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Sample records for environment model definition

  1. TAME - the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment: model definition

    Klos, R.A.; Mueller-Lemans, H.; Dorp, F. van; Gribi, P.

    1996-10-01

    TAME - the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment is a new computer model for use in assessments of the radiological impact of the release of radionuclides to the biosphere, following their disposal in underground waste repositories. Based on regulatory requirements, the end-point of the calculations is the maximum annual individual dose to members of a hypothetical population group inhabiting the biosphere region. Additional mid- and end-points in the TAME calculations are dose as function of time from eleven exposure pathways, foodstuff concentrations and the distribution of radionuclides in the modelled biosphere. A complete description of the mathematical representations of the biosphere in TAME is given in this document, based on a detailed review of the underlying conceptual framework for the model. Example results are used to illustrate features of the conceptual and mathematical models. The end-point of dose is shown to be robust for the simplifying model assumptions used to define the biosphere for the example calculations. TAME comprises two distinct sub-models - one representing the transport of radionuclides in the near-surface environment and one for the calculation of dose to individual inhabitants of that biosphere. The former is the result of a detailed review of the modelling requirements for such applications and is based on a comprehensive consideration of all features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to Swiss biospheres, both in the present-day biosphere and in potential future biosphere states. Representations of the transport processes are derived from first principles. Mass balance for water and solid material fluxes is used to determine the rates of contaminant transfer between components of the biosphere system. The calculation of doses is based on existing representations of exposure pathways and draws on experience both from Switzerland and elsewhere. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. TAME - the terrestrial-aquatic model of the environment: model definition

    Klos, R.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mueller-Lemans, H. [Tergoso AG fuer Umweltfragen, Sargans (Switzerland); Dorp, F. van [Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA), Baden (Switzerland); Gribi, P. [Colenco AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-10-01

    TAME - the Terrestrial-Aquatic Model of the Environment is a new computer model for use in assessments of the radiological impact of the release of radionuclides to the biosphere, following their disposal in underground waste repositories. Based on regulatory requirements, the end-point of the calculations is the maximum annual individual dose to members of a hypothetical population group inhabiting the biosphere region. Additional mid- and end-points in the TAME calculations are dose as function of time from eleven exposure pathways, foodstuff concentrations and the distribution of radionuclides in the modelled biosphere. A complete description of the mathematical representations of the biosphere in TAME is given in this document, based on a detailed review of the underlying conceptual framework for the model. Example results are used to illustrate features of the conceptual and mathematical models. The end-point of dose is shown to be robust for the simplifying model assumptions used to define the biosphere for the example calculations. TAME comprises two distinct sub-models - one representing the transport of radionuclides in the near-surface environment and one for the calculation of dose to individual inhabitants of that biosphere. The former is the result of a detailed review of the modelling requirements for such applications and is based on a comprehensive consideration of all features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to Swiss biospheres, both in the present-day biosphere and in potential future biosphere states. Representations of the transport processes are derived from first principles. Mass balance for water and solid material fluxes is used to determine the rates of contaminant transfer between components of the biosphere system. The calculation of doses is based on existing representations of exposure pathways and draws on experience both from Switzerland and elsewhere. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  3. Empirical radiation belt models: Comparison with in situ data and implications for environment definition

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Jun, Insoo; Evans, Robin

    2017-09-01

    The empirical AP8/AE8 model has been the de facto Earth's radiation belts engineering reference for decades. The need from the community for a better model incubated the development of AP9/AE9/SPM, which addresses several shortcomings of the old model. We provide additional validation of AP9/AE9 by comparing in situ electron and proton data from Jason-2, Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES), and the Van Allen Probes spacecraft with the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles from AE9/AP9 and with the model outputs from AE8/AP8. The relatively short duration of Van Allen Probes and Jason-2 missions means that their measurements are most certainly the result of specific climatological conditions. In low Earth orbit (LEO), the Jason-2 proton flux is better reproduced by AP8 compared to AP9, while the POES electron data are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles. The shape of the South Atlantic anomaly (SAA) from Jason-2 data is better captured by AP9 compared to AP8, while the peak SAA flux is better reproduced by AP8. The <1.5 MeV inner belt electrons from Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) are well enveloped by AE9 5th and 95th percentiles, while AE8 overpredicts the measurements. In the outer radiation belt, MagEIS and Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) electrons closely follow the median estimate from AE9, while AP9 5th and 95th percentiles generally envelope REPT proton measurements in the inner belt and slot regions. While AE9/AP9 offer the flexibility to specify the environment with different confidence levels, the dose and trapped proton peak flux for POES and Jason-2 trajectories from the AE9/AP9 50th percentile and above are larger than the estimates from the AE8/AP8 models.

  4. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  5. Space Environment Modeling

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  6. Conceptualising Business Models: Definitions, Frameworks and Classifications

    Erwin Fielt

    2013-01-01

    The business model concept is gaining traction in different disciplines but is still criticized for being fuzzy and vague and lacking consensus on its definition and compositional elements. In this paper we set out to advance our understanding of the business model concept by addressing three areas of foundational research: business model definitions, business model elements, and business model archetypes. We define a business model as a representation of the value logic of an organization in...

  7. Conceptualising Business Models: Definitions, Frameworks and Classifications

    Erwin Fielt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The business model concept is gaining traction in different disciplines but is still criticized for being fuzzy and vague and lacking consensus on its definition and compositional elements. In this paper we set out to advance our understanding of the business model concept by addressing three areas of foundational research: business model definitions, business model elements, and business model archetypes. We define a business model as a representation of the value logic of an organization in terms of how it creates and captures customer value. This abstract and generic definition is made more specific and operational by the compositional elements that need to address the customer, value proposition, organizational architecture (firm and network level and economics dimensions. Business model archetypes complement the definition and elements by providing a more concrete and empirical understanding of the business model concept. The main contributions of this paper are (1 explicitly including the customer value concept in the business model definition and focussing on value creation, (2 presenting four core dimensions that business model elements need to cover, (3 arguing for flexibility by adapting and extending business model elements to cater for different purposes and contexts (e.g. technology, innovation, strategy (4 stressing a more systematic approach to business model archetypes by using business model elements for their description, and (5 suggesting to use business model archetype research for the empirical exploration and testing of business model elements and their relationships.

  8. FEMME, a flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeClippele, V.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A new, FORTRAN-based, simulation environment called FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), designed for implementing, solving and analysing mathematical models in ecology is presented. Three separate phases in ecological modelling are distinguished: (1) the model

  9. What Is A Homosexual? A Definitional Model.

    Berger, Raymond M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a definitional model to explain homosexuality and discusses its implications for practice. Contends that social workers must discard the traditional binary model of hetersexual versus homesexual for one incorporating relevant psychosocial factors including life experiences, social reaction, and association with others. (Author/JAC)

  10. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  11. Formal Definition of Measures for BPMN Models

    Reynoso, Luis; Rolón, Elvira; Genero, Marcela; García, Félix; Ruiz, Francisco; Piattini, Mario

    Business process models are currently attaining more relevance, and more attention is therefore being paid to their quality. This situation led us to define a set of measures for the understandability of BPMN models, which is shown in a previous work. We focus on understandability since a model must be well understood before any changes are made to it. These measures were originally informally defined in natural language. As is well known, natural language is ambiguous and may lead to misunderstandings and a misinterpretation of the concepts captured by a measure and the way in which the measure value is obtained. This has motivated us to provide the formal definition of the proposed measures using OCL (Object Constraint Language) upon the BPMN (Business Process Modeling Notation) metamodel presented in this paper. The main advantages and lessons learned (which were obtained both from the current work and from previous works carried out in relation to the formal definition of other measures) are also summarized.

  12. Business Ecosystem Definition in Built Environment Using a Stakeholder Assessment Process

    Tuomas Lappi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actors and their relationships are core elements of the business ecosystem concept, a trending model of business collaboration emphasizing organizational diversity, relationship dependency and joint evolution. This study approaches a built environment business ecosystem to structure the acknowledged complexity of ecosystem definition by applying a three-step stakeholder assessment process. The process is based on a stakeholder network diagram, Mitchell, Agle, and Wood’s (1997 well-recognized stakeholder salience model and a two-dimensional stakeholder matrix. The assessment process is applied to a school campus case study to define a built environment business ecosystem and the salience of the ecosystem actors. Results, including salience score calculation, validate the applicability of the proposed process. The findings provide novel insights for ecosystem researchers into how stakeholder theory concepts can be applied to broaden the understanding of business ecosystem dynamics.

  13. Translating building information modeling to building energy modeling using model view definition.

    Jeong, WoonSeong; Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J; Haberl, Jeff S; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  14. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM and Building Energy Modeling (BEM that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1 the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2 BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1 enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2 enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3 facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  15. Modelling Virtual Environments for Geovisualization

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The use of virtual environments in geovisualization has become a major topic within the last few years. The main reason for this interest in the growing use of 3D models and visual realizations in a wide range of applications concerned with the geographic element of information. The implementation...... within the geographic domain. A categorization of the virtual environments is offered through which the differences between them are highlighted. It is possible to achieve this categorization in many ways from many perspectives since this is not and will not be research of a purely positive nature...

  16. Modelling radioactivity in the environment

    Scott, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Just as an environmental model typically will be composed of a number of linked sub-models, representing physical, chemical or biological processes understood to varying degrees, this volume includes a series of linked chapters exemplifying the fundamental nature of environmental radioactivity models in all compartments of the environment. Modelling is an often misunderstood and maligned activity and this book can provide, to a broad audience, a greater understanding of modelling power but also some of the limitations. Modellers and experimentalists often do not understand and mistrust each other's work yet they are mutually dependent, in the sense that good experimental science can direct good modelling work and vice-versa. There is an increasing reliance on model results in environmental management, yet there is also often misuse and misrepresentation of these results. This book can help to bridge the gap between unrealistic expectations of model power and the realisation of what is possible, practicable and feasible in modelling of environmental radioactivity; and finally, - modelling tools, capacity and power have increased many-fold in a relatively short period of time. Much of this is due to the much-heralded computer revolution, but much is also due to better science. It is useful to consider what gap if any still remains between what is possible and what is necessary

  17. Cabin Environment Physics Risk Model

    Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Mathias, Donovan Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe return. The results of the CEPR model replace the assumption that failure of the crew critical ECLSS functionality causes LOC instantly, and provide a more accurate representation of the spacecraft's risk posture. The instant-LOC assumption is shown to be excessively conservative and, moreover, can impact the relative risk drivers identified for the spacecraft. This, in turn, could lead the design team to allocate mass for equipment to reduce overly conservative risk estimates in a suboptimal configuration, which inherently increases the overall risk to the crew. For example, available mass could be poorly used to add redundant ECLSS components that have a negligible benefit but appear to make the vehicle safer due to poor assumptions about the propagation time of ECLSS failures.

  18. Current definition and a generalized federbush model

    Singh, L.P.S.; Hagen, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Federbush model is studied, with particular attention being given to the definition of currents. Inasmuch as there is no a priori restriction of local gauge invariance, the currents in the interacting case can be defined more generally than in Q.E.D. It is found that two arbitrary parameters are thereby introduced into the theory. Lowest order perturbation calculations for the current correlation functions and the Fermion propagators indicate that the theory admits a whole class of solutions dependent upon these parameters with the closed solution of Federbush emerging as a special case. The theory is shown to be locally covariant, and a conserved energy--momentum tensor is displayed. One finds in addition that the generators of gauge transformations for the fields are conserved. Finally it is shown that the general theory yields the Federbush solution if suitable Thirring model type counterterms are added

  19. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Allen Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. This paper describes the implementation of acoustic modeling for design purposes by incrementally increasing model fidelity and validating the accuracy of the model while predicting the noise of sources under various conditions. During FY 07, a simple-geometry Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was developed and validated using a physical mockup and acoustic measurements. A process for modeling the effects of absorptive wall treatments and the resulting reverberation environment were developed. During FY 08, a model with more complex and representative geometry of the Orion Crew Module (CM) interior was built, and noise predictions based on input noise sources were made. A corresponding physical mockup was also built. Measurements were made inside this mockup, and comparisons were made with the model and showed excellent agreement. During FY 09, the fidelity of the mockup and corresponding model were increased incrementally by including a simple ventilation system. The airborne noise contribution of the fans was measured using a sound intensity technique, since the sound power levels were not known beforehand. This is opposed to earlier studies where Reference Sound Sources (RSS) with known sound power level were used. Comparisons of the modeling result with the measurements in the mockup showed excellent results. During FY 10, the fidelity of the mockup and the model were further increased by including an ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) wall, associated closeout panels, and the gap between ECLSS wall and mockup wall. The effect of sealing the gap and adding sound absorptive treatment to ECLSS wall were also modeled and validated.

  20. APROS - A multifunctional modelling environment

    Juslin, K.; Paljakka, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Process Simulation (APROS) environment has after more than a decade of dedicated product development and intense commercial use reached a level of maturity that is difficult to find with regard to similar products. One of the basic ideas behind this software tool is its multifunctional concept. The concept requires that the tool is suitable for modelling and simulation of the dynamics of a process plant during all phases of its life-span from pre-design to training and model supported operation and control. The implementation of this concept had a significant impact on the software structure. Several, sometimes contradictory requirements had to be encompassed. It should be suitable both for small simple models and full scope simulators. It should facilitate time-steps from milliseconds to minutes, for the same models, just depending on the scope of study. It should combine several modelling paradigms such as continuous, discrete, mechanistic and empirical. The intrinsic model building blocks should be comprehensively verified, but users' model equations should be accepted, as well. It should be easy to connect to external models or hardware, and to use both in master or slave mode. It should be easy to study and modify the internals of the models, their structures and parameters, but it should also be possible to disclose all delicate model information from unwanted access. The calculation should be optimised for current computer hardware, but the model specifications should be easily transportable to new platforms. And finally, it should be suited both for researchers, engineers and plant operators. How did we succeed? We had 20 years of comprehensive thermal hydraulic modelling tradition before starting the project. We had the key experts with the key knowledge. We dedicated more than 100 man years of efforts for the new software developments. Presently, we have a superb team maintaining and improving the software, complemented with new enthusiastic

  1. Youth physical activity and the neighbourhood environment: examining correlates and the role of neighbourhood definition.

    van Loon, Josh; Frank, Lawrence D; Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine relationships between neighbourhood built and social environment characteristics and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a sample of children aged 8-11 in Vancouver, British Columbia and the surrounding lower mainland region (n = 366). A secondary objective was to assess how neighbourhood definition influences these relationships, by using measures calculated at multiple buffer sizes: 200, 400, 800 and 1600 m (1 mile). Geographic information systems -software was used to create a broad set of measures of neighbourhood environments. Physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. Relationships between MVPA and neighborhood characteristics were assessed using generalized estimating equations to account for the clustering of children within schools. Sex specific relationships were assessed through sex stratified models. When controlling for child age, sex and ethnicity, MVPA was positively associated with commercial density, residential density, number of parks and intersection density; and negatively associated with distance to school and recreation sites. When entered as a composite index, these measures accounted for 4.4% in the variation in MVPA for the full sample (boys and girls). Sex stratified models better explained the relationships between neighbourhood environment and physical activity. For boys, built and social environment characteristics of neighbourhoods accounted for 8.7% of the variation in MVPA, and for girls, neighborhood factors explained 7.2% of the variation. Sex stratified models also point towards distinct differences in factors associated with physical activity, with MVPA of boys associated with wider ranging neighborhood characteristics than MVPA of girls. For girls, two safety-related neighbourhood features were found to be significantly associated with MVPA: cul-de-sac density and proportion of low speed limit streets. In all models, larger buffer sizes

  2. Introduction to nanotechnology: definition, terms, occurrence and applications in environment

    MHS Ahmeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary technique that involves application based on the synthesis of molecules in nano-scale size range. Nanotechnology is also seen as new and fast emerging field that involves the manufacture, processing and application of structure, device and system by controlling shape and size in nanometer scale. The concept of nanotechnology is driven from the Greek word nano (meaning dwarf. The nano-particles are defined as a discrete entity that has dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. It is the small size in combination with the chemical composition and surface structure that gives the nano-particles their unique features. The alterations in physical properties serve to enhance versatility and efficacy in product development, resulting in more effective industrial and medical applications. As a result of the widespread use of nanotechnology and nano-materials, these particles find their way into the environment. Therefore, a focus on the source of nano-particles in the environment and their effects is included. This review concentrate on the recent information about analytical developments to assess the occurrence, fate and behavior of nano-materials in environment. It also focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in environment, especially in the area of air and water purifications.

  3. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    Chu, SShao-sheng R.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    carried out by acquiring octave band microphone data simultaneously at ten fixed locations throughout the mockup. SPLs (Sound Pressure Levels) predicted by our SEA model match well with measurements for our CM mockup, with a more complicated shape. Additionally in FY09, background NC noise (Noise Criterion) simulation and MRT (Modified Rhyme Test) were developed and performed in the mockup to determine the maximum noise level in CM habitable volume for fair crew voice communications. Numerous demonstrations of simulated noise environment in the mockup and associated SIL (Speech Interference Level) via MRT were performed for various communities, including members from NASA and Orion prime-/sub-contractors. Also, a new HSIR (Human-Systems Integration Requirement) for limiting pre- and post-landing SIL was proposed.

  4. Weak Memory Models: Balancing Definitional Simplicity and Implementation Flexibility

    Zhang, Sizhuo; Vijayaraghavan, Muralidaran; Arvind

    2017-01-01

    The memory model for RISC-V, a newly developed open source ISA, has not been finalized yet and thus, offers an opportunity to evaluate existing memory models. We believe RISC-V should not adopt the memory models of POWER or ARM, because their axiomatic and operational definitions are too complicated. We propose two new weak memory models: WMM and WMM-S, which balance definitional simplicity and implementation flexibility differently. Both allow all instruction reorderings except overtaking of...

  5. Adapting Evaluations of Alternative Payment Models to a Changing Environment.

    Grannemann, Thomas W; Brown, Randall S

    2018-04-01

    To identify the most robust methods for evaluating alternative payment models (APMs) in the emerging health care delivery system environment. We assess the impact of widespread testing of alternative payment models on the ability to find credible comparison groups. We consider the applicability of factorial research designs for assessing the effects of these models. The widespread adoption of alternative payment models could effectively eliminate the possibility of comparing APM results with a "pure" control or comparison group unaffected by other interventions. In this new environment, factorial experiments have distinct advantages over the single-model experimental or quasi-experimental designs that have been the mainstay of recent tests of Medicare payment and delivery models. The best prospects for producing definitive evidence of the effects of payment incentives for APMs include fractional factorial experiments that systematically vary requirements and payment provisions within a payment model. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Spectra of definite type in waveguide models

    Lotoreichik, Vladimir; Siegl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 3 (2017), s. 1231-1246 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spectral points of definite and of type pi * weakly coupled bound states * pertrubations of essential spectrum * PT-symmetric waveguide Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2016

  7. ECO-DRIVING MODELING ENVIRONMENT

    2015-11-01

    This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...

  8. A model for hypermedia learning environments based on electronic books

    Ignacio Aedo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Current hypermedia learning environments do not have a common development basis. Their designers have often used ad-hoc solutions to solve the learning problems they have encountered. However, hypermedia technology can take advantage of employing a theoretical scheme - a model - which takes into account various kinds of learning activities, and solves some of the problems associated with its use in the learning process. The model can provide designers with the tools for creating a hypermedia learning system, by allowing the elements and functions involved in the definition of a specific application to be formally represented.

  9. ADOxx Modelling Method Conceptualization Environment

    Nesat Efendioglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Modelling Methods Engineering is equally rising with the importance of domain specific languages (DSL and individual modelling approaches. In order to capture the relevant semantic primitives for a particular domain, it is necessary to involve both, (a domain experts, who identify relevant concepts as well as (b method engineers who compose a valid and applicable modelling approach. This process consists of a conceptual design of formal or semi-formal of modelling method as well as a reliable, migratable, maintainable and user friendly software development of the resulting modelling tool. Modelling Method Engineering cycle is often under-estimated as both the conceptual architecture requires formal verification and the tool implementation requires practical usability, hence we propose a guideline and corresponding tools to support actors with different background along this complex engineering process. Based on practical experience in business, more than twenty research projects within the EU frame programmes and a number of bilateral research initiatives, this paper introduces the phases, corresponding a toolbox and lessons learned with the aim to support the engineering of a modelling method. ”The proposed approach is illustrated and validated within use cases from three different EU-funded research projects in the fields of (1 Industry 4.0, (2 e-learning and (3 cloud computing. The paper discusses the approach, the evaluation results and derived outlooks.

  10. Environment Models in War Games

    Kovel, Steven

    1999-01-01

    ... (such as rain, sleet, and snow), and the obscuration impacts of smoke, dust, and haze. Newer models have been developed that more accurately portray the turbulence and radiative transfer within these common atmospheric and environmental phenomena...

  11. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    Fondement, Frédéric; Baar, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  12. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    Fondement, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  13. PAME: plasmonic assay modeling environment

    Adam Hughes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic assays are an important class of optical sensors that measure biomolecular interactions in real-time without the need for labeling agents, making them especially well-suited for clinical applications. Through the incorporation of nanoparticles and fiberoptics, these sensing systems have been successfully miniaturized and show great promise for in-situ probing and implantable devices, yet it remains challenging to derive meaningful, quantitative information from plasmonic responses. This is in part due to a lack of dedicated modeling tools, and therefore we introduce PAME, an open-source Python application for modeling plasmonic systems of bulk and nanoparticle-embedded metallic films. PAME combines aspects of thin-film solvers, nanomaterials and fiber-optics into an intuitive graphical interface. Some of PAME’s features include a simulation mode, a database of hundreds of materials, and an object-oriented framework for designing complex nanomaterials, such as a gold nanoparticles encased in a protein shell. An overview of PAME’s theory and design is presented, followed by example simulations of a fiberoptic refractometer, as well as protein binding to a multiplexed sensor composed of a mixed layer of gold and silver colloids. These results provide new insights into observed responses in reflectance biosensors.

  14. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  15. Promoting Model-based Definition to Establish a Complete Product Definition.

    Ruemler, Shawn P; Zimmerman, Kyle E; Hartman, Nathan W; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeny, Allison Barnard

    2017-05-01

    The manufacturing industry is evolving and starting to use 3D models as the central knowledge artifact for product data and product definition, or what is known as Model-based Definition (MBD). The Model-based Enterprise (MBE) uses MBD as a way to transition away from using traditional paper-based drawings and documentation. As MBD grows in popularity, it is imperative to understand what information is needed in the transition from drawings to models so that models represent all the relevant information needed for processes to continue efficiently. Finding this information can help define what data is common amongst different models in different stages of the lifecycle, which could help establish a Common Information Model. The Common Information Model is a source that contains common information from domain specific elements amongst different aspects of the lifecycle. To help establish this Common Information Model, information about how models are used in industry within different workflows needs to be understood. To retrieve this information, a survey mechanism was administered to industry professionals from various sectors. Based on the results of the survey a Common Information Model could not be established. However, the results gave great insight that will help in further investigation of the Common Information Model.

  16. Weak Memory Models with Matching Axiomatic and Operational Definitions

    Zhang, Sizhuo; Vijayaraghavan, Muralidaran; Lustig, Dan; Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Memory consistency models are notorious for being difficult to define precisely, to reason about, and to verify. More than a decade of effort has gone into nailing down the definitions of the ARM and IBM Power memory models, and yet there still remain aspects of those models which (perhaps surprisingly) remain unresolved to this day. In response to these complexities, there has been somewhat of a recent trend in the (general-purpose) architecture community to limit new memory models to being ...

  17. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  18. [Safety culture: definition, models and design].

    Pfaff, Holger; Hammer, Antje; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Safety culture is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Safety culture of a healthcare organization is high if it has a common stock in knowledge, values and symbols in regard to patients' safety. The article intends to define safety culture in the first step and, in the second step, demonstrate the effects of safety culture. We present the model of safety behaviour and show how safety culture can affect behaviour and produce safe behaviour. In the third step we will look at the causes of safety culture and present the safety-culture-model. The main hypothesis of this model is that the safety culture of a healthcare organization strongly depends on its communication culture and its social capital. Finally, we will investigate how the safety culture of a healthcare organization can be improved. Based on the safety culture model six measures to improve safety culture will be presented.

  19. The infinitesimal model: Definition, derivation, and implications.

    Barton, N H; Etheridge, A M; Véber, A

    2017-12-01

    Our focus here is on the infinitesimal model. In this model, one or several quantitative traits are described as the sum of a genetic and a non-genetic component, the first being distributed within families as a normal random variable centred at the average of the parental genetic components, and with a variance independent of the parental traits. Thus, the variance that segregates within families is not perturbed by selection, and can be predicted from the variance components. This does not necessarily imply that the trait distribution across the whole population should be Gaussian, and indeed selection or population structure may have a substantial effect on the overall trait distribution. One of our main aims is to identify some general conditions on the allelic effects for the infinitesimal model to be accurate. We first review the long history of the infinitesimal model in quantitative genetics. Then we formulate the model at the phenotypic level in terms of individual trait values and relationships between individuals, but including different evolutionary processes: genetic drift, recombination, selection, mutation, population structure, …. We give a range of examples of its application to evolutionary questions related to stabilising selection, assortative mating, effective population size and response to selection, habitat preference and speciation. We provide a mathematical justification of the model as the limit as the number M of underlying loci tends to infinity of a model with Mendelian inheritance, mutation and environmental noise, when the genetic component of the trait is purely additive. We also show how the model generalises to include epistatic effects. We prove in particular that, within each family, the genetic components of the individual trait values in the current generation are indeed normally distributed with a variance independent of ancestral traits, up to an error of order 1∕M. Simulations suggest that in some cases the convergence

  20. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  1. A consensus definition of cataplexy in mouse models of narcolepsy.

    Scammell, Thomas E; Willie, Jon T; Guilleminault, Christian; Siegel, Jerome M

    2009-01-01

    People with narcolepsy often have episodes of cataplexy, brief periods of muscle weakness triggered by strong emotions. Many researchers are now studying mouse models of narcolepsy, but definitions of cataplexy-like behavior in mice differ across labs. To establish a common language, the International Working Group on Rodent Models of Narcolepsy reviewed the literature on cataplexy in people with narcolepsy and in dog and mouse models of narcolepsy and then developed a consensus definition of murine cataplexy. The group concluded that murine cataplexy is an abrupt episode of nuchal atonia lasting at least 10 seconds. In addition, theta activity dominates the EEG during the episode, and video recordings document immobility. To distinguish a cataplexy episode from REM sleep after a brief awakening, at least 40 seconds of wakefulness must precede the episode. Bouts of cataplexy fitting this definition are common in mice with disrupted orexin/hypocretin signaling, but these events almost never occur in wild type mice. It remains unclear whether murine cataplexy is triggered by strong emotions or whether mice remain conscious during the episodes as in people with narcolepsy. This working definition provides helpful insights into murine cataplexy and should allow objective and accurate comparisons of cataplexy in future studies using mouse models of narcolepsy.

  2. A Model-Free Definition of Increasing Uncertainty

    Grant, S.; Quiggin, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present a definition of increasing uncertainty, independent of any notion of subjective probabilities, or of any particular model of preferences.Our notion of an elementary increase in the uncertainty of any act corresponds to the addition of an 'elementary bet' which increases consumption by a

  3. Modeling the role of environment in addiction.

    Caprioli, Daniele; Celentano, Michele; Paolone, Giovanna; Badiani, Aldo

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the main types of animal models used to investigate the modulatory role of environment on drug addiction. The environment can alter the responsiveness to addictive drugs in at least three major ways. First, adverse life experiences can make an individual more vulnerable to develop drug addiction or to relapse into drug seeking. Second, neutral environmental cues can acquire, through Pavlovian conditioning, the ability to trigger drug seeking even after long periods of abstinence. Third, the environment immediately surrounding drug taking can alter the behavioral, subjective, and rewarding effects of a given drug, thus influencing the propensity to use the same drug again. We have focused in particular on the results obtained using an animal model we have developed to study the latter type of drug-environment interaction.

  4. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  5. Security Management Model in Cloud Computing Environment

    Ahmadpanah, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In the cloud computing environment, cloud virtual machine (VM) will be more and more the number of virtual machine security and management faced giant Challenge. In order to address security issues cloud computing virtualization environment, this paper presents a virtual machine based on efficient and dynamic deployment VM security management model state migration and scheduling, study of which virtual machine security architecture, based on AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) virtual machine de...

