the involved complexity of Chinese medicine and organism. Firstly, there are multiple factors which could influence the expression results of herbal property such as the growth environment, harvest season and preparing methods of medicinal herbs, and physique and syndrome of body. Secondly, there are multiple biological approaches and biochemical indicators for the expression of the same property. This paper elaborated these complexities for further understanding of herbal property. The individuality of herbs and expression factors should be well analyzed in the related studies.

  16. Speech processing in mobile environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    This book focuses on speech processing in the presence of low-bit rate coding and varying background environments. The methods presented in the book exploit the speech events which are robust in noisy environments. Accurate estimation of these crucial events will be useful for carrying out various speech tasks such as speech recognition, speaker recognition and speech rate modification in mobile environments. The authors provide insights into designing and developing robust methods to process the speech in mobile environments. Covering temporal and spectral enhancement methods to minimize the effect of noise and examining methods and models on speech and speaker recognition applications in mobile environments.

  17. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  18. Enterococci in the environment (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Korajkic, Asja; Staley, Zachery R.; Harwood, Valerie J.


    Enterococci are common, commensal members of gut communities in mammals and birds, yet they are also opportunistic pathogens that cause millions of human and animal infections annually. Because they are shed in human and animal feces, are readily culturable, and predict human health risks from exposure to polluted recreational waters, they are used as surrogates for waterborne pathogens and as fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in research and in water quality testing throughout the world. Evidence from several decades of research demonstrates, however, that enterococci may be present in high densities in the absence of obvious fecal sources and that environmental reservoirs of these FIB are important sources and sinks, with the potential to impact water quality. This review focuses on the distribution and microbial ecology of enterococci in environmental (secondary) habitats, including the effect of environmental stressors; an outline of their known and apparent sources, sinks, and fluxes; and an overview of the use of enterococci as FIB. Finally, the significance of emerging methodologies, such as microbial source tracking (MST) and empirical predictive models, as tools in water quality monitoring is addressed. The mounting evidence for widespread extraenteric sources and reservoirs of enterococci demonstrates the versatility of the genus Enterococcus and argues for the necessity of a better understanding of their ecology in natural environments, as well as their roles as opportunistic pathogens and indicators of human pathogens.

  19. Megacities and the environment. (United States)

    Decker, Ethan H; Elliott, Scott; Smith, Felisa A


    The world's 25 largest cities comprise only 4% of the global population, but they have substantial impacts on the environment at multiple scales. Here we review what is known of the biogeochemistry of these megacities. Climatic, demographic, and economic data show no patterns across cities, save that wealthier cities have lower growth rates. The flows of water, fuels, construction materials, and food are examined where data are available. Water, which by mass dwarfs the other inputs, is not retained in urban systems, whereas construction materials and food predominate in the urban infrastructure and the waste stream. Fuels are transformed into chemical wastes that have the most far-reaching and global impacts. The effects of megacity resource consumption on geologic, hydrologic, atmospheric, and ecological processes are explored at local, regional, and global scales. We put forth the concepts of urban metabolism and urban succession as organizing concepts for data collection, analysis, and synthesis on urban systems. We conclude that megacities are not the final stage of urban evolution; rather, the climax of urban development will occur at a global scale when human society is at steady state with resource supply rates.

  20. Megacities and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan H. Decker


    Full Text Available The world’s 25 largest cities comprise only 4% of the global population, but they have substantial impacts on the environment at multiple scales. Here we review what is known of the biogeochemistry of these megacities. Climatic, demographic, and economic data show no patterns across cities, save that wealthier cities have lower growth rates. The flows of water, fuels, construction materials, and food are examined where data are available. Water, which by mass dwarfs the other inputs, is not retained in urban systems, whereas construction materials and food predominate in the urban infrastructure and the waste stream. Fuels are transformed into chemical wastes that have the most far-reaching and global impacts. The effects of megacity resource consumption on geologic, hydrologic, atmospheric, and ecological processes are explored at local, regional, and global scales. We put forth the concepts of urban metabolism and urban succession as organizing concepts for data collection, analysis, and synthesis on urban systems. We conclude that megacities are not the final stage of urban evolution; rather, the climax of urban development will occur at a global scale when human society is at steady state with resource supply rates.

  1. Liner environment effects study (United States)

    Venkataramani, K. S.; Ekstedt, E. E.


    The Liner Environment Effects Study Program is aimed at establishing a broad heat transfer data base under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the effects of the combustion system conditions on the combustor liner thermal loading and on the flame radiation characteristics. Five liner concepts spanning the spectrum of liner design technology from the very simple to the most advanced concepts are investigated. These concepts comprise an uncooled liner, a conventional film cooled liner, an impingement/film cooled liner, a laser drilled liner approaching the concept of a porous wall, and a siliconized silicon carbide ceramic liner. Effect of fuel type is covered by using fuels containing 11.8, 12.8, and 14% hydrogen. Tests at 100, 200, and 300 psia provide a basis for evaluating the effect of pressure on the heat transfer. The effects of the atomization quality and spray characteristics are examined by varying the fuel spray Sauter mean diameter and the spray angle. Additional varied parameters include reference velocity, a wide range of equivalence ratio, cooling flow rate, coolant temperature and the velocity of the coolant stream on the backside of the liner.

  2. [Epigenetics, environment and asthma]. (United States)

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Silva-García, Raúl; Oliva-Rico, Diego


    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract with a complex genetic background influenced by the exposition to a series of environmental factors. Genetic studies can only elucidate part of the heritability and susceptibility of asthma and even though several diseases have an evident genetic etiology, only a fraction of the genes involved in their pathogenicity have been identified. The epigenetic regulation of the latter is a fact one should bear in mind in order to explain the major triggers of diseases whose understanding is complicated, such as allergies and asthma. External stimulus such as nourishment, stress, physical activity, atmospheric pollution, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking can induce either gene silencing or gene expression. In this regard, epigenetics can explain how these environmental factors influence our genetic inheritance. There is growing evidence that backs-up the fact that DNA methylation, histone post-translational modification and microRNA expression are influenced by the environment. This helps explaining how several of the risk factors mentioned contribute to the development and inheritance of asthma. In this review, different environmental factors and their relation with the main epigenetic regulatory mechanisms will be analyzed, as well as their possible role in the development of asthma.

  3. Aridity and hominin environments (United States)

    Blumenthal, Scott A.; Levin, Naomi E.; Brown, Francis H.; Brugal, Jean-Philip; Chritz, Kendra L.; Harris, John M.; Jehle, Glynis E.; Cerling, Thure E.


    Aridification is often considered a major driver of long-term ecological change and hominin evolution in eastern Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene; however, this hypothesis remains inadequately tested owing to difficulties in reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate. We present a revised aridity index for quantifying water deficit (WD) in terrestrial environments using tooth enamel δ18O values, and use this approach to address paleoaridity over the past 4.4 million years in eastern Africa. We find no long-term trend in WD, consistent with other terrestrial climate indicators in the Omo-Turkana Basin, and no relationship between paleoaridity and herbivore paleodiet structure among fossil collections meeting the criteria for WD estimation. Thus, we suggest that changes in the abundance of C4 grass and grazing herbivores in eastern Africa during the Pliocene and Pleistocene may have been decoupled from aridity. As in modern African ecosystems, other factors, such as rainfall seasonality or ecological interactions among plants and mammals, may be important for understanding the evolution of C4 grass- and grazer-dominated biomes.

