WorldWideScience

Sample records for environment natural resources

  1. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  2. CSIR eNews: Natural resources & the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR conducts core research and develops competencies in various strategically critical areas of the natural resources and the environment (NRE) fields of study. Through relevant and focused research, CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment...

  3. Protection of the ecological environment and management of natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    YE HELIN; DOU JUAN

    2014-01-01

    Humans live on the earth that features a diverse ecosystem. In this environment of human beings, nature plays the role of a nurturing mother role. Time may be in the continuation of progress from generation to generation, and the nature of other kinds of billions of biological species, would also be like humans, in constant evolution, in order to adapt to the dangerous natural environment. However, those natural resources are sharply disappearing and dying out because of humans’ voracity. In ...

  4. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available seeks to address the significant challenges regarding sustainable development in South Africa, with a focus on the optimal utilisation of natural resources in support of economic growth and human wellbeing....

  5. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The

  6. 7 CFR 2.59 - Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environment. 2.59 Section 2.59 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY... Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment § 2.59 Deputy Under Secretaries for Natural Resources and Environment. Pursuant to § 2.20(a), subject to reservations in § 2.20(b), and subject to...

  7. Literacy: What Level for Food, Land, Natural Resources, and Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Vernon B.

    2005-01-01

    Many forms of literacy exist. Each literacy is an integration of ways of thinking, acting, interacting, and valuing. To understand the impact of agriculture (i.e., farming, ranching, forestry, and fisheries) and the contributions and interactions to the environment (e.g., losses of biological diversity, soil degradation, air and water pollution,…

  8. Citizen Science, Crowdsourcing and Big Data: A Scientific and Social Framework for Natural Resources and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Jones, J. W.; Liu, S. B.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenter, H. L.; Hogan, D. M.; Govoni, D. L.; Poore, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a conceptual framework for Citizen Science that can be applied to improve the understanding and management of natural resources and environments. For us, Citizen Science represents an engagement from members of the public, usually volunteers, in collaboration with paid professionals and technical experts to observe and understand natural resources and environments for the benefit of science and society. Our conceptual framework for Citizen Science includes crowdsourcing of observations (or sampling). It considers a wide range of activities, including volunteer and professional monitoring (e.g. weather and climate variables, water availability and quality, phenology, biota, image capture and remote sensing), as well as joint fact finding and analyses, and participatory mapping and modeling. Spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of the biophysical processes that control natural resources and environments are taken into account within this conceptual framework, as are the availability, scaling and diversity of tools and efforts that are needed to properly describe these biophysical processes. Opportunities are sought within the framework to properly describe, QA/QC, archive, and make readily accessible, the large amounts of information and traceable knowledge required to better understand and manage natural resources and environments. The framework also considers human motivational needs, primarily through a modern version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. We examine several USGS-based Citizen Science efforts within the context of our framework, including the project called "iCoast - Did the Coast Change?", to understand the utility of the framework, its costs and benefits, and to offer concrete examples of how to expand and sustain specific projects. We make some recommendations that could aid its implementation on a national or larger scale. For example, implementation might be facilitated (1) through greater engagement of paid professionals, and (2

  9. Natural resource collection and desired family size: a longitudinal test of environment-population theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R; Axinn, William G

    2017-06-01

    Theories relating the changing environment to human fertility predict declining natural resources may actually increase the demand for children. Unfortunately most previous empirical studies have been limited to cross-sectional designs that limit our ability to understand links between processes that change over time. We take advantage of longitudinal measurement spanning more than a decade of change in the natural environment, household agricultural behaviors, and individual fertility preferences to reexamine this question. Using fixed-effects models, we find that women experiencing increasing time required to collect firewood to heat and cook or fodder to feed animals (the dominant needs for natural resources in this setting) increased their desired family size, even as many other macro-level changes have reduced desired family size. In contrast to previous, cross-sectional studies we find no evidence of such a relationship for men. Our findings regarding time spent collecting firewood are also new. These results support the "vicious circle" perspective and economic theories of fertility pointing to the value of children for household labor. This feedback from natural resource constraint to increased fertility is an important mechanism for understanding long term environmental change.

  10. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  11. Economic Instruments and the Environment: Can Natural Resources be Maneged Exclusively by the Market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Júlio Vitral Amaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of industrial economies coincides with the emergence of the economy as an autonomous discipline and with the question, not hitherto placed on the “value of nature”. As the basis of any theory of the first economists was the statement that every "value" is the work of man, was a fragile theoretical nature of the classics, since this is not the result of human labor. So, to circumvent the problem of fixing the "values​​" intrinsic to nature, environmental economics, in its most widespread version, part of the statement that assigns what is "value" is not exactly the environment or environmental resources but people's preferences in relation to changes in quality or quantity supplied of natural resource. The idea of ​​transaction rights on the environment (in fact, the right to pollute found resonance in the United States with "certified environmental" measures to better control pollution. They are traded for several polluting companies that can, in turn, trade them in the market for environmental permits. Remember that in any arrangement in which disputing parties settle in reaction conditions supposedly equal, makes a big difference the presence of those more able to lobby and power to influence public opinion. It is seen, even with the refinement that achieves economic analysis by incorporating as legitimate rights of non pollution, yet there is no guarantee the order of environmental damage if the whole issue be restricted to the context of the economic approach simply.

  12. The challenges of teaching geographical information systems integrated into the management of environment and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, John; Betancur, Teresita; Palacio, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The Geographic Information Systems, GIS, have the potential to become tools and methodologies for the solution of practical problems that involve complex spatial analyses, like the associated with natural resources and environmental management areas. The university, with its postgraduate programs, can help with the social adaptation processes for this new technology and can contribute to achieve the success sooner and with more effectiveness. To do so, three main challenges must be reached in the users of this technology: first, a spatial thinking second, skills to design and to make use of this instrument as supporting in environmental and natural resources analyses and finally, the identification of strategies to use this technology in projects and corporative surroundings. The Antioquia University in its Engineering Faculty (at first, in agreement with the Education Faculty)developed a Specialization in Environment and Geoinformatic. In this, the curriculum is worked in three moments (one for each challenge): first, a moment to building a common language and to adopting conceptual and technical instruments? second, a moment to put together instruments and methods and finally, a moment to make the practical application of the environmental management supported in the geo information spatial systems. This article gives account of this institutional experience.

  13. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  15. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  16. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  17. Vermont Natural Resources Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The purpose of the�Natural Resources Atlas�is to provide geographic information about environmental features and sites that the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources...

  18. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  19. Livelihoods and natural resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotta, Jamie Nicole

    generation and shock coping. In addition, a multi-method approach (utilizing income, transect inventory and free-list data) demonstrates the significant economic importance of agroforestry environments, particularly managed fallows, when compared with natural forests. Interventions aimed at sustaining...... by both high vulnerability (e.g., residents with flood-vulnerable cultivation) and limited availability/diversity of environmentally-sourced coping products. Finally, future research and development initiatives should take into account not just natural forests or agricultural systems, but also......This dissertation research contributes to the emerging body of knowledge on the economic contributions of natural resources to rural livelihoods, including their role in household shock coping, in the humid tropics. Data from one of the first comprehensive household income quantifications...

  20. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  1. Type A natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes environments (NRDAM/GLE) and coastal and marine environments (NRDAM/CME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by ASA to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural Resource Damage Assessment Models for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) will become available. These models will also support NOAA's damage assessment regulations under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The physical and biological models are three-dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs for restoration or replacement of those resources. A coupled geographical information system (GIS) allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The models contain environmental, geographical, chemical, toxicological, biological, restoration and economic databases with the necessary information to estimate damages. Chemical and toxicological data are included for about 470 chemicals and oils. Biological data are unique to 77 coastal and marine plus 11 Great Lakes provinces, and to habitat type. Restoration and economic valuations are also regionally specific

  2. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  3. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Second Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon

  4. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-10-20

    Second Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon.

  5. Natural resources and control processes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Hung, Yung-Tse; Shammas, Nazih

    2016-01-01

    This edited book has been designed to serve as a natural resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. This volume is part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. It complements two other books in the series including Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering and Integrated Natural Resources Management that serve as a basis for advanced study or specialized investigation of the theory and analysis of various natural resources systems. This book covers the management of many waste sources including those from agricultural livestock, deep-wells, industries manufacturing dyes, and municipal solid waste incinerators. The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for understanding the sources, treatment and control methods of toxic wastes shown to have harmful effects on the environment. Chapters provide information ...

  6. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  7. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Bill C-13, An Act to establish a federal environmental assessment process. First Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon

  8. Proceedings of the Standing Senate committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources. Issue no.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Bill C-13, An Act to establish a federal environmental assessment process. First Proceedings on: Study on the policy options available to the government to achieve the objective of containing emissions associated with energy production and use in Canada with a view to improving the environment and to make recommendations thereon.

  9. Natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddelmeyer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment and collection of natural resource damages from petroleum and chemical companies unfortunate enough to have injured publicly owned natural resources is perhaps the most rapidly expanding area of environmental liability. The idea of recovering for injury to publicly owned natural resources is an extension of traditional common law tort concepts under which a person who negligently injures another or his property is called upon to compensate the injured party. Normally, once liability has been established, it is a fairly straightforward matter to calculate the various elements of loss, such as the cost to repair or replace damaged property, or medical expenses, and lost income. More difficult questions, such as the amount to be awarded for pain and suffering or emotional distress, are left to the jury, although courts limit the circumstances in which the jury is permitted to award such damages

  10. The Underbelly of Economy versus Environment Conflicts: Detangling Sources of Tension in Contentious Natural Resource Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Holly J. K.

    It is well-established that biodiversity confers resilience to social-ecological systems, and also that humans are collectively and routinely degrading and destroying ecosystems and driving species to extinction through development and other avenues. In the decade preceding this research, biodiversity loss at local and globally-aggregated scales persistently and substantially exceeded the safe operating space for biosphere integrity, contributing to assertions that the stability of Earth's systems could no longer be relied upon. The propensity to protect biodiversity, or contribute to its demise, arises from a variety of tangled motivations. I investigated five of these influences, including values, sense of place, networks of relationships, media frames, and perceptions of science, for two contentious proposed energy projects in western Canada. I first conducted a frame analysis of online media regarding an oil pipeline expansion from Alberta to British Columbia (BC), and a run-of-river hydroelectric project on the BC coast. I then surveyed and interviewed participants, mapped their place connections, analyzed social networks and social media networks, and examined text and oral submissions to regulatory agencies. These findings were systematically integrated to explore how the five influences contributed to each conflict and decisions affecting biodiversity. Support and opposition for the pipeline were found to be proxies for the prioritization of self-enhancement and self-transcendence (nature) values, respectively, while self-transcendence (nature) values were found on both sides of the run-of-river conflict. For the pipeline conflict, disparities in senses of place underscored a clash of regions. In both cases, well-intentioned but polarizing leaders contributed to online media frames that emphasized conflict and buttressed extreme positions, while helping shape or reinforce siloed networks and the diffusion, uptake, and understanding of scientific and other

  11. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this report, but are planned to be included in the hydrology

  12. NATURAL RESOURCES ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Fenster

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the scientific work that was performed to evaluate and assess the occurrence and economic potential of natural resources within the geologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The extent of the regional areas of investigation for each commodity differs and those areas are described in more detail in the major subsections of this report. Natural resource assessments have focused on an area defined as the ''conceptual controlled area'' because of the requirements contained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation, 10 CFR Part 60, to define long-term boundaries for potential radionuclide releases. New requirements (proposed 10 CFR Part 63 [Dyer 1999]) have obviated the need for defining such an area. However, for the purposes of this report, the area being discussed, in most cases, is the previously defined ''conceptual controlled area'', now renamed the ''natural resources site study area'' for this report (shown on Figure 1). Resource potential can be difficult to assess because it is dependent upon many factors, including economics (demand, supply, cost), the potential discovery of new uses for resources, or the potential discovery of synthetics to replace natural resource use. The evaluations summarized are based on present-day use and economic potential of the resources. The objective of this report is to summarize the existing reports and information for the Yucca Mountain area on: (1) Metallic mineral and mined energy resources (such as gold, silver, etc., including uranium); (2) Industrial rocks and minerals (such as sand, gravel, building stone, etc.); (3) Hydrocarbons (including oil, natural gas, tar sands, oil shales, and coal); and (4) Geothermal resources. Groundwater is present at the Yucca Mountain site at depths ranging from 500 to 750 m (about 1,600 to 2,500 ft) below the ground surface. Groundwater resources are not discussed in this

  13. Rehabilitating Afghanistan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in late 1979. During the next 23 years, the war between the Mujahideen Resistance and the Soviet forces, the ensuing civil war, and eventual take over by the Taliban caused enormous harm to the natural resources of Afghanistan. In 2003, the USDA Forest Service (USFS) was asked by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service to provide...

  14. Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources. General Directorate for the Environment - Order No. 48/93/DGL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This order provides for the organisation of emergency responses within the General Directorate for the Environment, also in compliance with the 1986 IAEA Convention on Notification of a Nuclear Accident to which Portugal is a Party. A Technical Emergency Group, set up within the DGA ensures in co-operation with the national Civil Protection Service, a permanent connection with the international emergency network set up for this purpose by the IAEA, and provides support services to national health protection bodies with a view to establishing preventive and protection measures in the context of nuclear emergencies. (NEA)

  15. Natural resources, environment and municipal service provision: Results of a participatory systems dynamics scoping model in Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Wit, MP

    2008-08-11

    Full Text Available Cities in developing countries often have to face a multiplicity of external shocks that impact on their operations. These changes include increased rates of migration from the rural poor, natural resource shocks such as droughts, decreased space...

  16. Economics of technological change and the natural environment: How effective are innovations as a remedy for resource scarcity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to substantiate the importance of endogenous innovations when evaluating the compatibility of natural resource use and economic development. It explains that technological change has the potential to compensate for natural resource scarcity, diminishing returns to capital, poor input substitution, and material balance restrictions, but is limited by various restrictions like fading returns to innovative investments and rising research costs. It also shows how innovative activities are fostered by accurate price signals and research-favouring sectoral change. The simultaneous effects of increasing technical knowledge, decreasing resource inputs, and increasing world population largely determine the chances of long-run sustainable development. Consequently, future research has to be directed at a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving innovations in the presence of natural resource scarcity

  17. Management of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Loubens, Audrey

    2016-08-01

    As a sustainable exploitation of fossil natural resources has become an ecological opportunity, this publication proposes a set of articles focused on the cases of gas, oils (conventional or not) and coal. A first article outlines the unavoidable environmental issue associated with the exploitation of fossil energies. The second one comments the meaning of fossil fuel availability, and more particularly the distinction between resources and reserves, and the transformation of resources into reserves for saving purposes. This last issue of transformation of resources into reserves is addressed by next articles which respectively focus on conventional gases and oils, on non conventional gases and oils, and on coal. Two articles then comment perspectives by 2040 by discussing the high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical situation, and by discussing whether a world energy transition is possible. The three last articles notice that the abundance of fossil energies is hiding the potential of renewable energies, discuss whether chemical industry could do without oil, and comment the fact that Russia strengthens its claims on Arctic territories

  18. From data to decisions: Processing information, biases, and beliefs for improved management of natural resources and environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Voinov, Alexey A.; Shapiro, Carl D.; White, Paul A.

    2017-04-01

    Our different kinds of minds and types of thinking affect the ways we decide, take action, and cooperate (or not). Derived from these types of minds, innate biases, beliefs, heuristics, and values (BBHV) influence behaviors, often beneficially, when individuals or small groups face immediate, local, acute situations that they and their ancestors faced repeatedly in the past. BBHV, though, need to be recognized and possibly countered or used when facing new, complex issues or situations especially if they need to be managed for the benefit of a wider community, for the longer-term and the larger-scale. Taking BBHV into account, we explain and provide a cyclic science-infused adaptive framework for (1) gaining knowledge of complex systems and (2) improving their management. We explore how this process and framework could improve the governance of science and policy for different types of systems and issues, providing examples in the area of natural resources, hazards, and the environment. Lastly, we suggest that an "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" initiative that followed our suggested adaptive framework could beneficially complement recent Open Data/Model science initiatives.

  19. Wealth geography, environment and hunger: small critic contribution to the current agrarian/agricultural model of the natural resources usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Walter Porto Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The text questions the geopolitical issue implied in the argument about hunger and the environment. It criticizes the current agrarian / agricultural model of the natural resources usage, stating it is a model of economic development of mild regions that has been imposed all over the world at a very high ecological, cultural and political cost. This model has faced the patrimonial, collective and community knowledge, characteristic of populations with distinct rationality from the occidental atomistic-individualistic one, with severe risks to the feeding safety. It analyzes the social-environmental consequences of the current agrarian / agricultural model, the contradictory results of the increase of the world capacity of food production, hunger in the world, the meanings of the Green Revolution from the seventies on, the social-environmental impacts of the agrarian business in the Brazilian cerrado and the complexity of the use of transgenic products. It criticizes the restricted ecological sustentation based on a political realism, and proposes a reflection upon a new rationality for the environmental challenge. It concludes that hunger is not a technical problem, for it does not happen because of the lack of food, but because of the way the food is produced and distributed. Today hunger lives with the provisions necessary to overcome itself.

  20. Oilfield development and protection of natural resources within the tropical marine environment of the Rowley shelf, northwest Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeProvost, M.I.; Gordon, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years a number of oilfields have been developed in tropical waters of the Rowley Shelf, north-west Australia. Along with Bass Strait and the Timor Sea, this region is the focus for Australia's current oil exploration and production. It supports major coral and mangrove habitats and fishing grounds sensitive to the effects of oil pollution. This paper provides a synthesis of the Rowley Shelf marine environment and reviews procedures protecting the marine resources of the region from the effects of oil spills. Recent government and industry initiatives for improving the protection of the environment are outlined and discussed on the basis of the improved understanding of the marine resources and experience being gained in oil spill contingency planning. The tropical habitats of the Rowley Shelf occur within the Indo-Pacific Zoogeographic Region, therefore experience gained in Western Australia is applicable to similar environments in the South East Asian region

  1. Round table on economic instruments for environmental protection. A brief to the Senate Standing Committee on Energy and the Environment and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-10-20

    The Canadian Nuclear Association is presenting a brief to the Senate Standing Committee on energy and the environment and natural resources. When looking at the techniques to reduce pollution from energy activity, a preference is towards the economic instruments, away from the command and control techniques. Economic instruments provide incentives to all the participants in the marketplace.

  2. Round table on economic instruments for environmental protection. A brief to the Senate Standing Committee on Energy and the Environment and Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association is presenting a brief to the Senate Standing Committee on energy and the environment and natural resources. When looking at the techniques to reduce pollution from energy activity, a preference is towards the economic instruments, away from the command and control techniques. Economic instruments provide incentives to all the participants in the marketplace

  3. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  4. Sense of place as a determinant of people's attitudes towards the environment: implications for natural resources management and planning in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Silva; De Freitas, Debora M; Hicks, Christina C

    2013-03-15

    Integrating people's values and perceptions into planning is essential for the successful management of natural resources. However, successful implementation of natural resources management decisions on the ground is a complex task, which requires a comprehensive understanding of a system's social and ecological linkages. This paper investigates the relationship between sense of place and people's attitudes towards their natural environment. Sense of place contributes towards shaping peoples' beliefs, values and commitments. Here, we set out to explore how these theoretical contributions can be operationalized for natural resources management planning in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia. We hypothesise that the region's diverse range of natural resources, conservation values and management pressures might be reflected in people's attachment to place. To tests this proposition, variables capturing socio-demographics, personal wellbeing and a potential for sense of place were collected via mail-out survey of 372 residents of the region, and tested for relationships using multivariate regression and redundancy orientation analyses. Results indicate that place of residence within the region, involvement in community activities, country of birth and the length of time respondents lived in the region are important determinants of the values assigned to factors related to the natural environment. This type of information is readily available from National Census and thus could be incorporated into the planning of community engagement strategies early in the natural resources management planning process. A better understanding of the characteristics that allow sense of place meanings to develop can facilitate a better understanding of people's perceptions towards environmental and biodiversity issues. We suggest that the insights gained from this study can benefit environmental decision making and planning in the Great Barrier Reef region; and that sense of place

  5. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  6. Innovations for Natural Resource Management

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Improving input use efficiency and sustainable management of natural resource endowments - a continuous challenge. Improving input use efficiency and sustainable management of natural resource endowments - a continuous challenge. Innovations have focused on ...

  7. Handbook of natural resource and energy economics. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The last of a three-volume series of handbooks focuses on the economics of energy, minerals and exhaustible resources, and the forecasting issues. The relationship between energy, the environment and economic growth is also examined. Chapter headings are: economic theory of depletable resources; the optimal use of exhaustible resources; intertemporal consistency issues in depletable resources; buying energy and non-fuel minerals; mineral resource stocks and information; strategies for modelling exhaustible resource supply; natural resources in an age of substitutability; natural resource cartels; the economics of energy security; natural resource use and the environment; and energy, the environment and economic growth

  8. Comanagement of Natural Resources

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Viet Nam: sharing the resource in Tam Giang Lagoon Image .... Rugged mountains, desert margins, remote coastal villages — these are .... Tropical forests, for example, may be intensively exploited by different users at different times. .... were given equal opportunity to share their experiences and frustrations without risk of ...

  9. The Unstructured Data Sharing System for Natural resources and Environment Science Data of the Chinese Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafang Zhuang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The data sharing system for resource and environment science databases of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS is of an open three-tiered architecture, which integrates the geographical databases of about 9 institutes of CAS by the mechanism of distributive unstructured data management, metadata integration, catalogue services, and security control. The data tiers consist of several distributive data servers that are located in each CAS institute and support such unstructured data formats as vector files, remote sensing images or other raster files, documents, multi-media files, tables, and other format files. For the spatial data files, format transformation service is provided. The middle tier involves a centralized metadata server, which stores metadata records of data on all data servers. The primary function of this tier is catalog service, supporting the creation, search, browsing, updating, and deletion of catalogs. The client tier involves an integrated client that provides the end-users interfaces to search, browse, and download data or create a catalog and upload data.

  10. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adisa, B.O.

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Adisa, Banji O. ... Key words: Assessment, community-based, natural resources, socio-environmental sustainability, ... Natural resources occur within environments that are.

  11. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  12. Power, Conflict and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaime Macuane, José; Buur, Lars; Monjane, Celso Marcos

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how the present socio-economic crisis in Mozambique is linked to the prospects of natural resource windfalls for the country. Drawing on the political settlement approach, it explores how the distribution of power both within and outside the ruling elite is structured...... and consequently how the underlying political processes have been shaped by the expectations of natural resource windfalls. The article argues that the present socio-economic crisis in Mozambique is not due to national resource assets in themselves. Instead, the political and economic downturn in Mozambique should...... be understood as a manifestation of how the political settlement has been organized and rent mobilization controlled by the ruling elite. To understand how the prospect of rents from natural resource sectors have influenced the political settlement, we have argued that one has to look at the dynamics of power...

  13. Natural resources, innovation and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Johnson, Bjørn Harold; Marín, Anabel

    be supported politically? The Globelics review considers a range of contemporary and historical studies and diverse theoretical positions concerning resource intensive development paths. The intention is to make it easier for analysts and policy makers to learn both from countries that in the past have......In this Globelics Thematic Review, the author team presents and discusses recent research on the relationships between natural resources, innovation and development, and suggests some implications of this body of knowledge for policy makers. The Review sets out to explore three interlinked...... questions with a particular focus on innovation and industry dynamics. First, to what extent is it currently possible for a country to develop on the basis of natural resources? Second, what are the main underlying mechanisms of resource intensive development paths? Third, how can such mechanisms...

  14. Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources - Decree-Law No 186/90 of 6 of June

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Decree-Law was made in implementation of Community Directive 85/337/CEE of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment. According to the Decree-Law, approval of nuclear power plant projects and other nuclear reactor projects, as well as radioactive waste repositories is subject to a prior assessment of their effect on the environment. (NEA) [fr

  15. Institutional economy applied to the Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera klink, Federico

    1999-01-01

    The author intend to show how the perspective of institutional economy, worried about natural resources and the environment, insists in the necessity of a conceptual reconstruction of the concept of economy. This proposal is presented by considering three main aspects essentials for that reconstruction: a) The displacement of the philosophical assumptions of XVIII and XIX countries, b) Reformulation a widening of the meaning of the basic concepts and c) How to complement the marked price analysis with the consideration of social values. After analyzing these aspects it is show how they are applied to the study of natural resources and environmental problems through the notion of social costs

  16. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  17. Collaborative planning in natural resource management – the case of regulation of nitrogen in the agri-environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Henrik; Andersen, Erling; Andersen, Peter Stubkjær

    approach is that local knowledge on, e.g. farming practices, soil, water and climate, can feed into the regulation process, making general rules less important, maybe even obsolete. Methods: The planning approach adapted for the study was inspired by concepts of collaborative planning in urban areas...... approaches are gaining momentum. The aim of this paper is to test a collaborative planning approach in the regulation of nitrogen in the farming sector. The overarching question is whether this regulation can be organised locally rather than by general, national rules. The benefits by adopting a local...... and various other concepts of participatory environmental planning. The approach was tested simultaneously in six case areas of rural Denmark, each comprising small watersheds (20-76km2). The strategic aim was to reduce the loss of nitrogen from farms to the aquatic environment. The planning process consisted...

  18. Maryland power plants and the environment. A review of the impacts of power plants and transmission lines on Maryland's natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) is required by Maryland law to review and evaluate the potential impacts to Maryland's environment from the construction and operation of electric power generating and transmission systems. PPRP summarizes these evaluations every other year in a document known as the Cumulative Environmental Impact Report (CEIR). This volume represents the tenth edition (CEIR-10), and it summarizes the current state of knowledge which PPRP has gained from more than 25 years of continuous monitoring of power plant impacts in Maryland. PPRP conducts a range of research and monitoring projects on the topics addressed in this CEIR and many other issues as well. In fact, PPRP publishes a Bibliography every year that lists the general and site-specific power plant related reports that PPRP has produced since the early 1970s

  19. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MULTIPROJECT ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available А monograph is presented, whose purpose is to justify the need to adapt the system for human resources management to a multiproject context and to propose alternatives for making appropriate amendments. First chapter "Human resources management as a function of general management" examines the relationship between human resource management and organizational effectiveness in the light of the perception of human resources as the main competitive advantage of the modern organization and the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the management of human resources. Special attention is paid to the content and structure of this system. Chapter Two "The multiproject organization as a modern working environment" is dedicated to the project management as a management concept and clarifies the essence of project management, the concept of the project lifecycle, criteria and critical success factors of the project. Emphasis is placed on the multiproject organization as a natural environment of project management by clarifying the nature and characteristics of this type of organization and positioning options for structural projects in it. The focus in the chapter “Specifications of human resource management in the multiproject environment" is the need for changes in the management of human resources and alternatives to adapt the system for managing human resources to conditions of the multiproject environment through specific changes in its content and structure. Chapter Four "Human Resource Management in the multiproject environment" presents the results of an empirical study. Based on the outlined conceptual framework of the study, specifying the purpose, objectives, methodology and tools, consistently carried out a comparative analysis of human resources management as a strategic organizational priority project activity as a strategic organizational priority, efficiency and basic problems of multiproject medium degree of adapting the system

  20. Rural finance and natural resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Ann

    2000-01-01

    The Department for International Development (DFID), through its Renewable Natural Resources Knowledge Strategy (RNRKS), emphasizes demand-led research and a clear identification of uptake pathways in research design and implementation. These guidelines aim to provide RNRKS programme managers and project managers with sufficient information on rural finance to judge the extent to which project design may have to take it into account. This includes in particular the possibility that the charac...

  1. Natural resources in the Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar B, Diana Alejandra; Zorro Z, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is identification the relation between the naturals resources degradation, and the Colombian agriculture productive. It's means a way to quantification the influence of a bad utilization in the water and land resources in the agricultural sector, to guide the sector in to a sustainable development. This objective is to make by an empirical exercise where we built four econometrics models (ordinary minims square) based in the Colombia's history statistic of the variables: land erosion, river sedimentation, plaguicides, Insecticides, Fungicides y Herbicides, agriculture productivity and agriculture yield. The resolute of this exercise is that an increase in the erosion area also the river sedimentation gives a decrease in the agriculture productivity. The same situation happens when it use the consumption of the insecticides and the fungicides which in the long time shows an opposite relation with the yield and productivity. At last we have that the aperture of the ninety's, bring to good changes for the agricultural productivity. So that, it concludes that the rivers and lands degradation affect in the long time the agriculture yield and productivity. The best use in the naturals resources, can help to increase the agricultural development, because it can increase the yield while it maintain for the future the possibility curve of production when it conserve the resources

  2. Natural resources and environmentally sound sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastizzi-Ferencic, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation for Development (UNDTCD), which has been active for over 40 years in assisting developing countries to make the fullest possible use of their natural resources. Energy, water and mineral resources must be developed, and the impacts of the development on the environment must be mitigated. The importance of protecting supplies of fresh water, the central part occupied by the mining industry in developing countries, and the proper role of energy sources for sustainable development are all discussed

  3. Natural radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The speaker discusses natural radiation in the environment. He outlines the external sources of exposure (cosmic and terrestrial), as well as the internal sources (ingestion and inhalation). He states that a clear understanding of these sources and their impacts is necessary in order to properly evaluate both the environment and human radiation exposure

  4. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...

  5. 76 FR 57100 - Natural Resource Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY Natural Resource Plan AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION... environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Natural Resource Plan (NRP). The notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Natural Resource Plan was published in the Federal Register...

  6. Resource area environment/energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The document comprises a detailed analysis of the business economics of resources related to energy and the environment. Non-domestic and domestic conditions influencing the business economics of this subject area, its infrastructure, problems and future perspectives are dealt with. Tables (amongst other forms of information) indicate the turnover, exports, and numbers of involved employees, workplaces and firms involved in supply, general production, consultancy and production connected with the building sector. The energy sector is the most significant in this respect, giving 30,000 employed (18% in state institutions), a turnover of 63 billion Danish kroner, and with an export of 16 billion Danish kroner. The environmental sector employs 15,000 (29% in the public sector), the total turnover is 20 billion Danish kroner and of this 3 billion Danish kroner is related to export. Many firms are relatively small. A number of firms could compete internationally and this number is growing. (AB) (79 refs.)

  7. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  8. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and Economic Implications. ... on the environment leading to pollution of land, rivers, creeks and waterways.

  9. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  10. MANAGING AFRICA'S NATURAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    explained by the fact that many of the oil-producing countries or petro- states are ... Specifically for Africa, it has been argued that the resource curse paradigm .... sector.18 In Mozambique, after an audit of investments between 2002 and 2008, the ..... resources reserves in Africa, in most cases, the heart of usage – especially.

  11. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  12. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  13. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  14. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  15. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  16. Natural radioactivity in Rawatbhata environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P.C.; Roy, Alpana; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the gamma ray spectrometric measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides present in various environmental matrices collected from the environment of Rawatbhata. Natural radioactivity in the environmental samples is mainly due to 40 K and 238 U and 232 Th and their daughter products. In this study, these radionuclides have been estimated in local soil samples and their temporal variation has been discussed. It also presents 40 K concentrations in various biological samples. Transfer coefficients of 40 K in different matrices have also been obtained. Assessment of daily intake of 40 K has been made on the basis of the average daily intake of common dietary items grown in this region and the associated 40 K content. This works out to about 112 Bq/d. (author)

  17. Beyond territory and scarcity - exploring conflicts over natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa......Ressources management, enviromental degradation, natural resources, conflicts, boundaries, Africa...