  6. The national operational environment model (NOEM)

    Salerno, John J.; Romano, Brian; Geiler, Warren

    2011-06-01

    The National Operational Environment Model (NOEM) is a strategic analysis/assessment tool that provides insight into the complex state space (as a system) that is today's modern operational environment. The NOEM supports baseline forecasts by generating plausible futures based on the current state. It supports what-if analysis by forecasting ramifications of potential "Blue" actions on the environment. The NOEM also supports sensitivity analysis by identifying possible pressure (leverage) points in support of the Commander that resolves forecasted instabilities, and by ranking sensitivities in a list for each leverage point and response. The NOEM can be used to assist Decision Makers, Analysts and Researchers with understanding the inter-workings of a region or nation state, the consequences of implementing specific policies, and the ability to plug in new operational environment theories/models as they mature. The NOEM is built upon an open-source, license-free set of capabilities, and aims to provide support for pluggable modules that make up a given model. The NOEM currently has an extensive number of modules (e.g. economic, security & social well-being pieces such as critical infrastructure) completed along with a number of tools to exercise them. The focus this year is on modeling the social and behavioral aspects of a populace within their environment, primarily the formation of various interest groups, their beliefs, their requirements, their grievances, their affinities, and the likelihood of a wide range of their actions, depending on their perceived level of security and happiness. As such, several research efforts are currently underway to model human behavior from a group perspective, in the pursuit of eventual integration and balance of populace needs/demands within their respective operational environment and the capacity to meet those demands. In this paper we will provide an overview of the NOEM, the need for and a description of its main components

  7. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L.; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G.; Friedel, Reiner H.

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  8. Open source integrated modeling environment Delta Shell

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, B.; van Putten, H.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, integrated modelling has become a very popular topic in environmental modelling since it helps solving problems, which is difficult to model using a single model. However, managing complexity of integrated models and minimizing time required for their setup remains a challenging task. The integrated modelling environment Delta Shell simplifies this task. The software components of Delta Shell are easy to reuse separately from each other as well as a part of integrated environment that can run in a command-line or a graphical user interface mode. The most components of the Delta Shell are developed using C# programming language and include libraries used to define, save and visualize various scientific data structures as well as coupled model configurations. Here we present two examples showing how Delta Shell simplifies process of setting up integrated models from the end user and developer perspectives. The first example shows coupling of a rainfall-runoff, a river flow and a run-time control models. The second example shows how coastal morphological database integrates with the coastal morphological model (XBeach) and a custom nourishment designer. Delta Shell is also available as open-source software released under LGPL license and accessible via http://oss.deltares.nl.

  9. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models

    Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases...

  10. Marketing research model of competitive environment

    Krasilya Dmitriy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To support its competitive advantages in current market conditions, each company needs to choose better ways of guaranteeing its favorable competitive position. In this regard, considerable interest lies in the structuring and algorithmization of marketing research processes that provide the information background of such choice. The article is devoted to modeling the process of marketing research of competitive environment.

  11. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Pedro Guevara López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  12. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  13. Modeling tritium transport in the environment

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A model of tritium transport in the environment near an atmospheric source of tritium is presented in the general context of modeling material cycling in ecosystems. The model was developed to test hypotheses about the process involved in tritium cycling. The temporal and spatial scales of the model were picked to allow comparison to environmental monitoring data collected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant. Initial simulations with the model showed good agreement with monitoring data, including atmospheric and vegetation tritium concentrations. The model can also simulate values of tritium in vegetation organic matter if the key parameter distributing the source of organic hydrogen is varied to fit the data. However, because of the lack of independent conformation of the distribution parameter, there is still uncertainty about the role of organic movement of tritium in the food chain, and its effect on the dose to man

  14. Systems resilience for multihazard environments: definition, metrics, and valuation for decision making.

    Ayyub, Bilal M

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction reported that the 2011 natural disasters, including the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan, resulted in $366 billion in direct damages and 29,782 fatalities worldwide. Storms and floods accounted for up to 70% of the 302 natural disasters worldwide in 2011, with earthquakes producing the greatest number of fatalities. Average annual losses in the United States amount to about $55 billion. Enhancing community and system resilience could lead to massive savings through risk reduction and expeditious recovery. The rational management of such reduction and recovery is facilitated by an appropriate definition of resilience and associated metrics. In this article, a resilience definition is provided that meets a set of requirements with clear relationships to the metrics of the relevant abstract notions of reliability and risk. Those metrics also meet logically consistent requirements drawn from measure theory, and provide a sound basis for the development of effective decision-making tools for multihazard environments. Improving the resiliency of a system to meet target levels requires the examination of system enhancement alternatives in economic terms, within a decision-making framework. Relevant decision analysis methods would typically require the examination of resilience based on its valuation by society at large. The article provides methods for valuation and benefit-cost analysis based on concepts from risk analysis and management. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Federated Access Control in Heterogeneous Intercloud Environment: Basic Models and Architecture Patterns

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lee, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to define the basic models and architecture patterns for federated access control in heterogeneous (multi-provider) multi-cloud and inter-cloud environment. The proposed research contributes to the further definition of Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)

  16. Gene-Environment Interplay in Twin Models

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we respond to Shultziner’s critique that argues that identical twins are more alike not because of genetic similarity, but because they select into more similar environments and respond to stimuli in comparable ways, and that these effects bias twin model estimates to such an extent that they are invalid. The essay further argues that the theory and methods that undergird twin models, as well as the empirical studies which rely upon them, are unaware of these potential biases. We correct this and other misunderstandings in the essay and find that gene-environment (GE) interplay is a well-articulated concept in behavior genetics and political science, operationalized as gene-environment correlation and gene-environment interaction. Both are incorporated into interpretations of the classical twin design (CTD) and estimated in numerous empirical studies through extensions of the CTD. We then conduct simulations to quantify the influence of GE interplay on estimates from the CTD. Due to the criticism’s mischaracterization of the CTD and GE interplay, combined with the absence of any empirical evidence to counter what is presented in the extant literature and this article, we conclude that the critique does not enhance our understanding of the processes that drive political traits, genetic or otherwise. PMID:24808718

  17. Definition of the waste package environment for a repository located in salt

    Clark, D.E.; Bradley, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The expected environmental conditions for emplaced waste packages in a salt repository are simulated in the materials testing program to evaluate performance. Synthetic brines, based on the analyses of actual brines (both intrusion and inclusion), are used for corrosion and leach testing. Elevated temperatures (to 150 0 C) and radiation fields of up to 10 3 rad/h are employed as conservative conditions to bracket expected performance and provide data for worst case scenarios. Obtaining a precise definition of the waste package environment in a salt repository and its change with time is closely tied to detailed site characterization of the candidate salt repository horizon. It is expected that field testing can augment some of the materials testing currently under way and can provide increased confidence in the predicted site-specific near-field conditions. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  18. Fuzzy Entropy: Axiomatic Definition and Neural Networks Model

    QINGMing; CAOYue; HUANGTian-min

    2004-01-01

    The measure of uncertainty is adopted as a measure of information. The measures of fuzziness are known as fuzzy information measures. The measure of a quantity of fuzzy information gained from a fuzzy set or fuzzy system is known as fuzzy entropy. Fuzzy entropy has been focused and studied by many researchers in various fields. In this paper, firstly, the axiomatic definition of fuzzy entropy is discussed. Then, neural networks model of fuzzy entropy is proposed, based on the computing capability of neural networks. In the end, two examples are discussed to show the efficiency of the model.

  19. HIV lipodystrophy case definition using artificial neural network modelling

    Ioannidis, John P A; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Law, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A case definition of HIV lipodystrophy has recently been developed from a combination of clinical, metabolic and imaging/body composition variables using logistic regression methods. We aimed to evaluate whether artificial neural networks could improve the diagnostic accuracy. METHODS......: The database of the case-control Lipodystrophy Case Definition Study was split into 504 subjects (265 with and 239 without lipodystrophy) used for training and 284 independent subjects (152 with and 132 without lipodystrophy) used for validation. Back-propagation neural networks with one or two middle layers...... were trained and validated. Results were compared against logistic regression models using the same information. RESULTS: Neural networks using clinical variables only (41 items) achieved consistently superior performance than logistic regression in terms of specificity, overall accuracy and area under...

  20. A FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF COMPUTER-ORIENTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF A POST-DEGREE PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION

    Kateryna R. Kolos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study substantiates the need for a systematic study of the functioning of computer-oriented learning environment of a post-degree pedagogical education; it is determined the definition of “functional model of computer-oriented learning environment of a post-degree pedagogical education”; it is built a functional model of computer-oriented learning environment of a post-degree pedagogical education in accordance with the functions of business, information and communication technology, academic, administrative staff and peculiarities of training courses teachers.

  1. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  2. FAME, the Flux Analysis and Modeling Environment

    Boele Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The creation and modification of genome-scale metabolic models is a task that requires specialized software tools. While these are available, subsequently running or visualizing a model often relies on disjoint code, which adds additional actions to the analysis routine and, in our experience, renders these applications suboptimal for routine use by (systems biologists. Results The Flux Analysis and Modeling Environment (FAME is the first web-based modeling tool that combines the tasks of creating, editing, running, and analyzing/visualizing stoichiometric models into a single program. Analysis results can be automatically superimposed on familiar KEGG-like maps. FAME is written in PHP and uses the Python-based PySCeS-CBM for its linear solving capabilities. It comes with a comprehensive manual and a quick-start tutorial, and can be accessed online at http://f-a-m-e.org/. Conclusions With FAME, we present the community with an open source, user-friendly, web-based "one stop shop" for stoichiometric modeling. We expect the application will be of substantial use to investigators and educators alike.

  3. Improving the Functionality of Dictionary Definitions for Lexical Sets: The Role of Definitional Templates, Definitional Consistency, Definitional Coherence and the Incorporation of Lexical Conceptual Models

    Piet Swanepoel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on some of the problems raised by Atkins and Rundell's (2008 approach to the design of lexicographic definitions for members of lexical sets. The questions raised are how to define and identify lexical sets, how lexical conceptual models (LCMs can support definitional consistency and coherence in defining members of lexical sets, and what the ideal content and structure of LCMs could be. Although similarity of meaning is proposed as the defining feature of lexical sets, similarity of meaning is only one dimension of the broader concept of lexical coherence. The argument is presented that numerous conceptual lexical models (e.g. taxonomies, folk models, frames, etc. in fact indicate, justify or explain how lexical items cohere (and thus form sets. In support of Fillmore's (2003 suggestion that definitions of the lexical items of cohering sets should be linked to such explanatory models, additional functionally-orientated arguments are presented for the incorporation of conceptual lexical models in electronic monolingual learners' dictionaries. Numerous resources exist to support the design of LCMs which can improve the functionality of definitions of members of lexical sets. A few examples are discussed of how such resources can be used to design functionally justified LCMs.

    OPSOMMING: Verbetering van die funksionaliteit van woordeboekdefinisies vir leksikale versamelings: Die rol van definisiematryse, definisie-eenvormigheid, definisiesamehang en die inkorporering van leksikale konseptuele modelle. Hierdie artikel fokus op sommige van die probleme wat ter sprake kom deur Atkins en Rundell (2008 se benadering tot die ontwerp van leksikografiese definisies vir lede van leksikale versamelings. Die vrae wat gestel word, is hoe leksikale versamelings gedefinieer en geïdentifiseer moet word, hoe leksikale konseptuele modelle (LKM's definisie-eenvormigheid en-samehang kan ondersteun by die definiëring van lede

  4. Integral definition of transition time in the Landau-Zener model

    Yan Yue; Wu Biao

    2010-01-01

    We give a general definition for the transition time in the Landau-Zener model. This definition allows us to compute numerically the Landau-Zener transition time at any sweeping rate without ambiguity in both diabatic and adiabatic bases. With this new definition, analytical results are obtained in both the adiabatic limit and the sudden limit.

  5. Model alloy oxidation in oxyfuel characteristic environment

    Coelho, D.; Rizzo, F.; Kranzmann, A.; Monteiro, M.; Caminha, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the oxyfuel process, pure oxygen is burned in boilers with recycled gas producing a gas rich in CO_2, making it easer to capture the CO_2 in the end of the process. The present work investigates the high temperature corrosion characteristics of a model Fe-Cr-Co alloy in typical oxyfuel process environment. Samples were oxidized at 600°C during 1000 hours in single atmosphere condition, where the samples is exposed to the same gas in all faces, and in a dual atmosphere condition, where the sample is exposed to water vapor in one side and to oxyfuel gas in the other. Samples where characterized by SEM and EDX. Results showed that corrosion is higher in a dual atmosphere condition than in single condition. (author)

  6. Livrable D1.2 of the PERSEE project : Perceptual-Modelling-Definition-of-the-Models

    Wang , Junle; Bosc , Emilie; Li , Jing; Ricordel , Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Livrable D1.2 du projet ANR PERSEE; Ce rapport a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet ANR PERSEE (n° ANR-09-BLAN-0170). Exactement il correspond au livrable D1.2 du projet. Son titre : Perceptual-Modelling-Definition-of-the-Models

  7. Meteoroid Environment Modeling: the Meteoroid Engineering Model and Shower Forecasting

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    The meteoroid environment is often divided conceptually into meteor showers plus a sporadic background component. The sporadic complex poses the bulk of the risk to spacecraft, but showers can produce significant short-term enhancements of the meteoroid flux. The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has produced two environment models to handle these cases: the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and an annual meteor shower forecast. Both MEM and the forecast are used by multiple manned spaceflight projects in their meteoroid risk evaluation, and both tools are being revised to incorporate recent meteor velocity, density, and timing measurements. MEM describes the sporadic meteoroid complex and calculates the flux, speed, and directionality of the meteoroid environment relative to a user-supplied spacecraft trajectory, taking the spacecraft's motion into account. MEM is valid in the inner solar system and offers near-Earth and cis-lunar environments. While the current version of MEM offers a nominal meteoroid environment corresponding to a single meteoroid bulk density, the next version of MEMR3 will offer both flux uncertainties and a density distribution in addition to a revised near-Earth environment. We have updated the near-Earth meteor speed distribution and have made the first determination of uncertainty in this distribution. We have also derived a meteor density distribution from the work of Kikwaya et al. (2011). The annual meteor shower forecast takes the form of a report and data tables that can be used in conjunction with an existing MEM assessment. Fluxes are typically quoted to a constant limiting kinetic energy in order to comport with commonly used ballistic limit equations. For the 2017 annual forecast, the MEO substantially revised the list of showers and their characteristics using 14 years of meteor flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Defunct or insignificant showers were removed and the temporal profiles of many showers

  8. An integrated operational definition and conceptual model of asthma self-management in teens.

    Mammen, Jennifer; Rhee, Hyekyun; Norton, Sally A; Butz, Arlene M; Halterman, Jill S; Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2018-01-19

    A previous definition of adolescent asthma self-management was derived from interviews with clinicians/researchers and published literature; however, it did not incorporate perspectives of teens or parents. Therefore, we conducted in-depth interviews with teens and parents and synthesized present findings with the prior analysis to develop a more encompassing definition and model. Focal concepts were qualitatively extracted from 14-day self-management voice-diaries (n = 14) and 1-hour interviews (n = 42) with teens and parents (28 individuals) along with concepts found in the previous clinical/research oriented analysis. Conceptual structure and relationships were identified and key findings synthesized to develop a revised definition and model of adolescent asthma self-management. There were two primary self-management constructs: processes of self-management and tasks of self-management. Self-management was defined as the iterative process of assessing, deciding, and responding to specific situations in order to achieve personally important outcomes. Clinically relevant asthma self-management tasks included monitoring asthma, managing active issues through pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies, preventing future issues, and communicating with others as needed. Self-management processes were reciprocally influenced by intrapersonal factors (both cognitive and physical), interpersonal factors (family, social and physical environments), and personally relevant asthma and non-asthma outcomes. This is the first definition of asthma self-management incorporating teen, parent, clinician, and researcher perspectives, which suggests that self-management processes and behaviors are influenced by individually variable personal and interpersonal factors, and are driven by personally important outcomes. Clinicians and researchers should investigate teens' symptom perceptions, medication beliefs, current approaches to symptom management, relevant outcomes, and

  9. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  10. Unimodal models to relate species to environment

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their

  11. Enhanced living environments from models to technologies

    Dobre, Ciprian; Ganchev, Ivan; Garcia, Nuno; Goleva, Rossitza Ivanova

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced living environments employ information and communications technologies to support true ambient assisted living for people with disabilities. This book provides an overview of today's architectures, techniques, protocols, components, and cloud-based solutions related to ambient assisted living and enhanced living environments.

  12. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  13. Sustainable geothermal utilization - Case histories; definitions; research issues and modelling

    Axelsson, Gudni

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development by definition meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The Earth's enormous geothermal resources have the potential to contribute significantly to sustainable energy use worldwide as well as to help mitigate climate change. Experience from the use of numerous geothermal systems worldwide lasting several decades demonstrates that by maintaining production below a certain limit the systems reach a balance between net energy discharge and recharge that may be maintained for a long time (100-300 years). Modelling studies indicate that the effect of heavy utilization is often reversible on a time-scale comparable to the period of utilization. Thus, geothermal resources can be used in a sustainable manner either through (1) constant production below the sustainable limit, (2) step-wise increase in production, (3) intermittent excessive production with breaks, and (4) reduced production after a shorter period of heavy production. The long production histories that are available for low-temperature as well as high-temperature geothermal systems distributed throughout the world, provide the most valuable data available for studying sustainable management of geothermal resources, and reservoir modelling is the most powerful tool available for this purpose. The paper presents sustainability modelling studies for the Hamar and Nesjavellir geothermal systems in Iceland, the Beijing Urban system in China and the Olkaria system in Kenya as examples. Several relevant research issues have also been identified, such as the relevance of system boundary conditions during long-term utilization, how far reaching interference from utilization is, how effectively geothermal systems recover after heavy utilization and the reliability of long-term (more than 100 years) model predictions. (author)

  14. Family Environment and Cognitive Development: Twelve Analytic Models

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    The review indicates that refined measures of the family environment and the use of complex statistical models increase the understanding of the relationships between socioeconomic status, sibling variables, family environment, and cognitive development. (RC)

  15. Building, Using, Sharing and Reusing Environment Concept Models

    Chadbourne, Christopher; Clark, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    .... The Environment Concept Model (ECM) is an object-oriented documentation technique. The technique is tailored for system engineers who must deliver a consistent synthetic environment representation, on time and within budget...

  16. Modeling Based Decision Support Environment, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phoenix Integration's vision is the creation of an intuitive human-in-the-loop engineering environment called Decision Navigator that leverages recent advances in...

  17. A definitional framework for the human/biometric sensor interaction model

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Kukula, Eric P.

    2010-04-01

    Existing definitions for biometric testing and evaluation do not fully explain errors in a biometric system. This paper provides a definitional framework for the Human Biometric-Sensor Interaction (HBSI) model. This paper proposes six new definitions based around two classifications of presentations, erroneous and correct. The new terms are: defective interaction (DI), concealed interaction (CI), false interaction (FI), failure to detect (FTD), failure to extract (FTX), and successfully acquired samples (SAS). As with all definitions, the new terms require a modification to the general biometric model developed by Mansfield and Wayman [1].

  18. Model of Conservation on Sagara Anakan Environment

    Dede Sugandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread decline in agricultural land and the impact on production decline caused extensive forest activities to meet the needs of the population. Activities that cause less environmental quality offset environmental balance changes. These changes due to deforestation, erosion, degraded land and natural resource degradation are exploited so that the function of ecological, economic and social life. Damaged ecosystems resulting in erosion, landslides in the watershed affect the sedimentation in Sagara Anakan sea. Silting, resulting in narrowing of fishing activities, tourism, sports, and services decreased crossings. Because of the problem and the purpose of this study proposed and analyzed a few questions: 1 How does the socio-economic impact of farmers in conserving the environment of Sagara Anakan ?, 2 How do people form of conservation and coastal of Sagara Anakan ?, 3 How model of integrated conservation in the watershed and coastal of Sagara Anakan ? and 4 What role do the people in the watershed and coastal on Sagara Anakan conservation ?. Study site covers an area of flow and Ci Ci Tanduy Beureum and Sagara Tillers waters. Activities of the population in the process of land affected when in Sagara tillers. The method used was a survey with a sample divided by the watershed upstream, downstream and coastal tengahm. Using statistical analysis techniques and geography, so that part of the watershed characteristics can be imaged. Shallowing Sagara Anakan, physically was affected by the physical condition of the easily eroded and accelerated by human activities. The activities of farmer on the watershed have done conservation unless doing reforestation, whereas the farmer on the swamp and coastal areas are not doing conservation. Different physical circumstances, the conservation of watersheds and coastal forms differ. Socio-economic condition of farmer affect the conservation. The farmer could not reforestation conservation form, as the

  19. Use of Color in Child Care Environments: Application of Color for Wayfinding and Space Definition in Alabama Child Care Environments.

    Read, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the use of color in physical design features associated with the exterior and interior designs of 101 child care centers in Alabama. Found that color was evidenced on the exterior of the centers at just over half of the sample. The interior environments had warm colors and bright accents in the setting; however, the majority of centers…

  20. 607. Order of 7 December 1989 of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Youth and Family concerning the definition of hazardous wastes

    1989-01-01

    This Order of the Federal Minister for the Environment, Youth and the Family concerning the definition of hazardous wastes came into effect on 1 January 1990. That definition includes radioactive waste, in terms of the Radiation Protection Act in a list of substances to which the Act of 1989 on the disposal of wastes applies. (NEA)

  1. Analyzing differences in operational disease definitions using ontological modeling

    Peelen, Linda; Klein, Michel C.A.; Schlobach, Stefan; De Keizer, Nicolette F.; Peek, Niels

    2007-01-01

    In medicine, there are many diseases which cannot be precisely characterized but are considered as natural kinds. In the communication between health care professionals, this is generally not problematic. In biomedical research, however, crisp definitions are required to unambiguously distinguish

  2. Propagation modeling in a manufacturing environment

    Birdwell, J.D.; Horn, R.D.; Rader, M.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Shourbaji, A.A. [Oak Ridge Centers for Mfg. Technology, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Wireless sensors which utilize low power spread spectrum data transmission have significant potential in industrial environments due to low cabling and installation costs. In addition, this technology imposes fewer constraints upon placement due to cable routing, allowing sensors to be installed in areas with poor access. Limitations are imposed on sensor and receiver placement by electromagnetic propagation effects in the industrial environment, including multipath and the presence of absorbing media. This paper explores the electromagnetic analysis of potential wireless sensor applications using commercially available finite element software. In addition, since the applications environment is often at least partially specified in electronic form using computer-aided drafting software, the importation of information from this software is discussed. Both three-dimensional and two-dimensional examples are presented which demonstrate the utility and limitations of the method.

  3. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  4. Beyond a Definition: Toward a Framework for Designing and Specifying Mentoring Models

    Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    More than three decades of mentoring research has yet to converge on a unifying definition of mentoring; this is unsurprising given the diversity of relationships classified as mentoring. This article advances beyond a definition toward a common framework for specifying mentoring models. Sixteen design elements were identified from the literature…

  5. A Comprehensive Model of the Meteoroids Environment Around Mercury

    Pokorny, P.; Sarantos, M.; Janches, D.

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive dynamical model for the meteoroid environment around Mercury comprised of meteoroids originating in asteroids, short and long period comets. Our model is fully calibrated and provides predictions for different values of TAA.

  6. Effect of the MCNP model definition on the computation time

    Šunka, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The presented work studies the influence of the method of defining the geometry in the MCNP transport code and its impact on the computational time, including the difficulty of preparing an input file describing the given geometry. Cases using different geometric definitions including the use of basic 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional objects and theirs combinations were studied. The results indicate that an inappropriate definition can increase the computational time by up to 59% (a more realistic case indicates 37%) for the same results and the same statistical uncertainty. (orig.)

  7. FAME, the flux analysis and modelling environment

    Boele, J.; Olivier, B.G.; Teusink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The creation and modification of genome-scale metabolic models is a task that requires specialized software tools. While these are available, subsequently running or visualizing a model often relies on disjoint code, which adds additional actions to the analysis routine and, in our

  8. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models

    Cuevas, Jaime; Crossa, José; Montesinos-López, Osval A.; Burgueño, Juan; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects (u) that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance–covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP) and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK). The other model has the same genetic component as the first model (u) plus an extra component, f, that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects u. We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat) that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with u and f over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect u. PMID:27793970

  9. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models

    Jaime Cuevas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects ( u that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance–covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK. The other model has the same genetic component as the first model ( u plus an extra component, f, that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects u . We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with u   and   f over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect u .

  10. Bayesian Genomic Prediction with Genotype × Environment Interaction Kernel Models.

    Cuevas, Jaime; Crossa, José; Montesinos-López, Osval A; Burgueño, Juan; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de Los Campos, Gustavo

    2017-01-05

    The phenomenon of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction in plant breeding decreases selection accuracy, thereby negatively affecting genetic gains. Several genomic prediction models incorporating G × E have been recently developed and used in genomic selection of plant breeding programs. Genomic prediction models for assessing multi-environment G × E interaction are extensions of a single-environment model, and have advantages and limitations. In this study, we propose two multi-environment Bayesian genomic models: the first model considers genetic effects [Formula: see text] that can be assessed by the Kronecker product of variance-covariance matrices of genetic correlations between environments and genomic kernels through markers under two linear kernel methods, linear (genomic best linear unbiased predictors, GBLUP) and Gaussian (Gaussian kernel, GK). The other model has the same genetic component as the first model [Formula: see text] plus an extra component, F: , that captures random effects between environments that were not captured by the random effects [Formula: see text] We used five CIMMYT data sets (one maize and four wheat) that were previously used in different studies. Results show that models with G × E always have superior prediction ability than single-environment models, and the higher prediction ability of multi-environment models with [Formula: see text] over the multi-environment model with only u occurred 85% of the time with GBLUP and 45% of the time with GK across the five data sets. The latter result indicated that including the random effect f is still beneficial for increasing prediction ability after adjusting by the random effect [Formula: see text]. Copyright © 2017 Cuevas et al.

  11. Description logics with approximate definitions precise modeling of vague concepts

    Schlobach, Stefan; Klein, Michel; Peelen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    We extend traditional Description Logics (DL) with a simple mechanism to handle approximate concept definitions in a qualitative way. Often, for example in medical applications, concepts are not definable in a crisp way but can fairly exhaustively be constrained through a particular sub- and a

  12. The architecture and prototype implementation of the Model Environment system

    Donchyts, G.; Treebushny, D.; Primachenko, A.; Shlyahtun, N.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2007-01-01

    An approach that simplifies software development of the model based decision support systems for environmental management has been introduced. The approach is based on definition and management of metadata and data related to computational model without losing data semantics and proposed methods of integration of the new modules into the information system and their management. An architecture of the integrated modelling system is presented. The proposed architecture has been implemented as a prototype of integrated modelling system using. NET/Gtk{#} and is currently being used to re-design European Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergency Management RODOS (http://www.rodos.fzk.de) using Java/Swing.

  13. Educational Network Environment: Models and Implementation

    Zhivitskaya, H.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation is structured as follows: functional model of distance learning; CDS - Content Development System; CMS - Content Management System; Communications: Microsoft Lync Server 2010; LMS - Learning Management System; Contents; Contents: creation tools; Contents: Multimedia content creation

  14. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    Sorensen, Kristine

    2012-01-25

    Abstract Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  15. The RHIC/AGS Online Model Environment: Design and Overview

    Satogata, T.; Brown, K.; Pilat, F.; Tafti Alai, A.; Tepikian, S.; Vanzeijtz

    1999-01-01

    An integrated online modeling environment is currently under development for use by AGS and RHIC physicists and commissioners. This environment combines the modeling efforts of both groups in a CDEV[1] client-server design, providing access to expected machine optics and physics parameters based on live and design machine settings. An abstract modeling interface has been designed as a set of adapters[2] around core computational modeling engines such as MAD and UAL/Teapot++[3]. This approach allows us to leverage existing survey, lattice, and magnet infrastructure, as well as easily incorporate new model engine developments. This paper describes the architecture of the RHIC/AGS modeling environment, including the application interface through CDEV and general tools for graphical interaction with the model using Tcl/Tk. Separate papers at this conference address the specifics of implementation and modeling experience for AGS and RHIC

  16. Wind erosion modelling in a Sahelian environment

    Faye-Visser, S.M.; Sterk, G.; Karssenberg, D.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sahel field observations of wind-blown mass transport often show considerable spatial variation related to the spatial variation of the wind erosion controlling parameters, e.g. soil crust and vegetation cover. A model, used to predict spatial variation in wind erosion and deposition is a

  17. A Propagation Environment Modeling in Foliage

    Samn SherwoodW

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Foliage clutter, which can be very large and mask targets in backscattered signals, is a crucial factor that degrades the performance of target detection, tracking, and recognition. Previous literature has intensively investigated land clutter and sea clutter, whereas foliage clutter is still an open-research area. In this paper, we propose that foliage clutter should be more accurately described by a log-logistic model. On a basis of pragmatic data collected by ultra-wideband (UWB radars, we analyze two different datasets by means of maximum likelihood (ML parameter estimation as well as the root mean square error (RMSE performance. We not only investigate log-logistic model, but also compare it with other popular clutter models, namely, log-normal, Weibull, and Nakagami. It shows that the log-logistic model achieves the smallest standard deviation (STD error in parameter estimation, as well as the best goodness-of-fit and smallest RMSE for both poor and good foliage clutter signals.