  4. 40 CFR 312.30 - Commonly known or reasonably ascertainable information about the property. (United States)


    ... sites, community organizations, local libraries and historical societies). ... ascertainable information about the property. 312.30 Section 312.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... known or reasonably ascertainable information about the property. (a) Throughout the inquiries, persons...

  5. Finding Property In New Places – Property In Cyber And Outer Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wian Erlank


    Full Text Available The fields of virtual property and property in space are both new areas of property law that could not have been envisaged a hundred years ago. In both of these new fields, things and other objects of property are located in places that have not previously been considered capable of harbouring property in the traditional sense. New technological and societal developments have resulted in both the creation of property (in virtual worlds and the ability to get to property (in space, and questions have to be asked about how property law can and will function in these new areas. This article discusses some of the important property questions posed by the creation of these new fields of property law. Although there is some correlation between the unique questions posed by the environments that these new areas of law deal with, each of the fields has some idiosyncrasies that are influenced to a large degree by the location of the property objects in each area. This article highlights these similarities, while simultaneously pointing out some of the main differences between them and traditional (Earth-based property law.

  6. A Framework for Pedagogical Evaluation of Virtual Learning Environments. (United States)

    Britain, Sandy; Liber, Oleg

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are learning management software systems that synthesize the functionality of computer-mediated communications software and online methods of delivering course materials. This report focuses on how to evaluate the properties, capabilities and orientation of different systems from an educational perspective, and…

  7. Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 13 ... 1Department of Agricultural Science Education Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan-Waya. .... Figure 1: Path diagram and coefficients of the proximate properties of maize accessions / varieties and their effects on the.

  8. Adaptive tools in virtual environments: Independent component analysis for multimedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolenda, Thomas


    The thesis investigates the role of independent component analysis in the setting of virtual environments, with the purpose of finding properties that reflect human context. A general framework for performing unsupervised classification with ICA is presented in extension to the latent semantic in...

  9. Pedagogical Conditions of Interethnic Relations Correction in Educational Environment (United States)

    Shibankova, Lyutsia A.; Dolganovskaya, Natalia V.; Ishmuradova, Alfiya M.; Matveeva, Elena S.; Vlasova, Tatiana; Chistyakov, Alexey A.


    The research urgency is conditioned by the strengthening of the role of educational institutions in the process of interaction between representatives of different cultures and religions, by the creation of favorable socio-psychological climate. Within the study of the educational environment, the authors identify its properties, conditioning the…

  10. Towards environments that have a sense of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin


    Humans have humorous conversations and interactions. Nowadays our real life existence is integrated with our life in social media, videogames, mixed reality and physical environments that sense our activities and that can adapt appearance and properties due to our activities. There are other

  11. Virtual Worlds; Real Learning: Design Principles for Engaging Immersive Environments (United States)

    Wu (u. Sjarpm)


    The EMDT master's program at Full Sail University embarked on a small project to use a virtual environment to teach graduate students. The property used for this project has evolved our several iterations and has yielded some basic design principles and pedagogy for virtual spaces. As a result, students are emerging from the program with a better grasp of future possibilities.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this paper we present a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of subtilisin BPN' in a crystalline environment containing four protein molecules and solvent. Conformational and dynamic properties of the molecules are compared with each other and with respect to the X-ray structure to test the

  13. Turbulence in Natural Environments (United States)

    Banerjee, Tirtha

    Problems in the area of land/biosphere-atmosphere interaction, hydrology, climate modeling etc. can be systematically organized as a study of turbulent flow in presence of boundary conditions in an increasing order of complexity. The present work is an attempt to study a few subsets of this general problem of turbulence in natural environments- in the context of neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric surface layer, the presence of a heterogeneous vegetation canopy and the interaction between air flow and a static water body in presence of flexible protruding vegetation. The main issue addressed in the context of turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is whether it is possible to describe the macro-states of turbulence such as mean velocity and turbulent velocity variance in terms of the micro-states of the turbulent flow, i.e., a distribution of turbulent kinetic energy across a multitude of scales. This has been achieved by a `spectral budget approach' which is extended for thermal stratification scenarios as well, in the process unifying the seemingly different and unrelated theories of turbulence such as Kolmogorov's hypothesis, Heisenberg's eddy viscosity, Monin Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) etc. under a common framework. In the case of a more complex scenario such as presence of a vegetation canopy with edges and gaps, the question that is addressed is in what detail the turbulence is needed to be resolved in order to capture the bulk flow features such as recirculation patterns. This issue is addressed by a simple numerical framework and it has been found out that an explicit prescription of turbulence is not necessary in presence of heterogeneities such as edges and gaps where the interplay between advection, pressure gradients and drag forces are sufficient to capture the first order dynamics. This result can be very important for eddy-covariance flux calibration strategies in non-ideal environments and the developed numerical model can be

  14. Biogas - agriculture and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudsen, L.; Birkmose, T. [The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, Aarhus (Denmark)


    Cultivating the soil always leads to a higher loss of nutrients to the surrounding environment than the loss recorded from natural areas. Loss of nitrogen by leaching may have the effect that the set limit for nitrate of 50 mg NO{sub 3} per litre of water is exceeded in areas, where the water supply is based on ground water. Furthermore, nitrogen leaching may lead to eutrophication followed by oxygen depletion in inland waterways whereas it has hardly any significant environmental impact in freshwater areas. Ammonia volatilization followed by deposition influences nutrient-poor bio-topes like heaths, marshland etc. Increasing importance is attached to the loss of phosphorus from farmland as the discharge of sewage from urban areas and industries are reduced due to effective chemical and biological treatment plants. Environmental problems related to loss phosphorus is primarily eutrophication of freon water lakes. Nitrous oxide(N{sub 2}O), resulting from denitrification of nitrate in the soil, and the emission of methane contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect. Both nitrous oxide and the emission of methane are influenced by the volume of animal production, but no certain data on the connection and the importance are available. Loss of nutrients from farm production is primarily related to animal production. The largest environmental impact concerns the loss of nutrients in areas, where the live-stock production is very intensive in large compact areas and, where the produced amount of nutrients in animal manure and other organic manures exceed the requirements of the crops. (EG) 13 refs.

  15. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka


    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  16. Colloidal Properties of C60 Fullerenes (United States)

    The ever-increasing use of engineered nanomaterials leads to increased concerns of human and ecological exposure to these materials. EPA’s regulatory role for nanomaterials creates a significant need for understanding the fate and transport properties of nanomaterials in environ...

  17. microstructural characterisation, physical and chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Abiodun

    of solutions to obtaining a sustainable and healthy environment and also save energy and natural resources. ... materials and increase its sustainability as an agricultural waste, being an annually cultivated crop ..... the properties of mortar and concrete: A Review'',. Journal of American Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, pp.