  18. Architectural Environment: A Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville, KY.

    There are many ways to approach the investigation of architecture. One can look at structural form, climate and topography, the aesthetics of style and decoration, building function, historical factors, cultural meanings, or technology and techniques associated with construction. This resource kit touches upon a few of these approaches, ranging…

  19. 76 FR 20372 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Regarding Natural Resource Damage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ..., Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section, Environment and Natural Resources Division. [FR... resolves claims for natural resource damages and assessment costs of the United States Department of the..., Environment and Natural Resources Division, and either e-mailed to [email protected] or mailed to...

  20. Natural-resource management in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.; Mulamoottil, G.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the major natural resource management issues in relation to land, forests, and water in Bangladesh. It shows how government policies and programs in one sector may affect other sectors. A lack of land use, and forest policies can be responsible for degradation of agricultural land and deforestation. The paper argues that better management of the natural resources can only be achieved by an integrated approach covering all the sectors of development. In Bangladesh, with a freely elected government in power, there is a unique opportunity to formulate an integrated natural resource management strategy. 44 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  1. Negotiation Training Courses for Natural Resource Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Nina; Swann, M. Earlene; Walters, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    FORT's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) has been conducting and publishing research on multi-party natural resource negotiation since the 1980s. This research has led to the development of basic and advanced negotiation training courses. Each course is two-and-a-half days. Both courses are a mix of lecture, hands-on training, and discussion. Please join us and other natural resource professionals facing similar problems and share your experiences. Come prepared to candidly discuss examples of successes to embrace, stalemates to recognize, and pitfalls to avoid in natural resource negotiations.

  2. Exxon Valdez -- Framework for natural resource restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Once the task of evaluating the nature and extent of natural resource injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill neared completion, the equally daunting task of formulating proper restorative measures began. The essence of the natural resource restoration effort is to determine how to utilize the monies received from the criminal and civil settlements to fulfill the natural resource trustees' responsibilities to restore Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska to their condition prior to the spill. Given the magnitude and variety of environmental impact, i.e., natural resource injuries ranging from the death of thousands of sea birds and marine mammals to the persistent sublethal affects of hydrocarbon contamination in intertidal sediments, the field of restorative endeavor is as broad and perplexing as was responding to the spill itself. This paper discusses the policy and legal parameters which give structure to the scientific and technical decisions the natural resource trustees must make in the years to come as they engage in their restoration responsibilities. The discussed policy and legal parameters translate generally to natural resource restoration under such statutes as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

  3. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic effects which the location of natural resources has on host ... water bodies in an oil exploration and exploitation communities in Oguta local .... law, energy, atmosphere, sustainable tourism, biodiversity, biotechnology, finance,.

  4. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  5. Natural Resources Accounting and Sustainable Development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural Resources Accounting and Sustainable Development: The Challenge to Economics and Accounting Profession. ... African Research Review ... The approach used in achieving this objective is by identifying the present position, limitations and the challenges for the economics and accounting professions.

  6. American Indian Systems for Natural Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the philosophy and general principles of "primitive" indigenous production technologies and natural resource management systems in North and South America. Discusses indigenous practices that promote sustainable production in gathering, hunting and fishing, minerals extraction, and agriculture. (SV)

  7. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Cambodia has a ... Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  8. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2009 Release is a composite index for 171 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  9. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2011 Release is a composite index for 174 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  10. Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI), 2010 Release is a composite index for 157 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target indicators for...

  11. International Migration, Management of Natural Resources and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Natural Resources and Division of Labour along Gender Lines in Veracruz, Mexico ... Mexico, are experiencing an increased rate of migration to Mexico City and the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  12. 2008 Natural Resource Management Index (NRMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2008 Natural Resources Management Index (NRMI) is a composite index for 226 countries derived from the average of four proximity-to-target scores from eco-region...

  13. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 juil. 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a sustainable outcome when there is partnership between local people and external agencies, and agendas relevant to their aspirations and circumstances. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods analyses and extends this premise ...

  14. Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-07-31

    Jul 31, 2003 ... Management of local resources has a greater chance of a ... Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods: Uniting Science and Participation ... innovative approaches for establishing and sustaining participation and ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and ...

  15. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  16. Natural resources: A curse on education spending?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockx, Lara; Francken, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    In line with the rising interest in harnessing natural resource revenues for economic and human development through productive government investments, this paper aims to address an important blind spot in our understanding of the “resource curse” by contributing innovative insights on how natural resource wealth impacts government priorities and expenditure practices. Using a large panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009, we find an adverse effect of resource dependence on public education expenditures relative to GDP that is robust to controlling for a range of additional covariates. Furthermore, our findings indicate that this resource curse effect on the government prioritization of education mainly stems from point-source natural resources. These results are of particular importance for the sustainable management of natural resource wealth in developing countries, as they could achieve especially high returns by investing resource revenues in public goods such as education. While this paper underlines the importance of institutions and government accountability, our findings also raise questions on the role of the private sector as a partner in development, as the extractives industry could consider increasing funding for education through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. - Highlights: •We use a panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009. •We find an inverse relationship between resource dependence and education spending. •The effect of resource dependence is robust to controlling for several covariates. •Indirect effects through a decline in accountability and the service industry. •This curse mainly stems from point-source resource dependence.

  17. NATURAL RESOURCES AVAILABILITY IN A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLINA BONCIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the theoretical and practical approach of the economic life, appears more often the idea of sustainable economic development, of reconciliation between man and nature in attracting and using its resources without interfering in its natural movement and evolution. In this paper we are trying to bring to light the relation between the economic development and the mineral resources, in terms of achieving sustainable development. The place and role of natural factors in the market economy is revealed by bringing to the forefront a number of arguments that demonstrate their vital position in the sustainable growth and development.

  18. Use of simplified methods for predicting natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreti, C.P.; Boehm, P.D.; Gundlach, E.R.; Healy, E.A.; Rosenstein, A.B.; Tsomides, H.J.; Turton, D.J.; Webber, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    To reduce transaction costs and save time, the US Department of the Interior (DOI) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed simplified methods for assessing natural resource damages from oil and chemical spills. DOI has proposed the use of two computer models, the Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments (NRDAM/GLE) and a revised Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) for predicting monetary damages for spills of oils and chemicals into the Great Lakes and coastal and marine environments. NOAA has used versions of these models to create Compensation Formulas, which it has proposed for calculating natural resource damages for oil spills of up to 50,000 gallons anywhere in the US. Based on a review of the documentation supporting the methods, the results of hundreds of sample runs of DOI's models, and the outputs of the thousands of model runs used to create NOAA's Compensation Formulas, this presentation discusses the ability of these simplified assessment procedures to make realistic damage estimates. The limitations of these procedures are described, and the need for validating the assumptions used in predicting natural resource injuries is discussed

  19. Natural radioactivity in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, I [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Jaderna a Fysikalne Inzenyrska

    1980-01-01

    The effects were analyzed of natural radionuclides and cosmic radiation on radiation burden in man. The contents are shown of natural radionuclides in the earth crust, water, atmosphere, food chain and human organism. Using the data, the annual doses from natural sources to the gonads (1025 ..mu..Sv/yr) and to the bone marrow (986 ..mu..Sv) are estimated.

  20. Natural resources, redistribution and Human capital formation

    OpenAIRE

    Aguero, Jorge; Balcazar, Carlos Felipe; Maldonado, Stanislao; Ñopo, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    How do resource booms affect human capital accumulation? We exploit time and spatial variation generated by the commodity boom across local governments in Peru to measure the effect of natural resources on human capital formation. We explore the effect of both mining production and tax revenues on test scores, finding a substantial and statistically significant effect for the latter. Transfers to local governments from mining tax revenues are linked to an increase in math test scores of aroun...

  1. Complexity, Modeling, and Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cilliers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that natural resource management (NRM issues are, by their very nature, complex and that both scientists and managers in this broad field will benefit from a theoretical understanding of complex systems. It starts off by presenting the core features of a view of complexity that not only deals with the limits to our understanding, but also points toward a responsible and motivating position. Everything we do involves explicit or implicit modeling, and as we can never have comprehensive access to any complex system, we need to be aware both of what we leave out as we model and of the implications of the choice of our modeling framework. One vantage point is never sufficient, as complexity necessarily implies that multiple (independent conceptualizations are needed to engage the system adequately. We use two South African cases as examples of complex systems - restricting the case narratives mainly to the biophysical domain associated with NRM issues - that make the point that even the behavior of the biophysical subsystems themselves are already complex. From the insights into complex systems discussed in the first part of the paper and the lessons emerging from the way these cases have been dealt with in reality, we extract five interrelated generic principles for practicing science and management in complex NRM environments. These principles are then further elucidated using four further South African case studies - organized as two contrasting pairs - and now focusing on the more difficult organizational and social side, comparing the human organizational endeavors in managing such systems.

  2. Resource Areas in the New Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Anatolyevich Kryukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that today the dynamics of development and production of mineral resources in resource specializing regions may differ significantly from the canonical scheme - i.e. there is no gradual and steady depletion of natural resources within mentioned territories. The combination of several factors may again move resource regions that used to be «hopeless» to the stage of growing production. These factors are: a modern knowledge economy, an adequate resource mode (norms, rules and procedures that «master» the process of development of natural resources and developed and available infrastructure of mineral resources extraction. As an example the author considers the USA oil-producing states (Texas, Louisiana and North Dakota which showed rapid growth in production of natural gas and oil in the last few years. The author sees the accumulation of a «critical level» of economic activity (infrastructure, the number and diversity of companies in the oil and gas sector and the availability and quality of human capital as the main cause for the development of shale hydrocarbons in these states. These considerations are very important for Russia: the development of heavy oil deposits in Tatarstan, bringing into development the deposits of the Bazhenov formation in Tyumen Oblast and the future oil extraction from bituminous minerals in Yakutia will occur under the same laws (with some Russian specificity, however

  3. 77 FR 25499 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Natural Resource Damages Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... above. Ronald Gluck, Assistant Section Chief, Environmental Enforcement Section Environment and Natural... Department of the Interior's Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Fund, which can be used to.... Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural Resources Division...

  4. in_focus - Comangement of Natural Resources: Local Learning for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The developing world's poorest people live in marginal, often harsh rural environments. ... Co-Management of Natural Resources in Canada: A Review of Concepts and Case Studies ... He holds a doctorate in city and regional planning from the University of ... funding for the Climate and Development Knowledge Network.

  5. Natural resource damage assessments: The second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.; Burlington, L.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), Office of General Counsel, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has focused on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures may lower the transaction costs of assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments, simplify most assessments and provide technical guidance for conducting assessments. DART is developing regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration and economic valuation. NOAA encourages federal, state, tribal and foreign trustees, to develop prespill plans. Coordination with response agencies assures protection of important natural resources. The regulations provide an open record, which becomes the basis for judicial review. Various methods being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources include: compensation formulas for spills under 50,000 gallons of oil, the Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive damage assessment (CDA) procedures which can be used for spills of various sizes. These procedures provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages to each oil spill. NOAA is emphasizing the importance of restoration. Restoration plans will define project goals and objectives, establish procedures and methods for site restoration, and define the approach based on sound science. Finally, numerous economic methods are identified to calculate the lost or diminished use as passive use of the affected resources

  6. Natural Resources, Multinational Enterprises and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Daniel; Hobdari, Bersant; Oh, Chang Hoon

    2018-01-01

    The natural resources sectors have not been prominent in the recent international business (IB) or management literature. We argue that the natural resources sectors, if not unique, are certainly characterized by a set of features that make them different, and raise issues that are central...... to international business. We identify two broad areas: the theory of FDI and the MNE, and the link between MNEs and sustainable development. We survey the relevant literature, much of it from outside IB, and identify a rich menu of research opportunities for IB scholars, many of which are addressed in the papers...

  7. The Lure of Extractive Natural Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    Natural resource-driven development in Africa has emerged as a hot topic. The hope is that extractive industries will generate foreign revenues, create jobs and boost economic growth – but how can the possibilities best be exploited for industrial development purposes?......Natural resource-driven development in Africa has emerged as a hot topic. The hope is that extractive industries will generate foreign revenues, create jobs and boost economic growth – but how can the possibilities best be exploited for industrial development purposes?...

  8. Polygeneration and efficient use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Luis M.; Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Ramos, Jose [GITSE-I3A, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, CPS de Ingenieros, Maria de Luna, 3, 5018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ensinas, Adriano V.; Nebra, Silvia A. [Energy Department, State University of Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica, Cidade Universitaria Zeferino Vaz-Barao Geraldo, Campinas (Brazil)

    2009-05-15

    The consumption of natural resources has been increasing continuously during recent decades, due to the growing demand caused by both the economic and the demographic rise of global population. Environmental overloads that endanger the survival of our civilization and the sustainability of current life support systems are caused by the increased consumption of natural resources - particularly water and energy - which are essential for life and for the socio-economic development of societies. While not yet well utilized, process integration and polygeneration are promising tools which reach the double objective of increasing the efficiency of natural resources, and also minimizing the environmental impact. This paper discusses the concepts of polygeneration and energy integration and various examples of polygeneration systems: (i) sugar and energy production in a sugarcane factory; (ii) district heating and cooling with natural gas cogeneration engines and (iii) combined production of water and energy. It is clearly evident that polygeneration systems which include appropriate process integration significantly increase the efficient use of natural resources. (author)

  9. Tourism's impacts on natural resources: A positive case from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  10. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  11. Resourceful utilization technology for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a description of new applications that will contribute in increasing the demand for natural gas. First, technical issues to turn natural gas into a more resourceful fuel (efficient transportation and storage, integrated utilization of energies, uses as non-fuel), and also pitch-based high performance carbon materials and utilization techniques in the field of energy (isotropic carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber, spherical carbon micro-beads, high modulus carbon fiber). (TEC)

  12. Power/Knowledge in Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, Martijn; Van Assche, Kristof; Beunen, R.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning draws the attention to ongoing concerns about the management of natural resources (NRM): their exploration, extraction, processing, and commodification is still happening in ways that are perceived to be socially unjust and

  13. Power/knowledge and natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, Van Kristof; Beunen, Raoul; Duineveld, Martijn; Gruezmacher, Monica

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual framework extending Foucaultian insights on the relations between power and knowledge to link up with current insights into studies of natural resource management (NRM) and more broadly environmental studies. We classify discourses in NRM according to

  14. The Resource Curse - A Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenthöfer, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares Mauritius and Trinidad and Tobago which have a very similar climate, history, institutional framework, ethnic composition, size, etc., but are different in the natural resources they possess. Trinidad and Tobago has achieved a higher per capita GDP based on its petrodollars, but

  15. Strengthening Research Capacity to Enhance Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to Enhance Natural Resources Management and Improve Rural Livelihoods ... and contribute to the food and income security of the rural poor by enhancing the ... of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.

  16. Guidelines for exploiting natural resource wealth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, R.

    2014-01-01

    The principles of how best to manage the various components of national wealth are outlined, where the permanent income hypothesis, the Hotelling rule, and the Hartwick rule play a prominent role. As far as managing natural resource wealth is concerned, a case is made to use an intergenerational

  17. Participation in community based natural resource management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to descriptive ...

  18. Conflicts between natural resources and structural protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bakken

    1995-01-01

    Each parcel of government land carries specific land use constraints and objectives. This is also true of private housing and business developments. When government land, which was acquired to protect the natural or cultural resources, borders private land, which was acquired to build and protect houses or businesses, conflicts arise. The flammable native vegetation on...

  19. Natural resources youth training program (NRYTP), resource rangers 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    In 2010, for a second year, the natural resources youth training program (NRYTP) was developed in northern Manitoba thanks to Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak Inc. (MKO) and the collaboration of 42 sponsors. 16 aboriginal youth representing six northern communities took part in the five-week program located at the Egg Lake camp. The objective was to provide these resources rangers with knowledge and training in the most widespread resource sectors in northern Manitoba, including mining, forestry and hydropower. Trainers and experts provided by industry partners offered training sessions, hands-on work experience and other activities to help resource rangers to acquire a better understanding of the employability in this field in the northern region and the knowledge and skills the resource-based careers require. Life and professional skills training was given by the camp staff and local professionals. On-site elders and cultural events also allowed the integration of a northern Cree cultural component. Three staff members, a cook and elders assisted daily the resource rangers. Many improvements and refinements have been made since the success of the 2009 program, including the involvement of a larger number of communities, program contributors and program graduates. The program length has doubled and the number of jobs created has increased, important cultural aspects were introduced and the overall expenses were reduced.

  20. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    that deliver credible and easily accessible information. Checks and balances can be supported through civil society as well as the media. Finally, the private sector plays a key and potentially beneficial role in the harvest, transport and marketing of CBNRM products. Thus, dialogue partners should include......This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM...... from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction...

  1. Natural gas and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCarufel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of various atmospheric pollutants in environmental changes and the global water cycle, carbon cycle, and energy balance is explained. The role of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in acid deposition is also outlined. The pollutants that contribute to environmental problems include nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, and other greenhouse gases. The potential for natural gas utilization to mitigate some of these pollution problems is explored. Natural gas combustion emits less carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides than combustion of other fossil fuel, and also does not produce sulfur dioxide, particulates, or volatile organics. Other pollution controlling opportunities offered by natural gas include the use of low-polluting burners, natural gas vehicles, and cogeneration systems. 18 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Are natural resources bad for health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Anshasy, Amany A; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine whether economic dependence on various natural resources is associated with lower investment in health, after controlling for countries' geographical and historical fixed effects, corruption, autocratic regimes, income levels, and initial health status. Employing panel data for 118 countries for the period 1990-2008, we find no compelling evidence in support of a negative effect of resources on healthcare spending and outcomes. On the contrary, higher dependence on agricultural exports is associated with higher healthcare spending, higher life expectancy, and lower diabetes rates. Similarly, healthcare spending increases with higher mineral intensity. Finally, more hydrocarbon resource rents are associated with less diabetes and obesity rates. There is however evidence that public health provision relative to the size of the economy declines with greater hydrocarbon resource-intensity; the magnitude of this effect is less severe in non-democratic countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genotype x environment interaction and optimum resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... x E) interaction and to determine the optimum resource allocation for cassava yield trials. The effects of environment, genotype and G x E interaction were highly significant for all yield traits. Variations due to G x E interaction were greater than those due to genotypic differences for all yield traits. Genotype x location x year ...

  4. Design of the Resources and Environment Monitoring Website in Kashgar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Lin, Q Z; Wang, Q J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the development of the web geographical information system (web GIS), many useful spatial analysis functions are ignored in the system implementation. As Kashgar is rich in natural resources, it is of great significance to monitor the ample natural resource and environment situation in the region. Therefore, with multiple uses of spatial analysis, resources and environment monitoring website of Kashgar was built. Functions of water, vegetation, ice and snow extraction, task management, change assessment as well as thematic mapping and reports based on TM remote sensing images were implemented in the website. The design of the website was presented based on database management tier, the business logic tier and the top-level presentation tier. The vital operations of the website were introduced and the general performance was evaluated

  5. Designing Learning Resources in Synchronous Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rene B

    2015-01-01

    Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) and synchronous learning environments offer new solutions for teachers and students that transcend the singular one-way transmission of content knowledge from teacher to student. CMC makes it possible not only to teach computer mediated but also to design...... and create new learning resources targeted to a specific group of learners. This paper addresses the possibilities of designing learning resources within synchronous learning environments. The empirical basis is a cross-country study involving students and teachers in primary schools in three Nordic...... Countries (Denmark, Sweden and Norway). On the basis of these empirical studies a set of design examples is drawn with the purpose of showing how the design fulfills the dual purpose of functioning as a remote, synchronous learning environment and - using the learning materials used and recordings...

  6. Natural Resources Accounting and Sustainable Development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... Development: The Challenge to Economics and Accounting ... The United Nations Statistical Office published a system of national account .... environment in national accounts provides information on the use of natural .... environmental impact and aspects of an organization, including implications for cash ...

  7. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  8. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  9. Multi-criteria evaluation of natural gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Geologically estimated natural gas resources are 500 Tcm. With the advance in geological science increase of estimated resources is expected. Natural gas reserves in 2000 have been proved to be around 165 Tcm. As it is known the reserves are subject to two constraints, namely: capital invested in the exploration and drilling technologies used to discover new reserves. The natural gas scarcity factor, i.e. ratio between available reserves and natural gas consumption, is around 300 years for the last 50 years. The new discovery of natural gas reserves has given rise to a new energy strategy based on natural gas. Natural gas utilization is constantly increasing in the last 50 years. With new technologies for deep drilling, we have come to know that there are enormous gas resources available at relatively low price. These new discoveries together with high demand for the environment saving have introduced a new energy strategy on the world scale. This paper presents an evaluation of the potential natural gas utilization in energy sector. As the criteria in this analysis resource, economic, environmental, social and technological indicators are used. Among the potential options of gas utilization following systems are considered: Gas turbine power plant, combine cycle plant, CHP power plant, steam turbine gas-fired power plant, fuel cells power plant. Multi-criteria method was used for the assessment of potential options with priority given to the Resource, Economic and Social Indicators. Results obtained are presented in graphical form representing priority list of potential options under specific constraints in the priority of natural gas utilization strategy in energy sector

  10. Natural resources damage assessments at Department of Energy facilities - using the CERCLA process to minimize natural resources injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.J.; Martin, J.F.; Duke, C.S.; Gray, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    Fifty years of research, development and production in support of national defense have left the Department of Energy (DOE) with numerous radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste sites requiring environmental restoration and remediation. The responsibilities for DOE associated with releases of these wastes into the environment are driving major efforts to characterize contamination problems and identify and implement environmental restoration and remediation alternatives. The subject of this paper is the recently issued DOE guidance to minimize the basis for damage claims for injuries to natural resources on, over and under lands owned or controlled by DOE associated with the releases of hazardous substances from DOE facilities. Depending on the regulatory authority governing the facility, the preferred means of evaluating the possibility of injury to natural resources is the preparation of an ecological risk assessment or an environmental evaluation. As both the natural resource trustee and lead agency at facilities under its control, DOE receives dual responsibility requiring site remediation if necessary, and that any injured natural resources be restored, or that compensation for the injuries is made. Several executive and legislative sources of authority and responsibility with regard to lead agencies and trustees of natural resources will be detailed. Also, ongoing remedial investigation/feasibility study work at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project near Fernald, Ohio will be described as an example of how this guidance can be applied

  11. VECTR: Virtual Environment Computational Training Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Westridge Middle School Curriculum and Community Night is an annual event designed to introduce students and parents to potential employers in the Central Florida area. NASA participated in the event in 2017, and has been asked to come back for the 2018 event on January 25. We will be demonstrating our Microsoft Hololens Virtual Rovers project, and the Virtual Environment Computational Training Resource (VECTR) virtual reality tool.

  12. Practical adaptation to climate change in regional natural resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiem, Anthony S.; Clifton, Craig; Jordan, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Recent climatic conditions (i.e. drier than average conditions for the last 10 years or more) have placed many water resource systems in south-eastern Australia near critical thresholds. Management systems are, or soon will be, at the limits of their adaptive capacity. While it is possible this situation largely reflects vulnerability to natural climatic variability, impacts of anthropogenic climate change may further expose the vulnerability of these systems. Water management in Australia has traditionally been carried out on the assumption that the historical record of rainfall, evaporation, streamflow and recharge is representative of current and future climatic conditions. In many circumstances, this does not adequately address the potential risks to supply security for towns, industry, irrigators and the environment. This is because the Australian climate varies markedly due to natural cycles that operate over periods of several years to several decades, and is also being increasingly affected by anthropogenic influences. Both factors will continue to influence Australia's climate, even if immediate action is taken to curtail greenhouse gas emissions. Long-term resource planning by water authorities must account for both climate variation and climate change to avoid over-allocation of water resources and to ensure economic activity based on utilisation of water resources is not unnecessarily restricted. Awareness of the vulnerability of water resources to anthropogenic climate change and uncertainty about the nature of those changes has lead to a reappraisal of which climate sequence(s) should be used in water resource planning

  13. Glass corrosion in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Arthur N.; Barkatt, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Experiments carried out during the progress period are summarized. Experiments carried out involving glass samples exposed to solutions of Tris have shown the appearance of 'spikes' upon monitoring glass dissolution as a function of time. The periodic 'spikes' observed in Tris-based media were interpreted in terms of cracking due to excessive stress in the surface region of the glass. Studies of the interactions of silicate glasses with metal ions in buffered media were extended to systems containing Al. Caps buffer was used to establish the pH. The procedures used are described and the results are given. Preliminary studies were initiated as to the feasibility of adding a slowly dissolving solid compound of the additive to the glass-water system to maintain a supply of dissolved additive. It appears that several magnesium compounds have a suitable combination of solubility and affinity towards silicate glass surfaces to have a pronounced retarding effect on the extraction of uranium from the glass. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that introducing a magnesium source into geologic repositories for nuclear waste glass in the form of a sparingly soluble Mg-based backfill material may cause a substantial reduction in the extent of long-term glass corrosion. The studies described also provide mechanistic understanding of the roles of various metal solutes in the leachant. Such understanding forms the basis for developing long-term predictions of nuclear waste glass durability under repository conditions. From what is known about natural highly reduced glasses such as tektites, it is clear that iron is dissolved as ferrous iron with little or no ferric iron. The reducing conditions were high enough to cause metallic iron to exsolve out of the glass in the form of submicroscopic spherules. As the nuclear waste glass is much less reduced, a study was initiated on other natural glasses in addition to the nuclear waste glass. Extensive measurements were

  14. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This article contributes to the field of natural resource conflict management by investigating the holistic context of a conflict case and argues against a simple resource scarcity-conflict thesis. The article takes point of departure in a pragmatic world view of conflicts in Laikipia County, Kenya...... through a likert-type questionnaire survey (N = 352), semi-structured interviews, extensive field notes and participant observation. Using an adapted version of the Unifying Negotiation Framework (UNF) to conduct an in-depth context analysis, the article shows the multitude of ecological, social...... and institutional factors which impact on the conflict complex. The critical features of the conflict from the perspective of pastoralists and farmers in Laikipia were found to be related to trust, communication, security, governance, marginalisation and violence. By conducting a thorough conflict context analysis...

  15. Elimination of Plastic Polymers in Natural Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Ekner, Sofia; Bidstrup, Marie Juliane Svea; Brusen, Nicklas Hald; Rugaard-Morgan, Zsa-Zsa Sophie Oona Ophelia

    2017-01-01

    Plastic production and consumption continues to rise and subsequently plastic waste continues to accumulates in natural environments, causing harm to ecosystems.The aim of this paper was to come up with a way to utilize organisms, that have been identified to produce plastic degrading enzymes, as a waste disposal technology. This review includes accounts of plastic production rates, the occurrence of plastic in natural environments and the current waste management systems to create an underst...

  16. Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the introduction to the Ecology and Society special feature on "Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management". Primarily drawing upon examples from Australia, the nine papers in the feature illustrate how landscape science seeks to integrate information from diverse sources to generate management solutions for implementation by individual land managers, communities, and governments at different levels. This introduction refers to the genesis of the feature, briefly outlines the nature and content of landscape science, and then summarizes key features of the nine papers. These are organized into two sections: one deals with inputs from human agents in the landscape, and one with the development of models enabling different management scenarios and environmental changes to be envisaged, understood, and applied to policy development.

  17. Evaluation of compensation formulae to measure natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Fischel, M.; Desvousges, W.H.; Dunford, R.W.; Mathews, K.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the oil spills in marine, estuarine, or freshwater environments of the United States are small (less than 1,000 gallons) and result in minimal injury to natural resources or little to no loss of services. However, federal, state, and Indian tribe trustees for natural resources are entitled under a variety of laws, including the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, to collect damages (money) from responsible parties to compensate for the foregone services and restoration of the services provided by the natural resources. Alaska, Washington, and Florida have developed a formula-based approach to calculating natural resource damages resulting from most spills; the federal National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and several other states are considering developing a compensation formula. The ideal compensation formula is a simplified assessment process that (a) can be applied rapidly, (b) requires relatively small transaction or assessment costs, (c) requires minimal site- and spill-specific data as inputs, (d) is based on generally accepted scientific and economic principles and methods, and (e) results in damage values acceptable to both the trustees and the responsible party. In theory, a compensation formula could be applied to most small oil spills in United States waters

  18. Natural Resources: Famine or Feast? A Question of Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaunay, Cecile; Vidalenc, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Whereas for a decade many experts spoke of an imminent dearth pf hydrocarbons and prices reached record highs, the cost of oil has fallen appreciably over the last two years and talk of shortage has almost disappeared. Does this mean there are no longer grounds for concern about the overall level of consumption of these energy resources? Doubtless not, though these questions of dearth or abundance of energy resources - and, more broadly, of all natural resources -are not solely to be examined in terms of the reserves at our disposal, but also, increasingly, in terms of the limits that ensue from the impact of their consumption on the environment (environmental damage, pollution, climate change etc.), as Cecile Desaunay and Eric Vidalenc show here. Accordingly, they list a series of crucial key questions with regard to the future of our planet's natural resources: is the growth of global resource consumption sustainable? How might energy prices develop? Can we foresee an absolute decoupling of economic growth from material consumption? What are the impacts on our ecosystems of resource degradation; have we passed planetary limits? They go on to stress two deep-seated trends that will have to be taken into account in managing our natural resources sustainably over the coming years: the very great inertia of energy Systems and the possible substitution of alternative energies (and the limits to doing this). The equation is not getting any easier and the lever that is the control of consumption will doubtless have a crucial part to play in the sustainable management of our resources in the medium to long term. (authors)

  19. Biodegradation of bioplastics in natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadian, S Mehdi; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The extensive production of conventional plastics and their use in different commercial applications poses a significant threat to both the fossil fuels sources and the environment. Alternatives called bioplastics evolved during development of renewable resources. Utilizing renewable resources like agricultural wastes (instead of petroleum sources) and their biodegradability in different environments enabled these polymers to be more easily acceptable than the conventional plastics. The biodegradability of bioplastics is highly affected by their physical and chemical structure. On the other hand, the environment in which they are located, plays a crucial role in their biodegradation. This review highlights the recent findings attributed to the biodegradation of bioplastics in various environments, environmental conditions, degree of biodegradation, including the identified bioplastic-degrading microorganisms from different microbial communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecologically Sound Procedural Generation of Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Onrust

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current techniques for the creation and exploration of virtual worlds are largely unable to generate sound natural environments from ecological data and to provide interactive web-based visualizations of such detailed environments. We tackle this challenge and propose a novel framework that (i explores the advantages of landscape maps and ecological statistical data, translating them to an ecologically sound plant distribution, and (ii creates a visually convincing 3D representation of the natural environment suitable for its interactive visualization over the web. Our vegetation model improves techniques from procedural ecosystem generation and neutral landscape modeling. It is able to generate diverse ecological sound plant distributions directly from landscape maps with statistical ecological data. Our visualization model integrates existing level of detail and illumination techniques to achieve interactive frame rates and improve realism. We validated with ecology experts the outcome of our framework using two case studies and concluded that it provides convincing interactive visualizations of large natural environments.