  18. Retail business model transformation in multichannel environment

    Chapagain, B. (Bimala)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With the advent of internet and e-commerce, the way of carrying out business and transactions has changed to a great extent. Consumers are continuously changing the way they do shopping and this has forced retail business to transform their traditional brick and mortar into adopting multi-channel business models. Retailing is one of the most dynamic and competitive areas of business organization. Effective marketin...

  19. Health technology assessment (HTA): definition, role and use in the changing healthcare environment.

    Gallio, D; Berto, P

    2007-01-01

    The increasing availability of health care technology--boosted by considerable advances in areas like biotechnology, biomaterials, surgical techniques and computer technology--has accompanied burgeoning health care costs, and for this reason an increasing number of subjects (clinicians, health product makers, regulators, patients, hospitals, managers, payers, government leaders) demand for well-founded information to support decisions about development, adoption, acquisition and use of new and existing technologies. Technology assessment is a form of policy research that identifies policy issues, assesses the impact of alternative courses of action, and presents findings. This article is aimed at describing the historical development, reviewing the various definition and classifications, illustrating the purposes Fnd actors of Health Technology Assessment and its possible applications in the current healthcare scenario.

  20. A Stochastic Model of Plausibility in Live Virtual Constructive Environments

    2017-09-14

    from the model parameters that are inputs to the computer model ( mathematical model) but whose exact values are unknown to experimentalists and...Environments Jeremy R. Millar Follow this and additional works at: https://scholar.afit.edu/etd Part of the Computer Sciences Commons This Dissertation...25 3.3 Computing Plausibility Exceedance Probabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 IV

  1. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi...

  2. Multiscale Computing with the Multiscale Modeling Library and Runtime Environment

    Borgdorff, J.; Mamonski, M.; Bosak, B.; Groen, D.; Ben Belgacem, M.; Kurowski, K.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a software tool to simulate multiscale models: the Multiscale Coupling Library and Environment 2 (MUSCLE 2). MUSCLE 2 is a component-based modeling tool inspired by the multiscale modeling and simulation framework, with an easy-to-use API which supports Java, C++, C, and Fortran. We

  3. Evaluation of Student's Environment by DEA Models

    F. Moradi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The important question here is, is there real evaluation in educational advance? In other words, if a student has been successful in mathematics or has been unsuccessful in mathematics, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or, is it possible to find the reasons behind his advance or weakness? If we want to respond to this significant question, it should be said that factors of educational advance must be divided into 5 main groups. 1-family, 2-teacher, 3- students 4-school and 5-manager of 3 schools It can then be said that a student's score does not just depend on a factor that people have imaged From this, it can be concluded that by using the DEA and SBM models, each student's efficiency must be researched and the factors of the student's strengths and weaknesses must be analyzed.

  4. Trust Model to Enhance Security and Interoperability of Cloud Environment

    Li, Wenjuan; Ping, Lingdi

    Trust is one of the most important means to improve security and enable interoperability of current heterogeneous independent cloud platforms. This paper first analyzed several trust models used in large and distributed environment and then introduced a novel cloud trust model to solve security issues in cross-clouds environment in which cloud customer can choose different providers' services and resources in heterogeneous domains can cooperate. The model is domain-based. It divides one cloud provider's resource nodes into the same domain and sets trust agent. It distinguishes two different roles cloud customer and cloud server and designs different strategies for them. In our model, trust recommendation is treated as one type of cloud services just like computation or storage. The model achieves both identity authentication and behavior authentication. The results of emulation experiments show that the proposed model can efficiently and safely construct trust relationship in cross-clouds environment.

  5. Models for genotype by environment interaction estimation on halomorphic soil

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In genotype by environment interaction estimation, as well as, in total trial variability anal­ysis several models are in use. The most often used are Analysis of variance, Eberhart and Russell model and AMMI model. Each of the models has its own specificities, in the way of sources of varia­tion comprehension and treatment. It is known that agriculturally less productive environments increase errors, dimmish reaction differences between genotypes and decrease repeatability of conditions during years. A sample consisting on six bread wheat varieties was studied in three veg­etation periods on halomorphic soil, solonetz type in Banat (vil. Kumane. Genotype by environ­ment interaction was quantified using ANOVA, Eberhart and Russell model and AMMI model. The results were compared not only on pure solonetz soil (control, but also on two level of ameliora­tion (25 and 50t/ha phosphor-gypsum.

  6. Modelling human behaviours and reactions under dangerous environment

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions...

  7. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review].

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  8. Stability of model membranes in extreme environments.

    Namani, Trishool; Deamer, David W

    2008-08-01

    The first forms of cellular life required a source of amphiphilic compounds capable of assembling into stable boundary structures. Membranes composed of fatty acids have been proposed as model systems of primitive membranes, but their bilayer structure is stable only within a narrow pH range and low ionic strength. They are particularly sensitive to aggregating effects of divalent cations (Mg+2, Ca+2, Fe+2) that would be present in Archaean sea water. Here we report that mixtures of alkyl amines and fatty acids form vesicles at strongly basic and acidic pH ranges which are resistant to the effects of divalent cations up to 0.1 M. Vesicles formed by mixtures of decylamine and decanoic acid (1:1 mole ratio) are relatively permeable to pyranine, a fluorescent anionic dye, but permeability could be reduced by adding 2 mol% of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon such as pyrene. Permeability to the dye was also reduced by increasing the chain length of the amphiphiles. For instance, 1:1 mole ratio mixtures of dodecylamine and dodecanoic acid were able to retain pyranine dye during and following gel filtration. We conclude that primitive cell membranes were likely to be composed of mixtures of amphiphilic and hydrophobic molecules that manifested increased stability over pure fatty acid membranes.

  9. Towards a Definition of Role-related Concepts for Business Modeling

    Meertens, Lucas Onno; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—While several role-related concepts play an important role in business modeling, their definitions, relations, and use differ greatly between languages, papers, and reports. Due to this, the knowledge captured by models is not transferred correctly, and models are incomparable. In this

  10. Animal models of gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia.

    Ayhan, Yavuz; Sawa, Akira; Ross, Christopher A; Pletnikov, Mikhail V

    2009-12-07

    The pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related mental illnesses likely involves multiple interactions between susceptibility genes of small effects and environmental factors. Gene-environment interactions occur across different stages of neurodevelopment to produce heterogeneous clinical and pathological manifestations of the disease. The main obstacle for mechanistic studies of gene-environment interplay has been the paucity of appropriate experimental systems for elucidating the molecular pathways that mediate gene-environment interactions relevant to schizophrenia. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics and a plethora of experimental data from animal studies allow us to suggest a new approach to gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia. We propose that animal models based on identified genetic mutations and measurable environment factors will help advance studies of the molecular mechanisms of gene-environment interplay.

  11. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Jolley, D. M.; Jarek, R.; Mariner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports

  12. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  13. Progress in integrated energy-economy-environment model system development

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Takao

    1987-11-01

    The Integrated Energy-Economy-Environment Model System has been developed for providing analytical tools for the system analysis and technology assessments in the field of nuclear research and development. This model system consists of the following four model groups. The first model block installs 5 models and can serve to analyze and generate long-term scenarios on economy-energy-environment evolution. The second model block installs 2 models and can serve to analyze the structural transition phenomena in energy-economy-environment interactions. The third model block installs 2 models and can handle power reactor installation strategy problem and long-term fuel cycle analysis. The fourth model block installs 5 models and codes and can treats cost-benefit-risk analysis and assessments. This report describes mainly the progress and the outlines of application of the model system in these years after the first report on the research and development of the model system (JAERI-M 84 - 139). (author)

  14. Making the Case for a Model-Based Definition of Engineering Materials (Postprint)

    2017-09-12

    MBE relies on digi- tal representations, or a model-based definition (MBD), to define a product throughout design , manufacturing and sus- tainment...discovery through development, scale-up, product design and qualification, manufacture and sustainment have changed little over the past decades. This...testing data provided a certifiable material definition, so as to minimize risk and simplify procurement of materials during the design , manufacture , and

  15. The mathematics of models for climatology and environment. Proceedings

    Ildefonso Diaz, J. [ed.] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencas Matematicas

    1997-12-31

    This book presents a coherent survey of modelling in climatology and the environment and the mathematical treatment of those problems. It is divided into 4 parts containing a total of 16 chapters. Parts I, II and III are devoted to general models and part IV to models related to some local problems. Most of the mathematical models considered here involve systems of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  16. Persuasive Game Design : A model and its definitions

    Visch, V.T.; Vegt, N.J.H.; Anderiesen, H.; Van der Kooij, K.

    2013-01-01

    The following position paper proposes a general theoretical model for persuasive game design. This model combines existing theories on persuasive technology, serious gaming, and gamification. The model is based on user experience, gamification design, and transfer effects.

  17. Design of plant safety model in plant enterprise engineering environment

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shimada, Yukiyasu

    2001-01-01

    Plant enterprise engineering environment (PEEE) is an approach aiming to manage the plant through its lifecycle. In such environment, safety is considered as the common objective for all activities throughout the plant lifecycle. One approach to achieve plant safety is to embed safety aspects within each function and activity within such environment. One ideal way to enable safety aspects within each automated function is through modeling. This paper proposes a theoretical approach to design plant safety model as integrated with the plant lifecycle model within such environment. Object-oriented modeling approach is used to construct the plant safety model using OO CASE tool on the basis of unified modeling language (UML). Multiple views are defined for plant objects to express static, dynamic, and functional semantics of these objects. Process safety aspects are mapped to each model element and inherited from design to operation stage, as it is naturally embedded within plant's objects. By developing and realizing the plant safety model, safer plant operation can be achieved and plant safety can be assured

  18. Random regression models for detection of gene by environment interaction

    Meuwissen Theo HE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two random regression models, where the effect of a putative QTL was regressed on an environmental gradient, are described. The first model estimates the correlation between intercept and slope of the random regression, while the other model restricts this correlation to 1 or -1, which is expected under a bi-allelic QTL model. The random regression models were compared to a model assuming no gene by environment interactions. The comparison was done with regards to the models ability to detect QTL, to position them accurately and to detect possible QTL by environment interactions. A simulation study based on a granddaughter design was conducted, and QTL were assumed, either by assigning an effect independent of the environment or as a linear function of a simulated environmental gradient. It was concluded that the random regression models were suitable for detection of QTL effects, in the presence and absence of interactions with environmental gradients. Fixing the correlation between intercept and slope of the random regression had a positive effect on power when the QTL effects re-ranked between environments.

  19. Designing user models in a virtual cave environment

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hudson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gokhale, N. [Madge Networks, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the results of a first study into the use of virtual reality for human factor studies and design of simple and complex models of control systems, components, and processes are described. The objective was to design a model in a virtual environment that would reflect more characteristics of the user`s mental model of a system and fewer of the designer`s. The technology of a CAVE{trademark} virtual environment and the methodology of Neuro Linguistic Programming were employed in this study.

  20. Integrated source-risk model for radon: A definition study

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Stoop, P.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of a source-risk model is to support policy making on radon mitigation by comparing effects of various policy options and to enable optimization of counter measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain. There are several advantages developing and using a source-risk model: risk calculations are standardized; the effects of measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain can be better compared because interactions are included; and sensitivity analyses can be used to determine the most important parameters within the total source-risk chain. After an inventory of processes and sources to be included in the source-risk chain, the models presently available in the Netherlands are investigated. The models were screened for completeness, validation and operational status. The investigation made clear that, by choosing for each part of the source-risk chain the most convenient model, a source-risk chain model for radon may be realized. However, the calculation of dose out of the radon concentrations and the status of the validation of most models should be improved. Calculations with the proposed source-risk model will give estimations with a large uncertainty at the moment. For further development of the source-risk model an interaction between the source-risk model and experimental research is recommended. Organisational forms of the source-risk model are discussed. A source-risk model in which only simple models are included is also recommended. The other models are operated and administrated by the model owners. The model owners execute their models for a combination of input parameters. The output of the models is stored in a database which will be used for calculations with the source-risk model. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 7 appendices, 14 refs

  1. Hypercompetitive Environments: An Agent-based model approach

    Dias, Manuel; Araújo, Tanya

    Information technology (IT) environments are characterized by complex changes and rapid evolution. Globalization and the spread of technological innovation have increased the need for new strategic information resources, both from individual firms and management environments. Improvements in multidisciplinary methods and, particularly, the availability of powerful computational tools, are giving researchers an increasing opportunity to investigate management environments in their true complex nature. The adoption of a complex systems approach allows for modeling business strategies from a bottom-up perspective — understood as resulting from repeated and local interaction of economic agents — without disregarding the consequences of the business strategies themselves to individual behavior of enterprises, emergence of interaction patterns between firms and management environments. Agent-based models are at the leading approach of this attempt.

  2. Report of the 2014 Programming Models and Environments Summit

    Heroux, Michael [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Lethin, Richard [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Programming models and environments play the essential roles in high performance computing of enabling the conception, design, implementation and execution of science and engineering application codes. Programmer productivity is strongly influenced by the effectiveness of our programming models and environments, as is software sustainability since our codes have lifespans measured in decades, so the advent of new computing architectures, increased concurrency, concerns for resilience, and the increasing demands for high-fidelity, multi-physics, multi-scale and data-intensive computations mean that we have new challenges to address as part of our fundamental R&D requirements. Fortunately, we also have new tools and environments that make design, prototyping and delivery of new programming models easier than ever. The combination of new and challenging requirements and new, powerful toolsets enables significant synergies for the next generation of programming models and environments R&D. This report presents the topics discussed and results from the 2014 DOE Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) Programming Models & Environments Summit, and subsequent discussions among the summit participants and contributors to topics in this report.

  3. A Model-Driven Approach for Telecommunications Network Services Definition

    Chiprianov, Vanea; Kermarrec, Yvon; Alff, Patrick D.

    Present day Telecommunications market imposes a short concept-to-market time for service providers. To reduce it, we propose a computer-aided, model-driven, service-specific tool, with support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models. We started by defining a prototype of the Meta-model (MM) of the service domain. Using this prototype, we defined a simple graphical modeling language specific for service designers. We are currently enlarging the MM of the domain using model transformations from Network Abstractions Layers (NALs). In the future, we will investigate approaches to ensure the support for collaborative work and for checking properties on models.

  4. A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM

    Tah J.H.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability per­formance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM. These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1 data/file conversion systems, (2 semantic mapping systems and (3 the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.

  5. A marketing mix model for a complex and turbulent environment

    R. B. Mason

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is based on the proposition that the choice of marketing tactics is determined, or at least significantly influenced, by the nature of the company’s external environment. It aims to illustrate the type of marketing mix tactics that are suggested for a complex and turbulent environment when marketing and the environment are viewed through a chaos and complexity theory lens. Design/Methodology/Approach: Since chaos and complexity theories are proposed as a good means of understanding the dynamics of complex and turbulent markets, a comprehensive review and analysis of literature on the marketing mix and marketing tactics from a chaos and complexity viewpoint was conducted. From this literature review, a marketing mix model was conceptualised. Findings: A marketing mix model considered appropriate for success in complex and turbulent environments was developed. In such environments, the literature suggests destabilising marketing activities are more effective, whereas stabilising type activities are more effective in simple, stable environments. Therefore the model proposes predominantly destabilising type tactics as appropriate for a complex and turbulent environment such as is currently being experienced in South Africa. Implications: This paper is of benefit to marketers by emphasising a new way to consider the future marketing activities of their companies. How this model can assist marketers and suggestions for research to develop and apply this model are provided. It is hoped that the model suggested will form the basis of empirical research to test its applicability in the turbulent South African environment. Originality/Value: Since businesses and markets are complex adaptive systems, using complexity theory to understand how to cope in complex, turbulent environments is necessary, but has not been widely researched. In fact, most chaos and complexity theory work in marketing has concentrated on marketing strategy, with

  6. Scoring predictive models using a reduced representation of proteins: model and energy definition.

    Fogolari, Federico; Pieri, Lidia; Dovier, Agostino; Bortolussi, Luca; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro; Viglino, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    Reduced representations of proteins have been playing a keyrole in the study of protein folding. Many such models are available, with different representation detail. Although the usefulness of many such models for structural bioinformatics applications has been demonstrated in recent years, there are few intermediate resolution models endowed with an energy model capable, for instance, of detecting native or native-like structures among decoy sets. The aim of the present work is to provide a discrete empirical potential for a reduced protein model termed here PC2CA, because it employs a PseudoCovalent structure with only 2 Centers of interactions per Amino acid, suitable for protein model quality assessment. All protein structures in the set top500H have been converted in reduced form. The distribution of pseudobonds, pseudoangle, pseudodihedrals and distances between centers of interactions have been converted into potentials of mean force. A suitable reference distribution has been defined for non-bonded interactions which takes into account excluded volume effects and protein finite size. The correlation between adjacent main chain pseudodihedrals has been converted in an additional energetic term which is able to account for cooperative effects in secondary structure elements. Local energy surface exploration is performed in order to increase the robustness of the energy function. The model and the energy definition proposed have been tested on all the multiple decoys' sets in the Decoys'R'us database. The energetic model is able to recognize, for almost all sets, native-like structures (RMSD less than 2.0 A). These results and those obtained in the blind CASP7 quality assessment experiment suggest that the model compares well with scoring potentials with finer granularity and could be useful for fast exploration of conformational space. Parameters are available at the url: http://www.dstb.uniud.it/~ffogolari/download/.

  7. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. [Analytic methods for seed models with genotype x environment interactions].

    Zhu, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic models with genotype effect (G) and genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) are proposed for analyzing generation means of seed quantitative traits in crops. The total genetic effect (G) is partitioned into seed direct genetic effect (G0), cytoplasm genetic of effect (C), and maternal plant genetic effect (Gm). Seed direct genetic effect (G0) can be further partitioned into direct additive (A) and direct dominance (D) genetic components. Maternal genetic effect (Gm) can also be partitioned into maternal additive (Am) and maternal dominance (Dm) genetic components. The total genotype x environment interaction effect (GE) can also be partitioned into direct genetic by environment interaction effect (G0E), cytoplasm genetic by environment interaction effect (CE), and maternal genetic by environment interaction effect (GmE). G0E can be partitioned into direct additive by environment interaction (AE) and direct dominance by environment interaction (DE) genetic components. GmE can also be partitioned into maternal additive by environment interaction (AmE) and maternal dominance by environment interaction (DmE) genetic components. Partitions of genetic components are listed for parent, F1, F2 and backcrosses. A set of parents, their reciprocal F1 and F2 seeds is applicable for efficient analysis of seed quantitative traits. MINQUE(0/1) method can be used for estimating variance and covariance components. Unbiased estimation for covariance components between two traits can also be obtained by the MINQUE(0/1) method. Random genetic effects in seed models are predictable by the Adjusted Unbiased Prediction (AUP) approach with MINQUE(0/1) method. The jackknife procedure is suggested for estimation of sampling variances of estimated variance and covariance components and of predicted genetic effects, which can be further used in a t-test for parameter. Unbiasedness and efficiency for estimating variance components and predicting genetic effects are tested by

  9. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  10. Large urban fire environment: trends and model city predictions

    Larson, D.A.; Small, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The urban fire environment that would result from a megaton-yield nuclear weapon burst is considered. The dependence of temperatures and velocities on fire size, burning intensity, turbulence, and radiation is explored, and specific calculations for three model urban areas are presented. In all cases, high velocity fire winds are predicted. The model-city results show the influence of building density and urban sprawl on the fire environment. Additional calculations consider large-area fires with the burning intensity reduced in a blast-damaged urban center

  11. Definition of Scatterer in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Image Processing Based on FDTD Method

    Mahmood Falah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implement real irregular terrain model in computer program by using image processing. We show how this approach can be used in simulation of E.M. wave propagation on irregular earth’s surface in a realistic manner. Some simulations are performed for implementation of longitudinal height differences over the propagation path as PEC surface .We also describe that how this approach can be used for any boundary condition in computational space. The results observed in Snapshots of the field profiles taken at different simulation times, validates capability of this method.

  12. Time domain series system definition and gear set reliability modeling

    Xie, Liyang; Wu, Ningxiang; Qian, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Time-dependent multi-configuration is a typical feature for mechanical systems such as gear trains and chain drives. As a series system, a gear train is distinct from a traditional series system, such as a chain, in load transmission path, system-component relationship, system functioning manner, as well as time-dependent system configuration. Firstly, the present paper defines time-domain series system to which the traditional series system reliability model is not adequate. Then, system specific reliability modeling technique is proposed for gear sets, including component (tooth) and subsystem (tooth-pair) load history description, material priori/posterior strength expression, time-dependent and system specific load-strength interference analysis, as well as statistically dependent failure events treatment. Consequently, several system reliability models are developed for gear sets with different tooth numbers in the scenario of tooth root material ultimate tensile strength failure. The application of the models is discussed in the last part, and the differences between the system specific reliability model and the traditional series system reliability model are illustrated by virtue of several numerical examples. - Highlights: • A new type of series system, i.e. time-domain multi-configuration series system is defined, that is of great significance to reliability modeling. • Multi-level statistical analysis based reliability modeling method is presented for gear transmission system. • Several system specific reliability models are established for gear set reliability estimation. • The differences between the traditional series system reliability model and the new model are illustrated.

  13. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; Technische Universiteit Delft; LWD

    2001-01-01

    The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT) model has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in integral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of the RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps in a treatment

  14. TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment

    Versteegh JFM; van Gaalen FW; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P; LWD

    2001-01-01

    Het model TAPWAT (Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer), is ontwikkeld om de drinkwaterkwaliteit te beschrijven voor integrale studies in het kader van het planbureau Milieu en Natuur van het RIVM. Het model bestaat uit modules die de individuele zuiveringsstappen van het

  15. Business process model abstraction : a definition, catalog, and survey

    Smirnov, S.; Reijers, H.A.; Weske, M.H.; Nugteren, T.

    2012-01-01

    The discipline of business process management aims at capturing, understanding, and improving work in organizations by using process models as central artifacts. Since business-oriented tasks require different information from such models to be highlighted, a range of abstraction techniques has been

  16. Multiple organ definition in CT using a Bayesian approach for 3D model fitting

    Boes, Jennifer L.; Weymouth, Terry E.; Meyer, Charles R.

    1995-08-01

    Organ definition in computed tomography (CT) is of interest for treatment planning and response monitoring. We present a method for organ definition using a priori information about shape encoded in a set of biometric organ models--specifically for the liver and kidney-- that accurately represents patient population shape information. Each model is generated by averaging surfaces from a learning set of organ shapes previously registered into a standard space defined by a small set of landmarks. The model is placed in a specific patient's data set by identifying these landmarks and using them as the basis for model deformation; this preliminary representation is then iteratively fit to the patient's data based on a Bayesian formulation of the model's priors and CT edge information, yielding a complete organ surface. We demonstrate this technique using a set of fifteen abdominal CT data sets for liver surface definition both before and after the addition of a kidney model to the fitting; we demonstrate the effectiveness of this tool for organ surface definition in this low-contrast domain.

  17. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  18. A new multidimensional model with text dimensions: definition and implementation

    MariaJ. Martin-Bautista

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new multidimensional model with textual dimensions based on a knowledge structure extracted from the texts, where any textual attribute in a database can be processed, and not only XML texts. This dimension allows to treat the textual data in the same way as the non-textual one in an automatic way, without user's intervention, so all the classical operations in the multidimensional model can been defined for this textual dimension. While most of the models dealing with texts that can be found in the literature are not implemented, in this proposal, the multidimensional model and the OLAP system have been implemented in a software tool, so it can be tested on real data. A case study with medical data is included in this work.

  19. An integrative model linking feedback environment and organizational citizenship behavior.

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Past empirical evidence has suggested that a positive supervisor feedback environment may enhance employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this study, we aim to extend previous research by proposing and testing an integrative model that examines the mediating processes underlying the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee OCB. Data were collected from 259 subordinate-supervisor dyads across a variety of organizations in Taiwan. We used structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrated that supervisor feedback environment influenced employees' OCB indirectly through (1) both positive affective-cognition and positive attitude (i.e., person-organization fit and organizational commitment), and (2) both negative affective-cognition and negative attitude (i.e., role stressors and job burnout). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. Event-Entity-Relationship Modeling in Data Warehouse Environments

    Bækgaard, Lars

    We use the event-entity-relationship model (EVER) to illustrate the use of entity-based modeling languages for conceptual schema design in data warehouse environments. EVER is a general-purpose information modeling language that supports the specification of both general schema structures and multi......-dimensional schemes that are customized to serve specific information needs. EVER is based on an event concept that is very well suited for multi-dimensional modeling because measurement data often represent events in multi-dimensional databases...

  1. A Virtual Environment for Resilient Infrastructure Modeling and Design

    2015-09-01

    Security CI Critical Infrastructure CID Center for Infrastructure Defense CSV Comma Separated Value DAD Defender-Attacker-Defender DHS Department...responses to disruptive events (e.g., cascading failure behavior) in a context- rich , controlled environment for exercises, education, and training...The general attacker-defender (AD) and defender-attacker-defender ( DAD ) models for CI are defined in Brown et al. (2006). These models help

  2. Models for integrated components coupled with their EM environment

    Ioan, D.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ciuprina, G.; Meijs, van der N.P.; Schoenmaker, W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The main aim of this study is the modelling of the interaction of on-chip components with their electromagnetic environment. Design/methodology/approach – The integrated circuit is decomposed in passive and active components interconnected by means of terminals and connectors

  3. Modelling Global Pattern Formations for Collaborative Learning Environments

    Grappiolo, Corrado; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Khaled, Rilla

    2012-01-01

    We present our research towards the design of a computational framework capable of modelling the formation and evolution of global patterns (i.e. group structures) in a population of social individuals. The framework is intended to be used in collaborative environments, e.g. social serious games...

  4. Health, Supportive Environments, and the Reasonable Person Model

    Stephen Kaplan; Rachel Kaplan

    2003-01-01

    The Reasonable Person Model is a conceptual framework that links environmental factors with human behavior. People are more reasonable, cooperative, helpful, and satisfied when the environment supports their basic informational needs. The same environmental supports are important factors in enhancing human health. We use this framework to identify the informational...

  5. Environment Modeling Using Runtime Values for JPF-Android

    van der Merwe, Heila; Tkachuk, Oksana; Nel, Seal; van der Merwe, Brink; Visser, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Software applications are developed to be executed in a specific environment. This environment includes external native libraries to add functionality to the application and drivers to fire the application execution. For testing and verification, the environment of an application is simplified abstracted using models or stubs. Empty stubs, returning default values, are simple to generate automatically, but they do not perform well when the application expects specific return values. Symbolic execution is used to find input parameters for drivers and return values for library stubs, but it struggles to detect the values of complex objects. In this work-in-progress paper, we explore an approach to generate drivers and stubs based on values collected during runtime instead of using default values. Entry-points and methods that need to be modeled are instrumented to log their parameters and return values. The instrumented applications are then executed using a driver and instrumented libraries. The values collected during runtime are used to generate driver and stub values on- the-fly that improve coverage during verification by enabling the execution of code that previously crashed or was missed. We are implementing this approach to improve the environment model of JPF-Android, our model checking and analysis tool for Android applications.

  6. HexSim: a modeling environment for ecology and conservation.

    HexSim is a powerful and flexible new spatially-explicit, individual based modeling environment intended for use in ecology, conservation, genetics, epidemiology, toxicology, and other disciplines. We describe HexSim, illustrate past applications that contributed to our >10 year ...

  7. Environment modeling using runtime values for JPF-Android

    Van der Merwe, H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available , the environment of an application is simplified/abstracted using models or stubs. Empty stubs, returning default values, are simple to generate automatically, but they do not perform well when the application expects specific return values. Symbolic execution...

  8. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  9. A formal definition of data flow graph models

    Kavi, Krishna M.; Buckles, Bill P.; Bhat, U. Narayan

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a new model for parallel computations and parallel computer systems that is based on data flow principles is presented. Uninterpreted data flow graphs can be used to model computer systems including data driven and parallel processors. A data flow graph is defined to be a bipartite graph with actors and links as the two vertex classes. Actors can be considered similar to transitions in Petri nets, and links similar to places. The nondeterministic nature of uninterpreted data flow graphs necessitates the derivation of liveness conditions.