  18. The Environment of Galaxies at Low Redshift (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Ivezić, Željko


    We compare environmental effects in two analogous samples of galaxies, one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the other from a semianalytic model (SAM) based on the Millennium Simulation (MS), to test to what extent current SAMs of galaxy formation are reproducing environmental effects. We estimate the large-scale environment of each galaxy using a Bayesian density estimator based on distances to all 10 nearest neighbors, and we compare broadband photometric properties of the two samples as a function of environment. The feedbacks implemented in the semianalytic model produce a qualitatively correct galaxy population with similar environmental dependence as that seen in SDSS galaxies. In detail, however, the colors of MS galaxies exhibit an exaggerated dependence on environment: the field contains too many blue galaxies, whereas clusters contain too many red galaxies, compared to the SDSS sample. We also find that the MS contains a population of highly clustered, relatively faint red galaxies with velocity dispersions comparable to their Hubble flow. Such high-density galaxies, if they exist, would be overlooked in any low-redshift survey, since their membership to a cluster cannot be determined because of the "fingers-of-God" effect.

  19. Estimation, modeling, and simulation of patterned growth in extreme environments. (United States)

    Strader, B; Schubert, K E; Quintana, M; Gomez, E; Curnutt, J; Boston, P


    In the search for life on Mars and other extraterrestrial bodies or in our attempts to identify biological traces in the most ancient rock record of Earth, one of the biggest problems facing us is how to recognize life or the remains of ancient life in a context very different from our planet's modern biological examples. Specific chemistries or biological properties may well be inapplicable to extraterrestrial conditions or ancient Earth environments. Thus, we need to develop an arsenal of techniques that are of broader applicability. The notion of patterning created in some fashion by biological processes and properties may provide such a generalized property of biological systems no matter what the incidentals of chemistry or environmental conditions. One approach to recognizing these kinds of patterns is to look at apparently organized arrangements created and left by life in extreme environments here on Earth, especially at various spatial scales, different geologies, and biogeochemical circumstances.

  20. Evaluating polymeric biomaterial-environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer techniques. (United States)

    Schöne, Anne-Christin; Roch, Toralf; Schulz, Burkhard; Lendlein, Andreas


    Polymeric biomaterials are of specific relevance in medical and pharmaceutical applications due to their wide range of tailorable properties and functionalities. The knowledge about interactions of biomaterials with their biological environment is of crucial importance for developing highly sophisticated medical devices. To achieve optimal in vivo performance, a description at the molecular level is required to gain better understanding about the surface of synthetic materials for tailoring their properties. This is still challenging and requires the comprehensive characterization of morphological structures, polymer chain arrangements and degradation behaviour. The review discusses selected aspects for evaluating polymeric biomaterial-environment interfaces by Langmuir monolayer methods as powerful techniques for studying interfacial properties, such as morphological and degradation processes. The combination of spectroscopic, microscopic and scattering methods with the Langmuir techniques adapted to polymers can substantially improve the understanding of their in vivo behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Photocatalytic oxide films in the built environment (United States)

    Österlund, Lars; Topalian, Zareh


    The possibility to increase human comfort in buildings is a powerful driving force for the introduction of new technology. Among other things our sense of comfort depends on air quality, temperature, lighting level, and the possibility of having visual contact between indoors and outdoors. Indeed there is an intimate connection between energy, comfort, and health issues in the built environment, leading to a need for intelligent building materials and green architecture. Photocatalytic materials can be applied as coatings, filters, and be embedded in building materials to provide self-cleaning, antibacterial, air cleaning, deodorizing, and water cleaning functions utilizing either solar light or artificial illumination sources - either already present in buildings, or by purposefully designed luminaries. Huge improvements in indoor comfort can thus be made, and also alleviate negative health effects associated with buildings, such as the sick-house syndrome. At the same time huge cost savings can be made by reducing maintenance costs. Photocatalytic oxides can be chemically modified by changing their acid-base surface properties, which can be used to overcome deactivation problems commonly encountered for TiO2 in air cleaning applications. In addition, the wetting properties of oxides can be tailored by surface chemical modifications and thus be made e.g. oleophobic and water repellent. Here we show results of surface acid modified TiO2 coatings on various substrates by means of photo-fixation of surface sulfate species by a method invented in our group. In particular, we show that such surface treatments of photocatalytic concrete made by mixing TiO2 nanoparticles in reactive concrete powders result in concrete surfaces with beneficial self-cleaning properties. We propose that such approaches are feasible for a number of applications in the built environment, including glass, tiles, sheet metals, plastics, etc.

  2. Carbon. Examples of Property Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kossko


    Full Text Available Examples of realization of carbon properties in formation of section near-surface boundaries defining the mechanism of oxidizing (normal wear are presented. Synthesis of strengt hening diamond- lonsdaleite -carbene «frame» and graphite with function of solid lubricant on a friction surface in high-desperse carbon environment is reviewed. Prospects of carbon ap placation in implementation of the concept of electronics on one element, and also use of thin-film structures of amorphous carbon – metal for data recording are discussed.

  3. The Thermodynamic Properties of Cubanite (United States)

    Berger, E. L.; Lauretta, D. S.; Keller, L. P.


    CuFe2S3 exists in two polymorphs, a low-temperature orthorhombic form (cubanite) and a high-temperature cubic form (isocubanite). Cubanite has been identified in the CI-chondrite and Stardust collections. However, the thermodynamic properties of cubanite have neither been measured nor estimated. Our derivation of a thermodynamic model for cubanite allows constraints to be placed on the formation conditions. This data, along with the temperature constraint afforded by the crystal structure, can be used to assess the environments in which cubanite formation is (or is not) thermodynamically favored.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS


    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  5. [Health and environment]. (United States)

    Tubiana, M


    The impact of the environment (air, water, food pollution) on health is a major concern in contemporary society. Unfortunately, there are relatively few objective epidemiological data on this subject and their accuracy is limited. Risks are often not quantified, whereas in public health the quantitative assessment of the various risks and benefits must provide the bases for a global strategy. Actual risks should be distinguished from putative risks and, when the risks are putative, an effort should be made to ascertain the upper and lower limits of the risk. The validity of a linear no threshold relationship for assessing putative risks should be discussed and, whenever appropriate, other relationships should be considered. Since emotional reactions often pervade environmental issues, which in turn are exploited for political or commercial reasons, it is not surprising that any statement or action may provoke violent debate. It is serious to underestimate the importance of a risk, since appropriate measures may not be put in place. However, it is equally serious to overestimate it because this can provoke unjustified fears, a pervasive unease, and a rejection of certain technologies, even to the point of discrediting science. It can lead therefore to a questioning of progress by instilling fears about any innovation, as well as facilitating the manipulation of public opinion for financial or ideological reasons, and finally to distortions in budget allocations and public health actions. Confronted with this situation, the Academy's role should be threefold. a) Whenever necessary, point out the need for an increase in appropriate fundamental research. When epidemiological data are uncertain, analyse the cause of these uncertainties and advocate appropriate development in statistical methodologies and epidemiological research, which could ascertain the upper limit of the putative risk. The lack of knowledge often results in public anxiety; this reaction should be

  6. Affective appraisal of virtual environments


    Houtkamp, J.M.