  1. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2012 ... Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa: ... goal of implementing an integrated approach to natural resource ... and the International Water Management Institute in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  2. Integrated Natural Resource Management in the Highlands of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... Book cover Integrated Natural Resource Management in the ... with the common goal of implementing an integrated approach to natural resource ... and the International Water Management Institute in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  3. Sustainable tourism and natural resources management in small islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Morabito, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The present issue reports the results obtained through the activities dedicated to the Management of Natural Resources of Sicily Eco-innovation Project, focused on sustainable tourism. Both studies and interventions were carried out between 2012 and 2015 in collaboration with the City Council and the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, within the islets of Egadi Archipelago (few kilometres offshore of the Sicilian west coast). The study area is characterised by many ecological and naturalistic assets, particularly in the underwater environment, where a very high biodiversity is present thanks to the location and its particular hydrologic conditions. Here, the seabed has an irregular morphology with many cliffs, outcrops, sand banks and submarine valleys. It is a natural laboratory where the seasonal anthropic pressure is strongly related to tourism, leisure and professional/illegal fishing, pollution related to urbanisation (more intense in the Island of Favignana); all activities highly impacting the marine ecosystem and main threat for biological resources [it

  4. Core competencies for natural resource negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.C.; Lamb, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    Natural resource negotiation often involves multiple parties with overlapping interests and issues that can provide opportunities for mutually beneficial solutions. These opportunities can be missed, however, if negotiators are unable to comprehend the facts of a negotiation, understand the interests of other parties, or accurately evaluate the options that increase the size of the negotiation pie. Through structured personal interviews with more than 60 representatives from seven different hydropower negotiations, respondents identified core competencies that help negotiators succeed at accurately comprehending the facts of a negotiation, comprehending the interests of other parties, and fully understanding the available options and alternatives. We categorized those core competencies into three dimensions of negotiation - interpersonal, organizational, and operational.

  5. Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opening Up Natural Resource Based Industries for Innovation (LAC). Commodities based on natural resources account for at least half of the exports of two-thirds of the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). There is growing concern, however, that existing natural resource-based industries are ...

  6. Corruption, Development and the Curse of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pendergast, S.M.; Clarke, J.A.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner found a negative relationship between natural resources and economic growth, and claimed that natural resources are a curse. Their work has been widely cited, with many economists now accepting the curse of natural resources as a welldocumented explanation of

  7. NATURAL RESOURCES – A REAL OR HYPOTHETICAL OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru FRECAUTEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural resources have a controversial accounting treatment which is caused, firstly, by neglecting their inherent properties and, secondly, by a free and one-sided interpretation of the legal framework. The definition of natural resources is bad too, which also creates additional difficulties in accounting of the operations connected with the preparation for natural resources usage and exploitation.

  8. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  9. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  10. Natural radioactivity aspects of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the natural radioactivity distributions and their movement in the oceans and their significance, is of considerable interest, while attempting to understand the impact of man-made radioactivity sources on the marine environment. In this context the interesting environmental behaviour of Radium isotopes ( 226 Ra and 228 Ra) and 210 Pb and 210 Po pair of radionuclides in the marine environment -occurring in 238 U and 232 Th natural radionuclides series have been the subject of considerable investigations as part of the marine biogeochemical studies, some aspects of which are discussed

  11. Mutual Impacts of Geocaching and Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising popularity of geocaching is linked to increased risk of negative impacts on natural environment. Based on that, this paper intends to present possible approach of how to evaluate these impacts in the Landscape protected area Moravian Karst (Czech Republic and in the Vrátna dolina valley (National park Malá Fatra, Slovak Republic. Recreation along with nature conservation has been solved in these areas in the log-run and geocaching has been steadily extending offer of recreational activities. Therefore, it seems desirable to examine how geocaching affects environment and simultaneously how topography or land cover influences availability or difficulty of caches. 57 caches (i.e. one third of the total has been analyzed in the Moravian Karst and 11 caches in the Vrátna dolina valley. To assess impacts, own classification of indicators has been suggested, such as cache attendance, environment attractiveness or visually detected impacts of geocaching on natural environment. Our study revealed the major risk lies primarily in geo-highways which – with respect to soil type, land cover and intensity of cache attendance – grow rather fast. Despite the local nature of detected impacts, an increased attention shall be devoted to environment care and specifically to regulation of attendance.

  12. Leadership Learning Opportunities in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources Education: The Role of The Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Pauley, C. M.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Sorensen, Tyson J.

    2017-01-01

    Learning environments combining agriculture, food, natural resources, and leadership knowledge and skills are increasingly essential in preparing students for future success. School-based agricultural education offers a premier context in which to teach leadership within agriculture, food, and natural resources curriculum. However, providing…

  13. Natural resource dependence, human capital accumulation, and economic growth: A combined explanation for the resource curse and the resource blessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Shuai; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    In existing studies, no consensus has been reached on the relationship between natural resource dependence and human capital accumulation. To narrow the divergence, this paper carries out a normative research to explain the co-existence of the phenomena of the resource curse and the resource blessing based on an organic combination of conceptual and mathematical models. It first establishes a conceptual model to analyse the potential effects of the government's policy preference and natural resource development activities on human capital accumulation and economic growth. Furthermore, it develops an endogenous growth model to normatively illuminate the effects in the conceptual model and to explore the condition for the occurrence of the resource curse. The conceptual model analysis indicates that the rate of return on education investment and government behaviours play the crucial role in promoting the formation of the economic virtuous circle at the micro-level and macro-level, respectively, while resource development activities exert dual impacts on the circle. The main mechanisms in the conceptual model can be validated in the mathematical model. The rise in the subjective discount rate, the elasticity of intertemporal substitution, and resource goods price are adverse to the economic virtuous circle, while high-quality education and the institutional environment giving priority to manufacturing can become the necessary condition and sufficient condition for forming the circle, respectively. The allocation efficiency of production factors plays a decisive role in whether the blessing occurs, whereas sufficient human capital is an essential guarantee for evading the curse. - Highlights: • We conduct normative research combining a conceptual model and a mathematical model. • We discuss the potential impact of resource dependence on human capital and growth. • We explain the co-existence of the resource blessing and resource curse phenomena.

  14. Optimal natural resources management under uncertainty with catastrophic risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoh, Tsujimura [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmochi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    We examine an optimal natural resources management problem under uncertainty with catastrophic risk and investigate the optimal rate of use of a natural resource. For this purpose, we use stochastic control theory. We assume that, until a catastrophic event occurs, the stock of the natural resource is governed by a stochastic differential equation. We describe the catastrophic phenomenon as a Poisson process. From this analysis, we show the optimal rate of use of the natural resource in explicit form. Furthermore, we present comparative static results for the optimal rate of use of the natural resource.

  15. Optimal natural resources management under uncertainty with catastrophic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoh, Tsujimura

    2004-01-01

    We examine an optimal natural resources management problem under uncertainty with catastrophic risk and investigate the optimal rate of use of a natural resource. For this purpose, we use stochastic control theory. We assume that, until a catastrophic event occurs, the stock of the natural resource is governed by a stochastic differential equation. We describe the catastrophic phenomenon as a Poisson process. From this analysis, we show the optimal rate of use of the natural resource in explicit form. Furthermore, we present comparative static results for the optimal rate of use of the natural resource

  16. Natural radiation environment III. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. (KRM)

  17. The Nature of Perceived and Imagined Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, David; Riel, Marquita

    1972-01-01

    The environment has a definite structure, made up of discrete clusters of attributes. The shape and composition of these mental pictures depends on the nature and context of environmental experience. While language (semantic response) at times reinforces experiences, at others the two are opposed. These differences are discussed and analyzed based…

  18. Eco-informatics and natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Schnase, J.; Sonntag, W.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schweik, C.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.

    2006-01-01

    This project highlight reports on the 2004 workshop [1], as well as follow-up activities in 2005 and 2006, regarding how informatics tools can help manage natural resources and decide policy. The workshop was sponsored jointly by sponsored by the NSF, NBII, NASA, and EPA, and attended by practitioners from government and non-government agencies, and university researchers from the computer, social, and ecological sciences. The workshop presented the significant information technology (IT) problems that resource managers face when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. These IT problems fall into five categories: data presentation, data gaps, tools, indicators, and policy making and implementation. To alleviate such problems, we recommend informatics research in four IT areas, as defined in this abstract and our final report: modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. Additionally, we recommend that funding agencies provide infrastructure and some changes in funding habits to assure cycles of innovation in the domain were addressed. Follow-on activities to the workshop subsequent to dg.o 2005 included: an invited talk presenting workshop results at DILS 2005, publication of the workshop final report by the NBII [1], and a poster at the NBII All Hands Meeting (Oct. 2005). We also expect a special issue of the JIIS to appear in 2006 that addresses some of these questions. As we go to press, no solicitation by funding agencies has as yet been published, but various NASA and NBII, and NSF cyber-infrastructure and DG research efforts now underway address the above issues.

  19. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  20. Defining Drought Characteristics for Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Senay, G. B.; McNeeley, S.; Morisette, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    In the north central region of the US, on-going drought studies are investigating factors determining how drought impacts various ecosystem services and challenge natural resource management decisions. The effort reported here stems from research sponsored by the USGS North Central Climate Science Center, to deal with ecosystem response to drought with the goal to see if there are indicators of drought emerging from the ecosystem interactions with various weather patterns, soil moisture dynamics, and the structural aspects of the ecosystem in question. The North Central domain covers a region from the headwaters of the Missouri River Basin to the northern Great Plains. Using spatial and temporal analysis of remote sensing products and mechanistic daily time-step ecosystem model simulations across the northern Great Plains and northern Rockies, analysis of recent drought conditions over the region will be provided. Drought characteristics will be analyzed related to resource management targets, such as water supply, landscape productivity, or habitat needs for key species. Analysis of ecosystem and landscape patterns of drought relative to net primary productivity, surface temperatures, soil moisture content, evaporation, transpiration, and water use efficiency from 2000 through 2014 will be analyzed for different drought and non-drought events. Comparisons between satellite-derived ET and NPP of different Great Plains ecosystems related to simulated ET and NPP will be presented. These comparisons provide indications of the role that soil moisture dynamics, groundwater recharge and rooting depth of different ecosystems have on determining the sensitivity to water stress due to seasonal warming and reduced precipitation across the region. In addition, indications that average annual rainfall levels over certain ecosystems may result in reduced production due to higher rates of water demand under the observed warmer temperatures and the prolonged warming in the spring

  1. Environmental Management: the Ideology of Natural Resource Rational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, V. M.; Gogolin, V. A.; Yazevich, M. Yu; Baumgarten, M. I.; Dyagileva, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the ontological and methodological principles of environmental management. These principles form the united ideology of natural resource rational use as the environment preservation basis. Consideration of environmental issues from the environmental management point of view is stipulated by the concern of the scientific community about the existence of mankind and the sphere of its inhabiting. The need to overcome the stereotypes existing in mass consciousness about safe and environmentally friendly consumption is stressed. The process of forming environmental management policy should contribute to the stabilization (balancing) of the consumers’ expectations and collective decision-making based on a public ecological consensus.

  2. Nuclear energy and natural environment. Information seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The material of the Jadwisin 93' seminar is the collection 20 of 19 articles discussing aspects of the subject of nuclear energy and natural environment. The lectures were presented at six sessions: 1) Nuclear energy applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, food preservation and protection of the environment; 2) Nuclear power in the world; 3) Public attitudes towards different energy options, the example of Sweden; 4) Nuclear power in neighbouring countries; 5) Radiation and human health; 6) Radioactive waste management and potential serious radiological hazards. The general conclusion of the seminar can be as follows. In some cases the nuclear power is a source of environment pollution but very often nuclear techniques are now used and certainly more often in the future will be used for environment and human health protection

  3. Resources for Sale: Corruption, Democracy and the Natural Resource Curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A puzzling piece of empirical evidence suggests that resource-abundant countries tend to grow slower than their resource-poor counterparts. We attempt to explain this phenomenon by developing a lobbying game in which rent seeking firms interact with corrupt governments. The presence or absence of

  4. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop factor model of renewable natural resources management, specifying the assessment of the amount of resource, including the natural factor, consumption level and intensity of reproduction. Methodology. The survey is based on highlighting factors influencing the reproductive capacity of natural environment. It allows, on the base of taking into consideration reproductive abilities of resources and intensity of consumption, to substantiate three models for their use, including: heavy exploitation of renewable natural resources as the most commonly used model at the current level of development of society; model of reproductive use of natural resources, stipulating for the interference from the side of authorities and management, and the model of simple reproduction of renewable natural resources, at which the resource itself and the amount of its reproduction for the next period remain constant. Practical implications. The need is substantiated in implementation of the new model for determination of the processes of managing balanced use of natural resources, which will stipulate processes of reproduction in the sphere of natural management, form new approaches to environmental protection and promote the optimal ratio between the consumption and reproduction of natural resources. At this, the processes of natural reproduction are influenced by the amount of resource itself, intensity of its reproduction and level of consumption. The main objective of the managing bodies in the sphere of the use of renewable natural resources should be securing optimal ratio between consumption and reproduction of such natural resources. The efficiency of the implementation process and reproduction of natural resources presupposes providing their simple and extended reproduction, economic effectiveness and sustainability in allocation and use of such resources. This will have positive effect on ecological and economic security

  5. Trade policies, institutions and the natural resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, R.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    We offer new cross-country evidence on the natural resource curse. We investigate the impact of the interaction of natural resource abundance and policies on growth. We find that the resource curse is less severe in countries with less restrictive trade policies and good institutions. However, we

  6. Natural Resources and Socio-Economic Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mikhaylovna Kapitsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews international debates on development problems of the resource-based economies. It draws atten tion to causes and mechanisms of the so-called "resource curse" and symptoms of systemic breakdowns and stagnant phenomena in resource-based economies named "Dutch disease". Specific attention is given to the role of national elites and institutions in the emergence of "Dutch disease", preservation of economic backwardness and/or de-industrialization of resource-rich countries. The author also considers new approaches to resolving the problem of'resource-curse", in particular, return to traditional instruments of economic diversification as industrialization and protectionism.

  7. Mature Basin Development Portfolio Management in a Resource Constrained Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandhane, J. M.; Udo, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    Nigerian Petroleum industry is constantly faced with management of resource constraints stemming from capital and operating budget, availability of skilled manpower, capacity of an existing surface facility, size of well assets, amount of soft and hard information, etceteras. Constrained capital forces the industry to rank subsurface resource and potential before proceeding with preparation of development scenarios. Availability of skilled manpower limits scope of integrated reservoir studies. Level of information forces technical and management to find low-risk development alternative in a limited time. Volume of either oil or natural gas or water or combination of them may be constrained due to design limits of the existing facility, or an external OPEC quota, requires high portfolio management skills.The first part of the paper statistically analyses development portfolio of a mature basin for (a) subsurface resources volume, (b) developed and undeveloped and undeveloped volumes, (c) sweating of wells, and (d) facility assets. The analysis presented conclusively demonstrates that the 80/20 is active in the statistical sample. The 80/20 refers to 80% of the effect coming from the 20% of the cause. The second part of the paper deals with how 80/20 could be applied to manage portfolio for a given set of constraints. Three application examples are discussed. Feedback on implementation of them resulting in focussed resource management with handsome rewards is documented.The statistical analysis and application examples from a mature basin form a way forward for a development portfolio management in an resource constrained environment

  8. Bridging the gap between landscape ecologyand natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Thomas R. Crow; Jianguo Liu; Dale Rabe; Charles F. Rabeni; Patricia A. Soranno; William W. Taylor; Kristiina A. Vogt; John A. Wiens

    2002-01-01

    The challenges facing natural resource managers occur over entire landscapes and involve landscape components at many scales. Many resource managers are shifting their approach from managing resources such as fish, wildlife, and water separately to managing for the integrity of entire ecosystems (Christensen et al., 1996). Indeed, nearly all resource...

  9. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught…

  10. Study on the natural and humanistic environment of runcheng town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Nie; Jinping, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Runcheng town is one of the first Chinese characteristic towns to be selected in Shanxi province. It is 38 kilometers from the Jin city and 7 kilometers from Yangcheng County. It’s also an important undertaking place for the project “Industrial Westward Move of Jincheng City” and an important tourist town of Qin Castle Valley. The Runcheng town has a history of thousands of years, with a deep cultural background and unique natural landscape. This paper studies the history and cultural resources and makes a preliminary study on the natural and humanistic environment of the Runcheng town.

  11. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and utilization...

  12. Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in the Sahel ... as well as strategies for managing the resource base with a view to improving food security. ... InnoVet-AMR grants to support development of innovative veterinary ...

  13. MULTIFACETED APPROACH TO NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: ETHNOLOGY, GEOGRAPHY, CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Slipenchuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issue of interaction between man and nature is one of the most pressing challenges. One of the aspects of this interaction, as well as one of the prior scientific directions and use of natural resources, is natural resource management. A limited amount of many resources and the limits of environmental capacity of nature raise questions of equity to the interests of different generations, which implies the need to decide on the optimal use of natural resource potential of territories currently and in the future. The complex nature of the relationships that form the structure of resources management as a complex system, dictates the need for a comprehensive approach to its study. System analysis is this type of approach. It allows holding studies of the functions of resources management and identifying problems to its development.

  14. Exhaustible natural resources, normal prices and intertemporal equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension of the classical theory of normal prices to an n-commodity economy with exhaustible natural resources. The central idea is developed by two analytical steps. Firstly, it is assumed that a given flow of an exhaustible resource in short supply is combined with the coexistence of two methods of production using that resource. Sraffa’s equations are reinterpreted by adopting the concept of effectual supply of natural resources and avoiding the assumption of perfec...

  15. Ecotourism, environmental preservation and conflicts over natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has profound social impacts through the transformations it generates in the distribution of access to natural resources. At the heart of this transformation stands the paradox of ecotourism: it exploits natural environments while at the same time depending on their preservation. As a result, ecotourism has increasingly become articulated with environmental policies, in particular the creation of protected areas. Such policies have privileged those environments that are of interest to the ecotourism industry. They have also served to restrict competing forms of resource use. Local populations in particular have seen their access to natural resources diminished. This paper explores interest conflicts between local and external user groups in an ecotourism destination in Southern Bahia. Its focus is on strategies through which external groups related to ecotourism and environmental preservation have sought to appropriate control over natural resources.O ecoturismo tem implicações sociais de longo alcance devido às transformações que ele gera na distribuição do acesso a recursos naturais. O paradoxo do ecoturismo está no cerne dessas transformações: ao mesmo tempo em que o ecoturismo explora habitats naturais, ele depende da preservação destes. Conseqüentemente, cada vez mais o ecoturismo se associa a políticas ambientais, especialmente aquelas que dizem respeito à criação de reservas naturais. Tais políticas têm privilegiado os habitats que interessam à indústria de ecoturismo e têm restringido outras formas de se fazer uso daqueles recursos naturais. Quem tem cada vez menos acesso, em particular, a esses recursos são as populações nativas. O presente artigo examina os conflitos de interesse entre grupos locais e exteriores de usuários em uma região de ecoturismo no Sul da Bahia. O foco do artigo está nas estratégias relativas ao ecoturismo e à preservação ambiental, acionadas por não-nativos, para ganhar

  16. Past and present management of water resources in karst environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Karst is a very peculiar environment, and has a number of intrinsic features that clearly distinguish it from any other natural setting. Hydrology of karst is dominated by absence or very scarce presence of surface runoff, since water rapidly infiltrates underground through the complex network of conduits and fissures that are at the origin of the development of karst caves. The limited presence of water at the surface represented the main problem to be faced by man, starting from the very first historic phases of establishing settlements in karst territories. As often happens in areas with limited natural resources, man was however able to understand the local environment through observations and direct experience, develop technique in order to collect the limited available water resources, and adapt his way of life to the need of the natural environment. In a few words, a sustainable use of the water resources was reached, that went on for many centuries, allowing development of human settlements and agriculture, and, at the same time, protecting and safeguarding the precious hydric resources. Some of the most typical rural architectures built in karst areas of the Mediterranean Basin can be described as examples of such efforts: from the dry stone walls, to many types of storage-houses or dwellings, known with different names, depending upon the different countries and regions. Dry stone walls, in particular, deserve a particular attention, since they had multiple functions: to delimit the fields and properties, to act as a barrier to soil erosion, to allow terracing the high-gradient slopes, to collect and store water. At this latter aim, dry stone walls were build in order to create a small but remarkable micro-environment, functioning as collectors of moisture and water vapour. In the last centuries, with particular regard to the last decades of XX century, the attention paid by man to the need of the natural environment has dramatically changed. This

  17. Natural resource workshop: Public/private partnership for sustainable use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    As part of an effort to shape Federal policy for environmentally sound, sustainable economic development, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy sponsored a workshop in Boise, Idaho on February 1--2, 1995. The Boise Idaho workshop focused on the sustainable use of natural resources, a topic of considerable interest in Idaho. The workshop gave representatives from industry, academia, research, the public, and local and state government an opportunity to provide input to lawmakers and policymakers for establishing a National Environmental Technology Strategy to be issued by Earth Day, 1995.

  18. ECONOMIC NATURE AND THE ROLE OF NATURAL RESOURCES PAYMENTS UNDER SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zalievska-Shyshak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature and value of natural resources payments under sustainable economic development are revealed. Mechanisms of using of natural resources potential of Ukraine are examined. Payments for use of natural resources is one of the most important components of an economic mechanism of nature management are established. Features of current legislation as to the setting fees for nature management are studied and the necessity of creating an effective institutional support in controlling of tax authorities for the collection of payments for natural resources and their evaluation is proved.

  19. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. ... resource management that want to include a gender perspective. ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs.

  20. participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Resource Management Programme had empowered the beneficiaries in problem identification, ways of seeking for solution, project planning, implementation, ..... International Journal of Research, Innovations and Sustainable Development,.

  1. The Role of Natural Resource Professionals in Addressing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna B. Allred

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource professionals, ranging from forest managers and educators to floodplain managers, play a critical role in implementing and conducting outreach with regards to climate mitigation and adaptation appropriate to local and regional scales. Natural resource professionals can also pave the way by adopting actions that serve as demonstrations of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions or adapt natural systems for the future. A web survey of 1488 natural resource professionals across New York State (NYS was conducted to assess their attitudes toward climate change, views toward climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, actions taken to address climate change, and barriers faced as they relate to their professional responsibilities. The majority of natural resource professionals believe that climate change is happening, but there was slightly less agreement about human causes of climate change. Most natural resource professionals (69% see evidence of how climate change is impacting natural resources in NYS, but few (17% believed that there was sufficient information about how to address climate impacts at the local level. Nearly 60% of natural resources professionals undertook climate mitigation or adaptation actions in their work. Prominent influencing factors for action were proactive leadership and local impacts. Barriers to taking action on climate change were a lack of human and financial resources, the nature of costs relative to benefits, and lack of perceived threat. As managers and educators responsible for local water, land, and wildlife resources, natural resource professionals witness changes resulting from climate change first-hand. This paper will be useful to decision-makers at state and federal government levels regarding policies, incentives, and guidance that can be created with the goal of promoting a sound natural resource strategy in support of climate change readiness.

  2. The distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides from ores processing to the environment - a case study of milling and treatment of ores for gold in Golden Star Resources of Bogoso Prestea Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbadago, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    This research work was geared towards studying the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides from the processing stages of oxide and sulphide ores for gold to the critical environment of the Golden Star Resources of Bogoso Prestea Limited in the Western region of Ghana. The study was carried out by measuring the natural radionuclide contents of raw feed ore and pulp samples from physical and chemical processing stages of oxide and sulphide ore treatment plants; tailings; de-silted sediments of a run-off from the tailings dam vicinity through a critical community and; soils and drinking water from the critical community. Also, as part of a comprehensive approach, the geochemical compositions were measured to determine any possible influence on the radionuclide distributions. Amongst the radionuclide decay chains, 238 U-series were the dominant throughout all the measurements. However, the concentrations are lower than the world permissible limits. The indicative doses associated with the activity concentration distributions in the processed feed ores at various processing stages ranged from 2 to 70 μSv/y in the oxide plant and from 2 to 108 μSv/y for the sulphide plant. If effective dose of ≤ 10 μSv/y recommended by IAEA for exemption from regulatory control is applied, the processing of ores in the plants must be regulated. However, the estimated annual effective dose received by the workers from any of these stages of operation did not exceed the range of 1-2 mSv recommended by the ICRP-75 (10 μSv/y ≤ Effective dose ≤ 1-2 mSv/y) for the exemption of a practice. This range is far lower than the annual occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/y recommended by IAEA for artificial radioactive sources. Imposing the IAEA recommendation of effective dose of ? 10 μSv/y for exemption from regulatory control of practices could result in many mining and other NORMs industries being regulated without any net benefit in terms of risk reduction. Conversely, Sn, As

  3. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  4. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  5. Quantitative analysis of natural resource management options at different scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Natural capital (land, water, air) consists of many resources, each with its own quality, dynamics and renewability, but with strong interactions. The increasing competition for the natural resources, especially land and water, calls for a basic redirection in the analysis of land use. In this

  6. Linking ecological and social scales for natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiina A. Vogt; Morgan Grove; Heidi Asjornsen; Keely B. Maxwell; Daniel J. Vogt; Ragnhildur Sigurdardottir; Bruce C. Larson; Leo Schibli; Michael Dove

    2002-01-01

    Natural resource management has moved from a single disciplinary and one resource management approach to an interdisciplinary and ecosystem-based approach. Many conceptual models are being developed to understand and implement ecosystem management and forest certification initiatives that require an integration of data from both the social and natural systems (Vogt...

  7. The Carbon Cycle: Teaching Youth about Natural Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon cycle was used as a conceptual construct for organizing the curriculum for a youth summer camp on natural resource use and sustainability. Several studies have indicated the importance of non-traditional youth education settings for science education and understanding responsible natural resource use. The Sixth Grade Forestry Tour, a…

  8. Critical Thinking for Natural Resource, Agricultural, and Environmental Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…

  9. Case studies of natural resource access in Jharkhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    This policy brief illustrates that decentralisation can only effectively support residents’ access to natural resources if it both resolves policy overlaps at multiple levels to bring about inclusive and equitable access and aligns policies with ground realities for specific natural resources....

  10. Politics of Natural Resource Management and Accountable Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political behaviour of public institutions exhibited in the management of critical natural ... natural resource management and the modes in which they impact on accountable systems in Uganda. ... the provision of critical resources such as water at the expense of consumers and citizens. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Natural resources management by local associations in Ifedore local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of natural resource by local associations not only in its socio ecological but also in its socio economic context will go a long way in reducing environmental degradation in some local communities. This study examined the operational capacity for natural resource management by local associations in Ifedore ...

  12. Barriers and Perceptions of Natural Resource Careers by Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…

  13. Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... ... processes concerning the access, use, and management of natural resources. ... English · Français ... Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management: Learning Studies and Lessons from Asia ... gender analysis, including questions of class, caste, and ethnicity, into their everyday work.

  14. Using STELLA Simulation Models to Teach Natural Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how graphical simulation models created using STELLA software can be used to present natural resource systems in an intuitive way in undergraduate natural resource economics classes based on his experiences at a leading research university, a state university, and a leading liberal arts college in the United…

  15. Assessing and Managing Natural Resource Damages: Continuing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Stahl, Ralph G.

    2017-05-01

    In a 2002 paper, we discussed the technical challenges associated with quantifying natural resource injuries, service losses and damages, and suggested some actions that might help to overcome them. An important suggestion was to consider using some of the approaches in ecological risk assessment to help evaluate potential natural resource injuries, and ultimately in some cases to help translate those injuries into natural resource service loss. This was based on the observation that ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessments use much of the same types of data, but at that time the experience base with ecological risk assessment was greater than for natural resource damage assessments. We also discussed some of the issues in applying the then current Department of Interior natural resource damage assessments regulations. Since our 2002 publication the scientific literature, relevant regulations, the global context and more have changed. In the current paper we focus on the technical and regulatory changes in natural resource damage assessments practice since 2002, and use recent reports and publications to illustrate those changes and identify new directions in natural resource damage assessments.

  16. Will Natural Resources Professionals Volunteer to Teach Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…

  17. Sustainable Management of Natural Resources for Socio-Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper studies sustainable management of natural resources for socio economic development in Imo state. This it does with the aim to determine the extent to which the exploration and exploitation of natural resources has affected the ecological and environmental conditions of the area. The research also tends to ...

  18. Bringing climate change into natural resource management: proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Joyce; R. Haynes; R. White; R.J. Barbour

    2007-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 2005 workshop titled implications of bringing climate into natural resource management in the Western United States. This workshop was an attempt to further the dialogue among scientists, land managers, landowners, interested stakeholders and the public about how individuals are addressing climate change in natural resource management....

  19. Partnerships in natural resource agencies: a conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine V. Darrow; Jerry J. Vaske

    1995-01-01

    To meet financial constraints while maintaining or improving programs, natural resource managers have increasingly turned to partnerships with other public agencies or private businesses. The process of developing a successful partnership, however, is rarely chronicled, much less empirically studied. By using the available natural resource and business management...

  20. Cultural resource management and the necessity of cultural and natural resource collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick Kevin Donald; Kara Kusche; Collin Gaines

    2005-01-01

    Cultural Resource Specialists function as interpreters of past and present human behavior through the analysis of cultural/natural resources vital to human ecological sustainability. When developing short and long-term preservation strategies for cultural resources, it is more current and innovative for Cultural Resource Specialists to think of past human populations...

  1. Ethnic and institutional aspects of natural resources of the North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Grigoryevich Loginov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper questions of social and economic development of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in their traditional places of living and traditional business activities are considered. Influence of the process of commercial development on a natural complex and indigenous people owing to negative consequences of policy of use of raw material resources is shown. Problems of interaction of representatives of indigenous ethnicities and subsoil users while developing mineral deposits and implementation of infrastructure projects in northern areas in an existing institutional framework are revealed. The issue in the definition of damage to territories of traditional environmental management because of the absence of approved at the Federal Level and the regulations adapted in regions is noted. The directions on the preservation of the environment and conditions for a habitation of indigenous people and development of branches of traditional environmental management in the conditions of proceeding process of exploitation of natural resources in areas of their accommodation are offered.

  2. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R J; Hensel, E C; Morabito, P N; Roundtree, K A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  3. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... also be a valuable resource for graduate students in development studies and for ... In that position, he was responsible for a portfolio of more than 75 projects in 12 ... He holds a doctorate in city and regional planning from the University of ...

  4. Natural resource damage assessments: Linking injury to restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, M.; Collinson-Kahl, C.

    1993-01-01

    Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90), natural resource trustees have the authority to act on behalf of the public to file claims for damages against potentially responsible parties for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources and related human services caused by releases of hazardous substances or discharges of oil. Damages recovered must be used to restore, replace, or acquire the equivalent of such resources. Therefore, to adequately restore an injured resource and the services it provides, a natural resource restoration proposal should address, as directly as possible, the injuries caused by a hazardous substance release. In other words, the resources restored and services generated by the restoration activities should be commensurate in type and amount with the reduction in services caused by the release. More specifically, the natural resource damage assessment regulations indicate that services should be used as the common currency for linking injury to restoration. The following conceptual steps may be followed to develop a primary restoration program that is linked to the injuries: Define the resources that were injured, and identify the services provided by those resources that were reduced by the injury. Define the baseline levels of the quantity of the resource, and the quantity of the services that would have been provided by the resource if the injury had not occurred. Quantify the interim lost value, which represents the reduction in services (compared to a baseline) from the time of the injury through the time of full recovery of the resources, assuming natural recovery. Evaluate the potential restoration projects for inclusion in the primary restoration program, which is designed to accelerate and enhance natural recovery of the resources and the flow of services from the resources

  5. Multipass Target Search in Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Michael J; Otte, Michael W; Sofge, Donald; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2017-11-02

    Consider a disaster scenario where search and rescue workers must search difficult to access buildings during an earthquake or flood. Often, finding survivors a few hours sooner results in a dramatic increase in saved lives, suggesting the use of drones for expedient rescue operations. Entropy can be used to quantify the generation and resolution of uncertainty. When searching for targets, maximizing mutual information of future sensor observations will minimize expected target location uncertainty by minimizing the entropy of the future estimate. Motion planning for multi-target autonomous search requires planning over an area with an imperfect sensor and may require multiple passes, which is hindered by the submodularity property of mutual information. Further, mission duration constraints must be handled accordingly, requiring consideration of the vehicle's dynamics to generate feasible trajectories and must plan trajectories spanning the entire mission duration, something which most information gathering algorithms are incapable of doing. If unanticipated changes occur in an uncertain environment, new plans must be generated quickly. In addition, planning multipass trajectories requires evaluating path dependent rewards, requiring planning in the space of all previously selected actions, compounding the problem. We present an anytime algorithm for autonomous multipass target search in natural environments. The algorithm is capable of generating long duration dynamically feasible multipass coverage plans that maximize mutual information using a variety of techniques such as ϵ -admissible heuristics to speed up the search. To the authors' knowledge this is the first attempt at efficiently solving multipass target search problems of such long duration. The proposed algorithm is based on best first branch and bound and is benchmarked against state of the art algorithms adapted to the problem in natural Simplex environments, gathering the most information in the

  6. Power and Purity: Nature as Resource in a Troubled Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gremaud, Ann-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses representations of nature as brand and resource in current Icelandic society. This is done through an interdisciplinary approach consisting of concepts from the discipline of cultural geography and the analytical methodologies of visual cultural, imagology, discourse and brand analysis used to highlight key narratives in images and written sources. The article discusses how ideas of purity are used in branding strategies and what they mean in Iceland today e.g. as a part of the emerging regional consciousness of ‘Arctic Iceland.’ The current overlapping crises of the economy, the environment and the collective self-image in Iceland have fostered critical representations of the past, present and future of the relationship between humans and the environment. Thus utilitarian environmental policies and shallow ecology is treated critically in contemporary Icelandic art, as is the question of what constitutes pollution. Such internal conflicts of interest are analysed to show critical perspectives on the dominant narratives about Icelandic nature and society that are communicated to the outside world through nation branding.