  10. Regulatory Models and the Environment: Practice, Pitfalls, and Prospects

    Holmes, K. John; Graham, Judith A.; McKone, Thomas; Whipple, Chris

    2008-06-01

    Computational models support environmental regulatory activities by providing the regulator an ability to evaluate available knowledge, assess alternative regulations, and provide a framework to assess compliance. But all models face inherent uncertainties, because human and natural systems are always more complex and heterogeneous than can be captured in a model. Here we provide a summary discussion of the activities, findings, and recommendations of the National Research Council's Committee on Regulatory Environmental Models, a committee funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to provide guidance on the use of computational models in the regulatory process. Modeling is a difficult enterprise even outside of the potentially adversarial regulatory environment. The demands grow when the regulatory requirements for accountability, transparency, public accessibility, and technical rigor are added to the challenges. Moreover, models cannot be validated (declared true) but instead should be evaluated with regard to their suitability as tools to address a specific question. The committee concluded that these characteristics make evaluation of a regulatory model more complex than simply comparing measurement data with model results. Evaluation also must balance the need for a model to be accurate with the need for a model to be reproducible, transparent, and useful for the regulatory decision at hand. Meeting these needs requires model evaluation to be applied over the"life cycle" of a regulatory model with an approach that includes different forms of peer review, uncertainty analysis, and extrapolation methods than for non-regulatory models.

  11. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The participative method of subject definition as used in the quantitative modelling of hospital laundry services.

    Hammer, K A; Janes, F R

    1995-01-01

    The objectives for developing the participative method of subject definition were to gain all the relevant information to a high level of fidelity in the earliest stages of the work and so be able to build a realistic model at reduced labour cost. In order to better integrate the two activities--information acquisition and mathematical modelling--a procedure was devised using the methods of interactive management to facilitate teamwork. This procedure provided the techniques to create suitable working relationships between the two groups, the informants and the modellers, so as to maximize their free and accurate intercommunication, both during the initial definition of the linen service and during the monitoring of the accuracy and reality of the draft models. The objectives of this project were met in that the final model was quickly validated and approved, at a low labour cost.

  13. Ecosystem models are by definition simplifications of the real ...

    spamer

    to calculate changes in total phytoplankton vegetative biomass with time ... into account when modelling phytoplankton population dynamics. ... Then, the means whereby the magnitude of ..... There was increased heat input and slight stratification from mid to ... conditions must be optimal and the water should be extremely ...

  14. Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles

    Voronina, Ekaterina; Novikov, Lev

    2016-07-01

    In accordance with the resolution of ISO TC20/SC14 WG4/WG6 joint meeting, Technical Specification (TS) 'Modeling of space environment impact on nanostructured materials. General principles' which describes computer simulation methods of space environment impact on nanostructured materials is being prepared. Nanomaterials surpass traditional materials for space applications in many aspects due to their unique properties associated with nanoscale size of their constituents. This superiority in mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties will evidently inspire a wide range of applications in the next generation spacecraft intended for the long-term (~15-20 years) operation in near-Earth orbits and the automatic and manned interplanetary missions. Currently, ISO activity on developing standards concerning different issues of nanomaterials manufacturing and applications is high enough. Most such standards are related to production and characterization of nanostructures, however there is no ISO documents concerning nanomaterials behavior in different environmental conditions, including the space environment. The given TS deals with the peculiarities of the space environment impact on nanostructured materials (i.e. materials with structured objects which size in at least one dimension lies within 1-100 nm). The basic purpose of the document is the general description of the methodology of applying computer simulation methods which relate to different space and time scale to modeling processes occurring in nanostructured materials under the space environment impact. This document will emphasize the necessity of applying multiscale simulation approach and present the recommendations for the choice of the most appropriate methods (or a group of methods) for computer modeling of various processes that can occur in nanostructured materials under the influence of different space environment components. In addition, TS includes the description of possible

  15. Modeling and control for closed environment plant production systems

    Fleisher, David H.; Ting, K. C.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A computer program was developed to study multiple crop production and control in controlled environment plant production systems. The program simulates crop growth and development under nominal and off-nominal environments. Time-series crop models for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max), and white potato (Solanum tuberosum) are integrated with a model-based predictive controller. The controller evaluates and compensates for effects of environmental disturbances on crop production scheduling. The crop models consist of a set of nonlinear polynomial equations, six for each crop, developed using multivariate polynomial regression (MPR). Simulated data from DSSAT crop models, previously modified for crop production in controlled environments with hydroponics under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, were used for the MPR fitting. The model-based predictive controller adjusts light intensity, air temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration set points in response to environmental perturbations. Control signals are determined from minimization of a cost function, which is based on the weighted control effort and squared-error between the system response and desired reference signal.

  16. Modeling Users, Context and Devices for Ambient Assisted Living Environments

    Castillejo, Eduardo; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The participation of users within AAL environments is increasing thanks to the capabilities of the current wearable devices. Furthermore, the significance of considering user's preferences, context conditions and device's capabilities help smart environments to personalize services and resources for them. Being aware of different characteristics of the entities participating in these situations is vital for reaching the main goals of the corresponding systems efficiently. To collect different information from these entities, it is necessary to design several formal models which help designers to organize and give some meaning to the gathered data. In this paper, we analyze several literature solutions for modeling users, context and devices considering different approaches in the Ambient Assisted Living domain. Besides, we remark different ongoing standardization works in this area. We also discuss the used techniques, modeled characteristics and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach to finally draw several conclusions about the reviewed works. PMID:24643006

  17. Defined Contribution Model: Definition, Theory and an Application for Turkey

    Metin Ercen; Deniz Gokce

    1998-01-01

    Based on a numerical application that employs social and economic parameters of the Turkish economy, this study attempts to demonstrate that the current collapse in the Turkish social security system is not unavoidable. The present social security system in Turkey is based on the defined benefit model of pension provision. On the other hand, recent proposals for reform in the social security system are based on a multipillar system, where one of the alternatives is a defined contribution pens...

  18. Strengthening the weak link: Built Environment modelling for loss analysis

    Millinship, I.

    2012-04-01

    Methods to analyse insured losses from a range of natural perils, including pricing by primary insurers and catastrophe modelling by reinsurers, typically lack sufficient exposure information. Understanding the hazard intensity in terms of spatial severity and frequency is only the first step towards quantifying the risk of a catastrophic event. For any given event we need to know: Are any structures affected? What type of buildings are they? How much damaged occurred? How much will the repairs cost? To achieve this, detailed exposure information is required to assess the likely damage and to effectively calculate the resultant loss. Modelling exposures in the Built Environment therefore plays as important a role in understanding re/insurance risk as characterising the physical hazard. Across both primary insurance books and aggregated reinsurance portfolios, the location of a property (a risk) and its monetary value is typically known. Exactly what that risk is in terms of detailed property descriptors including structure type and rebuild cost - and therefore its vulnerability to loss - is often omitted. This data deficiency is a primary source of variations between modelled losses and the actual claims value. Built Environment models are therefore required at a high resolution to describe building attributes that relate vulnerability to property damage. However, national-scale household-level datasets are often not computationally practical in catastrophe models and data must be aggregated. In order to provide more accurate risk analysis, we have developed and applied a methodology for Built Environment modelling for incorporation into a range of re/insurance applications, including operational models for different international regions and different perils and covering residential, commercial and industry exposures. Illustrated examples are presented, including exposure modelling suitable for aggregated reinsurance analysis for the UK and bespoke high resolution

  19. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Ivan Roa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide, which manage 90% of the containerized port loading. Then you can find out the legal status of the companies that manage them.Findings: The results indicate a port type and a dominant size, which are mostly managed by companies subject to a concession model.Research limitations/implications: In this research, we study only those ports that handle freight (basically containerized, ignoring other activities such as fishing, military, tourism or recreational.Originality/value: This is an investigation to show that the vast majority of the studied segment port facilities are governed by a similar corporate model and subject to pressure from the markets, which increasingly demand efficiency and service. Consequently, we tend to concession terminals to private operators in a process that might be called privatization, but in the strictest sense of the term, is not entirely realistic because the ownership of the land never ceases to be public

  20. Deliberated opinion of the Environment Authority concerning the prior definition of the Cigeo project, industrial centre of deep reversible storage of radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne

    2013-01-01

    This document first describes the project and its context: history and legal framework, types of wastes dedicated to Cigeo, definition of the warehousing, storage, notions of reversibility and retrievability, project location, program for the installation, transport of wastes to Cigeo. It describes the associated administrative procedures: creation authorization request, and other procedures including an impact study. It recalls the questions asked by the ANDRA and gives the corresponding answers. These questions concern the perimeter of the impact study to be performed, dates and modalities of submission to the Environment Authority, scenarios to be presented in the impact study, definition of impact study areas, and impacts after installation closure

  1. Saint: a lightweight integration environment for model annotation.

    Lister, Allyson L; Pocock, Matthew; Taschuk, Morgan; Wipat, Anil

    2009-11-15

    Saint is a web application which provides a lightweight annotation integration environment for quantitative biological models. The system enables modellers to rapidly mark up models with biological information derived from a range of data sources. Saint is freely available for use on the web at http://www.cisban.ac.uk/saint. The web application is implemented in Google Web Toolkit and Tomcat, with all major browsers supported. The Java source code is freely available for download at http://saint-annotate.sourceforge.net. The Saint web server requires an installation of libSBML and has been tested on Linux (32-bit Ubuntu 8.10 and 9.04).

  2. CAD ACTIVE MODELS: AN INNOVATIVE METHOD IN ASSEMBLY ENVIRONMENT

    NADDEO Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show the use and the versatility of the active models in different applications. It has been realized an active model of a cylindrical spring and it has been applied in two mechanisms, different for typology and for backlash loads. The first example is a dynamometer in which nthe cylindrical spring is loaded by traction forces, while the second example is made up from a pressure valve in which the cylindrical-conic spring works under compression. The imposition of the loads in both cases, has allowed us to evaluate the model of the mechanism in different working conditions, also in assembly environment.

  3. Environment

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  4. Ports: Definition and study of types, sizes and business models

    Ivan Roa; Yessica Peña; Beatriz Amante; María Goretti

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the world today there are thousands of port facilities of different types and sizes, competing to capture some market share of freight by sea, mainly. This article aims to determine the type of port and the most common size, in order to find out which business model is applied in that segment and what is the legal status of the companies of such infrastructure.Design/methodology/approach: To achieve this goal, we develop a research on a representative sample of 800 ports worldwide...

  5. Modeling Gene-Environment Interactions With Quasi-Natural Experiments.

    Schmitz, Lauren; Conley, Dalton

    2017-02-01

    This overview develops new empirical models that can effectively document Gene × Environment (G×E) interactions in observational data. Current G×E studies are often unable to support causal inference because they use endogenous measures of the environment or fail to adequately address the nonrandom distribution of genes across environments, confounding estimates. Comprehensive measures of genetic variation are incorporated into quasi-natural experimental designs to exploit exogenous environmental shocks or isolate variation in environmental exposure to avoid potential confounders. In addition, we offer insights from population genetics that improve upon extant approaches to address problems from population stratification. Together, these tools offer a powerful way forward for G×E research on the origin and development of social inequality across the life course. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  7. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    Da-Sheng, W.; Li-Juan, L.; Qin-Fen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  8. Educational complex of light-colored modeling of urban environment

    Karpenko Vladimir E.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms, methodological tools and structure of a training complex of light-colored modeling of the urban environment are developed in this paper. The following results of the practical work of students are presented: light composition and installation, media facades, lighting of building facades, city streets and embankment. As a result of modeling, the structure of the light form is determined. Light-transmitting materials and causing characteristic optical illusions, light-visual and light-dynamic effects (video-dynamics and photostatics, basic compositional techniques of light form are revealed. The main elements of the light installation are studied, including a light projection, an electronic device, interactivity and relationality of the installation, and the mechanical device which becomes a part of the installation composition. The meaning of modern media facade technology is the transformation of external building structures and their facades into a changing information cover, into a media content translator using LED technology. Light tectonics and the light rhythm of the plastics of the architectural object are built up through point and local illumination, modeling of the urban ensemble assumes the structural interaction of several light building models with special light-composition techniques. When modeling the social and pedestrian environment, the lighting parameters depend on the scale of the chosen space and are adapted taking into account the visual perception of the pedestrian, and the atmospheric effects of comfort and safety of the environment are achieved with the help of special light compositional techniques. With the aim of realizing the tasks of light modeling, a methodology has been created, including the mechanisms of models, variability and complementarity. The perspectives of light modeling in the context of structural elements of the city, neuropsychology, wireless and bioluminescence technologies are proposed

  9. A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee

    2007-01-01

    A model for radiological dose assessment in an urban environment, METRO-K has been developed. Characteristics of the model are as follows ; 1) mathematical structures are simple (i.e. simplified input parameters) and easy to understand due to get the results by analytical methods using experimental and empirical data, 2) complex urban environment can easily be made up using only 5 types of basic surfaces, 3) various remediation measures can be applied to different surfaces by evaluating the exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface. Exposure doses contributing from each contamination surface at a particular location of a receptor were evaluated using the data library of kerma values as a function of gamma energy and contamination surface. A kerma data library was prepared for 7 representative types of Korean urban building by extending those data given for 4 representative types of European urban buildings. Initial input data are daily radionuclide concentration in air and precipitation, and fraction of chemical type. Final outputs are absorbed dose rate in air contributing from the basic surfaces as a function of time following a radionuclide deposition, and exposure dose rate contributing from various surfaces constituting the urban environment at a particular location of a receptor. As the result of a contaminative scenario for an apartment built-up area, exposure dose rates show a distinct difference for surrounding environment as well as locations of a receptor

  10. Modeling of the Martian environment for radiation analysis

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Qualls, G.D.; Singleterry, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) has been developed. Solar modulated primary particles rescaled for conditions at Mars are transported through the Martian atmosphere down to the surface, with altitude and backscattering patterns taken into account. The altitude to compute the atmospheric thickness profile has been determined by using a model for the topography based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The Mars surface composition has been modeled based on averages over the measurements obtained from orbiting spacecraft and at various landing sites, taking into account the possible volatile inventory (e.g. CO 2 and H 2 O ices) along with its time variations throughout the Martian year. The Mars Radiation Environment Model has been made available worldwide through the Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools (SIREST) website, a project of NASA Langley Research Center. This site has been developed to provide the scientific and engineering communities with an interactive site containing a variety of environmental models, shield evaluation codes, and radiation response models to allow a thorough assessment of ionizing radiation risk for current and future space missions

  11. Technological learning in energy-environment-economy modelling: A survey

    Kahouli-Brahmi, Sondes

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview and a critical analysis of the technological learning concept and its incorporation in energy-environment-economy models. A special emphasis is put on surveying and discussing, through the so-called learning curve, both studies estimating learning rates in the energy field and studies incorporating endogenous technological learning in bottom-up and top-down models. The survey of learning rate estimations gives special attention to interpreting and explaining the sources of variability of estimated rates, which is shown to be mainly inherent in R and D expenditures, the problem of omitted variable bias, the endogeneity relationship and the role of spillovers. Large-scale models survey show that, despite some methodological and computational complexity related to the non-linearity and the non-convexity associated with the learning curve incorporation, results of the numerous modelling experiments give several new insights with regard to the analysis of the prospects of specific technological options and their cost decrease potential (bottom-up models), and with regard to the analysis of strategic considerations, especially inherent in the innovation and energy diffusion process, in particular the energy sector's endogenous responses to environment policy instruments (top-down models)

  12. LINDOZ model for Finland environment: Model description and evaluation of model performance

    Galeriu, D.; Apostoaie, A.I.; Mocanu, N.; Paunescu, N.

    1996-01-01

    LINDOZ model was developed as a realistic assessment tool for radioactive contamination of the environment. It was designed to produce estimates for the concentration of the pollutant in different compartments of the terrestrial ecosystem (soil, vegetation, animal tissue, and animal products), and to evaluate human exposure to the contaminant (concentration in whole human body, and dose to humans) from inhalation, ingestion and external irradiation. The user can apply LINDOZ for both routine and accidental type of releases. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Modeling the cometary environment using a fluid approach

    Shou, Yinsi

    Comets are believed to have preserved the building material of the early solar system and to hold clues to the origin of life on Earth. Abundant remote observations of comets by telescopes and the in-situ measurements by a handful of space missions reveal that the cometary environments are complicated by various physical and chemical processes among the neutral gases and dust grains released from comets, cometary ions, and the solar wind in the interplanetary space. Therefore, physics-based numerical models are in demand to interpret the observational data and to deepen our understanding of the cometary environment. In this thesis, three models using a fluid approach, which include important physical and chemical processes underlying the cometary environment, have been developed to study the plasma, neutral gas, and the dust grains, respectively. Although models based on the fluid approach have limitations in capturing all of the correct physics for certain applications, especially for very low gas density environment, they are computationally much more efficient than alternatives. In the simulations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at various heliocentric distances with a wide range of production rates, our multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model and multi-fluid cometary dust model have achieved comparable results to the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model, which is based on a kinetic approach that is valid in all collisional regimes. Therefore, our model is a powerful alternative to the particle-based model, especially for some computationally intensive simulations. Capable of accounting for the varying heating efficiency under various physical conditions in a self-consistent way, the multi-fluid cometary neutral gas model is a good tool to study the dynamics of the cometary coma with different production rates and heliocentric distances. The modeled H2O expansion speeds reproduce the general trend and the speed's nonlinear dependencies of production rate

  14. GENI: A graphical environment for model-based control

    Kleban, S.; Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.

    1989-10-01

    A new method to operate machine and beam simulation programs for accelerator control has been developed. Existing methods, although cumbersome, have been used in control systems for commissioning and operation of many machines. We developed GENI, a generalized graphical interface to these programs for model-based control. This ''object-oriented''-like environment is described and some typical applications are presented. 4 refs., 5 figs

  15. ''POSEIDON'': one radioactive matter dispersion model in maritime environment

    Raffestin, D.; Lepicard, S.

    1995-02-01

    The radio element filiation effect respect, during a spoil in maritime environment was necessary to implement the mathematical integration technologies aiming to optimize the speed calculation and memory. These choices allowed to treat the filiation on several descent levels with compartmental more exact models. Recent data on the fishing product sources and their destinations allow now to sharpen the results by radiological shock decomposition on the European Community countries. 2 refs., 20 figs., 11 tabs., 4 Appendixes

  16. Modelling in waters geochemistry. Concepts and applications in environment

    Windt, L. de; Lee, J.V.D.; Schmitt, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give the main point of the physico-chemical concepts and of the mathematical laws on which are based the geochemical modelling of waters, while presenting concrete and typical applications examples to the problems of environment and of water resources management. In a table (Doc. AF 6530) are gathered the distribution sources of softwares and of thermodynamic data banks. (O.M.)

  17. Model Based Verification of Cyber Range Event Environments

    2015-11-13

    that may include users, applications, operating systems, servers, hosts, routers, switches, control planes , and instrumentation planes , many of...which lack models for their configuration. Our main contributions in this paper are the following. First, we have developed a configuration ontology...configuration errors in environment designs for several cyber range events. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 provides an overview of

  18. A model for dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment

    Coke, L. R.; Sanchez, J. G.; Policastro, A. J.

    2000-05-03

    Although subway ventilation has been studied extensively, very little has been published on dispersion of contaminants in the subway environment. This paper presents a model that predicts dispersion of contaminants in a complex subway system. It accounts for the combined transient effects of train motion, station airflows, train car air exchange rates, and source release properties. Results are presented for a range of typical subway scenarios. The effects of train piston action and train car air exchange are discussed. The model could also be applied to analyze the environmental impact of hazardous materials releases such as chemical and biological agents.

  19. A model-driven approach for representing clinical archetypes for Semantic Web environments.

    Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás; Maldonado, José Alberto

    2009-02-01

    The life-long clinical information of any person supported by electronic means configures his Electronic Health Record (EHR). This information is usually distributed among several independent and heterogeneous systems that may be syntactically or semantically incompatible. There are currently different standards for representing and exchanging EHR information among different systems. In advanced EHR approaches, clinical information is represented by means of archetypes. Most of these approaches use the Archetype Definition Language (ADL) to specify archetypes. However, ADL has some drawbacks when attempting to perform semantic activities in Semantic Web environments. In this work, Semantic Web technologies are used to specify clinical archetypes for advanced EHR architectures. The advantages of using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) instead of ADL are described and discussed in this work. Moreover, a solution combining Semantic Web and Model-driven Engineering technologies is proposed to transform ADL into OWL for the CEN EN13606 EHR architecture.

  20. Modelling the transport of radionuclides through the freshwater environment

    Hilton, J.; Galvao, J.P.; Foulquier; Pieri, J.; Belli, M.; Vanderbourght, O.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to identify areas where the present generation of models are breaking down, and to improve the fundamental knowledge in these areas so that more easily transportable (generic) models can be developed. Preliminary studies on the importance of bacteria in the food chain have also been included. Several areas of model limitation have been identified and potential causes have been hypothesized. Steady progress is being made towards the verification of these hypotheses and the ultimate goal of a generic model of radionuclide transport in the aquatic environment. Objectives and results of the nine contributions of the project for the reporting period are discussed. (R.P.) 13 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    Marnier, P.

    2001-01-01

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b)

  2. Modelling Ecological Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapies for Building Virtual Environments in Brain Injury.

    Martínez-Moreno, J M; Sánchez-González, P; Luna, M; Roig, T; Tormos, J M; Gómez, E J

    2016-01-01

    Brain Injury (BI) has become one of the most common causes of neurological disability in developed countries. Cognitive disorders result in a loss of independence and patients' quality of life. Cognitive rehabilitation aims to promote patients' skills to achieve their highest degree of personal autonomy. New technologies such as virtual reality or interactive video allow developing rehabilitation therapies based on reproducible Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), increasing the ecological validity of the therapy. However, the lack of frameworks to formalize and represent the definition of this kind of therapies can be a barrier for widespread use of interactive virtual environments in clinical routine. To provide neuropsychologists with a methodology and an instrument to design and evaluate cognitive rehabilitation therapeutic interventions strategies based on ADLs performed in interactive virtual environments. The proposed methodology is used to model therapeutic interventions during virtual ADLs considering cognitive deficit, expected abnormal interactions and therapeutic hypotheses. It allows identifying abnormal behavioural patterns and designing interventions strategies in order to achieve errorless-based rehabilitation. An ADL case study ('buying bread') is defined according to the guidelines established by the ADL intervention model. This case study is developed, as a proof of principle, using interactive video technology and is used to assess the feasibility of the proposed methodology in the definition of therapeutic intervention procedures. The proposed methodology provides neuropsychologists with an instrument to design and evaluate ADL-based therapeutic intervention strategies, attending to solve actual limitation of virtual scenarios, to be use for ecological rehabilitation of cognitive deficit in daily clinical practice. The developed case study proves the potential of the methodology to design therapeutic interventions strategies; however our current

  3. Dynamic occupational risk model for offshore operations in harsh environments

    Song, Guozheng; Khan, Faisal; Wang, Hangzhou; Leighton, Shelly; Yuan, Zhi; Liu, Hanwen

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of offshore oil exploitation into remote areas (e.g., Arctic) with harsh environments has significantly increased occupational risks. Among occupational accidents, slips, trips and falls from height (STFs) account for a significant portion. Thus, a dynamic risk assessment of the three main occupational accidents is meaningful to decrease offshore occupational risks. Bow-tie Models (BTs) were established in this study for the risk analysis of STFs considering extreme environmental factors. To relax the limitations of BTs, Bayesian networks (BNs) were developed based on BTs to dynamically assess risks of STFs. The occurrence and consequence probabilities of STFs were respectively calculated using BTs and BNs, and the obtained probabilities verified BNs' rationality and advantage. Furthermore, the probability adaptation for STFs was accomplished in a specific scenario with BNs. Finally, posterior probabilities of basic events were achieved through diagnostic analysis, and critical basic events were analyzed based on their posterior likelihood to cause occupational accidents. The highlight is systematically analyzing STF accidents for offshore operations and dynamically assessing their risks considering the harsh environmental factors. This study can guide the allocation of prevention resources and benefit the safety management of offshore operations. - Highlights: • A novel dynamic risk model for occupational accidents. • First time consideration of harsh environment in occupational accident modeling. • A Bayesian network based model for risk management strategies.

  4. Cognitive Virtualization: Combining Cognitive Models and Virtual Environments

    Tuan Q. Tran; David I. Gertman; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Ronald L. Boring; Alan R. Mecham

    2007-01-01

    3D manikins are often used in visualizations to model human activity in complex settings. Manikins assist in developing understanding of human actions, movements and routines in a variety of different environments representing new conceptual designs. One such environment is a nuclear power plant control room, here they have the potential to be used to simulate more precise ergonomic assessments of human work stations. Next generation control rooms will pose numerous challenges for system designers. The manikin modeling approach by itself, however, may be insufficient for dealing with the desired technical advancements and challenges of next generation automated systems. Uncertainty regarding effective staffing levels; and the potential for negative human performance consequences in the presence of advanced automated systems (e.g., reduced vigilance, poor situation awareness, mistrust or blind faith in automation, higher information load and increased complexity) call for further research. Baseline assessment of novel control room equipment(s) and configurations needs to be conducted. These design uncertainties can be reduced through complementary analysis that merges ergonomic manikin models with models of higher cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, decision-making, and problem-solving. This paper will discuss recent advancements in merging a theoretical-driven cognitive modeling framework within a 3D visualization modeling tool to evaluate of next generation control room human factors and ergonomic assessment. Though this discussion primary focuses on control room design, the application for such a merger between 3D visualization and cognitive modeling can be extended to various areas of focus such as training and scenario planning

  5. Hemispherical reflectance model for passive images in an outdoor environment.

    Kim, Charles C; Thai, Bea; Yamaoka, Neil; Aboutalib, Omar

    2015-05-01

    We present a hemispherical reflectance model for simulating passive images in an outdoor environment where illumination is provided by natural sources such as the sun and the clouds. While the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) accurately produces radiance from any objects after the illumination, using the BRDF in calculating radiance requires double integration. Replacing the BRDF by hemispherical reflectance under the natural sources transforms the double integration into a multiplication. This reduces both storage space and computation time. We present the formalism for the radiance of the scene using hemispherical reflectance instead of BRDF. This enables us to generate passive images in an outdoor environment taking advantage of the computational and storage efficiencies. We show some examples for illustration.

  6. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging driven growth modeling for radiotherapy target definition in glioblastoma

    Jensen, Morten B; Guldberg, Trine L; Harbøll, Anja

    2017-01-01

    the microscopic tumor cell spread. Gliomas favor spread along the white matter fiber tracts. Tumor growth models incorporating the MRI diffusion tensors (DTI) allow to account more consistently for the glioma growth. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a DTI driven growth model to improve...... target definition in glioblastoma (GBM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven GBM patients were scanned using T1w, T2w FLAIR, T1w + Gd and DTI. The brain was segmented into white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The Fisher-Kolmogorov growth model was used assuming uniform proliferation...

  7. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  8. Thermal Analysis of a Finite Element Model in a Radiation Dominated Environment

    Page, Arthur T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of thermal analysis, evaluating the University of Arizona mirror design, for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Pre-Phase A vehicle concept. Model building begins using Thermal Desktop(TM), by Cullimore and Ring Technologies, to import a NASTRAN bulk data file from the structural model of the mirror assembly. Using AutoCAD(R) capabilities, additional surfaces are added to simulate the thermal aspects of the problem which, for due reason, are not part of the structural model. Surfaces are then available to accept thermophysical and thermo-optical properties. Thermal Desktop(TM) calculates radiation conductors using Monte Carlo simulations. Then Thermal Desktop(TM) generates the SINDA input file having a one-to-one correspondence with the NASTRAN node and element definitions. A model is now available to evaluate the mirror design in the radiation dominated environment, conduct parametric trade studies of the thermal design, and provide temperatures to the finite element structural model.

  9. Strategic management in urban environment using SWOT and QSPM model

    M. Pazouki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development is a new concept of fundamental environmental metropolitan management that not only creates the demand for changing the concepts of economic development, but also affects social development. The current study  provides  a conceptual model of a sustainable environment pattern In District 22 of Tehran that depends on the relationship between environment and economy, and a network of urban function, which  Included transport infrastructure and community centers and economic and regional level in support of the ecological services in Tehran. This landscape often  had discrepancies  with the development of the city between the layers and the creation of ecological fragile areas. The main objective of the study was to determine the sustainability indicators and create a future development  model  for District 22 of Tehran. The data was collected by having a review of similar studies and field research on the subject and therefore the effective factors were identified. After accomplished proceedings, the questionnaire was prepared and the results were used in SWOT charts' grading after analyzing at interior and exterior matrix. Ultimately, quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM was performed based on the results and analysis. This process provided a comprehensive model for sustainable urban development as sustainable development urban landscape pattern.

  10. Modelling study of sea breezes in a complex coastal environment

    Cai, X.-M.; Steyn, D. G.