    Interactive navigable 3D visualisations of built and natural environments have become commonplace in design and planning of urban environments and landscapes, and are regarded as potent prototyping and communication tools. In training applications, for instance for fire fighters, virtual environments displayed on desktop monitors or on projection screens are used to represent situations and scenarios that cannot be created in the real world for reasons of safety, cost, and time. A valid simul...

  7. Pollutant dispersion in built environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, Tingzhen; Gong, Tingrui; Li, Zhengtong


    This book discusses energy transfer, fluid flow and pollution in built environments. It provides a comprehensive overview of the highly detailed fundamental theories as well as the technologies used and the application of heat and mass transfer and fluid flow in built environments, with a focus on the mathematical models and computational and experimental methods. It is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of buildings and environment, heat transfer and global warming.

  8. Quantitative Modeling of Human-Environment Interactions in Preindustrial Time (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.


    Quantifying human-environment interactions and anthropogenic influences on the environment prior to the Industrial revolution is essential for understanding the current state of the earth system. This is particularly true for the terrestrial biosphere, but marine ecosystems and even climate were likely modified by human activities centuries to millennia ago. Direct observations are however very sparse in space and time, especially as one considers prehistory. Numerical models are therefore essential to produce a continuous picture of human-environment interactions in the past. Agent-based approaches, while widely applied to quantifying human influence on the environment in localized studies, are unsuitable for global spatial domains and Holocene timescales because of computational demands and large parameter uncertainty. Here we outline a new paradigm for the quantitative modeling of human-environment interactions in preindustrial time that is adapted to the global Holocene. Rather than attempting to simulate agency directly, the model is informed by a suite of characteristics describing those things about society that cannot be predicted on the basis of environment, e.g., diet, presence of agriculture, or range of animals exploited. These categorical data are combined with the properties of the physical environment in coupled human-environment model. The model is, at its core, a dynamic global vegetation model with a module for simulating crop growth that is adapted for preindustrial agriculture. This allows us to simulate yield and calories for feeding both humans and their domesticated animals. We couple this basic caloric availability with a simple demographic model to calculate potential population, and, constrained by labor requirements and land limitations, we create scenarios of land use and land cover on a moderate-resolution grid. We further implement a feedback loop where anthropogenic activities lead to changes in the properties of the physical

  9. 36 CFR 222.21 - Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. 222.21 Section 222.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Burros § 222.21 Administration of wild free-roaming horses and burros and their environment. (a) The...

  10. Empowering a healthy practice environment. (United States)

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha


    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments (United States)

    Koontz, Steve


    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  12. Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Battlefield Electromagnetic Environments Office (BEEO) develops, maintains, and operates the Army Materiel Command (AMC) databases for spectrum management, per...

  13. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  14. Engine Environment Research Facility (EERF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility supports research and development testing of the behavior of turbine engine lubricants, fuels and sensors in an actual engine environment....

  15. Studying the mechanisms of language learning by varying the learning environment and the learner. (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    Language learning is a resilient process, and many linguistic properties can be developed under a wide range of learning environments and learners. The first goal of this review is to describe properties of language that can be developed without exposure to a language model - the resilient properties of language - and to explore conditions under which more fragile properties emerge. But even if a linguistic property is resilient, the developmental course that the property follows is likely to vary as a function of learning environment and learner, that is, there are likely to be individual differences in the learning trajectories children follow. The second goal is to consider how the resilient properties are brought to bear on language learning when a child is exposed to a language model. The review ends by considering the implications of both sets of findings for mechanisms, focusing on the role that the body and linguistic input play in language learning.

  16. Lead in the environment (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John


    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  17. Development of an instrument to measure medical students' perceptions of the assessment environment: initial validation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Tong, Wen Ting; Hong, Wei-Han; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Hassan, Hamimah


    .... This study aimed to develop an instrument for measuring students' perceptions of the assessment environment in an undergraduate medical program and to examine the psychometric properties of the new instrument...

  18. Influence of history and environment on the sediment dynamics of intertidal flats (United States)

    Jones, Craig A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.


    Morphological trends of three distinct intertidal environments in South San Francisco Bay were investigated using a combination of measurement and modeling tools. Because of the inherent relationship between the physical environment and the sediment properties, the sediment properties provide a good indicator of morphologic trends. A significant finding of this study is that surface sediment erodibility increases as the energy level in the environment increases. Conversely subsurface sediment erodibility shows a strong relationship to the long-term history of the site. The combination of the measured sediment properties, the history of deposition and erosion, and simple modeling of the physical environment illustrate the interaction of these properties such that an understanding of intertidal flat behavior is developed.

  19. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  20. Exploration of the Electromagnetic Environment (United States)

    Fullekrug, M.


    The electromagnetic environment is composed of electric and magnetic fields which result from man-made and natural sources. An elementary experiment is described to explore the electromagnetic environment by measuring electric fields in the frequency range from approximately equal to 10 to 24 000 Hz. The equipment required to conduct the…

  1. PBL in a multicultural environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Du, Xiangyun


    a monocultural to a multicultural learning environment. This presentation focus on the considerations, reflections and specific actions concerning the implementation of PBL in a specific and multicultural environment at Aalborg University, namely that of the Master´s programme in Urban Planning and Management...

  2. Wind turbines and environment management (United States)

    Vaneck, P.; Koekebakker, P.


    The environment protection and management aspects of small and large scale wind turbines are examined. Legal aspects on municipal level are discussed. The relation with regional and national management is illustrated by investigations for a planned wind energy park. It is argued that because of environment effects and long term management procedures, the establishment of wind energy generators causes many problems.

  3. Geographical Information in Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, J. van; Lawick van Pabst, J. van


    We studied the combination of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and a Virtual Environment (VE). The goal was to establish a bi-directional link between a GIS and a virtual environment. The first step was to combine three types of data to build the 3D world and store it into the GIS: a digital

  4. Radiation Environment Effects on Spacecraft (United States)

    Ladbury, Ray.


    Space poses a variety of radiation hazards. These hazards pose different risks for different missions depending on the mission environment, duration and requirements. This presentation presents a brief look at several radiation related hazards, including destructive and nondestructive Single-Event Effect, Total Ionizing Dose, Displacement Damage and Spacecraft Charging. The temporal and spatial characteristics for the environments of concern for each are considered.

  5. Functional Analysis in Virtual Environments (United States)

    Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Marino, Matthew T.; Donehower, Claire; Koch, Aaron


    Functional analysis (FA) is an assessment procedure involving the systematic manipulation of an individual's environment to determine why a target behavior is occurring. An analog FA provides practitioners the opportunity to manipulate variables in a controlled environment and formulate a hypothesis for the function of a behavior. In previous…

  6. Department of Geography and Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 30, 2017 ... and fishing among others. Abuja being the capital city of Nigeria has been planned to have series of waste management and control strategies for urban development. It has the Ministry of. Environment and Abuja Environmental. Protection Board (A.E.P.B) to manage its environments. Abuja Environmental.

  7. The environments of 6 (United States)

    Casey, Caitlin


    We propose 13 orbits of ACS and WFC3 imaging to characterize the environments of 66, characterizing the ubiquity of starbursts around quasars, and test the predictions of theory, which assert that half of all cosmic star-formation at z>6 takes place in overdense environments that will eventually collapse into >10^{14}Msun galaxy clusters at z=0.