  7. Greening healthcare: practicing as if the natural environment really mattered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L

    2002-01-01

    The natural world's role in human well-being is an essential, yet often forgotten, aspect of healthcare. Of particular importance are the benefits one can derive through interaction with natural environments. While health is an obvious goal of allopathic medicine, many healthcare settings are neither nurturing nor healing. Reincorporating the natural world into the design of settings in which medicine is practiced is one way to complement conventional healing modalities and move healthcare toward being more "green." This article discusses the breadth of existing knowledge available on the positive aspects of interaction with nature and provides a comprehensive theoretical perspective for future research. Computerized searches were conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Social and Scientific Science Indices, Dissertation Abstracts, Lexus-Nexus, the University of Michigan library, and the Internet. Searches were conducted from June 2001 through March 2002. Keywords used included health, well-being stress, attention, nature, garden, landscape, restorative, and healing. The literature, published between 1960 and 2001, came from various disciplines, including medicine, public health, nursing psychology, natural resources, history, and landscape architecture. Four components of well-being were used as a framework for literature selection: physical psychological-emotional social, and spiritual. Articles were qualitatively reviewed to extract theories, hypotheses, and experimental evidence. Interaction with nature positively affects multiple dimensions of human health. Physiological effects of stress on the autonomic nervous system are lessened. Psychologically, deficits in attention can be restored or minimized, and people report feeling greater satisfaction with a variety of aspects of life. The presence of the natural world promotes social health by encouraging positive social interaction and lessening the frequency of aggressive behavior. Spiritual well-being is

  8. Strategic Coupling Based on Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus

    The topic of this thesis is the resourced-based industrialization of the Mekong River Delta (MRD) Region of Vietnam. It shows how a region is linked with the world market and how settlements and living conditions are being transformed as part of a globalized regional development. A modular theory......-building approach rooted in the Global Production Network (GPN) framework constitutes the analytical approach to the thesis, providing pertinent conceptualizations to explore and discuss how a globalized regional development unfolds. The main theoretical concept of the thesis is that of strategic coupling......, an established concept within the GPN framework that explores and explains how local assets are molded to complement the needs of the global market. However, existing applications of the notion of strategic coupling do not cover the situation in which a resource-based economy is coupled with the world market...

  9. Polarization Of Light In The Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Kinsell L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a characterization of the fields of light polarization with which the optical designer or user of optical devices in the natural environment must be concerned. After a brief historical outline of the principal developments in polarization theory and observations during the last two centuries, the main emphasis is on the two primary processes responsible for the polarization of light in nature--scattering of light by particles of the atmosphere and reflection from soils, vegetation, snow, and water at the earth's surface. Finally, a seven minute film on polarization effects which can be seen in everyday surroundings will be shown. Scattering by atmospheric particles is responsible for high values of polarization in various atmospheric conditions and at certain scattering geometries. Such scattering particles include molecules of the atmospheric gases, aerosols of dust, haze, and air pollution, water droplets of fog and clouds, and the ice crystals of cirrus. It is seen that development of the theory of scattering by such particles has outstripped the measurements necessary for validation of the theory, a fact which points up the importance of symposia such as the present one. The reverse is true, however, for the polarizing properties of natural surfaces. Only in the case of still water is the theory of reflection adequate to characterize in a quantitative fashion the polarizing effects produced by the reflection of light from such natural surfaces. Polarization of light by reflection from vegetation is of prime importance in a remote sensing context, but much further work is needed to characterize vegetative reflectance for the purpose. The short film on polarization effects provides a good visualization technique and training aid for students interested in the field.

  10. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

  12. Flow and transport in the natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, W. L.

    An international symposium on flow and transport in the natural environment was held in early September in Canberra. The meeting, sponsored by the Australian Academy o f Science and hosted by the Division of Environmental Mechanics to mark the official opening of Stage 2 of its laboratory, attracted over 100 scientists representing 10 countries.The symposium, organized around flow and transport processes in soil, plants, and the lower layers of the atmosphere, identified and discussed areas where significant advances have taken place over the past 20 years. In addition, it pointed to gaps and weaknesses in present-day understanding. A quarter of the meeting was devoted to closely related transport processes arising in industrial applications.

  13. Importance-performance analysis: an application to Michigan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Sanders; Erin White; Lori Pennington-Gray

    2001-01-01

    In the state of Michigan, the nature-based tourist is becoming an increasingly important target market for providers of natural resources. To meet the demands of this growing market segment, evaluation strategies for nature-based sites are needed to maintain and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Evaluation strategies that incorporate consumer input can help to...

  14. Glossary of natural resource; Glossar zum Ressourcenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmol, Jan; Kanthak, Judit; Herrmann, Friederike; Golde, Michael; Alsleben, Carsten; Penn-Bressel, Gertrude; Schmitz, Stefan; Gromke, Ulrich

    2012-01-15

    The contribution under consideration presents the most important terms in a logical context, and distinguishes clearly between these technical terms. Thus, this contribution raises the profile of the scientific, political and public debate. The glossary is being developed by an interdisciplinary working group of the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) since 2009. In 2010, the glossary was co-ordinated with parts of the German scientific community.

  15. Environment, energy, and world food resources. New challenges to research and technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stever, H G [National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1976-07-01

    If one tried to decide upon one single urgent task, a challenge for the natural sciences and technology alike, one probably would have to name the following: promotion of sound and appropriate economic growth by means of more effective and efficient utilization of resources; i.e., energy and natural resources of all kinds (whether these may be renewable or not), the process to be carried out by means that show as much concern for the environment as possible.

  16. Rethinking the area of protection "natural resources" in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, Jo; Benini, Lorenzo; Mancini, Lucia; Sala, Serenella; Blengini, Gian Andrea; Ardente, Fulvio; Recchioni, Marco; Maes, Joachim; Pant, Rana; Pennington, David

    2015-05-05

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) in classical life cycle assessment (LCA) aims at analyzing potential impacts of products and services typically on three so-called areas of protection (AoPs): Natural Environment, Human Health, and Natural Resources. This paper proposes an elaboration of the AoP Natural Resources. It starts with analyzing different perspectives on Natural Resources as they are somehow sandwiched in between the Natural Environment (their cradle) and the human-industrial environment (their application). Reflecting different viewpoints, five perspectives are developed with the suggestion to select three in function of classical LCA. They result in three safeguard subjects: the Asset of Natural Resources, their Provisioning Capacity, and their role in Global Functions. Whereas the Provisioning Capacity is fully in function of humans, the global functions go beyond provisioning as they include nonprovisioning functions for humans and regulating and maintenance services for the globe as a whole, following the ecosystem services framework. A fourth and fifth safeguard subject has been identified: recognizing the role Natural Resources for human welfare, either specifically as building block in supply chains of products and services as such, either with or without their functions beyond provisioning. But as these are far broader as they in principle should include characterization of mechanisms within the human industrial society, they are considered as subjects for an integrated sustainability assessment (LCSA: life cycle sustainability assessment), that is, incorporating social, economic and environmental issues.

  17. Use of natural resources for sustainable roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available but became an essential component of most projects worldwide only in the late 1980’s (and in South Africa in the early 1990s (Paige-Green et al, 1991)) following the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission...) in 1987 and the declaration at the “Rio de Janiero Earth Summit” (UN Agenda 21) in 1992 with implementation of Agenda 21 being reaffirmed at the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002. The early Environmental Impact Assessment...

  18. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  19. Polution of basic natural resources with hazardous matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Ljubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes conceptual guidelines and a multidimensional approach to the thematic of agriculture as a land property with rich and available natural resources, which are characterized by their specifics. Specifics of natural resources are characterized by renewable and non-renewable contents without which life is impossible, and these basic contents are land, air and water. In addition, agrarians and agriculture have natural riches in their possession, out of which food for living creatures on the planet is produced. Natural resources are the contents of agrarians and with every pollution, and thus destruction of natural resources, it damages and destroys sustainability of both natural resources and the sustainability of agriculture with its content of living creatures and plants on which life and survival on this planet depend on. Any pollution, especially from hazardous substances and excessive treatment from the air and ground, causes damage, destruction and loss of life which is contained by living creatures and plant life, a prerequisite for sustainable development and the survival on Earth. The problem and aim of this paper is to point out and prove a phenomenon of the modern world, which poses a threat to the survival of natural resources, and thus life to living things and plant life on Earth. However, the aforementioned phenomenon is not a much known one, it's only known to a shortlist of scientists and theoreticians, while the general public is not aware of the mentioned and doesn't even assume the consequences of the threat.

  20. Energy resources and the environment. [6 essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenihan, J; Fletcher, W W [eds.

    1975-01-01

    Exploitation of energy has some impact on the environment. Six essays are presented to examine the variety of problems: (1) Sir Samuel Curran, in Energy and the Needs of Man, concludes that techniques to produce new energy sources will be found, bur conservation and the population explosion must be seriously examined; (2) Dr. Earl Cook, in Flow of Energy Through Technological Society, shows where energy comes from, how it is used and how it returns to the environment; he emphasizes the inefficiency of many energy conversion processes in consequence of the Second law of Thermodynamics; (3) Dr. Andrew Parteous, in Economical Use of Energy and Materials, explains energy not only used in heating, lighting, and transport, but in industry; his accounting of energy shows waste, and he stresses recycling and recovering the energy in domestic waste; (4) Sir Frank McFadzean, in Energy--the International Scene, examines the interplay of economics, technology, and politics in the oil industry; he suggests that more mature international leadership is needed to overcome the current difficulties facing producers and consumers; (5) J. D. Dunster, in The Atom and the Environment, examines the environmental impact of nuclear energy where the safety standards are more strenuous, but are feared more; he is a proponent of nuclear energy, but says an overall energy policy, balancing environmental factors against economic and political considerations, is needed; Dr. B. J. Brinkworth, in Direct Use of Solar Energy, reminds us that the Sun is the ultimate source of energy, and says solar energy can be exploited globally without damaging the environment. (MCW)

  1. An overview of forestry in the Farm Bill and Natural Resources Conservation Service forestry resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Henriksen

    2010-01-01

    Since 1935, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (originally the Soil Conservation Service) has provided leadership in a partnership effort to help America's private landowners and managers conserve their soil, water, and other natural resources. NRCS employees provide technical assistance based on sound science and suited to a customer's...

  2. Meet EPA Natural Resource Economist Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Mazzotta, Ph.D. currently works as an Economist at EPA's Atlantic Ecology Division. Her research focuses on the public's valuation and prioritization of natural resources, and the relationship between ecological changes and economic benefits.

  3. Collaborative Learning in Practice: Examples from Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-01

    Dec 1, 2010 ... Case studies show how, through joint efforts with researchers and other actors, local ... address and learn from challenges in managing natural resources. ... health, and health systems research relevant to the emerging crisis.

  4. Impact of Land Reform Migration on Natural Resource Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-09-04

    Mobile Nav Footer Links ... Impact of Land Reform Migration on Natural Resource Management in Zimbabwe ... to migrants' livelihoods; determine the relationship between gender, poverty and access to forest ... Start Date. September 4, 2008 ...

  5. Natural resources conflicts and the biofuel industry: implications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-07

    Sep 7, 2010 ... Keywords: Bio.fuel; natural resources conflicts,- land grabbing; Jatropha curcas .... arrangement, the legal interest in the Ashanti and Akyem lands went to the ..... economically competitive with it, and be producible in sufficient ...

  6. Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Natural Resource Protection and Child Health Indicators, 2013 Release, are produced in support of the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation as selection criteria...

  7. Social and Gender Analysis in Natural Resource Management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They also highlight a number of methods used and adapted in the very diverse ..... Knowledge of and experience in social science research among natural resource ...... Gangtok: Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Department of Planning, ...

  8. Gender Division and Utilization of Natural Resources: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It farther focuses on gendered decision-making and negotiation over the ... Roles of men and women in natural resources use, management and ... Special attention should be paid on treating male and female on rational and equal basis.

  9. rethinking forestry and natural resources higher Education in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is agreed that higher education relating to forestry and natural resources in Ethiopia ...... Forestry education and training for non-traditional target groups; ... in modern spatial information science and survey techniques; (f) contributing to the.

  10. Reframing resources and public goods: an integrative approach to natural resources security at regional scale

    OpenAIRE

    Negrutiu, Ioan; Fernandez, Edgar F.; Malwé, Claire; Salles, Jean-Michel; Collart Dutilleul, François; Merchez, Luc; Weber, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Human history can be mirrored in a geo-history of natural resources. Humans, by over-exploiting resources (“forcing”), have produced extensive land use changes and have altered complex food webs, ecosystems, and habitats with as a consequence systematic natural biocapacity erosion, biodiversity loss, energy crises, pollution, climate deregulation. In other terms, a global resources “rush” has led to chronic socio-ecosystemic deficits, thus creating the conditions for local and global state sh...

  11. On library information resources construction under network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huifang; Wang Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    Information resources construction is the primary task and critical measures for libraries. In the 2lst century, the knowledge economy era, with the continuous development of computer network technology, information resources have become an important part of libraries which have been a significant indicator of its capacity construction. The development of socialized Information, digitalization and internalization has put forward new requirements for library information resources construction. This paper describes the impact of network environment on construction of library information resources and proposes the measures of library information resources. (authors)

  12. Natural resources management in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, W.T. [USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The international science community has issued a series of predictions of global atmospheric change that, if they verify, will have heretofore unexperienced impact on our forests. Convincing the public and their natural resource managers to respond to these effects must be high on the agenda of the science community. Mitigative and adapative responses we examine and propose, however, should stem from an understanding of the evolving role of the natural resource manager and how that role might be affected by global change.

  13. Endangered Species and Natural Resource Exploitation: Extinction vs. Coexistence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    1994-01-01

    The threat on the survival of animal species due to intensive use of natural resources is incorporated within resource management models, paying special attention to uncertainty regarding the conditions that lead to extinction. The manner in which the potential benefits forgone due to the species extinction (denoted extinction penalty) induce more conservative exploitation policies is studied in detail. When the extinction penalty is ignored, the optimal policy is to drive the resource stock ...

  14. Natural resources and government revenue : recent trends in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This document discusses recent trends in Saskatchewan regarding natural resources and government revenue. It discusses the history of politics in terms of government expenditure and investment in natural resources; the polarization between urban and rural areas; natural resources and capital accumulation and economic rent and royalties from resource extraction. The document also discusses several industries in Saskatchewan including petroleum, natural gas discovery and extraction. Uranium and coal mining activities were also documented along with other minerals such as gold, diamonds, and sodium sulphate. The article focused on the share of economic rent going to the general public compared to the amount going to private corporations. The author argued that with rising prices for natural resources, the provincial government has been transferring billions of dollars of resources rent to private investors by reducing royalties, fees and taxes. This has resulted in less revenue for the provincial government to spend on programs such as health, education and public services. The author suggested that concerted efforts must be put forward to put the issue of the public role in resource development back on the government agenda. 99 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Analytical group decision making in natural resources: methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2000-01-01

    Group decision making is becoming increasingly important in natural resource management and associated scientific applications, because multiple values are treated coincidentally in time and space, multiple resource specialists are needed, and multiple stakeholders must be included in the decision process. Decades of social science research on decision making in groups...

  16. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  17. Conflicts over natural resources in the Global South : conceptual approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.; Pellegrini, L.; Mostert, E.

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources - whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land - severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume

  18. Population Dynamics and Natural Resources in the Volta in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, population growth is causing shortfalls in agricultural land, deforestation and high demand on water resources in some of the sub-basins of the Volta River Keywords: Population, Natural resources, Volta River Basin, Human Settlement Land Use/Coverage Change Ghana Journal of Development Studies Vol.

  19. 10 CFR 960.4-2-8-1 - Natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., scarcity, and technology—the natural resources, including ground water suitable for crop irrigation or... resource. (2) Ground water with 10,000 parts per million or more of total dissolved solids along any path.... (5) Potential for foreseeable human activities—such as ground-water withdrawal, extensive irrigation...

  20. Partnerships panel: natural, resource partnerships: literature synthesis and research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Selin; Nancy Myers

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of an annotated bibliography on natural resource partnerships. Resource areas and management functions addressed in the partnership literature are examined. Partnership research is summarized and broken into categories including: Partnership outcomes, assessing the potential for partnerships, characteristics of successful partnerships,...

  1. Decentralising Natural Resource Management and the Politics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralising Natural Resource Management and the Politics of Institutional Resource Management in Uganda's Forest Sub-Sector. ... December 1992, Uganda has implemented wide-ranging public sector reforms as a part of ... insulate decision making over the allocation of licences from higher-level political pressures, ...

  2. Knowledge Flow Rules of Modern Design under Distributed Resource Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of modern design under the distributed resource environment is interpreted as the process of knowledge flow and integration. As the acquisition of new knowledge strongly depends on resources, knowledge flow can be influenced by technical, economic, and social relation factors, and so forth. In order to achieve greater efficiency of knowledge flow and make the product more competitive, the root causes of the above factors should be acquired first. In this paper, the authors attempt to reveal the nature of design knowledge flow from the perspectives of fluid dynamics and energy. The knowledge field effect and knowledge agglomeration effect are analyzed, respectively, in which the knowledge field effect model considering single task node and the single knowledge energy model in the knowledge flow are established, then the general expression of knowledge energy conservation with consideration of the kinetic energy and potential energy of knowledge is built. Then, the knowledge flow rules and their influential factors including complete transfer and incomplete transfer of design knowledge are studied. Finally, the coupling knowledge flows in the knowledge service platform for modern design are analyzed to certify the feasibility of the research work.

  3. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  4. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation.Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  5. A Matchmaking Strategy Of Mixed Resource On Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Elshareef

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today cloud computing has become a key technology for online allotment of computing resources and online storage of user data in a lower cost where computing resources are available all the time over the Internet with pay per use concept. Recently there is a growing need for resource management strategies in a cloud computing environment that encompass both end-users satisfaction and a high job submission throughput with appropriate scheduling. One of the major and essential issues in resource management is related to allocate incoming tasks to suitable virtual machine matchmaking. The main objective of this paper is to propose a matchmaking strategy between the incoming requests and various resources in the cloud environment to satisfy the requirements of users and to load balance the workload on resources. Load Balancing is an important aspect of resource management in a cloud computing environment. So this paper proposes a dynamic weight active monitor DWAM load balance algorithm which allocates on the fly the incoming requests to the all available virtual machines in an efficient manner in order to achieve better performance parameters such as response time processing time and resource utilization. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is analyzed using Cloudsim simulator which proves the superiority of the proposed DWAM algorithm over its counterparts in literature. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed algorithm dramatically improves response time data processing time and more utilized of resource compared Active monitor and VM-assign algorithms.

  6. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  7. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  8. On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, "On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources," written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing…

  9. On measuring the natural and environmental resource value and damages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seják, J.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 53-68 ISSN 1802-212X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : monetary valuations of nature * biotopes * natural resource injuries * quantifications Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://fzp.ujep.cz/Veda/Edice/StudiaOecologica/SO_2-2010_web.pdf

  10. Practicing natural resource management with a policy orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.

    1992-07-01

    All natural resource managers want to contribute to successful conservation programs. Having and applying an explicit policy orientation is indispensable. The policy sciences are described and a case is made that, if natural resource managers utilize this set of conceptual and applied tools in their natural resource work, their effectiveness could be enhanced. The policy sciences offer a contextual, problem-oriented, and multimethod approach to meeting complex problems. Two kinds of knowledge are needed to solve problems—substantive knowledge about the resource and process knowledge about the decision and policy processes used to derive courses of management action. The interplay of science, analysis, and politics are examined. The wildlife management community is used to illustrate many points, including the important role implementation plays in the overall policy process.

  11. Group decision-making techniques for natural resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Beth A.K.; Armour, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.

  12. Conventional natural gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.

    1999-01-01

    The use of decline curve analysis to analyse and extrapolate the production performance of oil and gas reservoirs was discussed. This mathematical analytical tool has been a valid method for estimating the conventional crude oil resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it has failed to provide a generally acceptable estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the WCSB. This paper proposes solutions to this problem and provides an estimate of the conventional natural gas resources of the basin by statistical analysis of the declining finding rates. Although in the past, decline curve analysis did not reflect the declining finding rates of natural gas in the WCSB, the basin is now sufficiently developed that estimates of conventional natural gas resources can be made by this analytical tool. However, the analysis must take into account the acceleration of natural gas development drilling that has occurred over the lifetime of the basin. It was concluded that ultimate resources of conventional marketable natural gas of the WCSB estimated by decline analysis amount to 230 tcf. It was suggested that further research be done to explain why the Canadian Gas Potential Committee (CGPC) estimate for Alberta differs from the decline curve analysis method. 6 refs., 35 figs

  13. The fluidities of digital learning environments and resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2012-01-01

    The research project “Educational cultures and serious games on a global market place” (2009-2011) dealt with the challenge of the digital learning environment and hence it’s educational development space always existing outside the present space and hence scope of activities. With a reference...... and establishments of the virtual universe called Mingoville.com, the research shows a need to include in researchers’ conceptualizations of digital learning environments and resources, their shifting materialities and platformations and hence emerging (often unpredictable) agencies and educational development...... spaces. Keywords: Fluidity, digital learning environment, digital learning resource, educational development space...

  14. Adaptation to the International Business Environment: A Resource Advantage Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of the adaptation of the firm to the International Business Environment. Using concepts from the literature on resource advantage, we posit that the firms' adaptation capability to different International Business Environments is a valuable, difficult to imitate, non-tradeable, rare butnot scarce and path dependent resource. We further suggest that adaptation to International Business Environment is a non-substitutable core source of competitive advantage for the multinational enterprises, developed over time through the firms experiences and built into their routines. In line with this argument, some propositions are formulated. We conclude with a broad discussion and suggesting some avenues for future research\\.

  15. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  16. Earth observation for regional scale environmental and natural resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Brookshire, D.; Faulkner, S.; Chivoiu, B.; Bridge, B.; Broadbent, C.

    2013-12-01

    Earth observations (EO) provide critical information to natural resource assessment. Three examples are presented: conserving potable groundwater in intense agricultural regions, maximizing ecosystem service benefits at regional scales from afforestation investment and management, and enabling integrated natural and behavioral sciences for resource management and policy analysis. In each of these cases EO of different resolutions are used in different ways to help in the classification, characterization, and availability of natural resources and ecosystem services. To inform decisions, each example includes a spatiotemporal economic model to optimize the net societal benefits of resource development and exploitation. 1) EO is used for monitoring land use in intensively cultivated agricultural regions. Archival imagery is coupled to a hydrogeological process model to evaluate the tradeoff between agrochemical use and retention of potable groundwater. EO is used to couple individual producers and regional resource managers using information from markets and natural systems to aid in the objective of maximizing agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality. The contribution of EO is input to a nitrate loading and transport model to estimate the cumulative impact on groundwater at specified distances from specific sites (wells) for 35 Iowa counties and two aquifers. 2) Land use/land cover (LULC) derived from EO is used to compare biological carbon sequestration alternatives and their provisioning of ecosystem services. EO is used to target land attributes that are more or less desirable for enhancing ecosystem services in two parishes in Louisiana. Ecological production functions are coupled with value data to maximize the expected return on investment in carbon sequestration and other ancillary ecosystem services while minimizing the risk. 3) Environmental and natural resources management decisions employ probabilistic estimates of yet-to-find or yet

  17. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  18. Corruption, development and the curse of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, S.M.; Clarke, J.A.; Van Kooten, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented a model that was designed to evaluate the benefits of natural resources in the economic development and well-being of nations. Studies have demonstrated a negative relationship between the share of primary exports in gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth. Negative associations have also been demonstrated between the liquidation of forest resources and economic growth rates. Negative impacts were attributed to 6 potential explanations, notably (1) a rise in the value of natural resource exports causing real exchange rates to appreciate; (2) increases in export commodity prices; (3) reduced attention to secondary or manufacturing sectors; (4) a decreased emphasis on exchange rate movements; (5) growth of the primary sector at the expense of more advanced sectors; and (6) the volatility of commodity prices. Countries with abundant natural resources may also have reduced incentives to invest in human capital. Resource rents have also been used to provide income for corrupt governments and to finance rebellions. A 2-equation model was developed using regression equations and a systems generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator. The model included data on latitudes, ethnicity, and languages as well as pooled estimation, fixed effects and random effects. The study showed that while fuel resources negatively impact economic development, institutional factors can be used to mitigate the negative impacts of fuel resource development. 51 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Natural Resource Management at Four Social Scales: Psychological Type Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Helen; Hobbs, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Understanding organisation at different social scales is crucial to learning how social processes play a role in sustainable natural resource management. Research has neglected the potential role that individual personality plays in decision making in natural resource management. In the past two decades natural resource management across rural Australia has increasingly come under the direct influence of voluntary participatory groups, such as Catchment Management Authorities. The greater complexity of relationships among all stakeholders is a serious management challenge when attempting to align their differing aspirations and values at four social institutional scales—local, regional, state and national. This is an exploratory study on the psychological composition of groups of stakeholders at the four social scales in natural resource management in Australia. This article uses the theory of temperaments and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) to investigate the distribution of personality types. The distribution of personality types in decision-making roles in natural resource management was markedly different from the Australian Archive sample. Trends in personality were found across social scales with Stabilizer temperament more common at the local scale and Theorist temperament more common at the national scale. Greater similarity was found at the state and national scales. Two temperaments comprised between 76 and 90% of participants at the local and regional scales, the common temperament type was Stabilizer. The dissimilarity was Improviser (40%) at the local scale and Theorist (29%) at the regional scale. Implications for increasing participation and bridging the gap between community and government are discussed.

  20. A transportable system of models for natural resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; French, D.

    1992-01-01

    A system of computer models has been developed for assessment of natural resource economic damages resulting from spills of oil and hazardous materials in marine and fresh water environments. Under USA federal legislation, the results of the model system are presumed correct in damage litigation proceedings. The model can address a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The equations describing the motion of both pollutants and biota are solved in three dimensions. The model can simulate continuous releases of a contaminant, with representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, multiple shoreline types, and spatially variable ecosystem habitats. A graphic user interface provides easy control of the system in addition to the ability to display elements of the underlying geographical information system data base. The model is implemented on a personal computer and on a UNIX workstation. The structure of the system is such that transport to new geographic regions can be accomplished relatively easily, requiring only the development of the appropriate physical, toxicological, biological, and economic data sets. Applications are currently in progress for USA inland and coastal waters, the Adriatic Sea, the Strait of Sicily, the Gulf of Suez, and the Baltic Sea. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    green, T.

    2011-08-15

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in

  2. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups

  3. The second generation of natural resource damage assessments: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthi, R.B.; Burlington, L.B.; Reinharz, E.; Shutler, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Damage Assessment Regulations Team (DART), under the Office of General Counsel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has centered its efforts on developing natural resource damage assessment regulations for oil pollution in navigable waters. These procedures will likely lower the costs associated with damage assessments, encourage joint cooperative assessments and simplify most assessments. The DART team of NOAA is developing new regulations for the assessment of damages due to injuries related to oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. These regulations will involve coordination, restoration, and economic valuation. Various methods are currently being developed to assess damages for injuries to natural resources. The proposed means include: compensation tables for spills under 50,000 gallons, Type A model, expedited damage assessment (EDA) procedures, and comprehensive procedures. They are being developed to provide trustees with a choice for assessing natural resource damages for each oil spill

  4. TRENDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MARKET IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, SIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are not homogeneous in nature, having certain features in the productive process that require grouping them into different categories by different criteria. Consequently, natural resources cannot be addressed all at once, but only distinctly, according to relevant criteria selected based on the proposed goals. Changing approaches based resources (materials to the knowledge, from quantity to quality, from mass products to new concepts of higher added value, follows a development that is based on eco-efficiency and sustainable products and services. In this respect, integrated research will become key factors towards global processing. Also, global digitalization requires a new approach on the role of information in the development of economy and increase of competitiveness.

  5. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Schneider, Tom [Fernald Project Manager, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Dayton, Ohio (United States); Hertel, Bill [Project Manager, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  6. The Effect of Jump on Evaluating Natural Resource Investments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haisheng; Zhou Yongzhang; Wang Shugong

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of mining and other natural resource projects is made particularly difficult by the high degree of uncertainty attaching to output prices.It is shown that the techniques of continuous time arbitrage and stochastic control theory may be used not only to value such projects but also to determine the optimal policies for developing managing. This paper describes a model for evaluating natural resource investments under uncertainty from a new perspective. The previous works in this field mostly regard the movements of natural resource prices as a continuous GBM process, which pays few attentions to the shock of unexpected bad news. Our model provides the first theoretical method to analyze the impact of such "jump" on investment decisions. It concludes that the more frequently bad news happens,the earlier a project will be invested.

  7. Case studies of scenario analysis for adaptive management of natural resource and infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, M.C.; Thekdi, S.A.; Jenicek, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources and infrastructure systems for sustainability is complicated by uncertainties in the human and natural environment. Moreover, decisions are further complicated by contradictory views, values, and concerns that are rarely made explicit. Scenario analysis can play...... of emergent conditions and help to avoid regret and belated action. The purpose of this paper is to present several case studies in natural resources and infrastructure systems management where scenario analysis has been used to aide decision making under uncertainty. The case studies include several resource...... and infrastructure systems: (1) water resources (2) land-use corridors (3) energy infrastructure, and (4) coastal climate change adaptation. The case studies emphasize a participatory approach, where scenario analysis becomes a means of incorporating diverse stakeholder concerns and experience. This approach...