    This study investigates a mesoscale modelling of sea breezes blowing from a narrow strait into the lower Fraser valley (LFV), British Columbia, Canada, during the period of 17-20 July, 1985. Without a nudging scheme in the inner grid, the CSU-RAMS model produces satisfactory wind and temperature fields during the daytime. In comparison with observation, the agreement indices for surface wind and temperature during daytime reach about 0.6 and 0.95, respectively, while the agreement indices drop to 0.4 at night. In the vertical, profiles of modelled wind and temperature generally agree with tethersonde data collected on 17 and 19 July. The study demonstrates that in late afternoon, the model does not capture the advection of an elevated warm layer which originated from land surfaces outside of the inner grid. Mixed layer depth (MLD) is calculated from model output of turbulent kinetic energy field. Comparison of MLD results with observation shows that the method generates a reliable MLD during the daytime, and that accurate estimates of MLD near the coast require the correct simulation of wind conditions over the sea. The study has shown that for a complex coast environment like the LFV, a reliable modelling study depends not only on local surface fluxes but also on elevated layers transported from remote land surfaces. This dependence is especially important when local forcings are weak, for example, during late afternoon and at night.

  11. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  12. Successful model of suicide prevention in the Ukraine military environment.

    Rozanov, Vsevolod A; Mokhovikov, Alexander N; Stiliha, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of suicidal behavior in the Ukraine military environment and gives an example of the successful prevention approach. The model of prevention is based on (1) education of the responsible officers, (2) training of the representatives of the most vulnerable risk groups, and (3) follow-up procedures based on distribution of pocket books for soldiers, educational booklets, and sets of helpful materials for officers. One of the main conclusions is that the prevention activity must be organized as a continuum of actions, seminars, consultations, and materials distribution.

  13. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D

    Overfelt, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  14. Animal model for schizophrenia that reflects gene-environment interactions.

    Nagai, Taku; Ibi, Daisuke; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that impairs mental and social functioning and affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Genetic susceptibility factors for schizophrenia have recently been reported, some of which are known to play a role in neurodevelopment; these include neuregulin-1, dysbindin, and disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1). Moreover, epidemiologic studies suggest that environmental insults, such as prenatal infection and perinatal complication, are involved in the development of schizophrenia. The possible interaction between environment and genetic susceptibility factors, especially during neurodevelopment, is proposed as a promising disease etiology of schizophrenia. Polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (polyI : C) is a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA that leads to the pronounced but time-limited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Maternal immune activation by polyI : C exposure in rodents is known to precipitate a wide spectrum of behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological abnormalities in adult offspring. Recently, we have reported that neonatal injection of polyI : C in mice results in schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations in adulthood. In this review, we show how gene-environment interactions during neurodevelopment result in phenotypic changes in adulthood by injecting polyI : C into transgenic mice that express a dominant-negative form of human DISC1 (DN-DISC1). Our findings suggest that polyI : C-treated DN-DISC1 mice are a well-validated animal model for schizophrenia that reflects gene-environment interactions.

  15. Integration Of Externalized Decision Models In The Definition Of Workflows For Digital Pathology

    J. van Leeuwen

    2016-06-01

    We proposed a workflow solution enabling the representation of decision models as externalized executable tasks in the process definition. Our approach separates the task implementations from the workflow model, ensuring scalability and allowing for the inclusion of complex decision logic in the workflow execution. In we depict a simplified model of a pathology diagnosis workflow (starting with the digitization of the slides, represented according to the BPMN modeling conventions. The example shows a workflow sequence that automatically orders a HER2 FISH when IHC is borderline according to defined customizable thresholds. The process model integrates an image analysis algorithm that scores images. Based on the score and the thresholds the decision model evaluates the condition and recommends the pre-ordering of an additional test when the score falls between the two thresholds. This leads to faster diagnosis and allows balancing the costs of an additional test versus the overhead of the pathologist by choosing the values of the thresholds.  

  16. Application of Service Quality Model in Education Environment

    Ting Ding Hooi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ideas on service quality stem from the West. The massive developments in research in the West are undeniable of their importance. This leads to the generation and development of new ideas. These ideas were subsequently channeled to developing countries. Ideas obtained were then formulated and used by these developing countries in order to obtain better approach in channeling service quality. There are ample to be learnt from the service quality model, SERVQUAL which attain high acceptance in the West. Service quality in the education system is important to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of education. Effective and quality education will be able to offer quality graduates, which will contribute to the development of the nation. This paper will discuss the application of the SERVQUAL model into the education environment.

  17. Meta-model of EPortfolio Usage in Different Environments

    Igor Balaban

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available EPortfolio offers a new philosophy of teaching and learning, giving the learner an opportunity to express oneself, to show one’s past work and experience to all the interested parties ranging from teachers to potential employers. However, an integral model for ePortfolio implementation in academic institutions that would take into account three different levels of stakeholders: 1. Individual (student and teacher; 2. Institution; and 3. Employer, currently does not exist. In this paper the role of ePortfolio in academic environment as well as the context in which ePortfolio operates is analyzed in detail. As a result of the comprehensive analysis that takes into account individual, academic institution and employer, a meta-model of ePortfolio usage in Lifelong Learning is proposed.

  18. Basic Definitions and Concepts of Systems Approach, Mathematical Modeling and Information Technologies in Sports Science

    А. Лопатьєв

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes.  Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.

  19. Validation of a Solid Rocket Motor Internal Environment Model

    Martin, Heath T.

    2017-01-01

    In a prior effort, a thermal/fluid model of the interior of Penn State University's laboratory-scale Insulation Test Motor (ITM) was constructed to predict both the convective and radiative heat transfer to the interior walls of the ITM with a minimum of empiricism. These predictions were then compared to values of total and radiative heat flux measured in a previous series of ITM test firings to assess the capabilities and shortcomings of the chosen modeling approach. Though the calculated fluxes reasonably agreed with those measured during testing, this exercise revealed means of improving the fidelity of the model to, in the case of the thermal radiation, enable direct comparison of the measured and calculated fluxes and, for the total heat flux, compute a value indicative of the average measured condition. By replacing the P1-Approximation with the discrete ordinates (DO) model for the solution of the gray radiative transfer equation, the radiation intensity field in the optically thin region near the radiometer is accurately estimated, allowing the thermal radiation flux to be calculated on the heat-flux sensor itself, which was then compared directly to the measured values. Though the fully coupling the wall thermal response with the flow model was not attempted due to the excessive computational time required, a separate wall thermal response model was used to better estimate the average temperature of the graphite surfaces upstream of the heat flux gauges and improve the accuracy of both the total and radiative heat flux computations. The success of this modeling approach increases confidence in the ability of state-of-the-art thermal and fluid modeling to accurately predict SRM internal environments, offers corrections to older methods, and supplies a tool for further studies of the dynamics of SRM interiors.

  20. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Electrical Distribution Systems: Model View Definition

    2013-06-01

    contexts; • To all attributes with a defined datatype indicating a measure datatype ; • To all properties and quantities with a defined datatype ...indicating a measure datatype and with no local unit definitions provided. 3.2.2.3 Project context A project representation context indicates the

  1. Ontology for Life-Cycle Modeling of Water Distribution Systems: Model View Definition

    2013-06-01

    attributes with a defined datatype indicating a measure datatype ; • To all properties and quantities with a defined datatype indicating a measure... datatype and with no local unit definitions provided. 3.2.3.4 Project context A project representation context indicates the coordinate system orienta

  2. Mathematical modeling in economics, ecology and the environment

    Hritonenko, Natali

    2013-01-01

    Updated to textbook form by popular demand, this second edition discusses diverse mathematical models used in economics, ecology, and the environmental sciences with emphasis on control and optimization. It is intended for graduate and upper-undergraduate course use, however, applied mathematicians, industry practitioners, and a vast number of interdisciplinary academics will find the presentation highly useful. Core topics of this text are: ·         Economic growth and technological development ·         Population dynamics and human impact on the environment ·         Resource extraction and scarcity ·         Air and water contamination ·         Rational management of the economy and environment ·         Climate change and global dynamics The step-by-step approach taken is problem-based and easy to follow. The authors aptly demonstrate that the same models may be used to describe different economic and environmental processes and that similar invest...

  3. Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments

    Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Storck, Pascal; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of forest canopies on snow accumulation and ablation processes can be very important for the hydrology of midlatitude and high-latitude areas. A mass and energy balance model for snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments was developed utilizing extensive measurements of snow interception and release in a maritime mountainous site in Oregon. The model was evaluated using 2 years of weighing lysimeter data and was able to reproduce the snow water equivalent (SWE) evolution throughout winters both beneath the canopy and in the nearby clearing, with correlations to observations ranging from 0.81 to 0.99. Additionally, the model was evaluated using measurements from a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) field site in Canada to test the robustness of the canopy snow interception algorithm in a much different climate. Simulated SWE was relatively close to the observations for the forested sites, with discrepancies evident in some cases. Although the model formulation appeared robust for both types of climates, sensitivity to parameters such as snow roughness length and maximum interception capacity suggested the magnitude of improvements of SWE simulations that might be achieved by calibration.

  4. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    P. Marnier

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b).

  5. An Observation Capability Metadata Model for EO Sensor Discovery in Sensor Web Enablement Environments

    Chuli Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fine-grained discovery by diverse Earth observation (EO sensors ensures a comprehensive response to collaborative observation-required emergency tasks. This discovery remains a challenge in an EO sensor web environment. In this study, we propose an EO sensor observation capability metadata model that reuses and extends the existing sensor observation-related metadata standards to enable the accurate and fine-grained discovery of EO sensors. The proposed model is composed of five sub-modules, namely, ObservationBreadth, ObservationDepth, ObservationFrequency, ObservationQuality and ObservationData. The model is applied to different types of EO sensors and is formalized by the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language 1.0. The GeosensorQuery prototype retrieves the qualified EO sensors based on the provided geo-event. An actual application to flood emergency observation in the Yangtze River Basin in China is conducted, and the results indicate that sensor inquiry can accurately achieve fine-grained discovery of qualified EO sensors and obtain enriched observation capability information. In summary, the proposed model enables an efficient encoding system that ensures minimum unification to represent the observation capabilities of EO sensors. The model functions as a foundation for the efficient discovery of EO sensors. In addition, the definition and development of this proposed EO sensor observation capability metadata model is a helpful step in extending the Sensor Model Language (SensorML 2.0 Profile for the description of the observation capabilities of EO sensors.

  6. Dynamic and resuspension by waves and sedimentation pattern definition in low energy environments: guaíba lake (Brazil

    João Luiz Nicolodi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Little research has been undertaken into sediment dynamics in lakes, and most of it only analyses particular aspects such as the texture of the sediments. In this study, the characteristics of the wave field in Guaíba Lake are investigated. The parameters significant wave height (Hs, period (T and direction of wave propagation are examined together with their relation to the resuspension of sediments at the bottom. For this purpose, the mathematical model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore has been validated and employed. The results pointed out that the highest waves modeled reached 0.55 m at a few points in the lake, particularly when winds were blowing from the S and SE quadrants with an intensity over 7 m.s-1. Generally speaking, waves follow wind intensity and direction patterns, and reach maximum height in about 1 to 2 hours after wind speed peaks. Whenever winds were stronger, waves took some 2 hours to reach 0.10 m. However, with weak to moderate winds, the waves took around 3 hours to achieve this value in significant wave height. In addition to speed and direction, wind regularity proved relevant in generating and propagating waves on Lake Guaíba. In conclusion the lake's sediment environments were mapped and classified as follows: 1 Depositional Environments (51% of the lake; 2 Transitional Environments (41%; and 3 Erosional or Non-Depositional Environments (8%. As a contribution to the region's environmental management, elements have been created relating to the concentration of suspended particulate matter.Pesquisas referentes à dinâmica sedimentar em lagos são escassas e a maioria trata da distribuição e textura dos sedimentos, sendo raras aquelas que fazem menção ao padrão de ondas e suas relações com a ressuspensão destes sedimentos e suas consequências. Este trabalho analisa as características das ondas incidentes no Lago Guaíba (Brasil por meio da utilização do SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore e suas rela

  7. An interdisciplinary approach to modeling tritium transfer into the environment

    Galeriu, D; Melintescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    equations between soil and plants. Considering mammals, we recently showed that the simplistic models currently applied did not accurately match experimental data from rats and sheep. Specific data for many farm and wild animals are scarce. In this paper, we are advancing a different approach based on energy metabolism, which can be parameterized predominantly based on published metabolic data for mature mammals. We started with the observation that the measured dynamics of 14 C and non-exchangeable organically bound tritium (OBT) were, not surprisingly, similar. We therefore introduced a metabolic definition for the 14 C and OBT loss rate (assumed to be the same) from the whole body and specific organs. We assumed that this was given by the specific metabolic rate of the whole body or organ, divided by the enthalpy of combustion of a kilogram of fresh matter. Since basal metabolism data were taken from the literature, they were modified for energy expenditure above basal need. To keep the model simple, organs were grouped according to their metabolic activity or importance in the food chain. Pools considered were viscera (high metabolic rate organs except the brain), muscle, adipose tissue, blood, and other (all other tissues). We disregarded any detail on substrate utilization from the dietary intake and condensed the postprandial respiration in a single rate. We included considerations of net maintenance and growth needs. For tritium, the transfer between body water and organic compartments was modeled using knowledge of basic metabolism and published relations. We considered the potential influence of rumen digestion and bacterial protein in ruminants. As for model application, we focused on laboratory and farm animals, where some experimental data were available. The model performed well for rat muscle, viscera and adipose tissue, but due to the simplicity of model structure and assumptions, blood and urine data were only satisfactorily reproduced. Whilst for sheep fed

  8. The Parental Environment Cluster Model of Child Neglect: An Integrative Conceptual Model.

    Burke, Judith; Chandy, Joseph; Dannerbeck, Anne; Watt, J. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Presents Parental Environment Cluster model of child neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in parents' neglectful behavior: (1) parenting skills and functions; (2) development and use of positive social support; and (3) resource availability and management skills. Model offers a focal theory for research, structure for…

  9. Space Environment Modelling with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Methods

    Lundstedt, H.; Wintoft, P.; Wu, J.-G.; Gleisner, H.; Dovheden, V.

    1996-12-01

    Space based technological systems are affected by the space weather in many ways. Several severe failures of satellites have been reported at times of space storms. Our society also increasingly depends on satellites for communication, navigation, exploration, and research. Predictions of the conditions in the satellite environment have therefore become very important. We will here present predictions made with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN) and hybrids of AT methods. We are developing a space weather model based on intelligence hybrid systems (IHS). The model consists of different forecast modules, each module predicts the space weather on a specific time-scale. The time-scales range from minutes to months with the fundamental time-scale of 1-5 minutes, 1-3 hours, 1-3 days, and 27 days. Solar and solar wind data are used as input data. From solar magnetic field measurements, either made on the ground at Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) at Stanford, or made from space by the satellite SOHO, solar wind parameters can be predicted and modelled with ANN and MHD models. Magnetograms from WSO are available on a daily basis. However, from SOHO magnetograms will be available every 90 minutes. SOHO magnetograms as input to ANNs will therefore make it possible to even predict solar transient events. Geomagnetic storm activity can today be predicted with very high accuracy by means of ANN methods using solar wind input data. However, at present real-time solar wind data are only available during part of the day from the satellite WIND. With the launch of ACE in 1997, solar wind data will on the other hand be available during 24 hours per day. The conditions of the satellite environment are not only disturbed at times of geomagnetic storms but also at times of intense solar radiation and highly energetic particles. These events are associated with increased solar activity. Predictions of these events are therefore

  10. AN INCLUSIVE APPROACH TO ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: Models and Resources

    Aline Germain-RUTHERFORD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ever-increasing numbers of online courses on the demographic composition of classes has meant that the notions of diversity, multiculturality and globalization are now key aspects of curriculum planning. With the internationalization and globalization of education, and faced with rising needs for an increasingly educated and more adequately trained workforce, universities are offering more flexible programs, assisted by new educational and communications technologies. Faced with this diversity of populations and needs, many instructors are becoming aware of the importance of addressing the notions of multiculturality and interculturality in the design of online however this raises many questions. For example, how do we integrate and address this multicultural dimension in a distance education course aimed at students who live in diverse cultural environments? How do the challenges of intercultural communication in an online environment affect online teaching and learning? What are the characteristics of an online course that is inclusive of all types of diversity, and what are the guiding principles for designing such courses? We will attempt to answer some of these questions by first exploring the concepts of culture and learning cultures. This will help us to characterize the impact on online learning of particular cultural dimensions. We will then present and discuss different online instructional design models that are culturally inclusive, and conclude with the description of a mediated instructional training module on the management of the cultural dimension of online teaching and learning. This module is mainly addressed to teachers and designers of online courses.

  11. Semantic modeling of portfolio assessment in e-learning environment

    Lucila Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In learning environment, portfolio is used as a tool to keep track of learner’s progress. Particularly, when it comes to e-learning, continuous assessment allows greater customization and efficiency in learning process and prevents students lost interest in their study. Also, each student has his own characteristics and learning skills that must be taken into account in order to keep learner`s interest. So, personalized monitoring is the key to guarantee the success of technology-based education. In this context, portfolio assessment emerge as the solution because is an easy way to allow teacher organize and personalize assessment according to students characteristic and need. A portfolio assessment can contain various types of assessment like formative assessment, summative assessment, hetero or self-assessment and use different instruments like multiple choice questions, conceptual maps, and essay among others. So, a portfolio assessment represents a compilation of all assessments must be solved by a student in a course, it documents progress and set targets. In previous work, it has been proposed a conceptual framework that consist of an ontology network named AOnet which is a semantic tool conceptualizing different types of assessments. Continuing that work, this paper presents a proposal to implement portfolios assessment in e-learning environments. The proposal consists of a semantic model that describes key components and relations of this domain to set the bases to develop a tool to generate, manage and perform portfolios assessment.

  12. Exascale Co-design for Modeling Materials in Extreme Environments

    Germann, Timothy C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-08

    Computational materials science has provided great insight into the response of materials under extreme conditions that are difficult to probe experimentally. For example, shock-induced plasticity and phase transformation processes in single-crystal and nanocrystalline metals have been widely studied via large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, and many of these predictions are beginning to be tested at advanced 4th generation light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). I will describe our simulation predictions and their recent verification at LCLS, outstanding challenges in modeling the response of materials to extreme mechanical and radiation environments, and our efforts to tackle these as part of the multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Environments (ExMatEx). ExMatEx has initiated an early and deep collaboration between domain (computational materials) scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and hardware architects, in order to establish the relationships between algorithms, software stacks, and architectures needed to enable exascale-ready materials science application codes within the next decade. We anticipate that we will be able to exploit hierarchical, heterogeneous architectures to achieve more realistic large-scale simulations with adaptive physics refinement, and are using tractable application scale-bridging proxy application testbeds to assess new approaches and requirements. Such current scale-bridging strategies accumulate (or recompute) a distributed response database from fine-scale calculations, in a top-down rather than bottom-up multiscale approach.

  13. Representing the environment 3.0. Maps, models, networks.

    Letizia Bollini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Web 3.0 is changing the world we live and perceive the environment anthropomorphized, making a stratifation of levels of experience and mediated by the devices. If the urban landscape is designed, shaped and planned space, there is a social landscape that overwrite the territory of values, representations shared images, narratives of personal and collective history. Mobile technology introduces an additional parameter, a kind of non-place, which allows the coexistence of the here and elsewhere in an sort of digital landscape. The maps, mental models, the system of social networks become, then, the way to present, represented and represent themselves in a kind of ideal coring of the co-presence of levels of physical, cognitive and collective space.

  14. Lattice models of directed and semiflexible polymers in anisotropic environment

    Haydukivska, K; Blavatska, V

    2015-01-01

    We study the conformational properties of polymers in presence of extended columnar defects of parallel orientation. Two classes of macromolecules are considered: the so-called partially directed polymers with preferred orientation along direction of the external stretching field and semiflexible polymers. We are working within the frames of lattice models: partially directed self-avoiding walks (PDSAWs) and biased self-avoiding walks (BSAWs). Our numerical analysis of PDSAWs reveals, that competition between the stretching field and anisotropy caused by presence of extended defects leads to existing of three characteristic length scales in the system. At each fixed concentration of disorder we found a transition point, where the influence of extended defects is exactly counterbalanced by the stretching field. Numerical simulations of BSAWs in anisotropic environment reveal an increase of polymer stiffness. In particular, the persistence length of semiflexible polymers increases in presence of disorder. (paper)

  15. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  16. Expanding the modeling capabilities of the cognitive environment simulation

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Pople, H.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been conducting a research program to develop more effective tools to model the cognitive activities that underlie intention formation during nuclear power plant (NPP) emergencies. Under this program an artificial intelligence (AI) computer simulation called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) has been developed. CES simulates the cognitive activities involved in responding to a NPP accident situation. It is intended to provide an analytic tool for predicting likely human responses, and the kinds of errors that can plausibly arise under different accident conditions to support human reliability analysis. Recently CES was extended to handle a class of interfacing loss of coolant accidents (ISLOCAs). This paper summarizes the results of these exercises and describes follow-on work currently underway

  17. Emerge - A Python environment for the modeling of subsurface transfers

    Lopez, S.; Smai, F.; Sochala, P.

    2014-12-01

    The simulation of subsurface mass and energy transfers often relies on specific codes that were mainly developed using compiled languages which usually ensure computational efficiency at the expense of relatively long development times and relatively rigid software. Even if a very detailed, possibly graphical, user-interface is developed the core numerical aspects are rarely accessible and the smallest modification will always need a compilation step. Thus, user-defined physical laws or alternative numerical schemes may be relatively difficult to use. Over the last decade, Python has emerged as a popular and widely used language in the scientific community. There already exist several libraries for the pre and post-treatment of input and output files for reservoir simulators (e.g. pytough). Development times in Python are considerably reduced compared to compiled languages, and programs can be easily interfaced with libraries written in compiled languages with several comprehensive numerical libraries that provide sequential and parallel solvers (e.g. PETSc, Trilinos…). The core objective of the Emerge project is to explore the possibility to develop a modeling environment in full Python. Consequently, we are developing an open python package with the classes/objects necessary to express, discretize and solve the physical problems encountered in the modeling of subsurface transfers. We heavily relied on Python to have a convenient and concise way of manipulating potentially complex concepts with a few lines of code and a high level of abstraction. Our result aims to be a friendly numerical environment targeting both numerical engineers and physicist or geoscientists with the possibility to quickly specify and handle geometries, arbitrary meshes, spatially or temporally varying properties, PDE formulations, boundary conditions…

  18. 40 CFR 86.202-94 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 86.202-94 Section 86.202-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty...

  19. Defining epidemics in computer simulation models: How do definitions influence conclusions?

    Carolyn Orbann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer models have proven to be useful tools in studying epidemic disease in human populations. Such models are being used by a broader base of researchers, and it has become more important to ensure that descriptions of model construction and data analyses are clear and communicate important features of model structure. Papers describing computer models of infectious disease often lack a clear description of how the data are aggregated and whether or not non-epidemic runs are excluded from analyses. Given that there is no concrete quantitative definition of what constitutes an epidemic within the public health literature, each modeler must decide on a strategy for identifying epidemics during simulation runs. Here, an SEIR model was used to test the effects of how varying the cutoff for considering a run an epidemic changes potential interpretations of simulation outcomes. Varying the cutoff from 0% to 15% of the model population ever infected with the illness generated significant differences in numbers of dead and timing variables. These results are important for those who use models to form public health policy, in which questions of timing or implementation of interventions might be answered using findings from computer simulation models.

  20. Draft Common Frame of Reference. Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law

    AA.VV; IUDICA G.

    2009-01-01

    European private law in principles, definitions and model rules. The volumes contain the results of the work of the Study Group on a European Civil Code (the “Study Group”) and the Research Group on Existing EC Private Law (the “Acquis Group”). The former Commission on European Contract Law (the “Lando Commission”) provided the basis for much of Books II and III; it was on their Principles of European Contract Law (PECL)1 that the Study Group and the Acquis Group built. The Acquis Group ...

  1. A hierarchical modeling methodology for the definition and selection of requirements

    Dufresne, Stephane

    This dissertation describes the development of a requirements analysis methodology that takes into account the concept of operations and the hierarchical decomposition of aerospace systems. At the core of the methodology, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) is used to ensure the traceability between the qualitative and quantitative information present in the hierarchical model. The proposed methodology is implemented to the requirements definition of a hurricane tracker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Three research objectives are identified in this work; (1) improve the requirements mapping process by matching the stakeholder expectations with the concept of operations, systems and available resources; (2) reduce the epistemic uncertainty surrounding the requirements and requirements mapping; and (3) improve the requirements down-selection process by taking into account the level of importance of the criteria and the available resources. Several challenges are associated with the identification and definition of requirements. The complexity of the system implies that a large number of requirements are needed to define the systems. These requirements are defined early in the conceptual design, where the level of knowledge is relatively low and the level of uncertainty is large. The proposed methodology intends to increase the level of knowledge and reduce the level of uncertainty by guiding the design team through a structured process. To address these challenges, a new methodology is created to flow-down the requirements from the stakeholder expectations to the systems alternatives. A taxonomy of requirements is created to classify the information gathered during the problem definition. Subsequently, the operational and systems functions and measures of effectiveness are integrated to a hierarchical model to allow the traceability of the information. Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the variations of the hierarchical model elements and consequently reduce the

  2. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  3. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  4. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Novel Threshold Voltage Definition for Nano-MOSFET

    Yashu Swami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Threshold voltage (VTH is the indispensable vital parameter in MOSFET designing, modeling, and operation. Diverse expounds and extraction methods exist to model the on-off transition characteristics of the device. The governing gauge for efficient threshold voltage definition and extraction method can be itemized as clarity, simplicity, precision, and stability throughout the operating conditions and technology node. The outcomes of extraction methods diverge from the exact values due to various short-channel effects (SCEs and nonidealities present in the device. A new approach to define and extract the real value of VTH of MOSFET is proposed in the manuscript. The subsequent novel enhanced SCE-independent VTH extraction method named “hybrid extrapolation VTH extraction method” (HEEM is elaborated, modeled, and compared with few prevalent MOSFET threshold voltage extraction methods for validation of the results. All the results are verified by extensive 2D TCAD simulation and confirmed analytically at various technology nodes.

  5. Curriculum as Environments for Learning: A Practicel Meaning and Model.

    Sinclair, Robert L.; Ghory, Ward J.

    Effective curriculum development and implementation may be achieved by considering the multidimensional nature of the term "curriculum." A definition of curriculum should be considered in terms of its expressed, implied, and emergent dimensions. The expressed dimension is the written statement of learning objectives, sequence of contents, learning…

  6. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye

    2006-05-01

    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  8. Exploratory analysis regarding the domain definitions for computer based analytical models

    Raicu, A.; Oanta, E.; Barhalescu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Our previous computer based studies dedicated to structural problems using analytical methods defined the composite cross section of a beam as a result of Boolean operations with so-called ‘simple’ shapes. Using generalisations, in the class of the ‘simple’ shapes were included areas bounded by curves approximated using spline functions and areas approximated as polygons. However, particular definitions lead to particular solutions. In order to ascend above the actual limitations, we conceived a general definition of the cross sections that are considered now calculus domains consisting of several subdomains. The according set of input data use complex parameterizations. This new vision allows us to naturally assign a general number of attributes to the subdomains. In this way there may be modelled new phenomena that use map-wise information, such as the metal alloys equilibrium diagrams. The hierarchy of the input data text files that use the comma-separated-value format and their structure are also presented and discussed in the paper. This new approach allows us to reuse the concepts and part of the data processing software instruments already developed. The according software to be subsequently developed will be modularised and generalised in order to be used in the upcoming projects that require rapid development of computer based models.

  9. A conceptual definition of vocational rehabilitation based on the ICF: building a shared global model.

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2011-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational rehabilitation (VR) based on the ICF. We presented the ICF as a model for application in VR and the rationale for the integration of the ICF. We also briefly reviewed other work disability models. Five essential elements of foci were found towards a conceptual definition of VR: an engagement or re-engagement to work, along a work continuum, involved health conditions or events leading to work disability, patient-centered and evidence-based, and is multi-professional or multidisciplinary. VR refers to a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. We propose that the ICF and VR interface be explored further using empirical and qualitative works and encouraging stakeholders' participation.