  8. Quasars in the Cosmic Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Dultzin, Deborah; Richards, Gordon; Knapen, Johan; Shlosman, Isaac; Morganti, Raffaella; Falomo, Renato; Hawkins, Mike; Cavaliere, Alfonso; McLure, Ross; Shields, Greg; Netzer, Hagai; Proga, Daniel; Franceschini, Alberto; Fan, Xiaoui; Elvis, Martin


    We now consider the environment of quasars in the widest possible sense, from the circumnuclear regions to very large scales of hundreds of kiloparsecs. The circumgalactic environment of nearby quasars has been widely studied since the late 1960s in an attempt to test its influence on the triggering

  9. Relocation within the urban environment (United States)

    David R. DiMatino


    Analysis of motives indicates that minimal consideration is given to the physical environment when urban households select from among alternative residential locations. There is a greater awareness of, and response to the economic and social conditions of the residential environment among movers. When the motivations of highly-educated white-collar professionals are...

  10. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje


    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures...

  11. Adventure in Environment, Student Manual. (United States)

    National Park Foundation, Washington, DC.

    To make students aware of their environment, this student study manual has been produced to accompany the National Environmental Education Development (NEED) program. It is a book about the world, the way it works and the way we get to know and understand it. Man is portrayed as a central figure, surrounded by his world, the environment, with…

  12. Creating a Literate Classroom Environment. (United States)

    DeGrella, Jeanne Berthelot

    A literate classroom environment immerses a student in a rich, stimulating, interactive, and purposeful print and language environment which is designed to provide for success in reading, writing, listening, and speaking and the needs of individuals responsible for their own learning in a natural, non-competitive, non-threatening, risk-taking…

  13. Steam Properties Database (United States)

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  14. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S


    Since the mass production of plastics began in the 1940s, microplastic contamination of the marine environment has been a growing problem. Here, a review of the literature has been conducted with the following objectives: (1) to summarise the properties, nomenclature and sources of microplastics; (2) to discuss the routes by which microplastics enter the marine environment; (3) to evaluate the methods by which microplastics are detected in the marine environment; (4) to assess spatial and temporal trends of microplastic abundance; and (5) to discuss the environmental impact of microplastics. Microplastics are both abundant and widespread within the marine environment, found in their highest concentrations along coastlines and within mid-ocean gyres. Ingestion of microplastics has been demonstrated in a range of marine organisms, a process which may facilitate the transfer of chemical additives or hydrophobic waterborne pollutants to biota. We conclude by highlighting key future research areas for scientists and policymakers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Timbral Environments: An Ecological Approach to the Cognition of Timbre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ferrer


    Full Text Available This study formulates an ecological framework that links the environment and human systems, to support further arguments on the influence of timbre in the music appreciation schemata. At the core of the framework is the notion of timbral environments, which is introduced as an epistemological foundation to characterize perceptual cues of internalized representations of music, and to explore how these are expressed in the dynamics of diverse external environments. The proposed notion merges the concepts of macrotimbre (Sandell, 1998 and soundscape (Schafer, 1977 to distinguish between the formulated framework and traditional approaches to timbre, which are mainly concerned with short-term temporal auditory events. The notion of timbral environments enables the focus of timbre research to be shifted from isolated events to socially relevant sounding objects, hence facilitating the identification of connections between semantic descriptors and the physical properties of sounds.

  16. Validation of a Scale of Interaction in Virtual Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Berridi Ramírez


    Full Text Available Various studies have pointed to the importance of interaction between the actors (teacher-student in virtual learning environments. In this paper our objective is to evaluate the dimensions of interaction of distance-learning students in virtual learning environments. A Scale of Interaction in Virtual Learning Environments was constructed, based on Barberà, Badia and Monimó’s (2001 interaction typology. Assessment by expert judges was used to improve content validity. Subsequently the scale was applied to a sample of distance-learning high school students in order to identify psychometric properties. The scale had a reliability coefficient of .93 and the following factorial structure: Factor I Learning support interactions with the advisor; Factor II Interactions with the virtual environment learning materials; and Factor III Dialogic interaction with peers. This measurement model was evaluated by means of CFA, which demonstrated adequate goodness-of-fit indices.

  17. Modelling Virtual Environments for Geovisualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars


    The use of virtual environments in geovisualization has become a major topic within the last few years. The main reason for this interest in the growing use of 3D models and visual realizations in a wide range of applications concerned with the geographic element of information. The implementation...... and use of virtual environments has developed form being a rather sophisticated type of visualization that demanded extreme computer resources to become an integral part of the software on every desktop computer. This chapter addresses both philosophical and technical issues regarding the modelling...... of virtual environments. It specifically focuses on different representational aspects to be taken into consideration when a virtual environment is created. These aspects are data modelling, 3D modelling and level-of-detail. A range of different approaches can be taken to visualize a virtual environment...

  18. Mobile Robots in Human Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael

    Traditionally, robots have been assistant machines in factories and a ubiquitous part of science fiction movies. But within the last decade the robots have started to emerge in everyday human environments. Today they are in our everyday environment in the shape of, for example, vacuum cleaners......, lawn mowers, toy pets, or as assisting technologies for care giving. If we want robots to be an even larger and more integrated part of our every- day environments, they need to become more intelligent, and behave safe and natural to the humans in the environment. This thesis deals with making...... intelligent mobile robotic devices capable of being a more natural and sociable actor in a human environment. More specific the emphasis is on safe and natural motion and navigation issues. First part of the work focus on developing a robotic system, which estimates human interest in interacting...

  19. Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Effects of Abandoned Properties in Ogbomoso and Osogbo, Nigeria. ... ANOVA and chi-square test were used to explain the variation in the incidence of environmental effects among the residential densities. Correlation ... Keywords: Effects, Buildings, Lots, Abandonment, Landed Properties, Environment ...

  20. People, Plants, and Patents: The Impact of Intellectual Property on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The recent GATT agreement and the Biodiversity Convention have moved intellectual property rights to the centre of South-North relations. Decisions about intellectual property, particularly for plant life,have major implications for food security, agriculture, rural development,and the environment for every country in the South ...

  1. Robot mapping in unstructured environments (United States)

    Malik, Raashid; Prasad, Samuel


    Mobile robots require knowledge of the environment to plan movements and accomplish tasks. Most path planning algorithms assume complete knowledge of the robot environment. But many situations exist where environment maps are not available to the robot, thereby making it impossible to implement and execute planned tasks. Such situations require that the robot either construct a map of the environment or operate in a local sensing mode with its concomitant absence of planning. This paper addresses the problem of map building. Map building involves robot motion, environment sensing, and sensor data integration. Most mapping algorithms described in the literature are based upon an environment in which objects and boundaries are made up of flat walls (polygons), and a sensor model that does not take into account the finite range and distortion encountered in real sensors. In this paper we present a mapping algorithm that imposes less restrictions on the environment and sensor. The algorithm described here uses a sensor with a limited sensing range to map an environment populated by objects of any shape and size. The mapping area can be controlled by defining an imaginary boundary or envelope around the region that is to be mapped. The algorithm proceeds by defining bounded regions enclosed by peripheral curves which subsequently become trajectories for further exploration of the environment, and includes procedures for circumnavigating objects using primitive robot motion and sensing operators such as MOVE, ROTATE, and SCAN. The algorithm has been tested in a simulated environment and the results of some of the mapping operations are described.