  8. Supply chain strategies in an era of natural resource scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzi, Dimitra; Matopoulos, Aristides; Bourlakis, Michael; Tate, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The primary objective of this research is to explore the implications of natural resource scarcity for companies’ supply chain strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on resource dependence theory, a conceptual model is developed and validated through the means of exploratory research. The empirical work includes the assessment of qualitative data collected via 22 interviews representing 6 large multinational companies from the manufacturing sector. Findings – When the res...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Resource Management in Cloud Computing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Guazzelli; Estrella, Julio Cezar; Ferreira, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Filho, Dionisio Machado Leite; Nakamura, Luis Hideo Vasconcelos; Reiff-Marganiec, Stephan; Santana, Marcos José; Santana, Regina Helena Carlucci

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a computational model in which resource providers can offer on-demand services to clients in a transparent way. However, to be able to guarantee quality of service without limiting the number of accepted requests, providers must be able to dynamically manage the available resources so that they can be optimized. This dynamic resource management is not a trivial task, since it involves meeting several challenges related to workload modeling, virtualization, performance modeling, deployment and monitoring of applications on virtualized resources. This paper carries out a performance evaluation of a module for resource management in a cloud environment that includes handling available resources during execution time and ensuring the quality of service defined in the service level agreement. An analysis was conducted of different resource configurations to define which dimension of resource scaling has a real influence on client requests. The results were used to model and implement a simulated cloud system, in which the allocated resource can be changed on-the-fly, with a corresponding change in price. In this way, the proposed module seeks to satisfy both the client by ensuring quality of service, and the provider by ensuring the best use of resources at a fair price.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Resource Management in Cloud Computing Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guazzelli Batista

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a computational model in which resource providers can offer on-demand services to clients in a transparent way. However, to be able to guarantee quality of service without limiting the number of accepted requests, providers must be able to dynamically manage the available resources so that they can be optimized. This dynamic resource management is not a trivial task, since it involves meeting several challenges related to workload modeling, virtualization, performance modeling, deployment and monitoring of applications on virtualized resources. This paper carries out a performance evaluation of a module for resource management in a cloud environment that includes handling available resources during execution time and ensuring the quality of service defined in the service level agreement. An analysis was conducted of different resource configurations to define which dimension of resource scaling has a real influence on client requests. The results were used to model and implement a simulated cloud system, in which the allocated resource can be changed on-the-fly, with a corresponding change in price. In this way, the proposed module seeks to satisfy both the client by ensuring quality of service, and the provider by ensuring the best use of resources at a fair price.

  11. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,T.ET AL.

    2003-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located near the geographic center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated on 5,265 acres of land composed of Pine Barrens habitat with a central area developed for Laboratory work. In the mid-1990s BNL began developing a wildlife management program. This program was guided by the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP), which was reviewed and approved by various state and federal agencies in September 1999. The WMP primarily addressed concerns with the protection of New York State threatened, endangered, or species of concern, as well as deer populations, invasive species management, and the revegetation of the area surrounding the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The WMP provided a strong and sound basis for wildlife management and established a basis for forward motion and the development of this document, the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP), which will guide the natural resource management program for BNL. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B respectively), lists of actions in tabular format (Appendix C), and regulatory drivers for the Natural Resource Program (Appendix D). The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and incorporation of community involvement, where applicable.

  12. "Place" as an integrating concept in natural resource politics: propositions for a social science research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony S. Cheng; Linda E. Kruger; Steven E. Daniels

    2003-01-01

    This article lays out six propositions centering on a relationship between peopleplace connections and strategic behavior in natural resource politics. The first two propositions suggest a strong and direct connection between self-identity, place, and how individuals perceive and value the environment. The third, fourth, and fifth propositions tie together social group...

  13. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  14. Marxism--Leninism and natural resources: the Soviet outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, D.S.

    1977-06-01

    Soviet leaders recognize that natural resources are finite, but they do not share the pessimism of many of their Western counterparts. They maintain that resource depletion is not a threat to be taken seriously on a worldwide basis, but rather is a manifestation of the capitalism. To understand both the continued Soviet optimism and the Soviet assessment of why the Western world is experiencing its current ''raw material crisis'', the author examines the role that natural resources play within Marxist-Leninist idealogy. Soviets believe, the author says, that the resource predicament is insoluble; that the condition will escalate until, along with several other factors, the situation will result in a worldwide socialist society. Western thought has advocated fine methods through which the industrialized world could evade the energy and raw materials shortages. These include new methods of mining, developing, and searching for natural resource deposits; setting up a non-socialist industrial nations' organization; appropriation of resource sites; zero growth rates; and genuine cooperation. The Kremlin discounts the West's ability to successfully carry out any of these solutions. (MCW)

  15. Value of information and natural resources decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the potential for information to measurably improve management has been highlighted for several decades, in recent years the “value of information” has surfaced with increasing frequency in natural resources. However, the use of this phrase belies the fact that many in natural resources have only a limited understanding about what it actually means, how to measure it, and what to do with it. We introduce and describe several forms of the value of information in a context of the management of renewable natural resources. The value of information is discussed in terms of a potential gain in value with the addition of new information, as well as a loss in value associated with the absence of information. Value metrics are developed for uncertainty about resource status as well as resource processes and responses to management. We provide a common notation for the metrics of value, and discuss linkages of the value of information to strategic approaches such as adaptive resources management and partially observable decision processes.

  16. Resolving structural uncertainty in natural resources management using POMDP approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing focus on the uncertainties of natural resources management, and the importance of accounting for uncertainty in assessing management effectiveness. This paper focuses on uncertainty in resource management in terms of discrete-state Markov decision processes (MDP) under structural uncertainty and partial observability. It describes the treatment of structural uncertainty with approaches developed for partially observable resource systems. In particular, I show how value iteration for partially observable MDPs (POMDP) can be extended to structurally uncertain MDPs. A key difference between these process classes is that structurally uncertain MDPs require the tracking of system state as well as a probability structure for the structure uncertainty, whereas with POMDPs require only a probability structure for the observation uncertainty. The added complexity of the optimization problem under structural uncertainty is compensated by reduced dimensionality in the search for optimal strategy. A solution algorithm for structurally uncertain processes is outlined for a simple example in conservation biology. By building on the conceptual framework developed for POMDPs, natural resource analysts and decision makers who confront structural uncertainties in natural resources can take advantage of the rapid growth in POMDP methods and approaches, and thereby produce better conservation strategies over a larger class of resource problems. ?? 2011.

  17. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. Today, this role is becoming all the more apparent in the conduct of natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) and cost-benefit analyses of environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities. As such, environmental professionals are more interested in how natural resource values are affected by ER and WM activities. This professional interest extends to the use of NRDA values as measures of liability and legal causes of action under such environmental status as the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, as amended); and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990. Also, environmental professionals are paying closer attention to NRDA values in cost-benefit analyses of risk and pollution-abatement standards, and in meeting environmental and safety standards - for achievable (ALARA). This handbook reviews natural resource valuation techniques that may be applied to resources at DOE sites within the foregoing contexts.

  18. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. Today, this role is becoming all the more apparent in the conduct of natural resource damage assessments (NRDA) and cost-benefit analyses of environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) activities. As such, environmental professionals are more interested in how natural resource values are affected by ER and WM activities. This professional interest extends to the use of NRDA values as measures of liability and legal causes of action under such environmental status as the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, as amended); and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990. Also, environmental professionals are paying closer attention to NRDA values in cost-benefit analyses of risk and pollution-abatement standards, and in meeting environmental and safety standards - for achievable (ALARA). This handbook reviews natural resource valuation techniques that may be applied to resources at DOE sites within the foregoing contexts

  19. Natural Resources Information System for the State of Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma's Sarkeys Energy Center, undertook to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state's natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of development was placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas

  20. Basic framework of urban design based on natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Irwar; Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.; Maulina, Maudy

    2018-03-01

    To establishment of the city always begins because the availability of natural resources that meet the basic needs of its inhabitants, but after that the city relies on the sustainability of those basic need, which is primarily dependent on transportation. Transportation becomes the main needs of the city. Transportation, however, results in the potential for the city’s discomfort with noise and pollution, which mixes with the frenetic city life. Therefore, this paper reveals a basic framework using natural resources to reduce the noise and the pollution.

  1. [Status and future of natural resource for Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources.

  2. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  3. The limits of the available land and other natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, Andrea; )

    2015-01-01

    The world's agricultural production system can satisfy the global demand for food, but consumes natural resources on which it is based earth, soil, water and Biodiversity at a higher rate on their ability natural regeneration and it is therefore not sustainable in the long term. The planned expansion quali-quantitatively goes global demand for food will further exacerbate the scarcity of arable land and other natural resources on which agricultural production. The challenge we face is therefore to meet growing world food demand reducing the environmental impacts of three major systems me to be productive today: the destruction of eco- Natural-systems derived from the expansion of the border agricultural; climate change caused by meadows that agricultural and livestock and deforestation; and the reduction of reserves of fresh water, because both Extraction rates higher than those of reintegration, that pollution of aquifers [it

  4. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2014-01-01

    for the discovery, linking and interpretation of nodes in unstructured and resource-constrained network environments and their interrelated and collective use for the delivery of smart services. The model is based on a basic mathematical approach, which describes and predicts the success of human interactions...... in the context of long-term relationships and identifies several key variables in the context of communications in resource-constrained environments. The general theoretical model is described and several algorithms are proposed as part of the node discovery, identification, and linking processes in relation...

  5. Study benefit value of utilization water resources for energy and sustainable environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniah, Restu; Sastradinata, Marwan

    2017-11-01

    Referring to the concept of sustainable development, the environment is said to be sustainable if the fulfillment of three pillars of development that is economic, social and ecological or the environment itself. The environment can sustained in the principle of ecology or basic principles of environmental science, when the three environmental components, namely the natural environment, the artificial environment (the built environment) and the social environment can be aligned for sustainability. The natural environment in this study is the water resources, the artificial environment is micro hydroelectric power generation (MHPG), and the social environment is the community living around the MHPG. The existence of MHPG is intended for the sustainability of special electrical energy for areas not yet reached by electricity derived from the state electricity company (SEC). The utilization of MHPG Singalaga in South Ogan Komering Ulu (OKUS) district is not only intended for economic, ecological, and social sustainability in Southern OKU district especially those who live in Singalaga Village, Kisam Tinggi District. This paper discusses the economic, ecological and social benefits of water resources utilization in Southern OKU District for MHPG Singalaga. The direct economic benefits that arise for people living around MHPG Singalaga is the cost incurred by the community for the use of electricity is less than if the community uses electricity coming from outside the MHPG. The cost to society in the form of dues amounting to IDR 15,000 a month / household. Social benefits with the absorption of manpower to manage the MHPG is chairman, secretary and 3 members, while the ecological benefits of water resources and sustainable energy as well as the community while maintaining the natural vegetation that is located around the MHPG for the continuity of water resources.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  7. Mining Matters : Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ralph; Poelhekke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the impact of local mining activity on the business constraints experienced by 22,150 firms across eight resource-rich countries. We find that with the presence of active mines, the business environment in the immediate vicinity (<20 km) of a firm deteriorates but business constraints of

  8. Adaptive capacity and community-based natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Derek

    2005-06-01

    Why do some community-based natural resource management strategies perform better than others? Commons theorists have approached this question by developing institutional design principles to address collective choice situations, while other analysts have critiqued the underlying assumptions of community-based resource management. However, efforts to enhance community-based natural resource management performance also require an analysis of exogenous and endogenous variables that influence how social actors not only act collectively but do so in ways that respond to changing circumstances, foster learning, and build capacity for management adaptation. Drawing on examples from northern Canada and Southeast Asia, this article examines the relationship among adaptive capacity, community-based resource management performance, and the socio-institutional determinants of collective action, such as technical, financial, and legal constraints, and complex issues of politics, scale, knowledge, community and culture. An emphasis on adaptive capacity responds to a conceptual weakness in community-based natural resource management and highlights an emerging research and policy discourse that builds upon static design principles and the contested concepts in current management practice.

  9. Economics of natural resources. [Post-Keynesian economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, P.

    1979-03-01

    The current world energy crisis illustrates the importance of analyzing, as a post-Keynesian approch does, such factors as monopoly power and user costs in trying to understand the production flows and market prices of natural resources - when these flows and prices are changing rapidly and unexpectedly in the face of slowly expanding world output. Post-Keynesian analysts do not immediately see rising natural resource prices as evidence per se that the law of dimmishing returns is operating in perfectly competitive market - or, in other words, that we are running out of cheap energy and other raw materials. A post-Keynesian perspective would instead suggest that such price changes can best be understood (and an appropriate policy response formulated) by analyzing the behavior of entrepreneurial agents and resource property owners in terms of perceived market power and/or expectations about the future. In this connection, Keynes' concept of user cost is a critical one. Keynes recognized that the user cost concept applied not only to raw materials such as fossil fuels, but to all capital equipment, for in deciding his scale of production an entrepreneur has to exercise a choice between using up his equipment now and preserving it to be used later on. For those who adopt the post-Keynesian approach to economic analysis, the decision to utilize natural resouces is viewed as similar to that of disinvestment in capital equipment, while the search for new sources of natural resources is merely a form of capital investment.

  10. Socio-ecological analysis of natural resource use in Betampona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of children 0–5 years of age, 6 % of children 6–12 years of age, .... should be considered for game species such as tenrecs and bats, etc. If the 23 .... natural resource use and the types of benefits received from .... AVAILABLE ONLINE ONLY.

  11. Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.M.; Kraker, de J.; Offermans, A.; Kroeze, C.; Kirschner, P.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and

  12. Measuring social learning in participatory approaches to natural resource management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, Merel; De Kraker, Joop; Offermans, Astrid; Kroeze, Carolien; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Ittersum, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and

  13. Voracious transformation of a common natural resource into productive capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze a power struggle where competing factions have private financial assets and deplete a common stock of natural resources with no private property rights. I obtain a feedback Nash equilibrium to the dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political variants of the Hotelling depletion rule and

  14. Legal acceptance of contingent valuation to determine natural resource damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    In enacting the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, Congress endorsed contingent valuation (CV) as an appropriate ''advanced technique'' to assess damages to natural resources resulting from oil and hazardous substance releases. Citing Ohio v. Department of Interior, 880 F.2d 432 (D.C.Cir. 1989), Congress stressed that ''forests are more than just board feed of lumbar,'' and rejected statutory language intended to prevent recovery of damages calculated using ''non-use'' or ''passive'' values of natural resources. Consequently, the key question is whether CV is a useful and rational means to determine non-use values when implementing statutory mandates to recover natural resource damages, not whether CV meets tests of statistical reliability. Because Congress intended that damages be calculated using non-use as well as use values, less precision in calculating non-use values is acceptable so the statutory right to full recovery is not rendered meaningless. While such damages might not be determined with the same precision as damages from a contract breach, a technique which yields results ''with as much or more certainty and accuracy as a jury determining damages for pain and suffering or mental anguish'' is adequate. No methodology except CV calculates non-use values. When designed and implemented conservatively, CV is sufficiently reliable to be used by natural resource trustees

  15. Manifestation of conflict escalation in natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasmi, Y.; Schanz, H.; Salim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict escalation is one of the important aspects to be understood for constructive conflict management. It has been widely discussed in many fields of social study, in particular as it relates inter-individual conflicts. However, this is not the case for natural resource management (NRM). This

  16. Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha commune ... In this work, the research team helped local farmers improve their land ... with a home garden economy, limit forest destruction, diversify crop production, ... low female participation rates in decision making; limited education; rapid ...

  17. Participatory GIS for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to improve the situation by harnessing the potential of ... their information systems on the management of natural resources (water, forests, ... Systèmes d'information géographique participatifs (SIG-P) dans la gestion des ...

  18. Assessing the contribution of Community-Based Natural Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...

  19. Global mega forces: Implications for the future of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Kubik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of leading global mega forces and their importance to the future of natural resource decisionmaking, policy development, and operation. Global mega forces are defined as a combination of major trends, preferences, and probabilities that come together to produce the potential for future high-impact outcomes. These...

  20. Participatory GIS for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 févr. 2010 ... African countries need adequate data as a basis for formulating and implementing systematic and coherent food security policies and strategies. These countries have national information systems with geospatial information on natural resources and composed of different subsystems (laws, cadastres, ...

  1. Virginia Tech's College Of Natural Resources Dedicates Cheatham Hall Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to funding by private donors, Alyce Cheatham and her family of Portland, Oregon, Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources will dedicate a much-needed, three-story addition to its current Cheatham Hall on Wednesday, March 19, at 2:30 p.m.

  2. Decision support for natural resource management; models and evaluation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; Makowski, M.; Nakayama, H.

    2001-01-01

    When managing natural resources or agrobusinesses, one always has to deal with autonomous processes. These autonomous processes play a core role in designing model-based decision support systems. This chapter tries to give insight into the question of which types of models might be used in which

  3. Reform Drivers and Reform Obstacles in Natural Resource Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezelius, Stig S.; Raakjær, Jesper; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The ability to transform historical learning into institutional reform is a key to success in the management of common pool natural resources. Based on a model of institutional inertia and a comparative analysis of Northeast Atlantic fisheries management from 1945 to the present....... Institutional inertia entails that large-scale management reform tends to be crisis driven....

  4. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  5. Community-based Natural Resource Management of the Jozani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally .... rules in use across a broad range of CPR user- communities .... identified these social clusters and vocational groupings as ..... satisfied with the agreement and the villagers .... protection measures for the red colobus monkey ...

  6. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  7. Natural resource valuation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk

  8. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  9. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  10. Natural Resources Determining FDI in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyananda Dinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of FDI to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors such as inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings suggest that in long run, market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. The findings indicate that FDI to Nigeria is resource-seeking. Results also suggest that trading partner like the UK in North-South (N - S and China in South-South (S - S trade relation have strong influence on Nigeria’s natural resource outflow.

  11. Natural and artificial radionuclides in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, Alfred; Bayer, Anton; Steinkopff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings cover contributions and posters concerning the following topics: emission control and monitoring, environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure; radon in the environment; radioecology and modeling: radioecology and tracer for environmental processes, modeling in environmental monitoring, environmental and geostatistics; physical metrology and radiochemical methods; regulations, regulatory standards and quality assurance.

  12. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  13. DELIVERing Library Resources to the Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Examines a project to integrate digital libraries and virtual learning environments (VLE) focusing on requirements for online reading list systems. Design/methodology/approach: Conducted a user needs analysis using interviews and focus groups and evaluated three reading or resource list management systems. Findings: Provides a technical…

  14. The Interconnectedness between Well-Being and the Natural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…

  15. The perception of natural vs. built environments by young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briavel Holcomb

    1977-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that young children need exposure to natural environments for healthy psychological development. Preliminary investigation of the environmental perceptions of 4-year-olds suggests that the distinction between natural and man-made milieux is insignificant to preschoolers, and that they find both kinds of environments similarly...

  16. Radio thermal sounding of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Martin; Lomukhin, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    At the moment, methods of sounding a status of soil, plant, forest and aquatic environments using radiometry and radar methods are intensively used. The main source of information using radar sounding is the back reflection ratio. The radiometric method is used for detection of the brightness temperature. In this paper, a communication between the back reflection ratio and the brightness temperature is described. This communication is proportional.

  17. Natural radionuclides in the UK marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, S F.N.; Camplin, W C; Allington, D J; Young, A K [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Fisheries Radiobiological Lab.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of natural radionuclides giving rise to radiation exposure of man from marine consumption pathways has been known for some time. However, the extent of surveys of levels in marine biota has been limited. This paper presents new data on concentrations of natural radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweeds taken from coastal sampling locations in the U.K. Sampling included areas where levels due to natural sources would be predominant, but efforts were made to study potential sources of technologically enhanced discharges to seas and rivers, particularly the phosphogypsum plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria. The highest concentrations (up to 371 Bq.kg[sup -1] (wet) [sup 210]Po) were observed in winkles near Whitehaven. The general levels at sites remote from known sources were much lower. Monthly concentrations in molluscs at a single location were elevated by approximately a factor of 2 during the summer months. An assessment of the expected doses to members of the public from marine consumption pathways is made. (author).

  18. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  19. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  20. ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL INTELLIGENCE IN ANTHROPOGENIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we show the link between both artificial and natural intelligence and the system’s complexity during the life-cycle. Autopoetic’s type of living systems determines the differences between natural and artificial intelligence; artificial environments have an influence to the intelligence abilities development. We present the «diffusion intellect» concept where the diffusion intellect is considered as a synergistic unity of natural and artificial intellect in organized environments

  1. Natural and artificial radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosemann, G.; Wirth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Several authors analyse the processes, which occurred during and after the reactor accident at Chernobyl. Interactions and correlations are explained in a way easy to understand. In addition, other authors deal with issues of exposure to natural radiation from the earth's crust, from the atmosphere and outer space, and with their impacts on living organisms. In conclusion, one author evaluates the reactor accident and its consequences for society from the churches' point of view. 8 abstracts were entered separately into the data base. (DG) [de

  2. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  3. Learning with nature and learning from others: nature as setting and resource for early childhood education

    OpenAIRE

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences-in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners-are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A description and an emerging understanding of nature-based learning were obtained through the use of a group discussion and case studies. Practitioners' view...

  4. Does hybridization of endophytic symbionts in a native grass increase fitness in resource-limited environments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeth, Stanley H.; Oberhofer, Martina; Saari, Susanna Talvikki

    2017-01-01

    to their grass hosts, especially in stressful environments. We tested the hybrid fitness hypothesis (HFH) that hybrid endophytes enhance fitness in stressful environments relative to non-hybrid endophytes. In a long-term field experiment, we monitored growth and reproduction of hybrid-infected (H+), non......-hybrid infected (NH+), naturally endophyte free (E-) plants and those plants from which the endophyte had been experimentally removed (H- and NH-) in resource-rich and resource-poor environments. Infection by both endophyte species enhanced growth and reproduction. H+ plants outperformed NH+ plants in terms...... of growth by the end of the experiment, supporting HFH. However, H+ plants only outperformed NH+ plants in the resource-rich treatment, contrary to HFH. Plant genotypes associated with each endophyte species had strong effects on growth and reproduction. Our results provide some support the HFH hypothesis...

  5. Ecology and control of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrael, Y.A.

    1992-01-01

    The book is in three parts: comprehensive analysis and regulation of the environment; the principles of monitoring; and global ecological problems - critical anthropogenic effects. The third part has a section on anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere and climate, which include: the direct impact on the state of the atmosphere; impacts which alter the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere, and in particular its radiation and electrical characteristics; the impact on the upper atmosphere which alters its characteristics and state; and factors affecting the characteristics of the underlying surface and changing its reflectivity, and also affecting the interaction between the elements of the climatic system. There is also a section on the transport of pollutants over long distances and the ecotoxicology of acid rain. Priority is given to the transport of SO 2 and its transformation products NO x and their transformation products heavy metals, pesticides and radioactive substances. 629 refs., 74 figs., 42 tabs

  6. Arsenic speciation and sorption in natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous arsenic speciation, or the chemical forms in which arsenic exists in water, is a challenging, interesting, and complicated aspect of environmental arsenic geochemistry. Arsenic has the ability to form a wide range of chemical bonds with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur, resulting in a large variety of compounds that exhibit a host of chemical and biochemical properties. Besides the intriguing chemical diversity, arsenic also has the rare capacity to capture our imaginations in a way that few elements can duplicate: it invokes images of foul play that range from sinister to comedic (e.g., “inheritance powder” and arsenic-spiked elderberry wine). However, the emergence of serious large-scale human health problems from chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water has placed a high priority on understanding environmental arsenic mobility, toxicity, and bioavailability, and chemical speciation is key to these important questions. Ultimately, the purpose of arsenic speciation research is to predict future occurrences, mitigate contamination, and provide successful management of water resources.

  7. On teaching the nature of science: perspectives and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radloff, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present a critical review of the recent book, On Teaching the Nature of Science: Perspectives and Resources, written by Douglas Allchin (2013). This publication presents an in-depth examination of the nature of science construct, as well as instruction for educators about how to teach it effectively utilizing historical case studies as vehicles for knowledge. Although several themes in the book merit further attention, a central issue present across all chapters is the largely masculine, monocultural nature of science presented, which is common to a multitude of scientific publications. In this review, I illustrate how culture and gender in science is not addressed throughout the book. I also discuss where we can build on the work of the author to integrate more aspects of gender and culture in teaching the nature of science.

  8. Natural-gas world reserves and world resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, G.; Rempel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas is extracted in nearly 80 countries, 12 of which have a share of four fifths in the world extraction and 15 of which have a share of four fifths in the world consumption. The natural-gas world reserves can cover the present annual demand for years beyond the middle of the coming century. According to current assessments, the resources which presently cannot be extracted economically, the expected additional resources, and the extractable share in the potential of unconventional natural gas amount to more than ten times the reliable world reserves of natural gas. From the geological and technical points of view the world natural-gas extraction will not decrease or cease in the near future. However, the more expensive development of unconventional deposits which are located far away from the end-user will have to be preferred over the medium term on account of the exhaustion of the known deposits whose exploitation is comparatively cheap. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Natural Resources, Openness and Income Inequality in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mahdi Mostafavi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to survey the relationship among natural resource, income inequality and openness in Iran by using the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model in the period 1980-2009. The stationary test reveals that our variables are both I(0 and I(1, so for that reason, we used the ARDL approach to estimate long run and the short run relations between the variables. The results show that, in the long-run and the short-run, the GDP per capita, Land, Openness and literacy rate have a negative effect on income equality; the total natural resource rents has a positive effect on income equality. The oil revenue has a negative effect on income inequality in the short run, and it has a positive effect on income equality in the long run.

  10. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  11. The Political Economy of Land and Natural Resources in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Nystrand, Malin; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    Large-scale investments in natural resources (extractives as well as agriculture) can help transform African economies by accelerating economic growth, creating jobs and strengthening the links between local economies and the global economy more broadly. However, they often end up violating rights......, which in turn may lead to social protests and political instability. This Working Paper develops an analytical framework for analysing the implementation of large-scale investments in natural resources. It focuses on the triangular relations between investors, local populations and ruling elites....... The framework treats the outcomes of these triangular relationships as involving ‘reciprocal exchange deals’ between investors and local populations, ‘compatible interests’ between ruling elites and investors, and ‘productive social relations’ between local populations and ruling elites. We show that, in order...

  12. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  13. Natural Hazards of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are subject to numerous environmental hazards. Here I'll briefly discuss three environment factors that pose acute threats to the survival of spacecraft systems and crew: atmospheric drag, impacts by meteoroids and orbital debris, and ionizing radiation. Atmospheric drag continuously opposes the orbital motion of a satellite, causing the orbit to decay. This decay will lead to reentry if not countered by reboost maneuvers. Orbital debris is a by-product of man's activities in space, and consists of objects ranging in size from miniscule paint chips to spent rocket stages and dead satellites. Ionizing radiation experienced in LEO has several components: geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons (Van Allen belts); energetic solar particles; galactic cosmic rays; and albedo neutrons. These particles can have several types of prompt harmful effects on equipment and crew, from single-event upsets, latchup, and burnout of electronics, to lethal doses to crew.All three types of prompt threat show some dependence on the solar activity cycle. Atmospheric drag mitigation and large debris avoidance require propulsive maneuvers. M/OD and ionizing radiation require some form of shielding for crew and sensitive equipment. Limiting exposure time is a mitigation technique for ionizing radiation and meteor streams.

  14. Natural gas -- The changing competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Owners and senior managers don't have to be reminded that the business is getting tougher. Prices aren't behaving as expected, and they are becoming more volatile. Costs are increasing. The futures market is here to stay, not to mention swaps and options. FERC Order 636 is another complicating factor. Whether you are a producer, marketer, pipeline or an LDC, the structure of the market is changing. The answer to the following questions is quite often -- no: Is your company in a position to offer your customers the services they want? Is your company comfortable using hedges? Do you always know your level of risk? Can your company easily track daily positions and P/L and thoughtfully analyze the various business lines? While not all of the above concerns stem from increased price volatility, Order 636 and complexity resulting from the use of more sophisticated risk control instruments, many of them do. There's a cultural change occurring and companies that want to be market leaders must not just ''learn to live'' with this, but install a management process that thrives in this environment. Understanding the meaning of this goal is the focus of this paper

  15. Ranking agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics journals: A note

    OpenAIRE

    Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos

    2012-01-01

    This paper by applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) ranks for the first time Economics journals in the field of Agricultural, Environmental and Natural Resource. Specifically, by using one composite input and one composite output the paper ranks 32 journals. In addition for the first time three different quality ranking reports have been incorporated to the DEA modelling problem in order to classify the journals into four categories (‘A’ to ‘D’). The results reveal that the journals with t...

  16. Science-based natural resource management decisions: what are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Mills; T.M. Quigley; F.J. Everest

    2001-01-01

    While many people interested in natural resources management propose science-based decisions, it is not clear what “science-based” means. Science-based decisions are those that result from the full and complete consideration of the relevant science information. We offer five guidelines to focus the scientist’s contributions to science-based decisionmaking and use the...

  17. Energy efficient processing of natural resources; Energieeffiziente Verarbeitung natuerlicher Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehlken, Alexandra [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Projekt FU2; Hans, Carl [Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Abt. Intelligente Informations- und Kommunikationsumgebungen fuer die kooperative Produktion im Forschungsbereich Informations- und Kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter [Univ. Bremen (Germany). Inst. fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung; Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH BIBA, Bremen (Germany). Forschungsbereich Informations- und kommunikationstechnische Anwendungen; Austing, Bernhard [Fa. Austing, Damme (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Energy efficiency is gaining high importance in production processes. High energy consumption is directly related to high costs. The processing of natural resources is resulting in additional energy input because of defined output quality demands. This paper discussed approaches and IT-solutions for the automatically adjustment of production processes to cope with varying input qualities. The intention is to achieve the lowest energy input into the process without quality restraints.

  18. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    . The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality......Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds...... of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings...

  19. Natural resources as a factor of economic growth in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haki Shatri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the economic growth, there are numerous examples of countries that have developed based on their available natural resources. Especially, these assets have been the propulsion of the development in the initial period. But we also find some cases where countries with limited natural resources have experienced dynamic economic development. Kosovo is the last federal unit dismembered from former Yugoslavia after a decade under Milosevic’s Serbian regime and a two years’ war. International intervention and the inclusion of the country under an international protectorate created the conditions for the development of devastated economy by war and the robbery to be recovered together with the creation of institutional and economic infrastructure (Lidhja e Ekonomistëve të Kosovës, 1996. Under these conditions, everything had to start from scratch. The only development factor that Kosovo possessed was the human factor - age structure and the abundant natural resources, especially in key sectors such as the energy and in mining and minerals, agriculture and tourism. Thus it is sustainable the conclusion that “The rapid and sustainable economic and social development of Kosovo depends substantially from the implementation of the appropriate policies and suitable economic reforms that enable more rational use of its natural and human resources”. The list of the available resources of Kosovo is long. Kosovo possesses significant amount of all mineral raw materials in both quality and quantity terms. Among the most important raw materials have been ranked the power-lignite mining that is stretched into three basins and it is estimated to be around 9 billion exploitable tons (Kelmendi, 2012. Kosovo also owns mineral resources which are found in the Trepca’s Metals basin. The geological researches show favorable conditions of exploitation and high quality of the ore. Mainly one can found the lead, zinc, silver and other

  20. Building a healthy work environment: a nursing resource team perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Slinger, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Leadership and staff from the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) Nursing Resource Team (NRT), including members of their Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, attended the first Southern Ontario Nursing Resource Team Conference (SONRTC), held March 2012 in Toronto. The SONRTC highlighted healthy work environments (HWEs), noting vast differences among the province's various organizations. Conversely, CQI Council members anecdotally acknowledged similar inconsistencies in HWEs across the various inpatient departments at LHSC. In fact, the mobility of the NRT role allows these nurses to make an unbiased observation about the culture, behaviours and practices of specific units as well as cross-reference departments regarding HWEs. Studies have documented that HWEs have a direct impact on the quality of patient care. Furthermore, the literature supports a relationship between HWEs and nurse job satisfaction. Based on this heightened awareness, the NRT CQI Council aimed to investigate HWEs at LHSC. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments was adapted in developing a survey for measuring HWEs based on the perceptions of NRT staff. Each of the departments was evaluated in terms of the following indicators: skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision-making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership (AACN 2005). Ultimately, the Building a Healthy Work Environment: A Nursing Resource Team Perspective survey was employed with NRT nurses at LHSC, and data was collected for use by leadership and staff for creating HWE strategies aimed at improving the quality of patient care.