  10. Definition and construction of a first database for assessing the impacts on health and the environment of different strategies for the back end of the fuel cycle

    Muller, O.; Ouzounian, G.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle assessment framework has been applied to the management of used fuel cycle to determine a general methodology to study the impacts on health and the environment of the back end of the fuel cycle. System definition starts with a definite waste fuel composition and covers all the industrial steps until all elements of the waste are stored. It is recommended to use electricity generation as a functional unit especially for comparing different strategies. In this case, as some parts of the nuclear waste may be recycled to produce electricity, systems have to be expanded to cover both front and back ends of the fuel cycle. A first bibliographical database covering different stages of the nuclear cycle has been constructed and stored with the standard Ecobilan format developed for environmental analysis and management. Data collection includes all steps from mining extraction to ultimate disposal. Together with the constitution of this database several typical strategies for PWR fuels have been assessed. A first list of criteria has been chosen to best represent the impacts of each strategy on both human health of population and workers and the environment. Data gathered for each step are ready to be reused for designing and assessing simulations on alternative nuclear cycles. (author)

  11. Linking definitions, mechanisms, and modeling of drought-induced tree death.

    Anderegg, William R L; Berry, Joseph A; Field, Christopher B

    2012-12-01

    Tree death from drought and heat stress is a critical and uncertain component in forest ecosystem responses to a changing climate. Recent research has illuminated how tree mortality is a complex cascade of changes involving interconnected plant systems over multiple timescales. Explicit consideration of the definitions, dynamics, and temporal and biological scales of tree mortality research can guide experimental and modeling approaches. In this review, we draw on the medical literature concerning human death to propose a water resource-based approach to tree mortality that considers the tree as a complex organism with a distinct growth strategy. This approach provides insight into mortality mechanisms at the tree and landscape scales and presents promising avenues into modeling tree death from drought and temperature stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. eTOXlab, an open source modeling framework for implementing predictive models in production environments.

    Carrió, Pau; López, Oriol; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Computational models based in Quantitative-Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) methodologies are widely used tools for predicting the biological properties of new compounds. In many instances, such models are used as a routine in the industry (e.g. food, cosmetic or pharmaceutical industry) for the early assessment of the biological properties of new compounds. However, most of the tools currently available for developing QSAR models are not well suited for supporting the whole QSAR model life cycle in production environments. We have developed eTOXlab; an open source modeling framework designed to be used at the core of a self-contained virtual machine that can be easily deployed in production environments, providing predictions as web services. eTOXlab consists on a collection of object-oriented Python modules with methods mapping common tasks of standard modeling workflows. This framework allows building and validating QSAR models as well as predicting the properties of new compounds using either a command line interface or a graphic user interface (GUI). Simple models can be easily generated by setting a few parameters, while more complex models can be implemented by overriding pieces of the original source code. eTOXlab benefits from the object-oriented capabilities of Python for providing high flexibility: any model implemented using eTOXlab inherits the features implemented in the parent model, like common tools and services or the automatic exposure of the models as prediction web services. The particular eTOXlab architecture as a self-contained, portable prediction engine allows building models with confidential information within corporate facilities, which can be safely exported and used for prediction without disclosing the structures of the training series. The software presented here provides full support to the specific needs of users that want to develop, use and maintain predictive models in corporate environments. The technologies used by e

  13. Handling Emergency Management in [an] Object Oriented Modeling Environment

    Tokgoz, Berna Eren; Cakir, Volkan; Gheorghe, Adrian V.

    2010-01-01

    It has been understood that protection of a nation from extreme disasters is a challenging task. Impacts of extreme disasters on a nation's critical infrastructures, economy and society could be devastating. A protection plan itself would not be sufficient when a disaster strikes. Hence, there is a need for a holistic approach to establish more resilient infrastructures to withstand extreme disasters. A resilient infrastructure can be defined as a system or facility that is able to withstand damage, but if affected, can be readily and cost-effectively restored. The key issue to establish resilient infrastructures is to incorporate existing protection plans with comprehensive preparedness actions to respond, recover and restore as quickly as possible, and to minimize extreme disaster impacts. Although national organizations will respond to a disaster, extreme disasters need to be handled mostly by local emergency management departments. Since emergency management departments have to deal with complex systems, they have to have a manageable plan and efficient organizational structures to coordinate all these systems. A strong organizational structure is the key in responding fast before and during disasters, and recovering quickly after disasters. In this study, the entire emergency management is viewed as an enterprise and modelled through enterprise management approach. Managing an enterprise or a large complex system is a very challenging task. It is critical for an enterprise to respond to challenges in a timely manner with quick decision making. This study addresses the problem of handling emergency management at regional level in an object oriented modelling environment developed by use of TopEase software. Emergency Operation Plan of the City of Hampton, Virginia, has been incorporated into TopEase for analysis. The methodology used in this study has been supported by a case study on critical infrastructure resiliency in Hampton Roads.

  14. Energy and environment efficiency analysis based on an improved environment DEA cross-model: Case study of complex chemical processes

    Geng, ZhiQiang; Dong, JunGen; Han, YongMing; Zhu, QunXiong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved environment DEA cross-model method is proposed. •Energy and environment efficiency analysis framework of complex chemical processes is obtained. •This proposed method is efficient in energy-saving and emission reduction of complex chemical processes. -- Abstract: The complex chemical process is a high pollution and high energy consumption industrial process. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the energy and environment efficiency of the complex chemical process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of decision-making units (DMUs). However, the traditional DEA method usually cannot genuinely distinguish the effective and inefficient DMU due to its extreme or unreasonable weight distribution of input and output variables. Therefore, this paper proposes an energy and environment efficiency analysis method based on an improved environment DEA cross-model (DEACM) method. The inputs of the complex chemical process are divided into energy and non-energy inputs. Meanwhile, the outputs are divided into desirable and undesirable outputs. And then the energy and environment performance index (EEPI) based on the cross evaluation is used to represent the overall performance of each DMU. Moreover, the improvement direction of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of each inefficiency DMU is quantitatively obtained based on the self-evaluation model of the improved environment DEACM. The results show that the improved environment DEACM method has a better effective discrimination than the original DEA method by analyzing the energy and environment efficiency of the ethylene production process in complex chemical processes, and it can obtain the potential of energy-saving and carbon emission reduction of ethylene plants, especially the improvement direction of inefficient DMUs to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission.

  15. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will provide NASA with an integrated visualization environment providing greater insight and a more intuitive representation of large technical...

  16. Modeling of SCC initiation and propagation mechanisms in BWR environments

    Hoffmeister, Hans, E-mail: Hans.Hoffmeister@hsu-hh.de [Institute for Failure Analysis and Failure Prevention ISSV e.V., c/o Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces, D-22039 Hamburg (Germany); Klein, Oliver [Institute for Failure Analysis and Failure Prevention ISSV e.V., c/o Helmut Schmidt University of the Federal Armed Forces, D-22039 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that SSC in BWR environments includes anodic crack propagation and hydrogen assisted cracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen cracking is triggered by crack tip acidification following local impurity accumulations and subsequent phase precipitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculate effects of pH, chlorides, potentials and stress on crack SCC growth rates at 288 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: During operation of mainly BWRs' (Boiling Water Reactors) excursions from recommended water chemistries may provide favorite conditions for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Maximum levels for chloride and sulfate ion contents for avoiding local corrosion are therefore given in respective water specifications. In a previously published deterministic 288 Degree-Sign C - corrosion model for Nickel as a main alloying element of BWR components it was demonstrated that, as a theoretically worst case, bulk water chloride levels as low as 30 ppb provide local chloride ion accumulation, dissolution of passivating nickel oxide and precipitation of nickel chlorides followed by subsequent local acidification. In an extension of the above model to SCC the following work shows that, in a first step, local anodic path corrosion with subsequent oxide breakdown, chloride salt formation and acidification at 288 Degree-Sign C would establish local cathodic reduction of accumulated hydrogen ions inside the crack tip fluid. In a second step, local hydrogen reduction charges and increasing local crack tip strains from increasing crack lengths at given global stresses are time stepwise calculated and related to experimentally determined crack critical cathodic hydrogen charges and fracture strains taken from small scale SSRT tensile tests pieces. As a result, at local hydrogen equilibrium potentials higher than those of nickel in the crack tip solution, hydrogen ion reduction initiates hydrogen crack propagation that is enhanced with

  17. Micro worlds versus boundary objects in group model building; evidence from the literature on problem definition and model conceptulization

    Zagonel, Aldo A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Engineering & Analysis; Andersen, David F. [University in Albany, NY (United States). The Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy

    2007-03-01

    Based upon participant observation in group model building and content analysis of the system dynamics literature, we postulate that modeling efforts have a dual nature. On one hand, the modeling process aims to create a useful representation of a real-world system. This must be done, however, while aligning the clients’ mental models around a shared view of the system. There is significant overlap and confusion between these two goals and how they play out on a practical level. This research clarifies these distinctions by establishing an ideal-type dichotomy. To highlight the differences, we created two straw men: “micro world” characterizes a model that represents reality and “boundary object” represents a socially negotiated model. Using this framework, the literature was examined, revealing evidence for several competing views on problem definition and model conceptualization. The results are summarized in the text of this article, substantiated with strikingly polarized citations, often from the same authors. We also introduce hypotheses for the duality across the remaining phases of the modeling process. Finally, understanding and appreciation of the differences between these ideal types can promote constructive debate on their balance in system dynamics theory and practice.

  18. Scope Definition

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    The scope definition is the second phase of an LCA. It determines what product systems are to be assessed and how this assessment should take place. This chapter teaches how to perform a scope definition. First, important terminology and key concepts of LCA are introduced. Then, the nine items...... making up a scope definition are elaborately explained: (1) Deliverables. (2) Object of assessment, (3) LCI modelling framework and handling of multifunctional processes, (4) System boundaries and completeness requirements, (5) Representativeness of LCI data, (6) Preparing the basis for the impact...... assessment, (7) Special requirements for system comparisons, (8) Critical review needs and (9) Planning reporting of results. The instructions relate both to the performance and reporting of a scope definition and are largely based on ILCD....

  19. The modified turning bands (MTB) model for space-time rainfall. I. Model definition and properties

    Mellor, Dale

    1996-02-01

    A new stochastic model of space-time rainfall, the Modified Turning Bands (MTB) model, is proposed which reproduces, in particular, the movements and developments of rainbands, cluster potential regions and raincells, as well as their respective interactions. The ensemble correlation structure is unsuitable for practical estimation of the model parameters because the model is not ergodic in this statistic, and hence it cannot easily be measured from a single real storm. Thus, some general theory on the internal covariance structure of a class of stochastic models is presented, of which the MTB model is an example. It is noted that, for the MTB model, the internal covariance structure may be measured from a single storm, and can thus be used for model identification.

  20. Environment

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  1. A room acoustical computer model for industrial environments - the model and its verification

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Foged, Hans Torben

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to the traditional room acoustic modelling methods allowing computer modelling of huge machinery in industrial spaces. The program in question is Odeon 3.0 Industrial and Odeon 3.0 Combined which allows the modelling of point sources, surface sources and line...... of an omnidirectional sound source and a microphone. This allows the comparison of simulated results with the ones measured in real rooms. However when simulating the acoustic environment in industrial rooms, the sound sources are often far from being point like, as they can be distributed over a large space...

  2. High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments: Applications and Coupling of Participating Models

    Allard, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The High Fidelity Simulation of Littoral Environments (HFSoLE) Challenge Project (C75) encompasses a suite of seven oceanographic models capable of exchanging information in a physically meaningful sense across the littoral environment...

  3. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  4. Transport spatial model for the definition of green routes for city logistics centers

    Pamučar, Dragan; Gigović, Ljubomir; Ćirović, Goran; Regodić, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a transport spatial decision support model (TSDSM) for carrying out the optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. The TSDSM model is based on the integration of the multi-criteria method of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and the modified Dijkstra algorithm within a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS is used for processing spatial data. The proposed model makes it possible to plan routes for green vehicles and maximize the positive effects on the environment, which can be seen in the reduction of harmful gas emissions and an increase in the air quality in highly populated areas. The scheduling of delivery vehicles is given as a problem of optimization in terms of the parameters of: the environment, health, use of space and logistics operating costs. Each of these input parameters was thoroughly examined and broken down in the GIS into criteria which further describe them. The model presented here takes into account the fact that logistics operators have a limited number of environmentally friendly (green) vehicles available. The TSDSM was tested on a network of roads with 127 links for the delivery of goods from the city logistics center to the user. The model supports any number of available environmentally friendly or environmentally unfriendly vehicles consistent with the size of the network and the transportation requirements. - Highlights: • Model for routing light delivery vehicles in urban areas. • Optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. • The proposed model maximizes the positive effects on the environment. • The model was tested on a real network.

  5. Transport spatial model for the definition of green routes for city logistics centers

    Pamučar, Dragan, E-mail: dpamucar@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Logistics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Gigović, Ljubomir, E-mail: gigoviclj@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Mathematics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Ćirović, Goran, E-mail: cirovic@sezampro.rs [College of Civil Engineering and Geodesy, The Belgrade University, Hajduk Stankova 2, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Regodić, Miodrag, E-mail: mregodic62@gmail.com [University of Defence in Belgrade, Department of Mathematics, Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents a transport spatial decision support model (TSDSM) for carrying out the optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. The TSDSM model is based on the integration of the multi-criteria method of Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) and the modified Dijkstra algorithm within a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS is used for processing spatial data. The proposed model makes it possible to plan routes for green vehicles and maximize the positive effects on the environment, which can be seen in the reduction of harmful gas emissions and an increase in the air quality in highly populated areas. The scheduling of delivery vehicles is given as a problem of optimization in terms of the parameters of: the environment, health, use of space and logistics operating costs. Each of these input parameters was thoroughly examined and broken down in the GIS into criteria which further describe them. The model presented here takes into account the fact that logistics operators have a limited number of environmentally friendly (green) vehicles available. The TSDSM was tested on a network of roads with 127 links for the delivery of goods from the city logistics center to the user. The model supports any number of available environmentally friendly or environmentally unfriendly vehicles consistent with the size of the network and the transportation requirements. - Highlights: • Model for routing light delivery vehicles in urban areas. • Optimization of green routes for city logistics centers. • The proposed model maximizes the positive effects on the environment. • The model was tested on a real network.

  6. Process and building information modelling in the construction industry by using information delivery manuals and model view definitions

    Karlshøj, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry is gradually increasing its use of structured information and building information modelling.To date, the industry has suffered from the disadvantages of a project-based organizational structure and ad hoc solutions. Furthermore, it is not used to formalizing the flow...... of information and specifying exactly which objects and properties are needed for each process and which information is produced by the processes. The present study is based on reviewing the existing methodology of Information Delivery Manuals (IDM) from Buildingsmart, which also is also an ISO standard 29481...... Part 1; and the Model View Definition (MVD) methodology developed by Buildingsmart and BLIS. The research also includes a review of concrete IDM development projects that have been developed over the last five years. Although the study has identified interest in the IDM methodology in a number...

  7. Cultural competence in end-of-life care: terms, definitions, and conceptual models from the British literature.

    Evans, Natalie; Meñaca, Arantza; Koffman, Jonathan; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J; Pool, Robert; Gysels, Marjolein

    2012-07-01

    Cultural competency is increasingly recommended in policy and practice to improve end-of-life (EoL) care for minority ethnic groups in multicultural societies. It is imperative to critically analyze this approach to understand its underlying concepts. Our aim was to appraise cultural competency approaches described in the British literature on EoL care and minority ethnic groups. This is a critical review. Articles on cultural competency were identified from a systematic review of the literature on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the United Kingdom. Terms, definitions, and conceptual models of cultural competency approaches were identified and situated according to purpose, components, and origin. Content analysis of definitions and models was carried out to identify key components. One-hundred thirteen articles on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the United Kingdom were identified. Over half (n=60) contained a term, definition, or model for cultural competency. In all, 17 terms, 17 definitions, and 8 models were identified. The most frequently used term was "culturally sensitive," though "cultural competence" was defined more often. Definitions contained one or more of the components: "cognitive," "implementation," or "outcome." Models were categorized for teaching or use in patient assessment. Approaches were predominantly of American origin. The variety of terms, definitions, and models underpinning cultural competency approaches demonstrates a lack of conceptual clarity, and potentially complicates implementation. Further research is needed to compare the use of cultural competency approaches in diverse cultures and settings, and to assess the impact of such approaches on patient outcomes.

  8. Psychoacoustic and cognitive aspects of auditory roughness: definitions, models, and applications

    Vassilakis, Pantelis N.; Kendall, Roger A.

    2010-02-01

    The term "auditory roughness" was first introduced in the 19th century to describe the buzzing, rattling auditory sensation accompanying narrow harmonic intervals (i.e. two tones with frequency difference in the range of ~15-150Hz, presented simultaneously). A broader definition and an overview of the psychoacoustic correlates of the auditory roughness sensation, also referred to as sensory dissonance, is followed by an examination of efforts to quantify it over the past one hundred and fifty years and leads to the introduction of a new roughness calculation model and an application that automates spectral and roughness analysis of sound signals. Implementation of spectral and roughness analysis is briefly discussed in the context of two pilot perceptual experiments, designed to assess the relationship among cultural background, music performance practice, and aesthetic attitudes towards the auditory roughness sensation.

  9. Model of observed stochastic balance between work and free time supporting the LQTAI definition

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2008-01-01

    A balance differential equation between free time and money-producing work time on the national economy level is formulated in a previous paper in terms of two dimensionless quantities, the fraction of work time and the total productivity factor defined as the ratio of the Gross Domestic Product...... significant systematically balance influencing parameters on the macro economical level than those considered in the definition in the previous paper of the Life Quality Time Allocation Index....... to the total salary paid in return for work. Among the solutions there is one relation that compares surprisingly well with the relevant sequences of Danish data spanning from 1948 to 2003, and also with similar data from several other countries except for slightly different model parameter values. Statistical...

  10. Modeling Dynamic Perceptual Attention in Complex Virtual Environments

    Kim, Youngjun; van Velsen, Martin; Hill, Jr, Randall W

    2005-01-01

    An important characteristic of a virtual human is the ability to direct its perceptual attention to entities and areas in a virtual environment in a manner that appears believable and serves a functional purpose...

  11. Modeling an Improvised Nuclear Device in an Urban Environment

    Viar, William

    2002-01-01

    .... This thesis had four objectives. The first objective reviewed the four blast effects: blast wave, thermal radiation, ionizing radiation, and electromagnetic pulse as they apply to low yield weapons in an urban environment...

  12. Towards a Development Environment for Model Based Test Design

    Jing, Han

    2008-01-01

    Within the UP IP I&V organization there is high focus on increasing the ability to predict product quality in a cost efficient way. Test automation has therefore been an important enabler for us. The IP test design environment is continuously evolving and the investigations will show which improvements that is most important to implement in short and long term. In Ericsson UP IP I&V, the test automation framework environments are severed to complete some process by automated method, f...

  13. A Neural Network Model to Learn Multiple Tasks under Dynamic Environments

    Tsumori, Kenji; Ozawa, Seiichi

    When environments are dynamically changed for agents, the knowledge acquired in an environment might be useless in future. In such dynamic environments, agents should be able to not only acquire new knowledge but also modify old knowledge in learning. However, modifying all knowledge acquired before is not efficient because the knowledge once acquired may be useful again when similar environment reappears and some knowledge can be shared among different environments. To learn efficiently in such environments, we propose a neural network model that consists of the following modules: resource allocating network, long-term & short-term memory, and environment change detector. We evaluate the model under a class of dynamic environments where multiple function approximation tasks are sequentially given. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses stable incremental learning, accurate environmental change detection, proper association and recall of old knowledge, and efficient knowledge transfer.

  14. Model for measuring complex performance in an aviation environment

    Hahn, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to identify models of pilot performance through the attainment and analysis of concurrent verbal protocols. Sixteen models were identified. Novice and expert pilots differed with respect to the models they used. Models were correlated to performance, particularly in the case of expert subjects. Models were not correlated to performance shaping factors (i.e. workload). 3 refs., 1 tab

  15. Modeling the C. elegans nematode and its environment using a particle system.

    Rönkkö, Mauno; Wong, Garry

    2008-07-21

    A particle system, as understood in computer science, is a novel technique for modeling living organisms in their environment. Such particle systems have traditionally been used for modeling the complex dynamics of fluids and gases. In the present study, a particle system was devised to model the movement and feeding behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in three different virtual environments: gel, liquid, and soil. The results demonstrate that distinct movements of the nematode can be attributed to its mechanical interactions with the virtual environment. These results also revealed emergent properties associated with modeling organisms within environment-based systems.

  16. INTUITEL and the Hypercube Model - Developing Adaptive Learning Environments

    Kevin Fuchs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce an approach for the creation of adaptive learning environments that give human-like recommendations to a learner in the form of a virtual tutor. We use ontologies defining pedagogical, didactic and learner-specific data describing a learner's progress, learning history, capabilities and the learner's current state within the learning environment. Learning recommendations are based on a reasoning process on these ontologies and can be provided in real-time. The ontologies may describe learning content from any domain of knowledge. Furthermore, we describe an approach to store learning histories as spatio-temporal trajectories and to correlate them with influencing didactic factors. We show how such analysis of spatiotemporal data can be used for learning analytics to improve future adaptive learning environments.

  17. Distinguishing Environment and System in Coloured Petri Net Models of Reactive Systems

    Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and formally defines the environment-and-system-partitioned property for behavioral models of reactive systems expressed in the formal modeling language Coloured Petri Net. The purpose of the formalization is to make it possible to automatically validate any CPN model...... with respect to this property based on structural analysis. A model has the environment-and-system-partitioned property if it is based on a clear division between environment and system. This division is important in many model-driven approaches to software development such as model-based testing and automated...

  18. An u-Service Model Based on a Smart Phone for Urban Computing Environments

    Cho, Yongyun; Yoe, Hyun

    In urban computing environments, all of services should be based on the interaction between humans and environments around them, which frequently and ordinarily in home and office. This paper propose an u-service model based on a smart phone for urban computing environments. The suggested service model includes a context-aware and personalized service scenario development environment that can instantly describe user's u-service demand or situation information with smart devices. To do this, the architecture of the suggested service model consists of a graphical service editing environment for smart devices, an u-service platform, and an infrastructure with sensors and WSN/USN. The graphic editor expresses contexts as execution conditions of a new service through a context model based on ontology. The service platform deals with the service scenario according to contexts. With the suggested service model, an user in urban computing environments can quickly and easily make u-service or new service using smart devices.

  19. NRPB models for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Verification and validation

    Attwood, C.; Barraclough, I.; Brown, J.

    1998-06-01

    There is a wide range of models available at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Such models form an essential part of assessments of the radiological impact of releases of radionuclides into the environment. These models cover: the atmosphere; the aquatic environment; the geosphere; the terrestrial environment including foodchains. It is important that the models used for radiological impact assessments are robust, reliable and suitable for the assessment being undertaken. During model development it is, therefore, important that the model is both verified and validated. Verification of a model involves ensuring that it has been implemented correctly, while validation consists of demonstrating that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. The extent to which a model can be verified depends on its complexity and whether similar models exist. For relatively simple models verification is straightforward, but for more complex models verification has to form part of the development, coding and testing of the model within quality assurance procedures. Validation of models should ideally consist of comparisons between the results of the models and experimental or environmental measurement data that were not used to develop the model. This is more straightforward for some models than for others depending on the quantity and type of data available. Validation becomes increasingly difficult for models which are intended to predict environmental transfer at long times or at great distances. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt qualitative validation techniques to ensure that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. This report summarises the models used at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment as part of a radiological impact assessment. It outlines the work carried out to verify and validate the models. The majority of these models are not currently available

  20. Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology. Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for Acoustical Analyses using the 3-D Finite-Difference Time-Domain Program PSTOP3D

    2015-08-01

    ER D C TR -1 5- 5 Remote Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1...ERDC TR-15-5 August 2015 Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology Report 1: Modeling an Urban Environment for Acoustical Analyses...Figure 5.1. Main spreadsheet containing problem setup. ..................................................................... 74 Figure 5.2. Definition

  1. Impact Modelling for Circular Economy: Geodesign Discussion Support Environment

    Šileryte, R.; Wandl, A.; van Timmeren, A.; Bregt, Arnold; Sarjakoski, Tapani; van Lammeren, Ron; Rip, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Transitioning towards circular economy requires changes in the current system which yield a number of impacts on such fundamental values as human health, natural environment, exhaustible resources, social well-being and prosperity. Moreover, this process involves multiple actors and requires careful

  2. An Ecohydrologic Model for a Shallow Groundwater Urban Environment

    The urban environment is a patchwork of natural and artificial surfaces that results in complex interactions with and impacts to natural hydrologic cycles. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major hydrologic flow that is often altered from urbanization, though the mechanisms of change ...

  3. Modeling of non-additive mixture properties using the Online CHEmical database and Modeling environment (OCHEM

    Oprisiu Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu is a web-based platform that provides tools for automation of typical steps necessary to create a predictive QSAR/QSPR model. The platform consists of two major subsystems: a database of experimental measurements and a modeling framework. So far, OCHEM has been limited to the processing of individual compounds. In this work, we extended OCHEM with a new ability to store and model properties of binary non-additive mixtures. The developed system is publicly accessible, meaning that any user on the Web can store new data for binary mixtures and develop models to predict their non-additive properties. The database already contains almost 10,000 data points for the density, bubble point, and azeotropic behavior of binary mixtures. For these data, we developed models for both qualitative (azeotrope/zeotrope and quantitative endpoints (density and bubble points using different learning methods and specially developed descriptors for mixtures. The prediction performance of the models was similar to or more accurate than results reported in previous studies. Thus, we have developed and made publicly available a powerful system for modeling mixtures of chemical compounds on the Web.

  4. Geospace environment modeling 2008--2009 challenge: Dst index

    Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.M.; Glocer, A.; Welling, D.; Meng, X.; Raeder, J.; Wittberger, M.; Jordanova, V.K.; Yu, Y.; Zaharia, S.; Weigel, R.S.; Sazykin, S.; Boynton, R.; Wei, H.; Eccles, V.; Horton, W.; Mays, M.L.; Gannon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the metrics-based results of the Dst index part of the 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge. The 2008–2009 GEM Metrics Challenge asked modelers to submit results for four geomagnetic storm events and five different types of observations that can be modeled by statistical, climatological or physics-based models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We present the results of 30 model settings that were run at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center and at the institutions of various modelers for these events. To measure the performance of each of the models against the observations, we use comparisons of 1 hour averaged model data with the Dst index issued by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto, Japan, and direct comparison of 1 minute model data with the 1 minute Dst index calculated by the United States Geological Survey. The latter index can be used to calculate spectral variability of model outputs in comparison to the index. We find that model rankings vary widely by skill score used. None of the models consistently perform best for all events. We find that empirical models perform well in general. Magnetohydrodynamics-based models of the global magnetosphere with inner magnetosphere physics (ring current model) included and stand-alone ring current models with properly defined boundary conditions perform well and are able to match or surpass results from empirical models. Unlike in similar studies, the statistical models used in this study found their challenge in the weakest events rather than the strongest events.