  2. Property rights, productivity and common property resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas


    This paper uses data from the 2003/04 Cambodia Household Socioeconomic Survey to investigate the effects of property rights to land. Plots held with a paper documenting ownership in rural Cambodia are found to have higher productivity and land values than other plots, while property rights have...

  3. Connecting diverse molecular cloud environments with nascent protostars in Orion (United States)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Megeath, S.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Furlan, E.; Tobin, J. J.; Stanke, T.; Henning, T.; Krause, O.; Manoj, P.; Osorio, M.; Robitaille, T.; HOPS Team


    Understanding how the gas environment within molecular clouds influences the properties of protostars is a key step towards understanding the physical factors that control star formation. We report on an analysis of the connection between molecular cloud environment and protostellar properties using the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS), a large multi-observatory survey of protostars in the Orion molecular clouds. HOPS has produced well sampled 1 um to 870 um SEDs of over 300 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using images and spectra from 2MASS, Spitzer, Herschel and APEX. Furthermore, the combination of APEX 870 um continuum observations with the HOPS/PACS 160 um data over the same area allows for a determination of the temperatures and column densities in the often filamentary dense gas surrounding the Orion protostars. Based on these data, we link the protostellar properties with their environmental properties. Utilizing the diverse environments present within the Orion molecular clouds, we show how the luminosity and spacing of protostars in Orion depends on the local gas column density. Furthermore, we report an unusual concentration of the youngest known protostars (the Herschel identified PBRS, PACS Bright Red Sources) in the Orion B cloud, and we discuss possible reasons for this concentration.

  4. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.


    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  5. DPC materials and corrosion environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Bryan, Charles R.; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest


    After an exposition of the materials used in DPCs and the factors controlling material corrosion in disposal environments, a survey is given of the corrosion rates, mechanisms, and products for commonly used stainless steels. Research needs are then identified for predicting stability of DPC materials in disposal environments. Stainless steel corrosion rates may be low enough to sustain DPC basket structural integrity for performance periods of as long as 10,000 years, especially in reducing conditions. Uncertainties include basket component design, disposal environment conditions, and the in-package chemical environment including any localized effects from radiolysis. Prospective disposal overpack materials exist for most disposal environments, including both corrosion allowance and corrosion resistant materials. Whereas the behavior of corrosion allowance materials is understood for a wide range of corrosion environments, demonstrating corrosion resistance could be more technically challenging and require environment-specific testing. A preliminary screening of the existing inventory of DPCs and other types of canisters is described, according to the type of closure, whether they can be readily transported, and what types of materials are used in basket construction.

  6. Innovation for integrated command environments (United States)

    Perry, Amie A.; McKneely, Jennifer A.


    Command environments have rarely been able to easily accommodate rapid changes in technology and mission. Yet, command personnel, by their selection criteria, experience, and very nature, tend to be extremely adaptive and flexible, and able to learn new missions and address new challenges fairly easily. Instead, the hardware and software components of the systems do no provide the needed flexibility and scalability for command personnel. How do we solve this problem? In order to even dream of keeping pace with a rapidly changing world, we must begin to think differently about the command environment and its systems. What is the correct definition of the integrated command environment system? What types of tasks must be performed in this environment, and how might they change in the next five to twenty-five years? How should the command environment be developed, maintained, and evolved to provide needed flexibility and scalability? The issues and concepts to be considered as new Integrated Command/Control Environments (ICEs) are designed following a human-centered process. A futuristic model, the Dream Integrated Command Environment (DICE) will be described which demonstrates specific ICE innovations. The major paradigm shift required to be able to think differently about this problem is to center the DICE around the command personnel from its inception. Conference participants may not agree with every concept or idea presented, but will hopefully come away with a clear understanding that to radically improve future systems, designers must focus on the end users.

  7. Evaluación in vitro de las propiedades de seis apósitos para la cura en ambiente húmedo de heridas exudativas Evaluation in vitro of the properties of six dressings for the healing wet environments of exudative wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Rius Tarruella


    que mejor comportamiento global tienen de las propiedades estudiadas. Respecto a los otros modelos, cabe destacar la capacidad de absorción por unidad de superficie de los modelos A1 y B2, la retención de exudados bajo presión y la mínima cantidad de agua libre del modelo B1 y los resultados en la prueba de transpiración del modelo A2.Introduction: Of the dressings used for healing in wet environments, foam is a type of dressing that is particularly indicated for the treatment of highly exudative wounds due to its great absorption capacity. They are atraumatic dressings that protect the perilesional area and keep the bed moist promoting epithelialization and providing pain relief, thus occupying a very specific space in the care of vascular and pressure ulcers. Material and method: In vitro experimental study to evaluate the characteristics of 6 types of polymeric foam dressings: Non-adhesive (SF1 and adhesive (SF2 SKINFOAM, non-adhesive (A1 and adhesive (A2 ALLEVYN and non-adhesive (B1 and adhesive (B2 BIATAIN. The characteristics assessed were: exudate absorption and control capacity, characterisation of the contact surface, transpiration, conformability and antimicrobial protection capacity. Results: The exudate absorption and control tests show how dressings SF1 and SF2 obtain greater absorption per unit of weight while models B1 and B2 are evidently deformed, and even in the case of the adhesive B2 dressing, the foam padding detached from the adhesive film. The drip experiment could not be carried out with dressings A1 and A2 as the drops of solution could not be retained since the internal contact adherence layer prevents retention. The roughness measurements demonstrated the excellent softness of the SF1 and SF2 dressings, a behaviour that will have a direct impact on pain symptoms. The highest water vapour transpiration rates, particularly for adhesive models, were for dressings SF2 and B1. The easiest-to-extend dressing was the SF1, and bacterial

  8. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies (United States)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael


    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  9. Limiting properties of stochastic quantum walks on directed graphs (United States)

    Glos, Adam; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Ostaszewski, Mateusz


    The main results of our work is determining the differences between limiting properties in various models of quantum stochastic walks. In particular, we prove that in the case of strongly connected and a class of weakly connected directed graphs, local environment interaction evolution is relaxing, and in the case of undirected graphs, global environment interaction evolution is convergent. For other classes of directed graphs we show, that the character of connectivity has a large influence on the limiting properties. We also study the limiting properties for the non-moralizing global interaction case. We demonstrate that the digraph observance is recovered in this case.

  10. Sonic Virtuality, Environment, and Presence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark


    The article presents a brief introduction to the concept of sonic virtuality, a view of sound as a multi-modal, emergent perception that provides a framework that has since been used to provide an explanation of the formation of environments. Additionally, the article uses such concepts to explain...... the phenomenon of presence, not only in virtual worlds but also in actual worlds. The view put forward is that environment is an emergent perception, formed from the hypothetical modelling of salient worlds of sensory things, and it is in the environment that we feel present. The article ends with some thoughts...