  1. The natural environment as an area of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolak-Tuzimek Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Areas of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR have been defined in ISO 26000. Guidelines of the International Standardisation Organisation distinguish seven areas: corporate governance, human rights, labour practices, natural environment, fair operating practices, consumer issues, social commitment and development of local communities. This article presents good practices implemented by enterprises in the individual areas, in particular, actions in the area of the natural environment. Two research hypotheses are posited concerning the rate of implementing good CSR practices and the number of actions in the natural environment area. National Responsible Business Forum research and a survey of a group of enterprises in the Mazovian region, conducted by the authors in 2014–2016, served to verify the hypotheses. The results imply that the number of good practices realised in CSR areas tends to grow. In addition, actions in the area of the natural environment rank third with regard to good practices implemented.

  2. MonitoringResources.org—Supporting coordinated and cost-effective natural resource monitoring across organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jennifer M.; Scully, Rebecca A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-05-21

    Natural resource managers who oversee the Nation’s resources require data to support informed decision-making at a variety of spatial and temporal scales that often cross typical jurisdictional boundaries such as states, agency regions, and watersheds. These data come from multiple agencies, programs, and sources, often with their own methods and standards for data collection and organization. Coordinating standards and methods is often prohibitively time-intensive and expensive. MonitoringResources.org offers a suite of tools and resources that support coordination of monitoring efforts, cost-effective planning, and sharing of knowledge among organizations. The website was developed by the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership—a collaboration of Federal, state, tribal, local, and private monitoring programs—and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration and USGS. It is a key component of a coordinated monitoring and information network.

  3. Remedying CERCLA's natural resource damages provision: Incorporation of the public trust doctrine into natural resource damage actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    When Congress enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), it ushered in a sweeping approach to controlling the environmental effects of improper hazardous waste disposal. CERCLA's cleanup provisions, which focus on removal and remediation of hazardous substances from inactive hazardous waste sites, have progressed through more than a decade of litigation and a great deal of public debate. However, CERCLA's natural resource damage provisions have not shared this same degree of progress

  4. Integrated Spatial Modeling using Geoinformatics: A Prerequisite for Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Y. B.

    2014-12-01

    Every natural system calls for complete visualization for its holistic and sustainable development. Many a times, especially in developing countries, the approaches deviate from this basic paradigm and results in ineffective management of the natural resources. This becomes more relevant in these countries which are witnessing heavy exodus of the rural population to urban areas increasing the pressures on the basic commodities. Spatial technologies which provide the opportunity to enhance the knowledge visualization of the policy makers and administrators which facilitates technical and scientific management of the resources. Increasing population has created negative impacts on the per capita availability of several resources, which has been well accepted in the statistical records of several developing countries. For instance, the per capita availability of water in India has decreased substantially in last decade and groundwater depletion is on the rise. There is hence a need of tool which helps in restoring the resource through visualization and evaluation temporally. Geological parameters play an important role in operation of several natural systems and earth sciences parameters may not be ignored. Spatial technologies enables application of 2D as well as 3D modeling taking into account variety of natural parameters related to diverse areas. The paper presents case studies where spatial technology has helped in not only understanding the natural systems but also providing solutions, especially in Indian context. The case studies relate to Groundwater Management, Watershed and Basin Management, Groundwater recharge, Environment sustainability using spatial technology. Key Words: Spatial model, Groundwater, Hydrogeology, Geoinformatics, Sustainable Development.

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-13

    uses (e.g., sports arenas, golf courses, amusement parks, etc.) are generally considered compatible with yearly DNL ranges between 70 and 75 dB, if...natural resources and the environment. Global warming is projected to have detrimental effects on industries, including agriculture and tourism ...course, riding stables, Rod and Gun Program (CAR), Oasis Aquatic Center, Tickets and Tours, Family Camp, Sports and Fitness Center, Aerobics Center

  6. Public enterprises in natural resource industries: an economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Public enterprises are playing an ever increasing role in natural resource industries. This research analyzes the reason for this involvement, i.e., what have been the objectives of public firms, the objectives of other firms; and the reasons behind exploration in natural resource industries. An answer to the first question was obtained by estimating the objective function of a publicly owned uranium company operating in Saskatchewan, Canada. It was assumed the company solved a linear quadratic optimal control problem. The conclusion was that over the period 1974-1984 the company preferred to trade off profits for higher employment, larger reserve holdings, and greater output. The objectives of the other firms in the Saskatchewan uranium industry were also investigated. It was found that producers integrated with utilities can expect to make a much greater rate of return on exploration that nonintegrated producers, since the former group stands to gain both from the reduction in costs and the reduction in price resulting from exploration. The suggests that overinvestment in the Saskatchewan uranium industry may be a problem. The final item investigated is the normative question of what the objective of a public firm operating alongside a private firm in an oligopolistic industry should be in order that resources in the industry are used efficiently; the answer to this question depends upon the structure of the industry

  7. Message from the deputy minister of natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    Canada is renowned for the wealth of its natural resources: vast forests and rich deposits of minerals, including uranium, oil and gas. Canada is also blessed with a variety of sources of energy, including nuclear energy. We understand that a healthy, prosperous, and sustainable society depends on using these resources wisely. Sustainable natural resources development needs to strike tile right balance among our economic, environmental and social priorities. Thus the focus of the Nuclear Energy Agency's third Forum for Stakeholder Confidence National Workshop in Ottawa October 15-19, 2002, on social considerations for increasing and maintaining public confidence in the long-term management of radioactive waste is of particular interest to us. We hope that Canada can provide insight into these issues by discussing our recent successes with-the FSC, namely the Government of Canada agreement with communities in the Port Hope area of southern Ontario on the long-term management of historic low level radioactive waste, and the development of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. We look forward to sharing our experience with you and learning from your experience. I wish all FSC participants and the wide range of Canadian stakeholders an interesting visit to the Port Hope area and stimulating discussions during your Workshop in Ottawa. (author)

  8. The Natural and Human Environments in Nigeria: Their Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    difficult. The paper separates these factors into natural and artificial components and relates them to the sociocultural environments prevalent in Nigeria. This paper elaborates on the various features, which designers often ignore, and recommends a simultaneous interaction between architecture and the environment.

  9. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  10. Natural resource trust funds : a comparison of Alberta and Alaska resource funds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrack, A.A.; Keddie, R.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Alberta and Alaska both have an economy based largely on natural resources. The cyclical nature of their economies poses a challenge to stability and sustained prosperity. During the oil crisis of 1973-1974, Alberta and Alaska began receiving oil and gas royalties. The idea of an endowment-type fund began taking shape. This fund would assist in the gradual transition from dependence on non-renewable resources to the responsible management of these resources. Both the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund and the Alaska Permanent Fund were created in 1976. The governments of both jurisdictions set aside revenues from natural resource royalties to provide economic stability. Both jurisdictions followed different policies in terms of management, structure, governance, and objectives. In this paper, the authors compared both funds, examining the policy options which had an impact on their growth and successes. The results showed that in Alaska, monies are paid directly to eligible persons, while allocation decisions in Alberta have been made by the government. The government manages the fund in Alberta, while in Alaska, the fund is managed by a separate entity. The Alaskan fund continues to grow, while the the size of the Alberta fund has remained unchanged for a number of years and is not growing. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Management of fossil natural resources: the impossible challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubens, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    A set of articles addresses various issues related to fossil energies and resources. A first set addresses the general context of fossil resources: the forced wedding between fossil energies and the environment (discussion of an annual report by the IEA on coal reserves), the availability of fossil fuels (discussion about the high share of fossil fuel in an always more renewable world). A second set addresses how to transform resources into reserves: discussion of the annual IEA report on conventional oil and gas reserves, on unconventional oil and gas reserves, and on coal reserves. The next set is a prospective one, and addresses the question of a scenario by 2040: the extremely high tension between fossil resources and geopolitical reality, and the question of the possibility of a world energy transition (discussions of the World Energy Outlook published by the IEA). Other issues are addressed by the last set of articles: the abundance of fossil energies obscures the potential of renewable energies, the evolution of the chemical industry towards alternative solutions in order to limit the use of hydrocarbons, and the territorial claims by Russia in the Arctic region

  12. Role of natural radiation environment in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85 Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide

  13. Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Post, Søren Lorenzen; Kristiansen, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely...... northwest in the Atlantic. This change in migration pattern was followed by a rapid development of a large-scale fishery of substantial importance for the national economy of Greenland (23% of Greenland's export value of all goods in 2014). A pelagic trawl survey was conducted in mid-summer 2014...

  14. Analytical group decision making in natural resources: Methodology and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, D.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Group decision making is becoming increasingly important in natural resource management and associated scientific applications, because multiple values are treated coincidentally in time and space, multiple resource specialists are needed, and multiple stakeholders must be included in the decision process. Decades of social science research on decision making in groups have provided insights into the impediments to effective group processes and on techniques that can be applied in a group context. Nevertheless, little integration and few applications of these results have occurred in resource management decision processes, where formal groups are integral, either directly or indirectly. A group decision-making methodology is introduced as an effective approach for temporary, formal groups (e.g., workshops). It combines the following three components: (1) brainstorming to generate ideas; (2) the analytic hierarchy process to produce judgments, manage conflict, enable consensus, and plan for implementation; and (3) a discussion template (straw document). Resulting numerical assessments of alternative decision priorities can be analyzed statistically to indicate where group member agreement occurs and where priority values are significantly different. An application of this group process to fire research program development in a workshop setting indicates that the process helps focus group deliberations; mitigates groupthink, nondecision, and social loafing pitfalls; encourages individual interaction; identifies irrational judgments; and provides a large amount of useful quantitative information about group preferences. This approach can help facilitate scientific assessments and other decision-making processes in resource management.

  15. Natural resource revenues: a test of federalism. [18 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A [ed.

    1976-01-01

    This volume centers on the concept of an economic rent; particularly rent yielded by mineral resources. The editor, in the Introduction, divides the 18 conference papers into three groups. The first group was concerned with the taxation of the mining and energy industries and its connection with natural resource policy. The introductory chapter attempts to indicate ways of linking the choice of tax collector with the likely effects of the alternative collector's chosen system of taxation. The linkage depends on whether the taxes are on resource ''rent'' and so are ''neutral,'' or on whether they are on costs or prices and so likely to distort or affect private output and timing decisions. A second group of revenue-oriented papers started at an earlier stage: instead of assuming that certain methods of raising revenue tended to be neutral, they showed their recognition that the general literature says little or nothing that is authoritative on this subject. This recognition impelled them to make careful case studies of the effect of certain taxes and agnostic conclusions about their general tendency (that is, their tendency to distort the plans and production programs that would exist without taxation). While maintaining an interest in the neutrality distortion problem, a third group reserved their force for the problem of entitlement to resource revenues. Mr. Scott senses that the authors split their verdicts: pointing to their support for a particular compromise policy. (MCW)

  16. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Cultural environment and aesthetic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, L.D. [Univ. of Tennessee (United States); Petrich, C.H.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on the cultural environment and aesthetic resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The cultural environment in the Geothermal Resource Zone (GRZ) and associated study area consists of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious practices and both Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian cultural resources. This report consists of three sections: (1) a description of Native Hawaiian cultural and religious rights, practices, and values; (2) a description of historic, prehistoric, and traditional Native Hawaiian sites; and (3) a description of other (non-native) sites that could be affected by development in the study area. Within each section, the level of descriptive detail varies according to the information currently available. The description of the cultural environment is most specific in its coverage of the Geothermal Resource Subzones in the Puna District of the island of Hawaii and the study area of South Maui. Ethnographic and archaeological reports by Cultural Advocacy Network Developing Options and International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc., respectively, supplement the descriptions of these two areas with new information collected specifically for this study. Less detailed descriptions of additional study areas on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the island of Hawaii are based on existing archaeological surveys.

  17. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hua Ling

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified and quantified, and catechin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, epicatechin, galangin, gallic acid, homogentisic acid, kaempferol, and chlorogenic acid were widely found in these residues. Especially, the values of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and TPC in the residues were higher than in pulps. The results showed that fruit residues could be inexpensive and readily available resources of bioactive compounds for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. a Study on the Introduction of Total Natural Resources Management System Using the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Jang, R.; Jeon, S.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM) which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  19. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM USING THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION VALUE ASSESSMENT MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact assessment system and the environmental plan for the preservation of the land environment are carried out with the aim of preventing damage to the environment caused by human activities, improving the quality of life and creating a pleasant environment. However, despite these various systems, the natural resources have been continuously damaged, and the system to cope with them has been advanced, but there has been a limit to fully conserve natural resources from development. The total amount of natural resources is being promoted as a part of the purpose of supplementing the system, but the evaluation method of the total amount of natural resources suitable for domestic situation is not presented yet. Natural resources are diverse and complicated in their categories and elements, and their measurement units are also diverse, making it difficult to synthesize them into one unit. Therefore, in this study, we proposed a method to calculate the total amount by using the evaluation map of the Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM which derives the final achievement with 5 grades using 65 evaluation items. However, we consistently applied the weight twice as much as the grade and did not utilize any information other than the map of ECVAM. The results of this study can be applied to the Total Natural Resources Management System through follow-up study such as application of various environmental information and weighting method.

  20. Science of Integrated Approaches to Natural Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Anna; Valencia, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    To meet multiple environmental objectives, integrated programming is becoming increasingly important for the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), the financial mechanism of the multilateral environmental agreements, including the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). Integration of multiple environmental, social and economic objectives also contributes to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in a timely and cost-effective way. However, integration is often not well defined. This paper therefore focuses on identifying key aspects of integration and assessing their implementation in natural resources management (NRM) projects. To that end, we draw on systems thinking literature, and carry out an analysis of a random sample of GEF integrated projects and in-depth case studies demonstrating lessons learned and good practices in addressing land degradation and other NRM challenges. We identify numerous challenges and opportunities of integrated approaches that need to be addressed in order to maximise the catalytic impact of the GEF during problem diagnosis, project design, implementation and governance. We highlight the need for projects to identify clearer system boundaries and main feedback mechanisms within those boundaries, in order to effectively address drivers of environmental change. We propose a theory of change for Integrated Natural Resources Management (INRM) projects, where short-term environmental and socio-economic benefits will first accrue at the local level. Implementation of improved INRM technologies and practices at the local level can be extended through spatial planning, strengthening of innovation systems, and financing and incentive mechanisms at the watershed and/or landscape/seascape level to sustain and enhance ecosystem services at larger scales and longer time spans. We conclude that the evolving scientific understanding of factors influencing social, technical and institutional innovations and

  1. Spending Natural Resource Revenues in an Altruistic Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann

    This paper examines how revenues from a natural resource interact with growth and welfare in an overlapping generations model with altruism. The revenues are allocated between public productive services and direct transfers to members of society by spending policies. We analyze how these policies...... influence the dynamics, and how the dynamics are influenced by the abundance of the revenue. Abundant revenues may harm growth, but growth and welfare can be oppositely affected. We also provide the socially optimal policy. Overall, the analysis suggests that variation in the strength of altruism...

  2. What Should an Introduction to Natural Resources Course Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Gary B

    2010-01-01

    I would like to conduct a facilitated forum, with participation from various NR programs to address the question of the title. The premise is that first year and transfer students entering natural resources curricula do so because they are hands‐on learners, are attracted to activities occurring in the outdoors, and have limited patience with typical lecture formats for learning. The issue is how we engage and retain NR students so they prosper in our programs. In this forum, I would like to ...

  3. Natural Resource Knowledge and Information Management via the Victorian Resources Online Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the Victorian Resources Online (VRO website (http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/vro has been a key means for the dissemination of landscape-based natural resources information via the internet in Victoria, Australia. The website currently consists of approximately 11,000 web pages, including 1900 maps and 1000 downloadable documents. Information is provided at a range of scales—from statewide and regional overviews to more detailed catchment and sub-catchment levels. At all these levels of generalisation, information is arranged in an organisationally agnostic way around key knowledge “domains” (e.g., soil, landform, water. VRO represents a useful model for the effective dissemination of a wide range of natural resources information; relying on partnerships with key subject matter experts and data custodians, including a “knowledge network” of retired land resource assessment specialists. In this paper, case studies are presented that illustrate various approaches to information and knowledge management with a focus on presentation of spatially contexted soil and landscape information at different levels of generalisation. Examples are provided of adapting site-based information into clickable maps that reveal site-specific details, as well as “spatialising” data from specialist internal databases to improve accessibility to a wider audience. Legacy information sources have also been consolidated and spatially referenced. More recent incorporation of interactive visualisation products (such as landscape panoramas, videos and animations is providing interactive rich media content. Currently the site attracts an average of 1190 user visits per day and user evaluation has indicated a wide range of users, including students, teachers, consultants, researchers and extension staff. The wide range of uses for information and, in particular, the benefits for natural resource education, research and extension has also been identified.

  4. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as "repetitive loss." During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds.

  5. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Calil

    Full Text Available Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S.Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as "repetitive loss." During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds.

  6. Natural resource risk and cost management in environmental restoration: Demonstration project at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.J.; Sharples, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is both a trustee for the natural resources present on its properties and the lead response agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As such, DOE is addressing the destruction or loss of those resources caused by releases of hazardous substances from its facilities (DOE 1991) and collecting data to be used in determining the extent of contamination at its facilities, estimating risks to human health and the environment, and selecting appropriate remedial actions. The remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process is used to investigate sites and select remedial actions. A Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process may be used to determine whether natural resources have also been injured by the released hazardous substances and to calculate compensatory monetary damages to be used to restore the natural resources. In FY 1994, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was chosen to serve as a demonstration site for testing the integrated NRDA framework and demonstrating how NRDA concerns might be integrated into the environmental restoration activities of an actual site that is characteristically large and complex. The demonstration project (1) provided a means to illustrate the use of complex analyses using real information on the specific natural resources of the SRS; (2) served as a vehicle for reinforcing and expanding the SRS staff's understanding of the links between the NRDA and RI/FS processes; (3) provided a forum for the discussion of strategic issues with SRS personnel; and (4) allowed the refining and elaboration of DOE guidance by benchmarking the theoretical process using real information and issues

  7. Assessment of Natural Resource Potential of a Territory for Planning of Investment Development and Construction in Suburban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Usoltceva Marina; Volkova Yulia; Radchenko Artyom; Guseva Inna; Makarova Tatiana; Garmanov Vitaly; Wenkel Karl-Otto

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the types of assessment and assessment process of the natural environment. A review of judgments about the ecological and geo-ecological assessment of the environment by known academics, environmentalists, physical geographers, geobotanists is made here. In this paper the method of the environmental assessment of natural resource potential within the North-West region of Russia is proposed. Authors divide this method into blocks, which are described in the paper. A produce...

  8. Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodela, R.

    2012-01-01

    The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can

  9. Natural Resources Management on Corps of Engineers Water Resources Development Projects: Practices, Challenges, and Perspectives on the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasual, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Natural resources management on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers water resources development projects was documented from the responses of management personnel to a detailed questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of projects...

  10. PEASANTS ESTRATEGIES AND KNOWLEDGE IN THE NATURALS RESOURCES HANDLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Pérez Magaña

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution had as objective identifying the Knowledge and the strategies that have developed the peasants of a michoacana community for natural resources handle whit agriculturals objective. Starting from idea of that in the Sierra Purepecha region a little has been studied about folk knowledge and agricultural, and that had been unestimated, since the agrarians sciences, its potential for the rural development. Since the focus agroecologic it was studied a community of peasants of the Michoacan Stated using the techniques of participating observation, the agroecological transect and the semistructured individual interview. The results show that the peasants have developed knowledge, which permit to distinguish and identify environmental unities, and the handle the production space; it permit to handle different strategies of natural resources such as: the construction of boars, enclosures alive, reforestation, the use of dung the association crops, distribution space of the crops, expansion of the biodiversity and the handle of the germplasma. These actions are favored for the collective behavior of the community. In these actions are reflexeted a social construction, in which is present the knowledge of the peasants and their capacity of answer to adverses socioenvaironmental factors for assureting its production and reproduction.

  11. Natural resource damage assessment -- Trustee and defendant perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, M.; Trimmier, R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the NRD process is restoration: restoring injured resources and the services they provide to a level that will compensate the public for the losses associated with injuries. While restoration, the final step in the cleanup process, has only recently been pursued, experience dictates that it is more effective and efficient for cleanup agencies. Industry and natural resource trustees to address NRD by integrating it into the cleanup process in a cooperative and coordinated manner. Early integration reduces transaction costs and liability by: (1) enabling the collection of NRD information by field personnel already conducting RI work; (2) promoting the selection of remedial alternatives that are protective of resources; and (3) creating opportunities to build restoration directly into the remedy. The damage assessment regulations provide an objective template to guide this process. Integration thus facilitates timely restoration, thereby halting the accrual of further damages and reducing the potential for time consuming and costly litigation. Delays in settlement and restoration are more likely when trustees are not made part of the cleanup process. Particularly under CERCLA, reliance on unproven science for injury determination and unreliable economics for damage assessment results in inflated values, prolonged litigation, delayed or vacuous remedial action and high transaction costs. Under OPA, where oil spills require immediate and effective response action, cooperation between PRPs and Trustees is more likely, but even there, the post-response assessment of NRD is unlikely to be cooperative for the same reason CERCLA assessments tend not to be

  12. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  13. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  14. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  15. Natural gas industry and its effects on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Kejeijan, B.

    2008-01-01

    The discoveries of natural gas have increased during the last ten years in Syria, These increases lead to the necessity of knowing the effects of this industry on the environment. Syrian Arabic Republic has been planning to convert most of the current electric of plants to natural gas in addition to future plans to export natural gas to the surrounding countries. In addition, the government is working on the use of LPG gas in automobiles. However, environmentally, the importance of natural gas is due to the followings: 1- Natural gas, when burned, emits lower quantities of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants per unit of energy produced than to other fossil fuels. This occurs in part because natural gas is more fully combusted, and in part because natural gas contains fewer impurities than any other fossil fuel. 2-The amount of carbon dioxide produced from the combustion of natural gas is less than the amount produced from the combustion of other fossil fuels to produce the same amount of heat. One of the important uses of natural gas is in the transportation since natural gas does not produce during combustion toxic compounds which are usually produced during the combustion of diesel and benzene. therefore natural gas is seen and considered as an important fuel to address environmental concerns. (author)

  16. [Evaluation of comprehensive capacity of resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Chun; Yu, Dan

    2014-10-01

    With the development of the society and economy, the contradictions among population, resources and environment are increasingly worse. As a result, the capacity of resources and environment becomes one of the focal issues for many countries and regions. Through investigating and analyzing the present situation and the existing problems of resources and environment in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, seven factors were chosen as the evaluation criterion layer, namely, land resources, water resources, biological resources, mineral resources, ecological-geological environment, water environment and atmospheric environment. Based on the single factor evaluation results and with the county as the evaluation unit, the comprehensive capacity of resources and environment was evaluated by using the state space method in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone. The results showed that it boasted abundant biological resources, quality atmosphere and water environment, and relatively stable geological environment, while restricted by land resource, water resource and mineral resource. Currently, although the comprehensive capacity of the resources and environments in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone was not overloaded as a whole, it has been the case in some counties/districts. State space model, with clear indication and high accuracy, could serve as another approach to evaluating comprehensive capacity of regional resources and environment.

  17. The impact of urban background on appreciation of natural environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Leila; Linzey, Michael; Byrd, Hugh; Dodd, George

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in human history, more than half of the world's population live in towns and cities. The acceleration of habitat alteration as well as modern lifestyles dramatically reduce the interaction with natural environments. To get an overview of this issue, a comparison was made between individuals who lived most of their childhoods in high-rise blocks and who experienced nature on a daily basis from living and playing in suburbia or a rural environment. Can a lack of contact with ...

  18. Natural environment and the biogeochemical cycle s. Pt. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzinger, O [ed.

    1980-01-01

    At the moment three volumes of the handbook are planned. Volume 1 deals with the natural environment and the biogeochemical cycles therein, including some background information such as energetics and ecology. The individual chapters are dealing with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, chemical oceanography, chemical aspects of soil, the cycle of oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus, metal cycles and biological methylation, and natural organohalogen compounds. Separate abstracts are prepared for 5 chapters of this book.

  19. Neither nature nor environment: Systemic operationalism and ecologism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez E, Luis F

    2009-01-01

    Nature is a complex concept that some critics have found as one of the roots of the current crisis of orthodox modernity. Because of this, we think ecologism should develop a theory where it does not play a pivotal role. Here, we propose systemic operationalism as a theoretical basis for ecologism since it seems to meet this requirement without having to replace it with terms such as environment which appears to keep some of the problems critics see in the concept of nature.

  20. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  1. Life as Thermodynamic Evidence of Algorithmic Structure in Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rosenblueth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In evolutionary biology, attention to the relationship between stochastic organisms and their stochastic environments has leaned towards the adaptability and learning capabilities of the organisms rather than toward the properties of the environment. This article is devoted to the algorithmic aspects of the environment and its interaction with living organisms. We ask whether one may use the fact of the existence of life to establish how far nature is removed from algorithmic randomness. The paper uses a novel approach to behavioral evolutionary questions, using tools drawn from information theory, algorithmic complexity and the thermodynamics of computation to support an intuitive assumption about the near optimal structure of a physical environment that would prove conducive to the evolution and survival of organisms, and sketches the potential of these tools, at present alien to biology, that could be used in the future to address different and deeper questions. We contribute to the discussion of the algorithmic structure of natural environments and provide statistical and computational arguments for the intuitive claim that living systems would not be able to survive in completely unpredictable environments, even if adaptable and equipped with storage and learning capabilities by natural selection (brain memory or DNA.

  2. Natural Resources, Oil and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Quarshie, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the natural resource curse in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and it highlights the role of institutionalised authority. The paper first provides a comprehensive literature review of natural resource curse, Dutch disease and the role of oil resources in resource curse. This is follow by the description of the relevant economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa, which is taken as prime example of the region with both important oil and other natural resources and...

  3. VISITOR PERCEPTIONS OF THE ROLE OF TOUR GUIDES IN NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Koroglu; Ozlem Guzel

    2013-01-01

    Undoubtedly, development of sustainable tourism activities is closely related to the protection of natural resources. Protection of natural resources is an important issue that should be taken seriously by the communities. Natural resource management includes sharing all the necessary responsibility for the purpose of protecting natural resources, ensuring the sustainability and leaving it to the next generation. This paper aims to explore the visitor perceptions of tour guides to contribute ...

  4. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calain, Philippe

    2008-10-21

    In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomized by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalized and instrumentalized toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  5. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  6. Overview of fiber optics in the natural space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Dorsky, L.; Johnston, A.; Bergman, L.; Stassinopoulos, E.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of fiber-optic (FO) systems in spacecraft which will be exposed to the space radiation environment are discussed in view of tests conducted aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and the Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby spacecraft. Attention is given to anticipated trends in the use of FO in spacecraft communications systems. The natural space radiation environment is noted to be far more benign than the military space environment, which encompasses displacement-damage effects due to significant neutron influences

  7. Researching Pacific island livelihoods: mobility, natural resource management and nissology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andreas E; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies. The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales.

  8. Applying historical ecology to natural resource management institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petty, Aaron M.; Isendahl, Christian; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the linkages between social and ecological systems is key to developing sustainable natural resource management (NRM) institutions. Frequently, however, insufficient attention is paid to the historical development of NRM institutions. Instead, discussion largely focuses on models...... of economic efficiency at the expense of the cultural, historical, and ecological contexts within which institutions develop. Here we use the research program of historical ecology to explore the development, maintenance, and change of two contemporary fire management institutions in northern Australia...... and Colorado, USA, to demonstrate how social institutions and ecological systems change and resist change over time and how institutions interact across scales to negotiate contrasting goals and motivations. We argue that these NRM institutions are not strictly speaking evolutionary or adaptive...

  9. Natural resources and energy systems: a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Schmidt, E.; Anderer, J.

    1986-06-01

    Oil prices falls to below ten dollar a barrel. US synfuel program cancelled after billions of dollars are invested. Tennessee Valley Authority tries to sell unfinished nuclear plants to China. Completed nuclear plant stands idle in Austria. Canadians seek uses for excess power from Candu plants. A glut of cheap oil, a general excess of operating nuclear capacity, an ever growing number of mothballed or not quite completed non-operating nuclear plants. Today the formidable challenge is to use abundant energy sources in ways that support social and economic development and protect the environment. In this paper we seek to provide a strategic perspective on how to meet this challenge. Toward this end, we explore the misconceptions of the past that led to costly errors in energy planning. The issue here is to dispel the myth of resource depletion as the driving force for the shift from one energy source to another. To gain insight into the actual basis for energy substitution, we turn our attention to energy patterns, viewing these in retrospect and prospect. This review of energy development provides an opportunity to consider some of the environmental implications of the expanded use of energy resources. These findings are then drawn together in an attempt to highlight certain R and D options that we believe offer a sound basis for strategic energy management. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  10. Types of Forestry Charges from Natural Resource Economics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Capturing economic rent from natural resources, particularly forests, frequently still creates disagreement between the government and businesses. The charges imposed by the government in the forms of reboisation fund (DR and forest resource provision (PSDH have been in place for very long time, accepted by all stakeholders, and supported by laws. Government policy regarding compensation for forest stand value (GRNT creates controvercies. This paper intends to clarify problem of forest charges by returning it to its fundamental theories, e.g. economic theory of natural resouces. Economic rent of forests that are controlled by the government is the right of all Indonesia people.  Henece, the government has responsibility for capturing the rent as much as possible in the most efficient way. If the stumpage is too low then it potentially promotes overcutting, whereas if it is too high then it makes forest business less attractive that potentially promotes illegal activities. In forestry, economic rent of forest has a special name, it is stumpage price. There are some difficulties in estimating a competitive stumpage price, wheter the one obtained through a direct competitive auction of standing timber or through calculation of residual price. Partly, the difficulties were generated by the government’s own policies that strongly distorted log prices. Log export ban and vertical integration are the two most influential policies in distorting log prices. Actually, the government is able to design and implement a single charge to capture PSDH, DR, and GRNT so that their administration becomes much simpler and more efficient.Keywords: stumpage price, soil expectation value, economic rent, production efficient, charge harmonization

  11. Evaluating the best available social science for natural resource management decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Courtney Carothers; Terre Satterfield; Arielle Levine; Melissa R. Poe; Karma Norman; Jamie Donatuto; Sara Jo Breslow; Michael B. Mascia; Phillip S. Levin; Xavier Basurto; Christina C. Hicks; Carlos García-Quijano; Kevin St. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the human dimensions of natural resource management issues, and of social and ecological sustainability and resilience as being inter-related, highlights the importance of applying social science to natural resource management decision-making. Moreover, a number of laws and regulations require natural resource management agencies to consider...