  5. A Gaussian mixture model for definition of lung tumor volumes in positron emission tomography

    Aristophanous, Michalis; Penney, Bill C.; Martel, Mary K.; Pelizzari, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The increased interest in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in radiation treatment planning in the past five years necessitated the independent and accurate segmentation of gross tumor volume (GTV) from FDG-PET scans. In some studies the radiation oncologist contours the GTV based on a computed tomography scan, while incorporating pertinent data from the PET images. Alternatively, a simple threshold, typically 40% of the maximum intensity, has been employed to differentiate tumor from normal tissue, while other researchers have developed algorithms to aid the PET based GTV definition. None of these methods, however, results in reliable PET tumor segmentation that can be used for more sophisticated treatment plans. For this reason, we developed a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based segmentation technique on selected PET tumor regions from non-small cell lung cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a GMM-based tumor volume definition in a robust, reliable and reproducible way. A GMM relies on the idea that any distribution, in our case a distribution of image intensities, can be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian densities representing different classes. According to our implementation, each class belongs to one of three regions in the image; the background (B), the uncertain (U) and the target (T), and from these regions we can obtain the tumor volume. User interaction in the implementation is required, but is limited to the initialization of the model parameters and the selection of an ''analysis region'' to which the modeling is restricted. The segmentation was developed on three and tested on another four clinical cases to ensure robustness against differences observed in the clinic. It also compared favorably with thresholding at 40% of the maximum intensity and a threshold determination function based on tumor to background image intensities proposed in a recent paper. The parts of the

  6. Work Environment Dialogue in a Swedish Municipality — Strengths and Limits of the Nordic Work Environment Model

    Kaj Frick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic work environment model, health risks at work are mainly to be managed in cooperation with the employees and their representatives. The model is based on strong trade unions and is supported by the state through participatory rights and funding to produce and disseminate knowledge on risks and solutions. The model is evident in the large Swedish municipal sector with its strong unions and extensive social dialogue. However, municipal employees also face widespread risks, mainly from mental and physical overload. They led the costly wave of rising sickness absence from the late 1990s. Municipal (and other employers therefore attempt to reduce the absence. The rural municipality of Leksand started a project Hälsosam with the broad objectives to half the absence, implement a national agreement on better dialogue, make Leksand an attractive employer, and improve employee influence and work environment. The article’s objective is to use Hälsosam’s intervention project to explore the limits of what the Nordic work environment model can achieve against risks rooted in the employers’ prerogative of organizing, resourcing, and managing the operations that create the conditions at work. Hälsosam’s practice focused on sickness absence and the forms of the new national agreement. The absence was halved by reducing cases of long-term sickness. There was also workplace health promotion and the safety reps were supported through regular meetings. However, little was done to the extensive mental and physical overload revealed in a survey. Nor was the mandatory work environment management improved, as was ordered by the municipal council. This remained delegated to first-line managers who had a limited ability to handle work risks. This limited practice implemented Leksand’s political priority to reduce the absenteeism, while other objectives had less political support. The difficulties to improve the work environment and its management

  7. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  8. Assessing harmonic current source modelling and power definitions in balanced and unbalanced networks

    Atkinson-Hope, Gary; Stemmet, W.C. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town Campus, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the DlgSILENT PowerFactory software power definitions (indices) in terms of phase and sequence components for balanced and unbalanced networks when harmonic distortion is present and to compare its results to hand calculations done, following recommendation made by the IEEE Working Group on this topic. This paper also includes the development of a flowchart for calculating power indices in balanced and unbalanced three-phase networks when non-sinusoidal voltages and currents are present. A further purpose is to determine how two industrial grade harmonic analysis software packages (DlgSILENT and ERACS) model three-phase harmonic sources used for current penetration studies and to compare their results when applied to a network. From the investigations, another objective was to develop a methodology for modelling harmonic current sources based on a spectrum obtained from measurements. Three case studies were conducted and the assessment and developed methodologies were shown to be effective. (Author)

  9. Performance-oriented Architecture and the Spatial and Material Organisation Complex. Rethinking the Definition, Role and Performative Capacity of the Spatial and Material Boundaries of the Built Environment

    Michael Ulrich Hensel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the proposition that performance-oriented design is characterised by four domains of ‘active agency’: the human subject, the spatial and material organisation complex and the environment (Hensel, 2010. While these four domains are seen to be interdependent and interacting with one another, it is nevertheless necessary to examine each in its own right. However, the spatial and material organisation complex contains both the spatial and material domains, which are interdependent to such a degree that these need to be examined in relation to one another and also in relation to the specific environment they are set within and interacting with. To explore this combined domain within the context of performance-oriented design is the aim of this article, in particularly in relation to the question of the definition and performative capacity of spatial and material boundaries. The various sections are accompanied by research by design efforts undertaken in specified academic contexts, which are intended as examples of modes and areas of inquiry relative to the purpose of this article.

  10. Definition of the Mathematical Model Coefficients on the Weld Size of Butt Joint Without Edge Preparation

    Sidorov, Vladimir P.; Melzitdinova, Anna V.

    2017-10-01

    This paper represents the definition methods for thermal constants according to the data of the weld width under the normal-circular heat source. The method is based on isoline contouring of “effective power - temperature conductivity coefficient”. The definition of coefficients provides setting requirements to the precision of welding parameters support with the enough accuracy for an engineering practice.

  11. MODELING OF INNOVATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF GENERAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

    Anzhelika D. Tsymbalaru

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the scientific approaches to modeling of innovation educational environment of a general educational institution – system (analysis of object, process and result of modeling as system objects), activity (organizational and psychological structure) and synergetic (aspects and principles).

  12. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D

    2003-01-01

    Selected recent developments and promising directions for improving the quality of models of human performance in synthetic environments are summarized, beginning with the potential uses and goals for behavioral models...

  13. Modeling higher education attractiveness to stand global environment

    Leonel Cezar Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inabilities to deal with the changing environment may lead Higher Education Institutions (HEI to loose institutional attractiveness. Digital transformation requires global insertion as essential feature to institutional attractiveness. Processes for international education seem to lack the links between real environmental trends and the internal capabilities to global education. HEI managers may approach endeavors to internationalize education combining ambidextrous strategy supported by consolidated resilience capabilities. The latest ones refer to building internal value attributes to increase institutional attractiveness assuring solid standing in the global environment. In this article, a theoretical essay, we approach the problem of creating resilience as a way of backing up ambidexterity to generate institutional attractiveness. The set of value attributes, on the other hand, may originate strategic routes to strengthen internal competences and to make the institution more attractive, as a dynamic capability.

  14. Synchronous communication in PLM environments using annotated CAD models

    Camba, Jorge D.; Contero, Manuel; Salvador Herranz, Gustavo Manuel; Plumed, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The connection of resources, data, and knowledge through communication technology plays a vital role in current collaborative design methodologies and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) systems, as these elements act as channels for information and meaning. Despite significant advances in the area of PLM, most communication tools are used as separate services that are disconnected from existing development environments. Consequently, during a communication session, the specific elements being...

  15. Scoping the future: a model for integrating learning environments

    Honeychurch, Sarah; Barr, Niall

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has become synonymous with online learning in HE.However, with the rise of Web 2.0 technologies, social networking tools and cloud computing thearchitecture of the current VLEs is increasingly anachronistic. This paper suggests an alternative tothe traditional VLE: one which allows for flexibility and adaptation to the needs of individual teachers,while remaining resilient and providing students with a seamless experience. We present a prototypeof our vi...

  16. The role of virtual reality and 3D modelling in built environment education

    Horne, Margaret; Thompson, Emine Mine

    2007-01-01

    This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Altho...

  17. MathModelica - An Extensible Modeling and Simulation Environment with Integrated Graphics and Literate Programming

    Fritzson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

    2002-01-01

    MathModelica is an integrated interactive development environment for advanced system modeling and simulation. The environment integrates Modelica-based modeling and simulation with graphic design, advanced scripting facilities, integration of program code, test cases, graphics, documentation, mathematical type setting, and symbolic formula manipulation provided via Mathematica. The user interface consists of a graphical Model Editor and Notebooks. The Model Editor is a graphical user interfa...

  18. Environment model creation and ADAS architecture for trucks : design and implementation of a sensor fusion algorithm

    Stamatopoulos, E.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a structural approach for environment model creation and ADAS architecture for trucks. In particular, an appropriate sensor suite that is suitable for a set of ADAS functions is defined. On this basis, the development of a proof of concept for an Environment Model system, by

  19. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  20. High-Dimensional Modeling for Cytometry: Building Rock Solid Models Using GemStone™ and Verity Cen-se'™ High-Definition t-SNE Mapping.

    Bruce Bagwell, C

    2018-01-01

    This chapter outlines how to approach the complex tasks associated with designing models for high-dimensional cytometry data. Unlike gating approaches, modeling lends itself to automation and accounts for measurement overlap among cellular populations. Designing these models is now easier because of a new technique called high-definition t-SNE mapping. Nontrivial examples are provided that serve as a guide to create models that are consistent with data.

  1. Modelling Active Faults in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) with OpenQuake: Definition, Design and Experience

    Weatherill, Graeme; Garcia, Julio; Poggi, Valerio; Chen, Yen-Shin; Pagani, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) has, since its inception in 2009, made many contributions to the practice of seismic hazard modeling in different regions of the globe. The OpenQuake-engine (hereafter referred to simply as OpenQuake), GEM's open-source software for calculation of earthquake hazard and risk, has found application in many countries, spanning a diversity of tectonic environments. GEM itself has produced a database of national and regional seismic hazard models, harmonizing into OpenQuake's own definition the varied seismogenic sources found therein. The characterization of active faults in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is at the centre of this process, motivating many of the developments in OpenQuake and presenting hazard modellers with the challenge of reconciling seismological, geological and geodetic information for the different regions of the world. Faced with these challenges, and from the experience gained in the process of harmonizing existing models of seismic hazard, four critical issues are addressed. The challenge GEM has faced in the development of software is how to define a representation of an active fault (both in terms of geometry and earthquake behaviour) that is sufficiently flexible to adapt to different tectonic conditions and levels of data completeness. By exploring the different fault typologies supported by OpenQuake we illustrate how seismic hazard calculations can, and do, take into account complexities such as geometrical irregularity of faults in the prediction of ground motion, highlighting some of the potential pitfalls and inconsistencies that can arise. This exploration leads to the second main challenge in active fault modeling, what elements of the fault source model impact most upon the hazard at a site, and when does this matter? Through a series of sensitivity studies we show how different configurations of fault geometry, and the corresponding characterisation of near-fault phenomena (including

  2. Modelling of artificial radioactivity migration in environment: a survey

    Bignoli, G.; Bertozzi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation and description of models to assess the environmental behaviour and effects of accidental and routine releases of artificial radioactivity from nuclear power facilities. About 60 models are described and a card is given for each one, to indicate in summarized form its features and data content. This collection is intended to help in developing specific personal models by assembling different parts chosen among the most suitable ones of different models of various degrees of sophistication

  3. Improving transcriptome construction in non-model organisms: integrating manual and automated gene definition in Emiliania huxleyi.

    Feldmesser, Ester; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Vardi, Assaf; Ben-Dor, Shifra

    2014-01-01

    Background The advent of Next Generation Sequencing technologies and corresponding bioinformatics tools allows the definition of transcriptomes in non-model organisms. Non-model organisms are of great ecological and biotechnological significance, and consequently the understanding of their unique metabolic pathways is essential. Several methods that integrate de novo assembly with genome-based assembly have been proposed. Yet, there are many open challenges in defining genes, particularly whe...

  4. Controversy around the definition of waste

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2009-11-20

    Full Text Available This paper presents the information concerning the definition of waste. Discussing the importance of the clear definition, ongoing debates, broad definition of waste, problems with the broad definition, interpretation, current waste management model...

  5. Improving fire season definition by optimized temporal modelling of daily human-caused ignitions.

    Costafreda-Aumedes, S; Vega-Garcia, C; Comas, C

    2018-07-01

    Wildfire suppression management is usually based on fast control of all ignitions, especially in highly populated countries with pervasive values-at-risk. To minimize values-at-risk loss by improving response time of suppression resources it is necessary to anticipate ignitions, which are mainly caused by people. Previous studies have found that human-ignition patterns change spatially and temporally depending on socio-economic activities, hence, the deployment of suppression resources along the year should consider these patterns. However, full suppression capacity is operational only within legally established fire seasons, driven by past events and budgets, which limits response capacity and increases damages out of them. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal definition of fire seasons from the perspective of human-ignition patterns for the case study of Spain, where people cause over 95% of fires. Humans engage in activities that use fire as a tool in certain periods within a year, and in locations linked to specific spatial factors. Geographic variables (population, infrastructures, physiography and land uses) were used as explanatory variables for human-ignition patterns. The changing influence of these geographic variables on occurrence along the year was analysed with day-by-day logistic regression models. Daily models were built for all the municipal units in the two climatic regions in Spain (Atlantic and Mediterranean Spain) from 2002 to 2014, and similar models were grouped within continuous periods, designated as ignition-based seasons. We found three ignition-based seasons in the Mediterranean region and five in the Atlantic zones, not coincidental with calendar seasons, but with a high degree of agreement with current legally designated operational fire seasons. Our results suggest that an additional late-winter-early-spring fire season in the Mediterranean area and the extension of this same season in the Atlantic zone should be re

  6. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  7. Non stationary nucleation: the model with minimal environment

    Kurasov, Victor

    2013-01-01

    A new model to calculate the rate of nucleation is formulated. This model is based on the classical nucleation theory but considers also vapor depletion around the formed embryo. As the result the free energy has to be recalculated which brings a new expression for the nucleation rate.

  8. Development of an Environment for Software Reliability Model Selection

    1992-09-01

    now is directed to other related problems such as tools for model selection, multiversion programming, and software fault tolerance modeling... multiversion programming, 7. Hlardware can be repaired by spare modules, which is not. the case for software, 2-6 N. Preventive maintenance is very important

  9. Integration of Modeling in Solidworks and Matlab/Simulink Environments

    Cekus Dawid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available W pracy opisano tok postepowania podczas budowy modeli symulacyjnych z wykorzystaniem programu SolidWorks i Matlab/Simulink. Tworzenie modelu symulacyjnego przebiega etapami, to znaczy najpierw opracowywany jest model geometryczny w programie SolidWorks, nastepnie dzieki mozliwosci wymiany danych, model CAD jest implementowany w srodowisku obliczeniowym Matlab/Simulink. Modele SimMechanics pozwalaja na sledzenie wielu parametrów, np. trajektorii, predkosci, czy przyspieszen dowolnych elementów układu złozonego. W pracy, jako przykłady modeli symulacyjnych opracowanych zgodnie z zaprezentowana metoda, pokazano modele laboratoryjnego zurawia samochodowego oraz zurawia lesnego. Modele te umozliwiaja wizualizacje zadanego - za pomoca wymuszen kinematycznych - cyklu pracy.

  10. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  11. Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in a Waste Stabilization Pond System Using Flexible Modeling Environment with MCMC.

    Mukhtar, Hussnain; Lin, Yu-Pin; Shipin, Oleg V; Petway, Joy R

    2017-07-12

    This study presents an approach for obtaining realization sets of parameters for nitrogen removal in a pilot-scale waste stabilization pond (WSP) system. The proposed approach was designed for optimal parameterization, local sensitivity analysis, and global uncertainty analysis of a dynamic simulation model for the WSP by using the R software package Flexible Modeling Environment (R-FME) with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Additionally, generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) was integrated into the FME to evaluate the major parameters that affect the simulation outputs in the study WSP. Comprehensive modeling analysis was used to simulate and assess nine parameters and concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Results indicate that the integrated FME-GLUE-based model, with good Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (0.53-0.69) and correlation coefficients (0.76-0.83), successfully simulates the concentrations of ON-N, NH₃-N and NO₃-N. Moreover, the Arrhenius constant was the only parameter sensitive to model performances of ON-N and NH₃-N simulations. However, Nitrosomonas growth rate, the denitrification constant, and the maximum growth rate at 20 °C were sensitive to ON-N and NO₃-N simulation, which was measured using global sensitivity.

  12. Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments

    Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an

  13. Integrated Visualization Environment for Science Mission Modeling, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is emphasizing the use of larger, more integrated models in conjunction with systems engineering tools and decision support systems. These tools place a...

  14. Symbolic Model of Perception in Dynamic 3D Environments

    Carruth, D. W; Robbins, B; Thomas, M. D; Morais, A; Letherwood, M; Nebel, K

    2006-01-01

    Computational models of human cognition have been applied to many complex real-world tasks including air traffic control, human-computer interaction, learning arithmetic, traversing the World Wide Web...

  15. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging driven growth modeling for radiotherapy target definition in glioblastoma.

    Jensen, Morten B; Guldberg, Trine L; Harbøll, Anja; Lukacova, Slávka; Kallehauge, Jesper F

    2017-11-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) in radiotherapy is routinely based on gadolinium contrast enhanced T1 weighted (T1w + Gd) and T2 weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2w FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences which have been shown to over- or underestimate the microscopic tumor cell spread. Gliomas favor spread along the white matter fiber tracts. Tumor growth models incorporating the MRI diffusion tensors (DTI) allow to account more consistently for the glioma growth. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of a DTI driven growth model to improve target definition in glioblastoma (GBM). Eleven GBM patients were scanned using T1w, T2w FLAIR, T1w + Gd and DTI. The brain was segmented into white matter, gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. The Fisher-Kolmogorov growth model was used assuming uniform proliferation and a difference in white and gray matter diffusion of a ratio of 10. The tensor directionality was tested using an anisotropy weighting parameter set to zero (γ0) and twenty (γ20). The volumetric comparison was performed using Hausdorff distance, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and surface area. The median of the standard CTV (CTVstandard) was 180 cm 3 . The median surface area of CTVstandard was 211 cm 2 . The median surface area of respective CTV γ0 and CTV γ20 significantly increased to 338 and 376 cm 2 , respectively. The Hausdorff distance was greater than zero and significantly increased for both CTV γ0 and CTV γ20 with respective median of 18.7 and 25.2 mm. The DSC for both CTV γ0 and CTV γ20 were significantly below one with respective median of 0.74 and 0.72, which means that 74 and 72% of CTVstandard were included in CTV γ0 and CTV γ20, respectively. DTI driven growth models result in CTVs with a significantly increased surface area, a significantly increased Hausdorff distance and decreased overlap between the standard and model derived volume.

  16. 40 CFR 600.202-77 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ....202-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.202-77 Definitions. The...

  17. GCR Environmental Models I: Sensitivity Analysis for GCR Environments

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate galactic cosmic ray (GCR) models are required to assess crew exposure during long-duration missions to the Moon or Mars. Many of these models have been developed and compared to available measurements, with uncertainty estimates usually stated to be less than 15%. However, when the models are evaluated over a common epoch and propagated through to effective dose, relative differences exceeding 50% are observed. This indicates that the metrics used to communicate GCR model uncertainty can be better tied to exposure quantities of interest for shielding applications. This is the first of three papers focused on addressing this need. In this work, the focus is on quantifying the extent to which each GCR ion and energy group, prior to entering any shielding material or body tissue, contributes to effective dose behind shielding. Results can be used to more accurately calibrate model-free parameters and provide a mechanism for refocusing validation efforts on measurements taken over important energy regions. Results can also be used as references to guide future nuclear cross-section measurements and radiobiology experiments. It is found that GCR with Z>2 and boundary energies below 500 MeV/n induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This finding is important given that most of the GCR models are developed and validated against Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/CRIS) measurements taken below 500 MeV/n. It is therefore possible for two models to very accurately reproduce the ACE/CRIS data while inducing very different effective dose values behind shielding.

  18. HESS Opinions: Hydrologic predictions in a changing environment: behavioral modeling

    S. J. Schymanski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most hydrological models are valid at most only in a few places and cannot be reasonably transferred to other places or to far distant time periods. Transfer in space is difficult because the models are conditioned on past observations at particular places to define parameter values and unobservable processes that are needed to fully characterize the structure and functioning of the landscape. Transfer in time has to deal with the likely temporal changes to both parameters and processes under future changed conditions. This remains an important obstacle to addressing some of the most urgent prediction questions in hydrology, such as prediction in ungauged basins and prediction under global change. In this paper, we propose a new approach to catchment hydrological modeling, based on universal principles that do not change in time and that remain valid across many places. The key to this framework, which we call behavioral modeling, is to assume that there are universal and time-invariant organizing principles that can be used to identify the most appropriate model structure (including parameter values and responses for a given ecosystem at a given moment in time. These organizing principles may be derived from fundamental physical or biological laws, or from empirical laws that have been demonstrated to be time-invariant and to hold at many places and scales. Much fundamental research remains to be undertaken to help discover these organizing principles on the basis of exploration of observed patterns of landscape structure and hydrological behavior and their interpretation as legacy effects of past co-evolution of climate, soils, topography, vegetation and humans. Our hope is that the new behavioral modeling framework will be a step forward towards a new vision for hydrology where models are capable of more confidently predicting the behavior of catchments beyond what has been observed or experienced before.

  19. A Conceptual Definition of Vocational Rehabilitation Based on the ICF : building a shared global model

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F.; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E.; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational

  20. Automated reconstruction of 3D models from real environments

    Sequeira, V.; Ng, K.; Wolfart, E.; Gonçalves, J. G. M.; Hogg, D.

    This paper describes an integrated approach to the construction of textured 3D scene models of building interiors from laser range data and visual images. This approach has been implemented in a collection of algorithms and sensors within a prototype device for 3D reconstruction, known as the EST (Environmental Sensor for Telepresence). The EST can take the form of a push trolley or of an autonomous mobile platform. The Autonomous EST (AEST) has been designed to provide an integrated solution for automating the creation of complete models. Embedded software performs several functions, including triangulation of the range data, registration of video texture, registration and integration of data acquired from different capture points. Potential applications include facilities management for the construction industry and creating reality models to be used in general areas of virtual reality, for example, virtual studios, virtualised reality for content-related applications (e.g., CD-ROMs), social telepresence, architecture and others. The paper presents the main components of the EST/AEST, and presents some example results obtained from the prototypes. The reconstructed model is encoded in VRML format so that it is possible to access and view the model via the World Wide Web.

  1. Integral projection models for finite populations in a stochastic environment.

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Engen, Steinar; Saether, Bernt-Erik

    2011-05-01

    Continuous types of population structure occur when continuous variables such as body size or habitat quality affect the vital parameters of individuals. These structures can give rise to complex population dynamics and interact with environmental conditions. Here we present a model for continuously structured populations with finite size, including both demographic and environmental stochasticity in the dynamics. Using recent methods developed for discrete age-structured models we derive the demographic and environmental variance of the population growth as functions of a continuous state variable. These two parameters, together with the expected population growth rate, are used to define a one-dimensional diffusion approximation of the population dynamics. Thus, a substantial reduction in complexity is achieved as the dynamics of the complex structured model can be described by only three population parameters. We provide methods for numerical calculation of the model parameters and demonstrate the accuracy of the diffusion approximation by computer simulation of specific examples. The general modeling framework makes it possible to analyze and predict future dynamics and extinction risk of populations with various types of structure, and to explore consequences of changes in demography caused by, e.g., climate change or different management decisions. Our results are especially relevant for small populations that are often of conservation concern.

  2. A quantitative model of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system

    Ren, Yulong; Fu, Shijun [Economy and Business Administration School of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper explores quantification of regulator's preference factor (RPF) in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. Based on social welfare economics, we articulately depict RPF's qualitative concept and its economic meaning. Then, applying abstract functions (i.e., abstract social welfare function, abstract utility function, and abstract production function), we deduce the partial-social-welfare elasticity, and build the mathematics model of maximizing social welfare. We nest this elasticity into the model's Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and obtain RPF's definition formula. By solving the Kuhn-Tucker conditions, we get RPF's quantitative formula, which solves the problem of hard to quantify regulator's preference in electricity-environment coordinated regulation system. The result shows that RPF only has relationship to subsystems' production function, and is independent of social welfare function and subsystems' utility function. Finally, we provide an empirical research based on the western region of China from year 1995 to 2004. It reveals that regulator has relative stability preference to mitigating pollutants. And validity test confirms that the empirical result is fit well to the practice. The RPF is truly a more general and valid instrument to measure regulator's preference in its regulated field. (author)

  3. Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-07-26

    Stochastic geometry (SG) has been widely accepted as a fundamental tool for modeling and analyzing cellular networks. However, the fading models used with SG analysis are mainly confined to the simplistic Rayleigh fading, which is extended to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks with generalized two-ray (GTR) fading channel. The GTR fading explicitly accounts for two DSCs in addition to the diffuse components and offers high flexibility to capture diverse fading channels that appear in realistic outdoor/indoor wireless communication scenarios. It also encompasses the famous Rayleigh and Rician fading as special cases. To this end, the prominent effect of DSCs is highlighted in terms of average spectral efficiency. © 2016 IEEE.

  4. Genomic-Enabled Prediction Kernel Models with Random Intercepts for Multi-environment Trials

    Cuevas, Jaime; Granato, Italo; Fritsche-Neto, Roberto; Montesinos-Lopez, Osval A.; Burgueño, Juan; Bandeira e Sousa, Massaine; Crossa, José

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we compared the prediction accuracy of the main genotypic effect model (MM) without G×E interactions, the multi-environment single variance G×E deviation model (MDs), and the multi-environment environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe) where the random genetic effects of the lines are modeled with the markers (or pedigree). With the objective of further modeling the genetic residual of the lines, we incorporated the random intercepts of the lines (l) and generated another three models. Each of these 6 models were fitted with a linear kernel method (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GB) and a Gaussian Kernel (GK) method. We compared these 12 model-method combinations with another two multi-environment G×E interactions models with unstructured variance-covariances (MUC) using GB and GK kernels (4 model-method). Thus, we compared the genomic-enabled prediction accuracy of a total of 16 model-method combinations on two maize data sets with positive phenotypic correlations among environments, and on two wheat data sets with complex G×E that includes some negative and close to zero phenotypic correlations among environments. The two models (MDs and MDE with the random intercept of the lines and the GK method) were computationally efficient and gave high prediction accuracy in the two maize data sets. Regarding the more complex G×E wheat data sets, the prediction accuracy of the model-method combination with G×E, MDs and MDe, including the random intercepts of the lines with GK method had important savings in computing time as compared with the G×E interaction multi-environment models with unstructured variance-covariances but with lower genomic prediction accuracy. PMID:29476023

  5. A generalization of the bond fluctuation model to viscoelastic environments

    Fritsch, Christian C

    2014-01-01

    A lattice-based simulation method for polymer diffusion in a viscoelastic medium is presented. This method combines the eight-site bond fluctuation model with an algorithm for the simulation of fractional Brownian motion on the lattice. The method applies to unentangled self-avoiding chains and is probed for anomalous diffusion exponents α between 0.7 and 1.0. The simulation results are in very good agreement with the predictions of the generalized Rouse model of a self-avoiding chain polymer in a viscoelastic medium. (paper)

  6. Comprehensive model for disruption erosion in a reactor environment

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive disruption erosion model which takes into account the interplay of major physical processes during plasma-material interaction has been developed. The model integrates with sufficient detail and in a self-consistent way, material thermal evolution response, plasma-vapor interaction physics, vapor hydrodynamics and radiation transport in order to realistically simulate the effects of a plasma disruption on plasma-facing components. Candidate materials such as beryllium and carbon have been analyzed. The dependence of the net erosion rate on disruption physics and various parameters was analyzed and is discussed. ((orig.))

  7. Programmatic access to logical models in the Cell Collective modeling environment via a REST API.

    Kowal, Bryan M; Schreier, Travis R; Dauer, Joseph T; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cell Collective (www.cellcollective.org) is a web-based interactive environment for constructing, simulating and analyzing logical models of biological systems. Herein, we present a Web service to access models, annotations, and simulation data in the Cell Collective platform through the Representational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API). The REST API provides a convenient method for obtaining Cell Collective data through almost any programming language. To ensure easy processing of the retrieved data, the request output from the API is available in a standard JSON format. The Cell Collective REST API is freely available at http://thecellcollective.org/tccapi. All public models in Cell Collective are available through the REST API. For users interested in creating and accessing their own models through the REST API first need to create an account in Cell Collective (http://thecellcollective.org). thelikar2@unl.edu. Technical user documentation: https://goo.gl/U52GWo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling cellular networks in fading environments with dominant specular components

    Alammouri, Ahmad; Elsawy, Hesham; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Di Renzo, Marco; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    to the Nakagami-m fading in some special cases. However, neither the Rayleigh nor the Nakagami-m accounts for dominant specular components (DSCs) which may appear in realistic fading channels. In this paper, we present a tractable model for cellular networks

  9. Computer modeling of dosimetric pattern in aquatic environment of ...

    ... solving the dose rates to aquatic organisms with emphasis on the coastal areas of Nigeria where oil exploration activities involve the use of radioactive materials. Solution of the dose function representing the baseline have been modeled the result of which can be employed in assessing future contamination in the area.

  10. Study on modeling of Energy-Economy-Environment system

    Kang, Seung Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-07-01

    This study analyzed the effect of carbon dioxide reduction policy generated by energy use by developing a new operation general equilibrium model. This model is a multi sector successive dynamic model, designed to be able to forecast economic variables as well as GDP, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emission amount until 2030 for every 5 years. Using this model, it analyzed three greenhouse gas reduction policy scenarios, the introduction of world single carbon tax, the setting up limit of greenhouse gas discharge, and the introduction of international discharge permit trading system. It analyzes that it gives a heavy burden to Korean economy when Korean government implements the greenhouse gas reduction policy with only domestic policy instrument. Therefore it is considered that it is required to reduce greenhouse gas cost-effectively by using Kyoto Protocol actively, such as international permit trading, co-implementation, and clean development system, when greenhouse gas reduction gives a heavy burden. Moreover, a policy that is dependent only on price mechanism, such as carbon tax or permit trading, to reduce greenhouse gas requires a very high cost and has a limitation. Therefore, to relieve some burden on economy requires to implement non-price mechanism simultaneously such as energy technology development and restructuring on industry and transportation system. (author). 70 refs., 11 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Modeling and Control of Livestock Ventilation Systems and Indoor Environments

    Wu, Zhuang; Heiselberg, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    The hybrid ventilation systems have been widely used for livestock barns to provide optimum indoor climate by controlling the ventilation rate and air flow distribution within the ventilated building structure. The purpose of this paper is to develop models for livestock ventilation systems and i...

  12. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [Uniiversity of Nevada, Las Vegas; Haber, Daniel [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  13. Business models for distributed generation in a liberalized market environment

    Gordijn, Jaap; Akkermans, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the potential of emerging innovative technologies calls for a systems-theoretic approach that takes into account technical as well as socio-economic factors. This paper reports the main findings of several business case studies of different future applications in various countries of distributed power generation technologies, all based on a common methodology for networked business modeling and analysis. (author)

  14. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.