  11. Radar Methods in Urban Environments (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0344 Radar Methods in Urban Environments Arye Nehorai WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 10/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...Methods in Urban Environments 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0210 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Arye Nehorai 5d...Methods in Urban Environments Grant No. FA9550-11-1-0210 Final Report August 2011 – July 2016 Arye Nehorai Department of Electrical and Systems

  12. Seminormal systems of operators in Clifford environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Martin


    Full Text Available The primary goal of our article is to implement some standard spin geometry techniques related to the study of Dirac and Laplace operators on Dirac vector bundles into the multidimensional theory of Hilbert space operators. The transition from spin geometry to operator theory relies on the use of Clifford environments, which essentially are Clifford algebra augmentations of unital complex \\(C^*\\-algebras that enable one to set up counterparts of the geometric Bochner-Weitzenböck and Bochner-Kodaira-Nakano curvature identities for systems of elements of a \\(C^*\\-algebra. The so derived self-commutator identities in conjunction with Bochner's method provide a natural motivation for the definitions of several types of seminormal systems of operators. As part of their study, we single out certain spectral properties, introduce and analyze a singular integral model that involves Riesz transforms, and prove some self-commutator inequalities.

  13. AVO helps seismic imaging in deepwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, C.; Lindsay, R.O. [Diamond Geoscience Research Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Ratcliff, D. [Diamond Geoscience Research Corp., Houston, TX (United States)


    Amplitude and frequency variations related to offset should be analyzed routinely during interpretation of seismic data acquired in deepwater environments. Amplitude variation with offset (AVO) in three dimensions is the key exploration tool in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. But application of the tool requires special care. Three-dimensional AVO helps the interpreter understand stratigraphy and the meaning of amplitude anomalies. Used in conjunction with well log data, it can help the interpreter distinguish amplitudes related to the presence of hydrocarbons from those that result from, for example, rock-property changes within a non-hydrocarbon-bearing layer, such as a shale, or residual gas (fizz water) in high-porosity sands. The paper discusses examples from the Gulf of Mexico, will control application, improving detail, and frequency-dependent analysis.

  14. Biophotonics sensor acclimatization to stem cells environment (United States)

    Mohamad Shahimin, Mukhzeer


    The ability to discriminate, characterise and purify biological cells from heterogeneous population of cells is fundamental to numerous prognosis and diagnosis applications; often forming the basis for current and emerging clinical protocols in stem cell therapy. Current sorting approaches exploit differences in cell density, specific immunologic targets, or receptor-ligand interactions to isolate particular cells. Identification of novel properties by which different cell types may be discerned and of new ways for their selective manipulation are clearly fundamental components for improving sorting methodologies. Biophotonics sensor developed by our team are potentially capable of discriminating cells according to their refractive index (which is highly dependable on the organelles inside the cell), size (indicator to cell stage) and shape (in certain cases as an indicator to cell type). The sensor, which already discriminate particles efficiently, is modified to acclimatize into biological environment, especially for stem cell applications.

  15. Study of the global environment of small galaxy groups (United States)

    Duplancic, F.; Dávila, F.; Coldwell, G.


    The present work presents a study of the global density environment of small galaxy groups. To this end we use a catalog of small galaxy systems constructed from the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To characterize the global environment of small galaxy groups we use different estimators, including the number of significant neighbors within a fixed aperture, the distance to the nearest neighbor and the number density profile of these systems. In order to perform a comparative study, we select different categories of systems considering galaxy pairs, triplets of galaxies and groups with at least four member galaxies. We found differences between the global environment of pairs compared to triplet of galaxies and groups. Galaxy pairs inhabit environments of lower global density than triplets and groups which are located in higher global density regions. This result is in agreement with different studies in the literature which propose that triplets of galaxies and compact groups have similarities in their fundamental properties and are different from galaxy pairs. Our findings suggest that the global density environment of small galaxy groups plays a fundamental role in the characterization of the main properties of these systems and their member galaxies.

  16. The uranium in the environment; L'uranium dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The uranium is a natural element omnipresent in the environment, with a complex chemistry more and more understood. Many studies are always today devoted to this element to better improve the uranium behavior in the environment. To illustrate this knowledge and for the public information the CEA published this paper. It gathers in four chapters: historical aspects and properties of the uranium, the uranium in the environment and the impacts, the metrology of the uranium and its migration. (A.L.B.)

  17. Teaching Ecology in Urban Environments. (United States)

    Fail, Joseph, Jr.


    Discusses the teaching of ecology and environmental education in urban environments by using field trips to city parks, airports, nuclear power plants, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, incinerators, foundries, and forests. (MKR)

  18. Collaborations in Open Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard


    This thesis researches automated services for professionals aiming at starting collaborative learning projects in open learning environments, such as MOOCs. It investigates the theoretical backgrounds of team formation for collaborative learning. Based on the outcomes, a model is developed

  19. Collaborative Environment and Agile Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan Ghilic-Micu; Marian Stoica; Marinela Mircea


    .... The evolutionary climax of the social universe is called nowadays knowledge society. The knowledge society succeeds the information society, emphasizing the development of the opportunities brought by collaborative work environment and agile approach...

  20. Virtual Instrumentation and Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelder, H.J.W.


    Instrumentation, interaction and virtual environments provide a challenging triplet for the next generation of instrumentation and measurement tools. As such, they are the logical continuation of an increasingly important component within (virtual) instrumentation. Despite these changes, however,

  1. Hypermedia Environments and Adaptive Instruction. (United States)

    Federico, Pat-Anthony


    Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)

  2. Operating Environment of the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Matthew


    ...), the Smart Surgical System (SSS), and the Intelligent Virtual Patient Environment (IVPE). The project is one of several targeting reduction in mortality and morbidity of the wounded soldier through improved far-forward combat casualty care...

  3. Work environment and school dropout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas

    Aim The aim of this presentation is to examine the possible impact of work environment (and especially psychosocial work environment) on school dropout. The questions raised are: to what extent do psychosocial work environment and especially the social relations between young apprentices...... and their colleagues and managers play a role in dropping out of upper secondary education? Methods A cohort of 3058 adolescents born in 1989 and a cohort of approximately 2000 young adults born in 1983 are used to examine the associations between work environment and subsequent dropout in upper secondary educational...... indicated that ‘being treated badly by superior’ was part of the reason for doing so. Further analyses show that reporting repetitive and monotonous work tasks increases the risk of dropping out (OR: 1.74) and that reporting bad working climate at ones work place increases the risk of considering...

  4. Overview of ergonomics built environment. (United States)

    Costa, Ana Paula Lima; Campos, Fábio; Villarouco, Vilma


    This article provides an overview of academic research in the scientific discipline of ergonomics in the context of the built environment, from data collected from journals, conferences and research groups whose focus is the theme of the Ergonomics of Built Environment. Starting from the context of the Ergonomics of Built Environment, it identifies the broadcast media who publish work in this area and its scientific production, seeking to recover from the first published papers to the production of the most recent scientific journals and conferences to be launched 2010. From this mapping, we identified the major outstanding and open issues in these studies, outlining the state of the art Ergonomics Built Environment, in order to inform those interested and intend to develop scientific research in this field.