  12. Materials Synthesis Of Barium Hexa ferrite Used Local Natural Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan; Sulungbudi, Grace Tj.; Mujamilah

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic materials of barium hexa ferrites, Ba O.6Fe 2 O 3 successfully synthesized by powder metallurgy method used local natural resources from materials waste of steel fabrication (HSM, CRM), waste of polymer fabrication (LK) as well as iron sands (PBA). These waste as well as iron sands were the main resources of iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 . The barium oxide used in this experiments are from BaCO 3 product of Merck, and BaCO 4 which is commercially available in the market as barite. Phase identification by x-ray diffraction technique show the synthesized magnetic materials are agreed with the available commercial product, (SUMI). The energy product maximum (BH) max measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) for the samples used HSM-, CRM- and BaCO 3 as basic materials are 1.141 MGOe and 1.136 MGOe while SUMI is 1.142 MGOe. However for the samples made from LK-, PBA- used of BaCO 3 or CRM- with barite, the energy product maximum (BH) max are relatively lower than commercial product

  13. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  14. Global Military Operating Environments (GMOE) Phase I: Linking Natural Environments, International Security, and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    diverse range of natural environments and will require that U.S. forces adapt to a wide range of terrain, climate, and associated hazards within these...Synthetic Environment Core Area), baseline terrain information, and application of remote‐sensing technologies for Warfighter and Chameleon . The

  15. The role of imagination in experiencing natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert. Schroeder

    2010-01-01

    The experience of natural environments and places is multifaceted, involving psychological functions such as perception, cognition, memory, emotion, and imagination. Environmental perception and cognition were key topics in early research in environmental psychology. More recently, attention has also been directed to affective dimensions of environmental experience,...

  16. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment prevailing during growth of carbon nanostructures by CCVD. M. Jana*, A. Sil and S. Ray. †. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Roorkee 247 667, India. Present address: *School of Materials ...

  17. Immigrants' Adaptation and Interracial/Interethnic Interactions in Natural Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stodolska, Monika; Peters, K.B.M.; Horolets, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the role of leisure in natural environments in immigrants' adaptation, with a particular emphasis on facilitating interracial/interethnic interactions. Berry's adaptation framework was used as a theoretical framework. The project used in-depth individual interviews with 70

  18. Rethinking the intensive care environment: considering nature in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  20. Entanglement as a resource for discrimination of classical environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapani, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo.trapani@unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, Matteo G.A., E-mail: matteo.paris@fisica.unimi.it [Quantum Technology Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2017-01-30

    We address extended systems interacting with classical fluctuating environments and analyze the use of quantum probes to discriminate local noise, described by independent fluctuating fields, from common noise, corresponding to the interaction with a common one. In particular, we consider a bipartite system made of two non-interacting harmonic oscillators and assess discrimination strategies based on homodyne detection, comparing their performances with the ultimate bounds on the error probabilities of quantum-limited measurements. We analyze in details the use of Gaussian probes, with emphasis on experimentally friendly signals. Our results show that a joint measurement of the position-quadrature on the two oscillators outperforms any other homodyne-based scheme for any input Gaussian state. - Highlights: • Strategies to discriminate local or common noise are proposed for CV systems. • Homodyne detection outperforms QC bound for experimentally friendly signals. • Entanglement may be exploited as a resource for discrimination of classical fields.

  1. Computerized map-based information management system for natural resource management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.

    1995-12-01

    Federal agencies, states and resource managers have control and stewardship responsibility over a significant inventory of natural resources. A number of federal regulations require the review, protection and preservation of natural resource protection. Examples of such actions include the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act and the modification of the National Contingency Plan to incorporate the requirements of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. To successfully preserve conserve and restore natural resources on federal reservations, and state and private lands, and to comply with Federal regulations designed to protect natural resources located on their sites, and the type of information on these resources required by environmental regulations. This paper presents an approach using a computerized, graphical information management system to catalogue and track data for the management of natural resources under Federal and state regulations, and for promoting resource conservation, preservation and restoration. The system is designed for use by Federal facility resource managers both for the day-to-day management of resources under their control, and for the longer-term management of larger initiatives, including restoration of significant or endangered resources, participation in regional stewardship efforts, and general ecosystem management. The system will be valuable for conducting natural resource baseline inventories an implementing resource management plans on lands other than those controlled by the Federal government as well. The system can provide a method for coordinating the type of natural resource information required by major federal environmental regulations--thereby providing a cost-effective means for managing natural resource information.

  2. Biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone in natural water environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimowska Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental degradation of poly(ε-caprolactone[PCL] in natural fresh water (pond and in The Baltic Sea is presented in this paper. The characteristic parameters of both environments were measured during experiment and their influence on the biodegradation of the samples was discussed. The loss of weight and changes of surface morphology of polymer samples were tested during the period of incubation. The poly(ε-caprolactone was more biodegradable in natural sea water than in pond. PCL samples were completely assimilated over the period of six weeks incubation in The Baltic Sea water, but after forty two weeks incubation in natural fresh water the polymer weight loss was about 39%. The results have confirmed that the investigated polymers are susceptible to an enzymatic attack of microorganisms, but their activity depends on environments.

  3. Predation and selection for antibiotic resistance in natural environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leisner, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.; Middelboe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding resistance to antibiotics appear, like the antibiotics themselves, to be ancient, originating long before the rise of the era of anthropogenic antibiotics. However, detailed understanding of the specific biological advantages of antibiotic resistance in natural environments is still...... lacking, thus limiting our efforts to prevent environmental influx of resistance genes. Here, we propose that antibiotic-resistant cells not only evade predation from antibiotic producers but also take advantage of nutrients released from cells that are killed by the antibiotic-producing bacteria. Thus......, predation is potentially an important mechanism for driving antibiotic resistance during slow or stationary phase of growth when nutrients are deprived. This adds to explain the ancient nature and widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistance in natural environments unaffected by anthropogenic antibiotics...

  4. Important facts on Canada's natural resources (as of November 2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This brochure presents a statistical account of Canada's natural resources sector, including the forest sector, mineral and mining sector, and energy producing sector. Canada's natural resources sectors and allied industries have contributed significantly to the country's economic growth and job creation for several decades. This brochure includes facts for 2003 and information on gross domestic products, direct employment, new capital investment, trade, imports, and balance of trade for each of the 3 sectors. The national economic importance of each sector was also outlined. In 2003, the forest sector contributed $33.7 billion to the Canadian economy (3 per cent of the national gross domestic product). Forest products were a major contributor to Canada's surplus balance of trade in 2003, with major commodities being softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp. Canada is also among the largest mining nations in the world, producing more than 60 minerals and metals. In 2003, the value of production from Canadian mining, mineral-processing and metal producing industries was about $50 billion (4 per cent of the national gross domestic product). The brochure includes a table that ranks 2003 world production and exports of uranium, nickel, zinc, gold, copper, potash, asbestos, gypsum and salt. Approximately 80 per cent of Canada's mineral production is exported. The brochure also presents data on the remaining established reserves in 2002 for natural gas (59.8 trillion cubic feet), crude oil (179.1 billion barrels), and primary energy production by commodity. These were 41.5 per cent gas, 32.9 per cent petroleum, 9.5 per cent electricity, 9.0 per cent coal, and 4.0 per cent wood waste. Alberta accounted for 63 per cent of total energy production, followed by British Columbia at 13 per cent, Saskatchewan at 9 per cent, Quebec at 4 per cent, and Ontario at 2 per cent. The international importance of geomatics and geoscience in Canada was also highlighted. This sector

  5. The critical natural capital, environmental politics' s instrument for the natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera C, Sergio Hernando

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the concept of The Critical Natural Capital (CNC), this concept is based on the criterion of strong sustainability and is a fundamental instrument for the design of protection environmental political. In order to advance in the comprehension of this concept we use the capital concept to define the natural capital and then to specify when this can be considered critic. We show some methodologies proposed in the literature for the implementation of a politic of environmental protection based in the CNC; Finally, we thing that this concept is very usefulness for the redesign of the Environment policy in Colombia

  6. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  7. CSIR eNews: Natural resources and environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available scientists gain access to developed earth systems Earth system scientists in South Africa and the rest of Africa can now make use of the newly-launched Africa Centre for Climate and Earth System Science (ACCESS) to hone their talent and expand... a group of scientific entities including the CSIR, the South African Weather Service, the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, the South African National Biodiversity Institute, and Marine and Coastal Management. These scientific...

  8. Climate and weather risk in natural resource models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Nathaniel Henry

    This work, consisting of three manuscripts, addresses natural resource management under risk due to variation in climate and weather. In three distinct but theoretically related applications, I quantify the role of natural resources in stabilizing economic outcomes. In Manuscript 1, we address policy designed to effect the risk of cyanobacteria blooms in a drinking water reservoir through watershed wide policy. Combining a hydrologic and economic model for a watershed in Rhode Island, we solve for the efficient allocation of best management practices (BMPs) on livestock pastures to meet a monthly risk-based as well as mean-based water quality objective. In order to solve for the efficient allocations of nutrient control effort, we optimize a probabilistically constrained integer-programming problem representing the choices made on each farm and the resultant conditions that support cyanobacteria blooms. In doing so, we employ a genetic algorithm (GA). We hypothesize that management based on controlling the upper tail of the probability distribution of phosphorus loading implies different efficient management actions as compared to controlling mean loading. We find a shift to more intense effort on fewer acres when a probabilistic objective is specified with cost savings of meeting risk levels of up to 25% over mean loading based policies. Additionally, we illustrate the relative cost effectiveness of various policies designed to meet this risk-based objective. Rainfall and the subsequent overland runoff is the source of transportation of nutrients to a receiving water body, with larger amounts of phosphorus moving in more intense rainfall events. We highlight the importance of this transportation mechanism by comparing policies under climate change scenarios, where the intensity of rainfall is projected to increase and the time series process of rainfall to change. In Manuscript 2, we introduce a new economic groundwater model that incorporates the gradual shift

  9. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M J [AEA Technology plc, Risley (United Kingdom); Thorne, M C [Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd, Horsham (United Kingdom); Broderick, M A [UK Nirex Ltd, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment. 11 refs.

  10. UK Nirex approach to the protection of the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Broderick, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a multiple system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term containment and isolation of the waste in a deep repository. It is nevertheless recognized that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Whereas the primary criterion for assessing the radiological significance of future discharges is radiological risk to humans, other safety indicators have been addressed by Nirex in evaluating the long-term performance of the disposal system. These include: (i) consideration of radiological impact on species other than man, and (ii) comparisons between concentrations of repository-derived radionuclides and those naturally occurring in the environment. At shorter timescales, calculations of risk to humans remain of primary interest. In the very long term, given the uncertainties inherent in any representation of the future environment, comparisons with naturally occurring radionuclides become more relevant. Indeed, the repository radionuclides of principal concern in the long term are members of the 238U decay chain, which are naturally present throughout the environment

  11. Characterisation of Network Objects in Natural and Anthropic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B.; McDougall, K.; Barry, M.

    2014-11-01

    Networks are structures that organise component objects, and they are extensive and recognisable across a range of environments. Estimating lengths of networks objects and their relationships to areas contiguous to them could assist provide owners with additional knowledge of their assets. There is currently some understanding of the way in which networks (such as waterways) relate and respond to their natural and anthropogenic environments. Despite this knowledge, there is no straight forward formula, method or model that can be applied to assess these relationships to a sufficient level of detail. Whilst waterway networks and their structures are well understood from the work of Horton and Strahler, relatively little attention has been paid to how (or if) these properties and behaviours can inform the understanding of other, unrelated, networks. Analysis of existing natural and built network objects exhibited how relationships derived from waterway networks can be applied in new areas of interest. We create a predictive approach to associate dissimilar objects such as pipe networks to assess if using the model established for waterway networks and their relationships can be functional in other areas. Using diversity of inputs we create data to assist with the creation of a predictive model. This work provides a clean theoretical connection between a formula applied to evaluate waterways and their environments, and other natural and anthropogenic network objects. It fills a key knowledge gap in the assessment and application of approaches used to measure natural and built networks.

  12. Sustainability Learning in Natural Resource Use and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Tàbara

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the normative discussion on sustainability learning and provide a theoretical integrative framework intended to underlie the main components and interrelations of what learning is required for social learning to become sustainability learning. We demonstrate how this framework has been operationalized in a participatory modeling interface to support processes of natural resource integrated assessment and management. The key modeling components of our view are: structure (S, energy and resources (E, information and knowledge (I, social-ecological change (C, and the size, thresholds, and connections of different social-ecological systems. Our approach attempts to overcome many of the cultural dualisms that exist in the way social and ecological systems are perceived and affect many of the most common definitions of sustainability. Our approach also emphasizes the issue of limits within a total social-ecological system and takes a multiscale, agent-based perspective. Sustainability learning is different from social learning insofar as not all of the outcomes of social learning processes necessarily improve what we consider as essential for the long-term sustainability of social-ecological systems, namely, the co-adaptive systemic capacity of agents to anticipate and deal with the unintended, undesired, and irreversible negative effects of development. Hence, the main difference of sustainability learning from social learning is the content of what is learned and the criteria used to assess such content; these are necessarily related to increasing the capacity of agents to manage, in an integrative and organic way, the total social-ecological system of which they form a part. The concept of sustainability learning and the SEIC social-ecological framework can be useful to assess and communicate the effectiveness of multiple agents to halt or reverse the destructive trends affecting the life-support systems upon which all humans

  13. Spatial Modeling of Risk in Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Making decisions in natural resource management involves an understanding of the risk and uncertainty of the outcomes, such as crop failure or cattle starvation, and of the normal spread of the expected production. Hedging against poor outcomes often means lack of investment and slow adoption of new methods. At the household level, production instability can have serious effects on income and food security. At the national level, it can have social and economic impacts that may affect all sectors of society. Crop models such as CERES-Maize are excellent tools for assessing weather-related production variability. WATBAL is a water balance model that can provide robust estimates of the potential growing days for a pasture. These models require large quantities of daily weather data that are rarely available. MarkSim is an application for generating synthetic daily weather files by estimating the third-order Markov model parameters from interpolated climate surfaces. The models can then be run for each distinct point on the map. This paper examines the growth of maize and pasture in dryland agriculture in southern Africa. Weather simulators produce independent estimates for each point on the map; however, we know that a spatial coherence of weather exists. We investigated a method of incorporating spatial coherence into MarkSim and show that it increases the variance of production. This means that all of the farmers in a coherent area share poor yields, with important consequences for food security, markets, transport, and shared grazing lands. The long-term aspects of risk are associated with global climate change. We used the results of a Global Circulation Model to extrapolate to the year 2055. We found that low maize yields would become more likely in the marginal areas, whereas they may actually increase in some areas. The same trend was found with pasture growth. We outline areas where further work is required before these tools and methods

  14. NATURE FACILITATES CONNECTION WITH THE PROFOUND SELF: NEEDS, GOALS AND RESOURCE AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Răban-Motounu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on Kaplan and Kaplan’s (1989 theory explaining the restorative effects that nature has on a person’s psychic. According to this theory, nature exerts a “soft fascination” combining the activation of involuntary attention mechanisms with the reflexive awareness, allowing a spontaneous detachment from stress factors and automatic functioning, and also the feeling of compatibility between personal purposes, and the possibilities for action offered by the environment (a sense of meaning. Our objective was to investigate the effects of nature on Self awareness: the immediate, emotional experience; needs awareness and organization; plans for action, and availability of resources, both personal, and external. We conducted an experiment with an experimental group (persons watching a video with life in nature and an active control group (involved in a psychotherapeutic technique focused on confronting and solving personal difficulties by creative means, accompanied by a short psychological analysis. The effects were assessed in terms of “here and now” emotions and available resources according to a self-evaluation scale, and with open-ended questions regarding personal needs and goals. The results showed that, for the experimental group, the relaxation effects and the awareness of long term goals were stronger, while all the other effects were the same as for the control group. The results suggest that indeed, nature helps a person get in contact with her profound Self, allowing the access to both “here and now” basic needs, and also long term goals (inner sources of meaning, the sense of connection between internal tendencies, personal, and external resources, resulting in increased positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. Nature contemplation may facilitate a meditative state whit all its positive effects.

  15. Environments with elevated radiation levels from natural radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Some areas in the world have elevated levels of radioactive substances in the environment forming elevated radiation areas (ERAs) where public potential annual effective doses can exceed even the dose limit of radiation workers. Such radioactive substances are either terrestrial natural radioactivity added naturally in the soil or natural and/or man-made radioactivity from human activities added into the environment. If radioactivity is added naturally, elevated natural radiation areas (ENRAs) are formed. Based on the classification criteria introduced by the author, such regions are divided into static and dynamic areas. They are also classified in accordance with their level of potential effective dose to the public. Some main ENRAs are classified. Highlights are presented of the results of activity studies carried out in selected areas. The concepts discussed can also be applied to areas formed by human activities. The author suggests some guidelines for future studies, regulatory control and decision making, bearing in mind the need for harmonization of policies for regulatory control and remedial actions at sites to protect the public from environmental chronic exposures. (author)

  16. Fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Swedjemark, G.A.; Baeverstam, U.; Lowder, W.M.; Miller, K.M.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    The fifth International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment organized a series of tutorial sessions. One of the five major fields concerned with the radon issue. The tutorials dealt with important issues of the radon problem and covered the following aspects: Cosmic and Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Measurement, Properties and Behaviour of Radon and Thoron and Their Decay Products in the Air, Radon and Radon Daughters Metrology: Basic Aspects Long Lived Radionuclides in the Environment, in Food and in Human Beings, Design and Analysis of Radon Surveys with Epidemiological Utility

  17. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  18. Deep Learning for Plant Identification in Natural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant image identification has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botanical taxonomy and computer vision. The first plant image dataset collected by mobile phone in natural scene is presented, which contains 10,000 images of 100 ornamental plant species in Beijing Forestry University campus. A 26-layer deep learning model consisting of 8 residual building blocks is designed for large-scale plant classification in natural environment. The proposed model achieves a recognition rate of 91.78% on the BJFU100 dataset, demonstrating that deep learning is a promising technology for smart forestry.

  19. Republic of Ecuador Country Environmental Analysis : Environmental Quality and Natural Resource Management for Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weak...

  20. The Natural Palette: Hudson River Artists and the Land. Teacher's Guide. Curriculum Resource: Grades 4 through 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Ted; Sorin, Gretchen Sullivan; Mack, Stevie; Fiore, Jennifer, Ed.

    This interdisciplinary curriculum guide resource kit focuses on 19th-century Euro-American painters of the Hudson River School. Lessons are designed to encourage student recognition of the significant impact of North American Indians, the natural environment, and the romantic period writers and philosophers artists and their work. The guide…

  1. Emergy Evaluation of the Natural Value of Water Resources in Chinese Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 × 104 sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 × 1011 sej/m3), and emdollar per volume (0.06 /m3). The total value of all the rivers’ water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haihe-luanhe River (11.39 × 104 sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 × 104 sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 × 104 sej/J).

  2. Endophytic Fungi as Novel Resources of natural Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Rajamanikyam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fungal endophytes constitute a major part of the unexplored fungal diversity. Endophytic fungi (EF are an important source for novel, potential and active metabolites. Plant-endophyte interaction and endophyte -endophyte interactions study provide insights into mutualism and metabolite production by fungi. Bioactive compounds produced by endophytes main function are helping the host plants to resist external biotic and abiotic stress, which benefit the host survival in return. These organisms mainly consist of members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Oomycota. Recently, the genome sequencing technology has emerged as one of the most efficient tools that can provide whole information of a genome in a small period of time. Endophytes are fertile ground for drug discovery. EFare considered as the hidden members of the microbial world and represent an underutilized resource for new therapeutics and compounds. Endophytes are rich source of natural products displaying broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory.

  3. The extraction of natural resources. The role of thermodynamic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roma, Antonio [Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); London Business School (United Kingdom); Pirino, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    The modelling of production in microeconomics has been the subject of heated debate. The controversial issues include the substitutability between production inputs, the role of time and the economic consequences of irreversibility in the production process. A case in point is the use of Cobb-Douglas type production functions, which completely ignore the physical process underlying the production of a good. We examine these issues in the context of the production of a basic commodity (such as copper or aluminium). We model the extraction and the refinement of a valuable substance which is mixed with waste material, in a way which is fully consistent with the physical constraints of the process. The resulting analytical description of production unambiguously reveals that perfect substitutability between production inputs fails if a corrected thermodynamic approach is used. We analyze the equilibrium pricing of a commodity extracted in an irreversible way. We force consumers to purchase goods using energy as the means of payment and force the firm to account in terms of energy. The resulting market provides the firm with a form of reversibility of its use of energy. Under an energy numeraire, energy resources will naturally be used in a more parsimonious way. (author)

  4. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  5. Integrating gender into natural resources management projects: USAID lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses USAID's lessons learned about integrating gender into natural resource management (NRM) projects in Peru, the Philippines, and Kenya. In Peru, USAID integrated women into a solid waste management project by lending money to invest in trash collection supplies. The loans allowed women to collect household waste, transfer it to a landfill, and provide additional sanitary disposal. The women were paid through direct fees from households and through service contracts with municipalities. In Mindanao, the Philippines, women were taught about the health impact of clean water and how to monitor water quality, including the monitoring of E. coli bacteria. Both men and women were taught soil conservation techniques for reducing the amount of silt running into the lake, which interferes with the generation of electricity and affects the health of everyone. The education helped women realize the importance of reducing silt and capitalized on their interest in protecting the health of their families. The women were thus willing to monitor the lake's water quality to determine if the conservation efforts were effective. In Kenya, USAID evaluated its Ecology, Community Organization, and Gender project in the Rift Valley, which helped resettle a landless community and helped with sustainable NRM. The evaluation revealed that women's relative bargaining power was less than men's. Organized capacity building that strengthened women's networks and improved their capacity to push issues onto the community agenda assured women a voice in setting the local NRM agenda.

  6. Squidy : a Zoomable Design Environment for Natural User Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    König, Werner A.; Rädle, Roman; Reiterer, Harald

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the interaction library Squidy, which eases the design of natural user interfaces by unifying relevant frameworks and toolkits in a common library. Squidy provides a central design environment based on high-level visual data flow programming combined with zoomable user interface concepts. The user interface offers a Simple visual language and a collection of ready-to-use devices, filters and interaction techniques. The concept of semantic zooming enables nevertheless access to mo...

  7. The Natural Hospital Environment: a Socio-Technical-Material perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita; Dawson, Linda

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces two concepts into analyses of information security and hospital-based information systems-- a Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and the Natural Hospital Environment. The research is grounded in a review of pertinent literature with previously published Australian (Victoria) case study data to analyse the way clinicians work with privacy and security in their work. The analysis was sorted into thematic categories, providing the basis for the Natural Hospital Environment and Socio-Technical-Material framework theories discussed here. Natural Hospital Environments feature inadequate yet pervasive computer use, aural privacy shortcomings, shared workspace, meagre budgets, complex regulation that hinders training outcomes and out-dated infrastructure and are highly interruptive. Working collaboratively in many cases, participants found ways to avoid or misuse security tools, such as passwords or screensavers for patient care. Workgroup infrastructure was old, architecturally limited, haphazard in some instances, and was less useful than paper handover sheets to ensure the quality of patient care outcomes. Despite valiant efforts by some participants, they were unable to control factors influencing the privacy of patient health information in public hospital settings. Future improvements to hospital-based organisational frameworks for e-health can only be made when there is an improved understanding of the Socio-Technical-Material theoretical framework and Natural Hospital Environment contexts. Aspects within control of clinicians and administrators can be addressed directly although some others are beyond their control. An understanding and acknowledgement of these issues will benefit the management and planning of improved and secure hospital settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes relative to built (buildings, cities environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as

  9. Efficient medical image access in diagnostic environments with limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Venson

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A medical application running outside the workstation environment has to deal with several constraints, such as reduced available memory and low network bandwidth. The aim of this paper is to present an approach to optimize the data flow for fast image transfer and visualization on mobile devices and remote stationary devices. Methods We use a combination of client- and server-side procedures to reduce the amount of information transferred by the application. Our approach was implemented on top of a commercial PACS and evaluated through user experiments with specialists in typical diagnosis tasks. The quality of the system outcome was measured in relation to the accumulated amount of network data transference and the amount of memory used in the host device. Besides, the system's quality of use (usability was measured through participants’ feedback. Results Contrarily to previous approaches, ours keeps the application within the memory constraints, minimizing data transferring whenever possible, allowing the application to run on a variety of devices. Moreover, it does that without sacrificing the user experience. Experimental data point that over 90% of the users did not notice any delays or degraded image quality, and when they did, they did not impact on the clinical decisions. Conclusion The combined activities and orchestration of our methods allow the image viewer to run on resource-constrained environments, such as those with low network bandwidth or little available memory. These results demonstrate the ability to explore the use of mobile devices as a support tool in the medical workflow.

  10. Behaviour of steels in natural environments: focus on stainless steels in natural sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, D.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour of steels and alloys in natural environments is not only dependent to material parameters and environmental chemistry, but also to micro-organisms which may be there. The global approach used to investigate the behaviour of alloys in natural environments is illustrated by the work done on stainless steels in seawater. In aerated seawater, studies led to the proposal of an 'enzymatic model' based on the enzymatic catalyze of the cathodic reaction and which allows reproducing the electrochemical behaviour of stainless steels in natural seawater and the crevice corrosion phenomena observed in natural sea waters. Coupling areas under aerobic and anaerobic conditions leads to the worst situation for stainless steel behaviour: the catalysis of the cathodic reaction on aerobic exposed surfaces and the decrease of the corrosion resistance of anaerobic surfaces due to sulphides. These results lead to the concept of electro-active bio-films. (author)

  11. Defining asbestos: differences between the built and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Mickey E

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos - while most think they know what this material is, few understand the current issues surrounding it. Few would also realize that asbestos is the form of a mineral, and even fewer would know that there are different types of asbestos, that not only had different industrial applications, but pose differing health risks when inhaled. Asbestos was in wide-spread use mid-last century in many consumer products, and no doubt saved thousands of lives, but by the latter part of last century concerns over its health risk caused its use to wane, to the point it was removed from many buildings. So in many ways the asbestos story was coming to an end in the 1990s, but two events in the USA - the vermiculite ore produced from Libby, Montana which contained amphibole asbestos and was used in a million homes in the USA as attic insulation and the concern for exposure to asbestos occurring in its natural setting in El Dorado Hills, California led to an increased concern of the potential for low-level environmental exposure to asbestos to the general public. The current dilemma we find ourselves in, especially in the USA, deals with the relationships between our knowledge of handling asbestos and an understanding of its risk potential in the built environment versus the natural environment. And one perfect metaphor for this is the term used by many non-geologists to differentiate asbestos in the built vs natural environment - 'naturally occurring asbestos'. Clearly a misstatement, but only one of many we must deal with as we struggle to understand the risk to humans of natural occurrences of asbestos. This paper will try and address some of these issues centering around those occurring in the USA.

  12. Modeling Gene-Environment Interactions With Quasi-Natural Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton

    2017-02-01

    This overview develops new empirical models that can effectively document Gene × Environment (G×E) interactions in observational data. Current G×E studies are often unable to support causal inference because they use endogenous measures of the environment or fail to adequately address the nonrandom distribution of genes across environments, confounding estimates. Comprehensive measures of genetic variation are incorporated into quasi-natural experimental designs to exploit exogenous environmental shocks or isolate variation in environmental exposure to avoid potential confounders. In addition, we offer insights from population genetics that improve upon extant approaches to address problems from population stratification. Together, these tools offer a powerful way forward for G×E research on the origin and development of social inequality across the life course. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The chemical behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems is governed by a variety of geochemical reactions, such as dissolution reaction (solubility), hydrolysis, complexation with inorganics or organics, redox reaction, colloid formation, geochemical interaction with surfaces of various minerals, coprecipitation, mineralisation etc. This paper reviews the present state of knowledge on some of these particular reactions. The emphasis is placed on how the individual reactions can be appraised for the long-term prediction of the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the natural environment. Of the various reactions, the primary thermodynamic processes of dissolution of transuranic compounds in aquatic solution, complexation with important anions present in groundwater and colloid generation are discussed with notable examples. Various laser spectroscopy in use for the chemical speciation are mentioned briefly as for their spectroscopic capability as well as applicability. The present review discussion is primarily directed to a better understanding of the migration behaviour of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems. (author) 100 refs

  14. Institutional aspects of local participation in natural resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia C. Tanguilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Philippine Local Government Code provides the basis for local natural resources management. This Code which was enacted into Law in 1991, however, is not necessarily the driving force for many Local Government Units (LGU’s who have made breakthroughs in local natural resources management (NRM.The paper provides case studies that reveal the policy and institutional hurdles in implementing local and participatory natural resources management programmes; the lessons and experiences amongst LGU’s in linking good governance with NRM; the research and development activities on local and participatory NRM; and the key institutional and policy issues to be communicated at the national level.Through the development of the Natural Resources Management and Development Plan (NRMDP employing public-private partnerships and capitalizing the presence of research and non-governmental organizations, agri-business and other community sectors, the Municipality of Lantapan, a local government unit, succeeded in overcoming constraints such as: lack of budget, manpower, technical skills, and poor community involvement.A key feature of the NRMDP is the Landcare Program which centers on formation of community landcare groups that mobilize resources for wider adoption of conservation practices. The Landcare Program is a grassroots approach for rapid and inexpensive dissemination of available, simple, and lower-cost technologies of agroforestry and conservation practices. It was also found out that communities have important roles to play but local government units have greater responsibility to provide the policy and institutional basis for supporting community-based initiatives.Case studies reveal that the responsibility for producing environmental goods goes beyond the normal practices of governance and is entertwined with the need for long-term education and managing the political culture through a pragmatic approach that directly links NRM with good

  15. Pronunciation dictionary development in resource-scarce environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of speech technology systems in the developing world is often hampered by the lack of appropriate linguistic resources. A suitable pronunciation dictionary is one such resource that can be difficult to obtain for lesser...

  16. A review of assertions about the processes and outcomes of social learning in natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundill, G; Rodela, R

    2012-12-30

    Social learning has become a central theme in natural resource management. This growing interest is underpinned by a number of assertions about the outcomes of social learning, and about the processes that support these outcomes. Yet researchers and practitioners who seek to engage with social learning through the natural resource management literature often become disorientated by the myriad processes and outcomes that are identified. We trace the roots of current assertions about the processes and outcomes of social learning in natural resource management, and assess the extent to which there is an emerging consensus on these assertions. Results suggest that, on the one hand, social learning is described as taking place through deliberative interactions amongst multiple stakeholders. During these interactions, it is argued that participants learn to work together and build relationships that allow for collective action. On the other hand, social learning is described as occurring through deliberate experimentation and reflective practice. During these iterative cycles of action, monitoring and reflection, participants learn how to cope with uncertainty when managing complex systems. Both of these processes, and their associated outcomes, are referred to as social learning. Where, therefore, should researchers and practitioners focus their attention? Results suggest that there is an emerging consensus that processes that support social learning involve sustained interaction between stakeholders, on-going deliberation and the sharing of knowledge in a trusting environment. There is also an emerging consensus that the key outcome of such learning is improved decision making underpinned by a growing awareness of human-environment interactions, better relationships and improved problem-solving capacities for participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 60717 - Establishment of the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... engagement of key partners at the regional Climate Science Center level. Advise on the nature and... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... seeking nominations for the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (Committee...

  18. Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCanne, Claire E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results.

  19. 8. report of the Standing Senate Committee on energy, the environment and natural resources : facts do not justify banning Canada's current offshore drilling operations : a Senate review in the wake of BP's Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, W.D.; Mitchell, G. (comps.)