  5. Work environments for employee creativity. (United States)

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan


    Innovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework, an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. This instrument was applied to a sample of 409 employees and support was found for the hypothesis that a creative work environment enhances creative performance. This paper illustrates how the instrument can be used in companies to select and implement improvements. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The ergonomics discipline addresses the work environment mainly for improving health and safety and sometimes productivity and quality. This paper opens a new area for ergonomics: designing work environments for enhancing employee creativity in order to strengthen an organisation's capability for product and process innovation and, consequently, its competitiveness.

  6. Virtual Satellite Integration Environment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advatech Pacific proposes to develop a Virtual Satellite Integration Environment (VSIE) for the NASA Ames Mission Design Center. The VSIE introduces into NASA...

  7. UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...

  8. Environment-Sensitive Intrusion Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giffin, Jonathan T; Dagon, David; Jha, Somesh; Lee, Wenke; Miller, Barton P


    .... We improve the effectiveness of such model-based intrusion detection systems by incorporating into the model knowledge of the environment in which the program runs, and by increasing the accuracy...

  9. Globalisation, transport and the environment (United States)


    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  10. Using Trusted Execution Environments in Two-factor Authentication: comparing approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Poll, Erik

    Classic two-factor authentication has been around for a long time and has enjoyed success in certain markets (such as the corporate and the banking environ- ment). A reason for this success are the strong security properties, particularly where user interaction is concerned. These properties hinge

  11. From genotype × environment interaction to gene × environment interaction. (United States)

    Crossa, Jose


    Historically in plant breeding a large number of statistical models has been developed and used for studying genotype × environment interaction. These models have helped plant breeders to assess the stability of economically important traits and to predict the performance of newly developed genotypes evaluated under varying environmental conditions. In the last decade, the use of relatively low numbers of markers has facilitated the mapping of chromosome regions associated with phenotypic variability (e.g., QTL mapping) and, to a lesser extent, revealed the differetial response of these chromosome regions across environments (i.e., QTL × environment interaction). QTL technology has been useful for marker-assisted selection of simple traits; however, it has not been efficient for predicting complex traits affected by a large number of loci. Recently the appearance of cheap, abundant markers has made it possible to saturate the genome with high density markers and use marker information to predict genomic breeding values, thus increasing the precision of genetic value prediction over that achieved with the traditional use of pedigree information. Genomic data also allow assessing chromosome regions through marker effects and studying the pattern of covariablity of marker effects across differential environmental conditions. In this review, we outline the most important models for assessing genotype × environment interaction, QTL × environment interaction, and marker effect (gene) × environment interaction. Since analyzing genetic and genomic data is one of the most challenging statistical problems researchers currently face, different models from different areas of statistical research must be attempted in order to make significant progress in understanding genetic effects and their interaction with environment.

  12. Biomedical Applications of Simulated Environments .


    W. Selvamurthy


    Environmental physiology assumes great significance in our national context of the diverse climatic conditions prevailing in different regions. Troops have to operate in diverse environmental conditions guarding the frontiers. Hence, the research in this area has been focused on the usage of field studies in the natural environments or simulated environments in the laboratory. Besides, the application of the simulation chambers in the research on the physiological effects of diverse en...

  13. Interaction techniques in virtual environments


    Moya Santos, Sergio; Grau, Sergi; Tost Pardell, Daniela


    Virtual environments are used in very diverse applications: from leisure games to professional training and rehabilitation systems. In these applications, users interact with the elements of the environments through avatars in order to perform virtually actions such as picking objects, carrying and dropping them, and more complex manipulations tasks such as cutting and drilling in surgery training, shooting and punching in actions games, and cooking and cleaning in life simulation games an...

  14. Vagrant virtual development environment cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Chad


    If you are a software developer or administrator who wishes to create simple, reusable environments using Vagrant, this book is the perfect choice for you. Whether you are a system administrator with extensive experience in virtualization or a developer wishing to create development scripts for cloud deployment, you will find easy-to-follow recipes and techniques in this book that will allow you to create robust and reproducible virtual environments.

  15. Ergonomics in the office environment (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.


    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  16. The Environment in Denmark 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, T.; Andersen, B.; Lausen, J.

    Rapporten opdateres årligt og er baseret på: The State of the Environment in Denmark 1997. NERI Technical Report 243, 1998.; Den danske udgave: Natur og Miljø 1999. Udvalgte indikatorer.......Rapporten opdateres årligt og er baseret på: The State of the Environment in Denmark 1997. NERI Technical Report 243, 1998.; Den danske udgave: Natur og Miljø 1999. Udvalgte indikatorer....

  17. Wearable oximetry for harsh environments (United States)


    800, 2013. [3] V. Convertino et al., “Use of advanced machine- learning techniques for noninvasive monitoring of hemorrhage,” The Journal of Trauma...clinical settings, but especially in the case of oximetry, have not yet been addressed in a wearable form for harsh environments . These sensors would...positions, power, and signal processing considerations. Candidate wear positions are the sternum, to allow Wearable Oximetry for Harsh Environments

  18. Knowledge society and digital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The existence and extension of the digital environment has made possible the broad distribution of computer equipment, allowing greater access to information than ever before in human history. Although the consequences of this phenomenon have been analysed and the possible undesirable effects of ‘digital divides’ caused by different levels of access to the information society due to socio-economic reasons identified, there has been little study of what the digital environment supposes for the construction of knowledge and the development of the knowledge society. Although the digital environment is a powerful means of accessing information, it does not necessarily increase the possibilities of constructing knowledge and human development. This may lead to a new risk of the ‘digital divide’, tied to the growing inequality in the abilities of those who have mastered the basic capabilities and strategies needed to build knowledge, and those who are merely passive users of the information that can be accessed through the digital environment. This work explores issues related to individual differences in the capabilities needed to use the digital environment to access and construct valid knowledge, and defends that prior domain knowledge, mediate the processes involved in building knowledge from the information that all individuals access through the digital environment, defining their social role as an individual capable of participating in the development of the knowledge society.

  19. Quality assessment of urban environment (United States)

    Ovsiannikova, T. Y.; Nikolaenko, M. N.


    This paper is dedicated to the research applicability of quality management problems of construction products. It is offered to expand quality management borders in construction, transferring its principles to urban systems as economic systems of higher level, which qualitative characteristics are substantially defined by quality of construction product. Buildings and structures form spatial-material basis of cities and the most important component of life sphere - urban environment. Authors justify the need for the assessment of urban environment quality as an important factor of social welfare and life quality in urban areas. The authors suggest definition of a term "urban environment". The methodology of quality assessment of urban environment is based on integrated approach which includes the system analysis of all factors and application of both quantitative methods of assessment (calculation of particular and integrated indicators) and qualitative methods (expert estimates and surveys). The authors propose the system of indicators, characterizing quality of the urban environment. This indicators fall into four classes. The authors show the methodology of their definition. The paper presents results of quality assessment of urban environment for several Siberian regions and comparative analysis of these results.

  20. Contested Property Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that we can sometimes forget the immense complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when social conflict over property erupts. When...... social actors confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. These confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series of case studies...... from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology exploring contested property claims brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how disagreements give us a privileged window onto how property regimes function and illustrates the many ways...