    2010-08-15

    The blowout of BP's Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico has prompted many drilling practice reviews worldwide. This review by Canada's Senate Committee on Energy, the Environment and Natural Resources investigated Canadian offshore drilling practices. It showed that the risk of an offshore accident is quite low, partly because of the small amount of drilling currently underway in Canada. As a result, the committee recommended against a moratorium on offshore drilling. The study found that Canada's regulations for safety are more stringent than regulations in the United States. This report has elicited further reviews of liability and responsibility issues regarding offshore drilling. The Canadian legislation specifies that oil and gas companies are responsible for all spill clean-up costs and damage compensation. A $30 million absolute liability fund covers blowout costs for drilling in Canada's east offshore coast. A second civil liability fund requires drilling companies to provide Canadian regulators access to $70 million to cover damages from fault or negligence in offshore drilling. In addition, well operators may be required to provide evidence that they have a minimum of $250 million to fund well control, well safety and spill cleanup expenses. This report recommended a comprehensive review of liability, including whether thresholds should be adjusted to reflect current economic realities. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Environment report 1990 of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The 'Environment Report 1990' describes the environmental situation in the Federal Republic of Germany; draws a balance of environmental policy measures taken and introduced; gives information on future fields of action in environmental policy. The 'Environment Report 1990' also deals with the 'Environment Expert Opinion 1987', produced by the board of experts on environmental questions. It contains surveys of the following sectors: Protection against hazardous materials air pollution abatement, water management, waste management, nature protection and preservation of the countryside, soil conservation, noise abatement, radiation protection, reactor safety. A separate part of the 'Environment Report 1990' deals with the progress made in 'interdisciplinary fields' (general law on the protection of the environment, instruments of environmental policy, environmental information and environmental research, transfrontier environmental policy). (orig./HP) [de

  1. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  2. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, C.G.; Vanderhorst, J.P.; Young, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge-a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  3. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgärtner Johann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  4. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    Full Text Available A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  5. Human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa through integrated management of arthropod transmitted diseases and natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtner, J; Bieri, M; Buffoni, G; Gilioli, G; Gopalan, H; Greiling, J; Tikubet, G; Van Schayk, I

    2001-01-01

    A concept of an ecosystem approach to human health improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. Three factors mainly affect the physical condition of the human body: the abiotic environment, vector-transmitted diseases, and natural resources. Our concept relies on ecological principles embedded in a social context and identifies three sets of subsystems for study and management: human disease subsystems, natural resource subsystems, and decision-support subsystems. To control human diseases and to secure food from resource subsystems including livestock or crops, integrated preventive approaches are preferred over exclusively curative and sectorial approaches. Environmental sustainability - the basis for managing matter and water flows - contributes to a healthy human environment and constitutes the basis for social sustainability. For planning and implementation of the human health improvement scheme, participatory decision-support subsystems adapted to the local conditions need to be designed through institutional arrangements. The applicability of this scheme is demonstrated in urban and rural Ethiopia.

  6. Competition for resources can explain patterns of social and individual learning in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolla, Marco; Gilman, R Tucker; Galla, Tobias; Shultz, Susanne

    2015-09-22

    In nature, animals often ignore socially available information despite the multiple theoretical benefits of social learning over individual trial-and-error learning. Using information filtered by others is quicker, more efficient and less risky than randomly sampling the environment. To explain the mix of social and individual learning used by animals in nature, most models penalize the quality of socially derived information as either out of date, of poor fidelity or costly to acquire. Competition for limited resources, a fundamental evolutionary force, provides a compelling, yet hitherto overlooked, explanation for the evolution of mixed-learning strategies. We present a novel model of social learning that incorporates competition and demonstrates that (i) social learning is favoured when competition is weak, but (ii) if competition is strong social learning is favoured only when resource quality is highly variable and there is low environmental turnover. The frequency of social learning in our model always evolves until it reduces the mean foraging success of the population. The results of our model are consistent with empirical studies showing that individuals rely less on social information where resources vary little in quality and where there is high within-patch competition. Our model provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social learning, a prerequisite for human cumulative culture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Natural Resources Management and Food Security in the Context of Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the inseparable link between sustain ability of natural resources and food security. A strategic framework that envisages conservation, improvement and sustainable uses of natural resources is proposed which meets the essential requirements for food security. Sustainability has traditionally been accepted as encompassing three dimensions, namely environment, economics and society but it is necessary to widen this approach for a more complete understanding of this term. Environmental degradation curtails ecosystem services, leading to impoverishment of vulnerable communities and insecurity. Food, whether derived from land or sea, is a product of complex environmental linkages, and biodiversity has a pivotal role to play in producing it. Technology, production methods and management requirements are different for food derived from land and sea, but essentially all foodstuffs utilize environmental resources whose sustain ability is crucial for food security. This analysis necessitates consideration of the basic concepts of sustainable development and food security, the strength of the link between these and differences in the patterns of sustainable management of agriculture, fisheries and aquaculture. The growing role of genetically engineered organisms has been included because of the immense possibilities these offer for maximizing food production despite the environmental and ethical concerns raised. (author)

  8. Emerging issues confronting the renewable natural resources sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, A; Gordon, A

    1996-05-01

    The renewable natural resources sector in Africa is highly important because of the relatively high proportion of livelihoods it supports relative to other developing regions. However, ongoing rapid population growth threatens the long-term survival of the sector. Key concerns include the need for agricultural intensification in the context of systems which are often located in marginal areas, the demands imposed by rapid urbanization, and access rights to essential resources such as water. The policy and institutional environment can make problems worse since trends toward greater democracy often prove destabilizing or deflect the political agenda toward short-term expediency instead of longer-term strategies essential to the renewable natural resources sector. Structural adjustment has yet to produce the expected benefits and it is clear that the private sector will be unable to meet growth and distributional objectives on its own. A broader-based strategy is needed which includes not only government institutions at national and local levels, but also nongovernmental organizations, community organizations, and regional and international bodies.

  9. Environmental impact of irrational and wasteful use of natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, M K

    1978-01-01

    The author defines irrational use of resources as actions that are not based on existing knowledge of resources and wasteful use as actions using more resources than necessary. The three basic environmental impacts of irrational and wasteful uses are encroachment, exhaustion, and distribution effects. Man's contamination of the planet, which increased with population growth and technological advances that enable him to divert resources, can be altered by improving information and setting better criteria for the use of resources. The demand for resources can be lowered if life styles, prices, and income distribution patterns are modified to make resources use less wasteful and living conditions more equitable. The author reviews the present means of managing resources through minimum safety and social standards and notes that this approach leads to ownership and control problems. He suggests that criteria should ensure that all costs and benefits of a project be considered and that the project should promise a net positive change for better resource use. Several questions are suggested for use in assessing the comprehensiveness and relevancy of criteria.

  10. Engineered nano particles: Nature, behavior, and effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash; Das, Pallabi; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kumar, Sandeep; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-07-01

    Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains. Different environmental stressors influence the fate of these particles in the environment. Composition of solid media, pore size, solution chemistry, mineral composition, presence of natural organic matter, and fluid velocity are some environmental stressors that influence the transformation, transport, and mobility of nano particles. Transformed nano particles can reduce cell viability, growth and morphology, enhance oxidative stress, and damage DNA in living organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environment, energy and resources : case law update BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossman, T. [Miller Thomson LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    An overview of environmental case law was presented. Issues concerning contaminated sites were discussed with reference to Imperial Oil Ltd. v Quebec. Liability of contaminating companies was discussed in British Columbia Hydro v. British Columbia Environmental Appeal Board. Compensation for environmental damage was reviewed with reference to British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd., in which the Crown framed its claim in terms of a commercial loss and not in terms of other damages, such as negligence, nuisance or trespass. Issues concerning resource development and first nations interests were discussed, along with interlocutory injunctions. The issue of whether or not First Nation participation in environmental assessment may satisfy the duty to consult and accommodate was discussed in relation to Taku River Tlingit v. British Columbia. Issues concerning the Crown's duty to consult and accommodate Aboriginal peoples when the Crown is making decisions that may adversely affect as yet unproven Aboriginal rights and title claims were also examined. The international and extraterritorial reaches of environmental law was discussed with reference to the Teck Cominco Decision, in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency ordered a remedial investigation to determine the extent and nature of contamination in the United States portion of the Columbia River due to metals disposed upstream by Canadian smelter operations. Due diligence, Fisheries Act offences and the deposit of harmful substances were discussed in Fletcher v. Kingston, which also challenged the acute toxicity test for fish. It was noted that creative sentencing now allows for the court to make additional orders beyond any punishment imposed on the guilty party in section 127 of the Environmental Assessment Act. Various creative sentencing issues were also reviewed, including R. v Terroco Industries Ltd.

  12. Panorama 2010: Update on hydrocarbon resources. 2 - Natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Current gas reserves could sustain a slight increase in world production until 2020. The development of all existing conventional resources would bring them up to about 4.5 Tm 3 by 2030. The effect of a generalized development of unconventional gas resources would be to slow down rather than postpone the decline in production. (author)

  13. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  14. Overconsumption? Our use of the world's natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giljum, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Bruckner, M.; Burger, E.; Fruehmann, J.; Lutter, S.; Pirgmaier, E.; Polzin, C.; Waxwender, H.; Kernegger, L.; Warhurst, M.

    2009-09-01

    It is essential to start a debate about European resource use and its environmental and social impacts around the world. In order to help facilitate this debate, this report aims to provide a compilation of information on current trends in European and global resource use.

  15. Natural resource management information systems: a guide to design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschanz, J.F.; Kennedy, A.S.

    1975-07-01

    Resource management requires the timely supply of intelligible, concise information to facilitate the variety of decisions needed. A distinctive component of information useful in resource management is its spatial content. The first portion of this guidebook sketches the resource management needs for spatial information, indicating not only the variety of resource management contexts, but also the variety of information/data handling approaches that exist. Within this diversity, common structural characteristics for all spatial information/data handling can be perceived, and the remainder of the guidebook outlines the general structure of a resource management information system and a process for designing such a system. Three basic elements of the information system are data base management, data retrieval and processing, and system support. Equally important are the interfaces through which the system is linked to its community of users, data supply, and available information system technology.

  16. Tourism and the Natural and Built Environments in Gadara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Abdelkarim ALOBIEDAT

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although tourism is often promoted as a harmless endeavour, it appears that the environmental impacts associated with it, regardless of severity, are inevitable. Using sources such as informal interviews, participant observation, literature, and data from government entities, this research set out to determine the environmental impacts of tourism on the heritage site of Gadara in northwest Jordan. The findings of this research revealed that the negatives of tourism on the natural and built environment outweigh the benefits at Gadara. Environmentally, while tourism in Gadara encouraged the conservation of the ancient tangible heritage, this research uncovered other harmful environmental consequences that occurred due to practices by officials and both domestic and Arab visitors including, but not limited to, leaving garbage and non-biodegradable trash, vandalism, traffic congestion, noise, and construction activities. This article will serve as a springboard for stakeholders to recognize the opportunities and threats tourism poses to the conservation of heritage and the environment.

  17. Autonomous Underwater Navigation and Optical Mapping in Unknown Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Hernández

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for navigating in unknown environments while, simultaneously, gathering information for inspecting underwater structures using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV. To accomplish this, we first use our pipeline for mapping and planning collision-free paths online, which endows an AUV with the capability to autonomously acquire optical data in close proximity. With that information, we then propose a reconstruction pipeline to create a photo-realistic textured 3D model of the inspected area. These 3D models are also of particular interest to other fields of study in marine sciences, since they can serve as base maps for environmental monitoring, thus allowing change detection of biological communities and their environment over time. Finally, we evaluate our approach using the Sparus II, a torpedo-shaped AUV, conducting inspection missions in a challenging, real-world and natural scenario.

  18. CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS VERSUS THE PROTECTION OF NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hanna Szafranko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction investments are related to the economic development of each country. Expansion of towns and settlements, construction, industrial, commercial and recreational objects and the communication network is necessary and results from regional development strategies. For their implementation it is necessary to prepare the area designated for their development. In many regions of our country area suitable for construction are increasingly limited, and furthermore investors often looks for an attractive investment location. For this reason, more and more construction projects dangerously close to areas of high natural value and protected and often are entering the these areas. To minimize the negative investment impact on the environment there are developed several variants of investment. Next, assessing the positive and negative effects, we choose the best, from the point of view of the surrounding environment solution. To illustrate the procedure example of analysis using the method proposed by the author, the indicator is shown.

  19. Association between Natural Resources for OutdoorActivities and Physical Inactivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — it includes available natural resources for outdoor activities, Physical inactivity and households income. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  20. 238 U 92 radionuclide handbook. Natural Uranium and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Colle, C.; Morello, M.

    2001-01-01

    This handbook summarizes the behaviour of the chemical element in the main compartments of land and aquatic ecosystems, under the two following assumptions: isotopic discrimination is negligible (this is validated for most of the examined elements); when the element possesses stable isotopes, the behaviour analogy between its stable and radioactive isotopes is implicitly admitted, knowing that, for elements existing at the natural state, the chemical form and the emitting media of the anthropic effluents are susceptible of implying other transfer processes than those identified for the natural stable element. The handbook gives information on the chemical and nuclear characteristics of the element, its origins, the concentrations in the environment, the mobility and bio-availability in land ecosystems (soils, plants, animals) and aquatic ecosystems (waters, sediments, plants, animals)

  1. Integrated Natural Resource Management: Approaches and Lessons from the Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Saxena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses of forest cover, biodiversity, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem services in the Himalayan mountain region are interlinked problems and threats to the sustainable livelihoods of 115 x 106 mountain people as well as the inhabitants of the adjoining Indo-gangetic plains. Until the 1970s, environmental conservation, food security, and rural economic development were treated as independent sectors. The poor outcomes of sector-oriented approaches catalyzed efforts to address environmental and socioeconomic problems concurrently. The identification of "key" natural resource management interventions is an important dimension of integrated management. Projects to rehabilitate the degraded lands that cover 40% of the Indian Himalaya could be key interventions provided that they address both socioeconomic and environmental concerns across spatial and temporal scales. However, projects of this type, e.g., investments in conifer plantations on degraded forest lands, have failed because their designs did not take into account the needs of local residents. This study illustrates a case of land rehabilitation in a small isolated village close to the alpine zone. Vital elements of this project strategy included identifying local perceptions and knowledge and involving the local people in the selection and implementation of the interventions needed to restore the land. Communities were found to be more concerned with the immediate economic benefits from bamboo and medicinal species than the long-term benefits of tree planting. The villagers eventually reached a consensus to plant broadleaved multipurpose trees in association with bamboo and medicinal species. Despite assurances that all the economic benefits from rehabilitation would go to the community, the people would not agree to voluntary labor, although they did absorb significant costs by providing social fencing, farmyard manure, and propagules from community forests. Households shared

  2. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson

  3. An online spatial database of Australian Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge for contemporary natural and cultural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, Petina L; Ens, Emilie J; Locke, John; Clarke, Philip A; Packer, Joanne M; Turpin, Gerry

    2015-11-15

    With growing international calls for the enhanced involvement of Indigenous peoples and their biocultural knowledge in managing conservation and the sustainable use of physical environment, it is timely to review the available literature and develop cross-cultural approaches to the management of biocultural resources. Online spatial databases are becoming common tools for educating land managers about Indigenous Biocultural Knowledge (IBK), specifically to raise a broad awareness of issues, identify knowledge gaps and opportunities, and to promote collaboration. Here we describe a novel approach to the application of internet and spatial analysis tools that provide an overview of publically available documented Australian IBK (AIBK) and outline the processes used to develop the online resource. By funding an AIBK working group, the Australian Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (ACEAS) provided a unique opportunity to bring together cross-cultural, cross-disciplinary and trans-organizational contributors who developed these resources. Without such an intentionally collaborative process, this unique tool would not have been developed. The tool developed through this process is derived from a spatial and temporal literature review, case studies and a compilation of methods, as well as other relevant AIBK papers. The online resource illustrates the depth and breadth of documented IBK and identifies opportunities for further work, partnerships and investment for the benefit of not only Indigenous Australians, but all Australians. The database currently includes links to over 1500 publically available IBK documents, of which 568 are geo-referenced and were mapped. It is anticipated that as awareness of the online resource grows, more documents will be provided through the website to build the database. It is envisaged that this will become a well-used tool, integral to future natural and cultural resource management and maintenance. Copyright © 2015. Published

  4. Natural radiation, protection against its effects and maintaining safe natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity and its consequences is an issue that needs the global concern, as practices bringing such radioactive materials closer to human environment through mining, building, industrial applications and food production and preservation is continuously increasing, in addition to the daily consumption in foods such as banana, carrot, potato and drinking water. Although it has direct and indirect impacts affecting human health that in some cases lead to the loss of lives and polluting natural environment, it is an inevitable task that necessitates devising some means of its minimization and protection against its hazardous effects. This could be achieved by the use of expertise ideas and by the creation of awareness and sharing related information with the people concerned and the general public. This paper gives an overview on the radiation present in natural environment, its sources, mechanism of its effects. The paper compares the radiation dose limits with the average doses from these sources in order to raise the challenges facing researchers, governments and the general individuals with regard to this issue. The paper also proposed applicable solutions to reduce the risks due to the exposure to natural radiation to ground level. (author)

  5. Emerging pollutants in the environment: A challenge for water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Geissen

    2015-03-01

    A combination of regulations and management measures with respect to use/emissions of EPs into the environment, as well as to their occurrence in the environment are fundamental to reach an efficient water resource management.

  6. Assessing the role of learning devices and geovisualisation tools for collective action in natural resource management: Experiences from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, Jean-Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In northern Vietnam uplands the successive policy reforms that accompanied agricultural decollectivisation triggered very rapid changes in land use in the 1990s. From a centralized system of natural resource management, a multitude of individual strategies emerged which contributed to new production interactions among farming households, changes in landscape structures, and conflicting strategies among local stakeholders. Within this context of agrarian transition, learning devices can help local communities to collectively design their own course of action towards sustainable natural resource management. This paper presents a collaborative approach combining a number of participatory methods and geovisualisation tools (e.g., spatially explicit multi-agent models and role-playing games) with the shared goal to analyse and represent the interactions between: (i) decision-making processes by individual farmers based on the resource profiles of their farms; (ii) the institutions which regulate resource access and usage; and (iii) the biophysical and socioeconomic environment. This methodological pathway is illustrated by a case study in Bac Kan Province where it successfully led to a communication platform on natural resource management. In a context of rapid socioeconomic changes, learning devices and geovisualisation tools helped embed the participatory approach within a process of community development. The combination of different tools, each with its own advantages and constraints, proved highly relevant for supporting collective natural resource management.

  7. Efficient Resource Utilization in Shared-Everything Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1998-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present floating probe, a

  8. Efficient resource utilization in shared-everything environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present emph{floating probe, a

  9. Regional integrated modelling of climate change impacts on natural resources and resource usage in semi-arid Norhteast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; Bronstert, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Semi-arid regions are characterised by a high vulnerability of natural resources to climate change, pronounced climatic variability and often by water scarcity and related social stress. The analysis of the dynamics of natural conditions and the assessment of possible strategies to cope with

  10. Coordinating ecological risk assessment with natural resource damage assessment: A panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brenda; Ammann, Mike; Hoff, Rebecca; Huston, Mark; Jenkins, Kenneth; Palagyi, Tony; Pelto, Karen; Rettig, Todd; Wagner, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Contaminated sites in the United States undergo remediation and restoration through regulatory programs that lead the 2 processes through independent but often parallel pathways with different objectives. The objective of remediation is to reduce risk to human health and the environment, whereas that of restoration is to restore injured resources and compensate the public for lost use of the services that natural resources provide. More complex sites, such as those associated with large river systems and urban waterways, have resulted in increasingly larger-scale ecological risk assessments (ERAs) and natural resource damage assessments (NRDAs) that take many years and involve diverse practitioners including scientists, economists, and engineers. Substantial levels of effort are now frequently required, creating a need for more efficient and cost-effective approaches to data collection, analyses, and assessments. Because there are commonalities in the data needs between ERAs and NRDAs, coordination of the design and implementation of site-specific studies that meet the needs of both programs could result in increased efficiency and lower costs. The Association for Environmental Health and Sciences Foundation convened a panel of environmental practitioners from industry, consulting, and regulatory bodies to examine the benefits and challenges associated with coordinating ERA and NRDA activities in the context of a broad range of regulatory programs. This brief communication presents the opinions and conclusions of the panelists on these issues and reports 2 case studies for which coordinated ERA and NRDA activities produced a positive outcome. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:616-621. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Taking Care of What We Have: Participatory Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It documents a new approach to the study and future management of a complex ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  12. Women in natural resource collection: Experience from rural Jharkhand in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bhola Nath; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Women living in rural areas are closely associated with the natural environment. Poor families are mostly dependent on natural resources for their survival activities viz. grazing of cattle, collection of water for drinking and cooking purposes and collection of fuel wood. In the poor families due to the compulsion of earning, adult males mostly go for outside activities and sometimes female members of the family also join them. The aforementioned natural resource collection activities are considered to be inferior, less remunerative and hence suitable for the women or young kids to perform. Thus, they are found to be more close to the nature than men and this very close relationship makes them perfect managers of the eco-system in their vicinity. The life of rural women is so much intertwined with the environment that they can't even think of her survival without it. However, there might be significant inter-household differences in the distribution of such activities between male and female members of the families, depending upon their socio-economic characteristics, cultural and religious beliefs and attitude towards women and children. The involvement of women in such activities is also found to be more in the tribal dominated societies. This paper tried to examine the extent to which women in rural Jharkhand are involved in such natural resource collection and management activities. Also, we tried to unearth various economic and cultural reasons and their impact on the involvement of women in such activities across various social and economic groups. The analysis of primary data collected from the rural areas of tribal dominated Jharkhand reveals that income, occupation and status of the families have significant inverse link with the involvement of women and also of girl children at the cost of their educational prospects. Religious and cultural beliefs also enter in the determination of extent of involvement of women and children in the rural society. It is

  13. Wild inside: Urban wild boar select natural, not anthropogenic food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillfried, Milena; Gras, Pierre; Busch, Matthias; Börner, Konstantin; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Ortmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    than natural resources. This study shows that access to natural resources still is mandatory and drives the amount of protein, starch, fat or fibre in wild boar stomachs in urban as well as rural environments.

  14. Depleted uranium (DU) mobility in the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarsdottir, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 the Balkan's conflict lead NATO war planes to leave 10x10 3 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment of Kosovo and neighbouring states (UNEP, 2001). DU behaves in the same manner in the environment as natural uranium and it can be traced with isotopic analysis due to the fact that DU has the isotopic composition of 0.2% 235 U and 99.8% 2 38 U as opposed to natural uranium which has 0.7% 2 35 U and 99.3% 2 38 U. DU is a waste product of the nuclear industry which enrich nuclear fuel by 2 35 U. Large stock piles of DU therefore exist in countries that produce nuclear energy and/or nuclear weapons. The DU is given to the weapons industry for free (or cheap) and has been a popular choice for armour penetrating arsenal due to the high density of uranium (19 g cm -3 ) and therefore its high penetrating power. Indeed the arsenal used in Kosovo consisted of DU penetrators that were shot from A-10 aeroplanes. They weigh roughly 300 g and have the shape of a fat 9 cm long pencil. (author)

  15. The Natural Resources Conservation Service land resource hierarchy and ecological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource areas of the NRCS have long been important to soil geography. At both regional and landscape scales, resource areas are used to stratify programs and practices based on geographical areas where resource concerns, problems, or treatment needs are similar. However, the inability to quantifiab...

  16. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  17. Risk forewarning of regional development sustainability based on a natural resources and environmental carrying index in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Wang, Yafei; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Wang, Chuansheng; Xu, Weihua; Li, Jiuyi; Yu, Jianhui; Zhou, Kan

    2017-02-01

    It is a matter of public consensus that China's high growth rate has been achieved at the expense of natural resources and the environment, leading to serious risks to sustainability. This research, which proposes a theoretical model to forewarn of risks to regional developmental sustainability in China, constitutes the first empirical evaluation of this to be undertaken there. The results show that: (a) the areas at risk cover almost 43% of the land and 44% of the population of mainland China. In those areas, 83.56% of people at risk are threatened by the low carrying capacity of the environment and limited water resources. (b) With 70% of the total population living in "at risk" areas, urbanization zones remain as the primary category suffering from overload across China. Extensive industrialization has resulted in environmental pollution, which contributes the most to the forewarning status, while the secondary cause is found to be the special coupling of the scarcity of natural water resources and their inefficient use. In addition, most urban conglomerations suffer from pollution by industrial production and household consumption, which tends to extend to their surrounding agricultural areas. Extensive mineral exploitation in ecologically fragile areas has made them increasingly more vulnerable to disturbances from their neighboring resource-driven urban areas. The paper uses these findings to suggest how to intensify the special regulatory administration of resources and the environment, and to transform approaches to industrialization, in order to address sustainable development issues in developing countries.

  18. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  19. Protection of the natural environment - philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear operations give rise to small releases of radionuclides to the environment either under controlled conditions (immediate releases) or uncontrolled from waste repositories in the near or far future (delayed releases). The radiation doses to man from the discharges can be estimated using radioecological and dispersion modelling methods. The system for limiting exposure of individual members of the public is currently based on the recommendation by the ICRP. Their risk philosophy, which stems from the fact that the probability of cancer resulting from radiation will be linear with dose, has hitherto gained broad acceptances for setting authorised dose-limits for man. A discussion has recently emerged on the protection of the natural environment from harmful radiation effects. In this case there is concern for the viability of the population rather than the individuals. As our understanding of important mechanisms regarding the protection of the environment is limited it seems appropriate to adopt a precautionary approach. In matters where little is known about the risks the precautionary principle has a major role to play. Concomitantly, the best available technology (BAT), as stated in the precautionary principle, could be employed to minimise discharges of radionuclides. The development of a regulatory frame-work requires that an objective is set and that standards and indicators are derived in a multi-tiered approach. By applying the precautionary principle for environmental radiation protection the safety margins have to increase. However improving knowledge may in due time lead to more rational decision-making

  20. Strategic Planning for scenarios in the natural environment. The case of the Nature Outlook 2050 GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano Lopez de Meneses, J.

    2015-01-01

    Forward planning is part of strategic planning. It is a regular tool in management and direction of the companies. Some European countries include it in environmental policy cycle. Scenarios approach is a proved qualitative foresight technique. It is useful in high variability and complexity environments. This paper shows how to implement the tool, mixing theoretical explanation and the practical performance done in project called: Nature Outlook 2050. This project has been done by the Netherlands agency for environmental assessment and foresight (PBL). (Author)

  1. Research on Green Manufacturing Innovation Based on Resource Environment Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Xu

    2017-11-01

    Green manufacturing is a trend of manufacturing industry in the future, and is of great significance to resource protection and environmental protection. This paper first studies the green manufacturing innovation system, and then decomposes the green manufacturing innovation dimensions, and constructs the green manufacturing innovation dimension space. Finally, from the view of resource protection and environmental protection, this paper explores the path of green manufacturing innovation.

  2. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  3. Getting Alice through the door: social science research and natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Ewert

    1995-01-01

    A number of trends are altering the role of science in natural resource management. These trends include the growing political power of science, the recognition that most natural resource problems are extremely complex and not prone to uni-dimensional solutions, and the increasing need to integrate an understanding of the human component into the planning and decision-...

  4. The Impacts of the Great Recession on State Natural Resource Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…

  5. Traditional natural resource conflict resolution vis-à-vis formal legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article analyses how the formal legal systems in Ethiopia and Kenya marginalised and prevented traditional forms of resolving conf licts over natural resources. Both countries best illustrate two rapidly growing economies in transition. However, in Ethiopia and Kenya, conflicts over natural resource have to be ...

  6. 78 FR 50085 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Climate Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting.... 2, we announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold... Partnership Coordinator, National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201...

  7. 78 FR 79478 - Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Change and Natural Resource Science AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Meeting notice... announce that the Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science will hold a meeting..., National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive...

  8. Native American  student perspectives of challenges in natural resource higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna Gervais; Chase R. Voirin; Chris Beatty; Grace Bulltail; Stephanie Cowherd; Shawn Defrance; Breana Dorame; Raymond Gutteriez; Jessica Lackey; Candy Lupe; April B. Negrette; Natalya C. Robbins Sherman; Ruth Swaney; Kevin Tso; Marvin Victor; Royale Wilson; Kimberly Yazzie; Jonathan W. Long; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native Americans have vital interests in promoting forest management decisions based on sound science and consistent with cultural values to sustain and conserve tribal natural resources. Advancing the next generation of natural resource professionals into key positions is essential to advance the self-determination of tribes; yet, there are unique challenges Native...

  9. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  10. Skills Students Need in the Real World: Competencies Desired by Agricultural and Natural Resources Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, R. G., III; Warner, Anna J.; Myers, Brian E.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Telg, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The competencies addressed by undergraduate agricultural education programs should be assessed so programs are effective in supplying a well-prepared agricultural- and natural resources-oriented workforce, and so human capital is optimized. In this study, agricultural and natural resources leaders were surveyed to determine the workforce…

  11. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  12. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  13. The influence of shale gas mining activities on the natural environment in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyssa, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    In the paper the main threats to the environment arising from works related to the exploration of gas from unconventional sources have been discussed. The influence of exploration works on the atmosphere (the emission of gases to the atmosphere as a result of fuel combustion, the emission of noise by drilling equipment) has been explained. Threats to the hydrological balance associated with the intake of water for performing the process of fracturing have been discussed. Legal regulations connected with waste management, water resource management and protected areas (Nature 2000) have been presented.

  14. Information system of authorities of environment, legislative resources and conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlhosova, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation author presents structure, legislative basis and conception of the Information system of authorities of environment (ISAE) in the Slovak Republic. The ISAE is a component part of the information system of the Slovak Environmental Agency and Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. Using of new technologies is discussed

  15. Cultural Landscapes as a Methodology for Understanding Natural Resource Management Impacts in the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Toupal

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and

  16. A Learning Perspective On The Role Of Natural Resources In Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl

    2011-01-01

    Natural resource-based industries are in economics often is understood as being unable to stimulate growth and development. The latter point has been put forward in the form of the ‘resource curse’ and is epitomised by inter alia Reinert (2007) who sees natural resource-based industries...... as detrimental to growth and development. Still, it will be argued here that Reinert’s approach is unsuitable for grasping the full role of natural resources in economic development because important aspects of industrial dynamics are ignored. In pursuit of the latter research aim two topics in economic research...... will be integrated: (i) the area of learning, innovation, capability building and economic development; (ii) with the area of natural resources and economic development. Such integration will be a contribution to both topics. Hence, this paper seeks to address the question: how can we understand the role of natural...

  17. PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF REFORMING TAXES FOR USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BACAL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is carried out a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of taxes for use of natural resources in the Republic of Moldova. There have been identified the main methodological gaps, especially the neglect of geographical and ecological component, problems of administrations of those taxes. The main objectives of this study are: 1 knowledge and application of international experience in the implementation and improvement of fees for use of natural resources; 2 diagnostic analysis of the calculation and application methodology of taxes for use of natural resources; 3 identifying the gaps and problematic situations of implementing taxes for use of natural resources; 4 assessment of fiscal, economic and environmental impacts of the application of these taxes; 5 elaboration of recommendations for reforming the taxes for use of natural resources.

  18. Demographic Development and the Exhaustion of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThe problems created by the population explosion, pollution, and resource scarcity, although not yet well understood, are likely to require curbs on future rates of economic and population growth. Targets for population and income in developed and developing countries for the year 2012

  19. Essays in game theory and natural resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Do, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis presents a collection of essays in game theory with applications to environmental resource problems and their management. A major focus of these essays is related to coalitional games in which several classes of games, their properties and solution concepts are studied. Game theory is

  20. Women's Access to Land and Natural Resources in Pastoralist and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juin 2009 ... This project will explore women's access to land and land-based resources in five pastoralist and forest-dwelling communities in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, mainly, Hadza, Batwa, Maasai, Ogiek and Karamojong. The project is expected to shed light on how best to secure women's right to land and ...