    1996-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  15. Modelling of authentic reflectance behaviour in virtual environments

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří

    č. 62 (2005), s. 49-50 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302; GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR 1ET400750407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF textures * virtual reality * image modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  16. Modeling adaptation of wetland plants under changing environments

    Muneepeerakul, R.; Muneepeerakul, C. P.

    2010-12-01

    An evolutionary-game-theoretic approach is used to study the changes in traits of wetland plants in response to environmental changes, e.g., altered patterns of rainfall and nutrients. Here, a wetland is considered as a complex adaptive system where plants can adapt their strategies and influence one another. The system is subject to stochastic rainfall, which controls the dynamics of water level, soil moisture, and alternation between aerobic and anaerobic conditions in soil. Based on our previous work, a plant unit is characterized by three traits, namely biomass nitrogen content, specific leaf area, and allocation to rhizome. These traits control the basic functions of plants such as assimilation, respiration, and nutrient uptake, while affecting their environment through litter chemistry, root oxygenation, and thus soil microbial dynamics. The outcome of this evolutionary game, i.e., the best-performing plant traits against the backdrop of these interactions and feedbacks, is analyzed and its implications on important roles of wetlands in supporting our sustainability such as carbon sequestration in biosphere, nutrient cycling, and repository of biodiversity are discussed.

  17. Pricing the Services in Dynamic Environment: Agent Pricing Model

    Žagar, Drago; Rupčić, Slavko; Rimac-Drlje, Snježana

    New Internet applications and services as well as new user demands open many new issues concerning dynamic management of quality of service and price for received service, respectively. The main goals of Internet service providers are to maximize profit and maintain a negotiated quality of service. From the users' perspective the main goal is to maximize ratio of received QoS and costs of service. However, achieving these objectives could become very complex if we know that Internet service users might during the session become highly dynamic and proactive. This connotes changes in user profile or network provider/s profile caused by high level of user mobility or variable level of user demands. This paper proposes a new agent based pricing architecture for serving the highly dynamic customers in context of dynamic user/network environment. The proposed architecture comprises main aspects and basic parameters that will enable objective and transparent assessment of the costs for the service those Internet users receive while dynamically change QoS demands and cost profile.

  18. Modeling Electrostatic Fields Generated by Internal Charging of Materials in Space Radiation Environments

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2011-01-01

    Internal charging is a risk to spacecraft in energetic electron environments. DICTAT, NU MIT computational codes are the most widely used engineering tools for evaluating internal charging of insulator materials exposed to these environments. Engineering tools are designed for rapid evaluation of ESD threats, but there is a need for more physics based models for investigating the science of materials interactions with energetic electron environments. Current tools are limited by the physics included in the models and ease of user implementation .... additional development work is needed to improve models.

  19. Modeling critical zone processes in intensively managed environments

    Kumar, Praveen; Le, Phong; Woo, Dong; Yan, Qina

    2017-04-01

    Processes in the Critical Zone (CZ), which sustain terrestrial life, are tightly coupled across hydrological, physical, biochemical, and many other domains over both short and long timescales. In addition, vegetation acclimation resulting from elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, along with response to increased temperature and altered rainfall pattern, is expected to result in emergent behaviors in ecologic and hydrologic functions, subsequently controlling CZ processes. We hypothesize that the interplay between micro-topographic variability and these emergent behaviors will shape complex responses of a range of ecosystem dynamics within the CZ. Here, we develop a modeling framework ('Dhara') that explicitly incorporates micro-topographic variability based on lidar topographic data with coupling of multi-layer modeling of the soil-vegetation continuum and 3-D surface-subsurface transport processes to study ecological and biogeochemical dynamics. We further couple a C-N model with a physically based hydro-geomorphologic model to quantify (i) how topographic variability controls the spatial distribution of soil moisture, temperature, and biogeochemical processes, and (ii) how farming activities modify the interaction between soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. To address the intensive computational demand from high-resolution modeling at lidar data scale, we use a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture run over large supercomputing systems for simulations. Our findings indicate that rising CO2 concentration and air temperature have opposing effects on soil moisture, surface water and ponding in topographic depressions. Further, the relatively higher soil moisture and lower soil temperature contribute to decreased soil microbial activities in the low-lying areas due to anaerobic conditions and reduced temperatures. The decreased microbial relevant processes cause the reduction of nitrification rates, resulting in relatively lower nitrate

  20. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    M. Floris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  1. Modelization of the SECM in molten salts environment

    Lucas, M.; Slim, C.; Di Caprio, D.; Delpech, S.; Stafiej, J.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a cellular automata simulation of SECM (Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy)experiments to study corrosion in molten salt media for generation IV nuclear reactors. The electrodes used in these experiments are cylindrical glass tips with a coaxial metal wire inside. As the result of simulations we obtain the current approach curves of the electrodes with geometries characterized by several values of the ratios of glass to metal area at the tip. We compare these results with predictions of the known analytic expressions, solutions of partial differential equations for flat uniform geometry of the substrate. We present also the results for other, more complicated substrate surface geometries e. g. regular saw modulated surface, or surface obtained by an Eden model process. We show that with a simple cellular automata model we can reasonably well simulate the results of SECM setup. The stochastic resolution of the diffusion equations is made possible by the parallel code implemented on GPU

  2. Trust and Compliance Management Models in Emerging Outsourcing Environments

    Pasic , Aljosa; Bareño , Juan; Gallego-Nicasio , Beatriz; Torres , Rubén; Fernandez , Daniel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Businesses today have more than ever a sharp focus on reducing capital and operational expenses. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO), Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) and adoption of shared service models have all increased on a global scale. This results in an emerging complexity and volatility of business relationships. As the future internet of services evolves towards dynamic "service marketplaces", where shared services are discovered, negotiated and choreograph...

  3. Eolian Modeling System: Predicting Windblown Dust Hazards in Battlefield Environments

    2011-05-03

    trend (i.e., a straight line on log-log scales) given by R ∝ T–α, (1) where R is the accumulation rate, T is the time interval of accumulation, and α...Figure 5(A) for a representative set of model parameters. The straight line labeled by h represents a linear increase in epipedon thickness with time...Pelletier, Frequency-magnitude distribution of eolian transport and the geomorphically most-effective windstorm , submitted but not accepted to Geophysical

  4. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Book, Gilad; Ingham, Colin; Ariel, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  5. Modeling cooperating micro-organisms in antibiotic environment.

    Gilad Book

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with the bacteria Paenibacillus vortex reveal a remarkable strategy enabling it to cope with antibiotics by cooperating with a different bacterium-Escherichia coli. While P. vortex is a highly effective swarmer, it is sensitive to the antibiotic ampicillin. On the other hand, E. coli can degrade ampicillin but is non-motile when grown on high agar percentages. The two bacterial species form a shared colony in which E. coli is transported by P. vortex and E. coli detoxifies the ampicillin. The paper presents a simplified model, consisting of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, describing the development of ring patterns in the shared colony. Our results demonstrate some of the possible cooperative movement strategies bacteria utilize in order to survive harsh conditions. In addition, we explore the behavior of mixed colonies under new conditions such as antibiotic gradients, synchronization between colonies and possible dynamics of a 3-species system including P. vortex, E. coli and a carbon producing algae that provides nutrients under illuminated, nutrient poor conditions. The derived model was able to simulate an asymmetric relationship between two or three micro-organisms where cooperation is required for survival. Computationally, in order to avoid numerical artifacts due to symmetries within the discretizing grid, the model was solved using a second order Vectorizable Random Lattices method, which is developed as a finite volume scheme on a random grid.

  6. Modelling the droplet interaction in a hostile environment

    Foissac, A.

    2011-01-01

    During the situation of a nuclear reactor cooling loss, the pressure of the containment building may increase due to a release of steam, of gas coming from fission products and also of explosive gas, like di-hydrogen, created by chemical reaction in the primary cooling system. The procedure plan consists in using the spray system, constituted by hundreds of nozzles, in order to decrease pressure and temperature, to wash out fission products and to enhance gas mixing to avoid explosive gas local accumulation. The efficiency of the spray system may depend on the size and the velocity of the spray droplets. These parameters can be modified by collisions, occurring as soon as the spray envelopes overlap. This work models the droplet size and velocity poly-dispersion, and its evolution due to the collisions, then, implements these models in the Eulerian NEPTUNE-CFD code. The sectional method is chosen, and the collision is modeled from the results obtained on an experimental facility for the study of the droplet binary collision under typical conditions of a reactor severe accident. The numerical simulation of the spray system has then been performed, and compared to the experimental results on a large scale bench for characterizing large industrial sprays. A good agreement is obtained. These results provide a first step toward a comprehensive simulation of a whole scenario of a reactor vessel under severe accident conditions with spray activation. (author)

  7. Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Maize Using Kernel Models with Genotype × Environment Interaction.

    Bandeira E Sousa, Massaine; Cuevas, Jaime; de Oliveira Couto, Evellyn Giselly; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; Jarquín, Diego; Fritsche-Neto, Roberto; Burgueño, Juan; Crossa, Jose

    2017-06-07

    Multi-environment trials are routinely conducted in plant breeding to select candidates for the next selection cycle. In this study, we compare the prediction accuracy of four developed genomic-enabled prediction models: (1) single-environment, main genotypic effect model (SM); (2) multi-environment, main genotypic effects model (MM); (3) multi-environment, single variance G×E deviation model (MDs); and (4) multi-environment, environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe). Each of these four models were fitted using two kernel methods: a linear kernel Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GBLUP (GB), and a nonlinear kernel Gaussian kernel (GK). The eight model-method combinations were applied to two extensive Brazilian maize data sets (HEL and USP data sets), having different numbers of maize hybrids evaluated in different environments for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), and ear height (EH). Results show that the MDe and the MDs models fitted with the Gaussian kernel (MDe-GK, and MDs-GK) had the highest prediction accuracy. For GY in the HEL data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 9 to 32%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 9 to 49%. For GY in the USP data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 0 to 7%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 34 to 70%. For traits PH and EH, gains in prediction accuracy of models with GK compared to models with GB were smaller than those achieved in GY. Also, these gains in prediction accuracy decreased when a more difficult prediction problem was studied. Copyright © 2017 Bandeira e Sousa et al.

  8. Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Maize Using Kernel Models with Genotype × Environment Interaction

    Massaine Bandeira e Sousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-environment trials are routinely conducted in plant breeding to select candidates for the next selection cycle. In this study, we compare the prediction accuracy of four developed genomic-enabled prediction models: (1 single-environment, main genotypic effect model (SM; (2 multi-environment, main genotypic effects model (MM; (3 multi-environment, single variance G×E deviation model (MDs; and (4 multi-environment, environment-specific variance G×E deviation model (MDe. Each of these four models were fitted using two kernel methods: a linear kernel Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor, GBLUP (GB, and a nonlinear kernel Gaussian kernel (GK. The eight model-method combinations were applied to two extensive Brazilian maize data sets (HEL and USP data sets, having different numbers of maize hybrids evaluated in different environments for grain yield (GY, plant height (PH, and ear height (EH. Results show that the MDe and the MDs models fitted with the Gaussian kernel (MDe-GK, and MDs-GK had the highest prediction accuracy. For GY in the HEL data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 9 to 32%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 9 to 49%. For GY in the USP data set, the increase in prediction accuracy of SM-GK over SM-GB ranged from 0 to 7%. For the MM, MDs, and MDe models, the increase in prediction accuracy of GK over GB ranged from 34 to 70%. For traits PH and EH, gains in prediction accuracy of models with GK compared to models with GB were smaller than those achieved in GY. Also, these gains in prediction accuracy decreased when a more difficult prediction problem was studied.

  9. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF CLOUD ORIENTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR BACHELORS OF INFORMATICS TRAINING

    Tetiana A. Vakaliuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the essence of the category "model". There are presented the main types of models used in educational research: structural, functional, structural and functional model as well as basic requirements for building these types of models. The national experience in building models and designing cloud-based learning environment of educational institutions (both higher and secondary is analyzed. It is presented structural and functional model of cloud-based learning environment for Bachelor of Informatics. Also we describe each component of cloud-based learning environment model for bachelors of informatics training: target, managerial, organizational, content and methodical, communication, technological and productive. It is summarized, that COLE should solve all major tasks that relate to higher education institutions.

  10. Using Five Stage Model to Design of Collaborative Learning Environments in Second Life

    Orhan, Sevil; Karaman, M. Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Specifically Second Life (SL) among virtual worlds draws attention of researchers to form collaborative learning environments (Sutcliffe & Alrayes, 2012) since it could be used as a rich platform to simulate a real environment containing many collaborative learning characteristics and interaction tools within itself. Five Stage Model (FSM)…

  11. Multi-environment QTL mixed models for drought stress adaptation in wheat

    Mathews, K.L.; Malosetti, M.; Chapman, S.; McIntyre, L.; Reynolds, M.; Shorter, R.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection methods ignore QTL-by-environment interaction (QEI) and are limited in accommodation of error and environment-specific variance. This paper outlines a mixed model approach using a recombinant inbred spring wheat population grown in six drought stress

  12. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  13. Aging Well and the Environment: Toward an Integrative Model and Research Agenda for the Future

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Iwarsson, Susanne; Oswald, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The effects of the physical-spatial-technical environment on aging well have been overlooked both conceptually and empirically. In the spirit of M. Powell Lawton's seminal work on aging and environment, this article attempts to rectify this situation by suggesting a new model of how older people interact with their…

  14. Modelling the impact of Cernavoda NPP on the environment

    Constantin, A.-I.

    2001-01-01

    In connection with a stay as a visiting researcher at VTT Energy (Technical Research Center of Finland), a study was conducted related to the atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants. The most important aspects of this study are described in this paper. These include: the application of the TRADOS dispersion and dose assessment model in the case of the Cernavoda NPP and the development of a special program INTEGRATION for the calculation of cloud gamma dose rate of 72 nuclides. (authors)

  15. Energy-Environment interface: an economic model approach

    Glot-Sanchez, N.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis is separated in two parts. The first part has four chapters, from the first to the fourth one;the second part has four chapters, from the fifth to the eighth one. The first part describes an analysis of different areas about the subject: the energy sphere, the environmental sphere, the notion of external effects and environmental policy in terms of instruments. The second part is the analysis of the results of a model, aiming to determine the energy strategies in matter of electricity production and their investments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. 181 refs

  16. A Mediated Definite Delegation Model allowing for Certified Grid Job Submission

    Schreiner, Steffen; Grigoras, Costin; Litmaath, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Grid computing infrastructures need to provide traceability and accounting of their users" activity and protection against misuse and privilege escalation. A central aspect of multi-user Grid job environments is the necessary delegation of privileges in the course of a job submission. With respect to these generic requirements this document describes an improved handling of multi-user Grid jobs in the ALICE ("A Large Ion Collider Experiment") Grid Services. A security analysis of the ALICE Grid job model is presented with derived security objectives, followed by a discussion of existing approaches of unrestricted delegation based on X.509 proxy certificates and the Grid middleware gLExec. Unrestricted delegation has severe security consequences and limitations, most importantly allowing for identity theft and forgery of delegated assignments. These limitations are discussed and formulated, both in general and with respect to an adoption in line with multi-user Grid jobs. Based on the architecture of the ALICE...

  17. Tropospheric ozone and the environment II. Effects, modeling and control

    Berglund, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This was the sixth International Specialty Conference on ozone for the Air ampersand Waste Management Association since 1978 and the first to be held in the Southeast. Of the preceding five conferences, three were held in Houston, one in New England, and one in Los Angeles. The changing location continues to support the understanding that tropospheric ozone is a nationwide problem, requiring understanding and participation by representatives of all regions. Yet, questions such as the following continue to be raised over all aspects of the nation's efforts to control ozone. Are the existing primary and secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone the appropriate targets for the ozone control strategy, or should they be modified to more effectively accommodate new health or ecological effects information, or better fit statistical analyses of ozone modeling data? Are the modeling tools presently available adequate to predict ozone concentrations for future precursor emission trends? What ozones attainment strategy will be the best means of meeting the ozone standard? To best answer these and other questions there needs to be a continued sharing of information among researchers working on these and other questions. While answers to these questions will often be qualitative and location specific, they will help focus future research programs and assist in developing future regulatory strategies

  18. The modelling of tritium behaviour in the environment

    Raskob, W.

    1991-01-01

    In view of the operation of reprocessing plants and fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Tritium, however, is chemically identical to hydrogen and thus interacts directly with water and organic substances, making processes like conversion of HT to HTO, re-emission after deposition, and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium (OBT) relevant, all of which may modify the total balance of the available HT or HTO inventories. Because of these physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to inhalation and skin absorption and by ingestion pathways. The significance of the re-emission process in dose assessments - especially for HT-releases - has been clearly demonstrated in example calculations and applications of UFOTRI. The results of a comparison between an HT-release experiment in Canada 1987 and calculations of UFOTRI can be taken as a first validation of the model

  19. Increased prediction accuracy in wheat breeding trials using a marker × environment interaction genomic selection model.

    Lopez-Cruz, Marco; Crossa, Jose; Bonnett, David; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Singh, Ravi P; Autrique, Enrique; de los Campos, Gustavo

    2015-02-06

    Genomic selection (GS) models use genome-wide genetic information to predict genetic values of candidates of selection. Originally, these models were developed without considering genotype × environment interaction(G×E). Several authors have proposed extensions of the single-environment GS model that accommodate G×E using either covariance functions or environmental covariates. In this study, we model G×E using a marker × environment interaction (M×E) GS model; the approach is conceptually simple and can be implemented with existing GS software. We discuss how the model can be implemented by using an explicit regression of phenotypes on markers or using co-variance structures (a genomic best linear unbiased prediction-type model). We used the M×E model to analyze three CIMMYT wheat data sets (W1, W2, and W3), where more than 1000 lines were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and evaluated at CIMMYT's research station in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico, under simulated environmental conditions that covered different irrigation levels, sowing dates and planting systems. We compared the M×E model with a stratified (i.e., within-environment) analysis and with a standard (across-environment) GS model that assumes that effects are constant across environments (i.e., ignoring G×E). The prediction accuracy of the M×E model was substantially greater of that of an across-environment analysis that ignores G×E. Depending on the prediction problem, the M×E model had either similar or greater levels of prediction accuracy than the stratified analyses. The M×E model decomposes marker effects and genomic values into components that are stable across environments (main effects) and others that are environment-specific (interactions). Therefore, in principle, the interaction model could shed light over which variants have effects that are stable across environments and which ones are responsible for G×E. The data set and the scripts required to reproduce the analysis are

  20. The Use of Engineering Design Concept for Computer Programming Course: A Model of Blended Learning Environment

    Tritrakan, Kasame; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Asanok, Manit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a learning model which blends factors from learning environment and engineering design concept for learning in computer programming course. The usage of the model was also analyzed. This study presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of the model. The research methodology is divided into three…

  1. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  2. An integrated model of social environment and social context for pediatric rehabilitation.

    Batorowicz, Beata; King, Gillian; Mishra, Lipi; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization and operationalization of "social environment" and "social context" with implications for research and practice with children and youth with impairments. We first discuss social environment and social context as constructs important for understanding interaction between external environmental qualities and the individual's experience. The article considers existing conceptualizations within psychological and sociological bodies of literature, research using these concepts, current developmental theories and issues in the understanding of environment and participation within rehabilitation science. We then describe a model that integrates a person-focused perspective with an environment-focused perspective and that outlines the mechanisms through which children/youth and social environment interact and transact. Finally, we consider the implications of the proposed model for research and clinical practice. This conceptual model directs researchers and practitioners toward interventions that will address the mechanisms of child-environment interaction and that will build capacity within both children and their social environments, including families, peers groups and communities. Health is created and lived by people within the settings of their everyday life; where they learn, work, play, and love [p.2]. Understanding how social environment and personal factors interact over time to affect the development of children/youth can influence the design of services for children and youth with impairments. The model described integrates the individual-focused and environment-focused perspectives and outlines the mechanisms of the ongoing reciprocal interaction between children/youth and their social environments: provision of opportunities, resources and supports and contextual processes of choice, active engagement and collaboration. Addressing these mechanisms could contribute to creating healthier environments in which all

  3. An Open-Source Simulation Environment for Model-Based Engineering, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is a new spacecraft simulation environment for model-based engineering of flight algorithms and software. The goal is to provide a much faster way...

  4. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D

    2003-01-01

    ... architectures including hybrid architectures, and agent and Belief, Desires and Intentions (BDI) architectures. A list of projects with high payoff for modeling human performance in synthetic environments is provided as a conclusion.

  5. User Utility Oriented Queuing Model for Resource Allocation in Cloud Environment

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is one of the most important research topics in servers. In the cloud environment, there are massive hardware resources of different kinds, and many kinds of services are usually run on virtual machines of the cloud server. In addition, cloud environment is commercialized, and economical factor should also be considered. In order to deal with commercialization and virtualization of cloud environment, we proposed a user utility oriented queuing model for task scheduling. Firstly, we modeled task scheduling in cloud environment as an M/M/1 queuing system. Secondly, we classified the utility into time utility and cost utility and built a linear programming model to maximize total utility for both of them. Finally, we proposed a utility oriented algorithm to maximize the total utility. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed model.

  6. Energy/environment 112/98 italian law. From model to feasibility

    Amorosino, S.; Mennella, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper reported some considerations related to the organization and management in matter of energy and environment in regional and local government. Administrative procedures, organizational models and feasibility in the italian regions are reported [it

  7. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis

    Jones, Christopher D; Wolfson, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements and acoustic propagation modeling for the frequency range 1 10 kHz are combined to analyze the acoustic environment of Haro Strait of Puget Sound, home to the southern resident killer whales...

  8. Radiation Environment Model of Protons and Heavier Ions at Jupiter

    Sierra, Luz Maria Martinez; Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2015-01-01

    We performed an in depth study of the methods used to review the geometric factors (GF) and sensitivity to charge particles of the Energetic Particle Detector instrument on board the Galileo Spacecraft. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to understand the interactions of electrons and ions (i. e., protons and alphas) with the sensitive regions of the instrument. The DC0 and B0 channels were studied with the intention of using them to update the jovian proton radiation model. The results proved that the B0 is a clean proton chanel without any concerns for contamination by heavier ions and electrons. In contrast, DC0 was found to be contaminated by electrons. Furthermore, we also found out that the B2 channel is a clean alpha particle channel (in other words, no contamination by electrons and/or protons).

  9. A Stone Resource Assignment Model under the Fuzzy Environment

    Liming Yao

    2012-01-01

    to tackle a stone resource assignment problem with the aim of decreasing dust and waste water emissions. On the upper level, the local government wants to assign a reasonable exploitation amount to each stone plant so as to minimize total emissions and maximize employment and economic profit. On the lower level, stone plants must reasonably assign stone resources to produce different stone products under the exploitation constraint. To deal with inherent uncertainties, the object functions and constraints are defuzzified using a possibility measure. A fuzzy simulation-based improved simulated annealing algorithm (FS-ISA is designed to search for the Pareto optimal solutions. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the model. Results and a comparison analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, which proves to be very efficient compared with other algorithms.

  10. Modeling the behavior of optical elements in radiation environments

    Barlow, T.A.; Rhoades, C.E. Jr.; Merker, M.; Triplett, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Calculation of heating caused by the deposition of x-rays in thin film optical elements is complicated because the mean free path of photo and autoionization electrons is comparable to the thin film thickness and thus the electron deposition cannot be considered local. This paper describes the modeling in a 1-D code of: (a) x-ray deposition and transport; (b) electron production, deposition and transport; and (c) thermal conduction and transport. X-ray transport is handled by multigroup discrete ordinates, electron transport is done by the method of characteristics, applied to the two term spherical harmonics expansion approximation (P1) to the Spencer-Lewis transport equation, and thermal transport is computed by a simple Richardson extrapolation of a backward Euler solution to the heat conduction equations. Results of a few test cases are presented. 8 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Empirical probability model of cold plasma environment in the Jovian magnetosphere

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Barabash, Stas; Roussos, Elias; Truscott, Pete

    2015-04-01

    We analyzed the Galileo PLS dataset to produce a new cold plasma environment model for the Jovian magneto- sphere. Although there exist many sophisticated radiation models, treating energetic plasma (e.g. JOSE, GIRE, or Salammbo), only a limited number of simple models has been utilized for cold plasma environment. By extend- ing the existing cold plasma models toward the probability domain, we can predict the extreme periods of Jovian environment by specifying the percentile of the environmental parameters. The new model was produced in the following procedure. We first referred to the existing cold plasma models of Divine and Garrett, 1983 (DG83) or Bagenal and Delamere 2011 (BD11). These models are scaled to fit the statistical median of the parameters obtained from Galileo PLS data. The scaled model (also called as "mean model") indicates the median environment of Jovian magnetosphere. Then, assuming that the deviations in the Galileo PLS parameters are purely due to variations in the environment, we extended the mean model toward the percentile domain. The input parameter of the model is simply the position of the spacecraft (distance, magnetic longitude and lati- tude) and the specific percentile (e.g. 0.5 for the mean model). All the parameters in the model are described in mathematical forms; therefore the needed computational resources are quite low. The new model can be used for assessing the JUICE mission profile. The spatial extent of the model covers the main phase of the JUICE mission; namely from the Europa orbit to 40 Rj (where Rj is the radius of Jupiter). In addition, theoretical extensions toward the latitudinal direction are also included in the model to support the high latitude orbit of the JUICE spacecraft.

  12. The Discrete Beverton-Holt Model with Periodic Harvesting in a Periodically Fluctuating Environment

    Ziyad AlSharawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of constant and periodic harvesting on the Beverton-Holt model in a periodically fluctuating environment. We show that in a periodically fluctuating environment, periodic harvesting gives a better maximum sustainable yield compared to constant harvesting. However, if one can also fix the environment, then constant harvesting in a constant environment can be a better option, especially for sufficiently large initial populations. Also, we investigate the combinatorial structure of the periodic sequence of carrying capacities and its effect on the maximum sustainable yield. Finally, we leave some questions worth further investigations.

  13. The Lived Environment Life Quality Model for institutionalized people with dementia.

    Wood, Wendy; Lampe, Jenna L; Logan, Christina A; Metcalfe, Amy R; Hoesly, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for a conceptual practice model that explicates ecological complexities involved in using occupation to optimize the quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This study aimed to prepare the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, a dementia-specific conceptual practice model of occupational therapy in institutional facilities, for publication and application to practice. Interviews and focus groups with six expert occupational therapists were subjected to qualitative content analysis to confirm, disconfirm, and further develop the model. The model's lived-environment domain as the focus of assessment and intervention was extensively confirmed, and its quality-of-life domain as the focus of intervention goals and outcomes was both confirmed and further developed. As confirmed in this study, the Lived Environment Life Quality Model is a client-centred, ecologically valid, and occupation-focused guide to optimizing quality of life of institutionalized adults with dementia in present moments and progressively over time.

  14. EXPURT - a model for evaluating exposure from radioactive material deposited in the urban environment

    Crick, M.J.; Brown, J.

    1990-06-01

    This model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), is described in detail. The model simulates the movement of activity deposited on various surfaces in the urban environment and, by taking into account the shielding properties of buildings and the habits of the population, evaluates the external doses to members of the population living in such urban environments, as a function of time after deposition. One of the other advantages of EXPURT over simpler models is that it can be used to assess the possible dose reductions that might be achieved by various decontamination techniques; for example, it can estimate the effectiveness of decontaminating roof surfaces alone in reducing exposure to individuals living in an urban environment. Sensitivity/uncertainty studies have been performed whereby those parameters contributing most to remaining uncertainty in the model's predictions of dose and dose rates were identified. Predictions of the EXPURT model were compared with those from a simpler external dose model in use at NRPB. (author)

  15. Physics-based statistical model and simulation method of RF propagation in urban environments

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan; Dvorak, Steven L.

    2010-09-14

    A physics-based statistical model and simulation/modeling method and system of electromagnetic wave propagation (wireless communication) in urban environments. In particular, the model is a computationally efficient close-formed parametric model of RF propagation in an urban environment which is extracted from a physics-based statistical wireless channel simulation method and system. The simulation divides the complex urban environment into a network of interconnected urban canyon waveguides which can be analyzed individually; calculates spectral coefficients of modal fields in the waveguides excited by the propagation using a database of statistical impedance boundary conditions which incorporates the complexity of building walls in the propagation model; determines statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields; and determines a parametric propagation model based on the statistical parameters of the calculated modal fields from which predictions of communications capability may be made.

  16. Comparison of Space Debris Environment Models: ORDEM2000, MASTER-2001, MASTER-2005 and MASTER-2009

    Kanemitsu, Yuki; 赤星, 保浩; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; 鳴海, 智博; Narumi, Tomohiro; Faure, Pauline; 松本, 晴久; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; 北澤, 幸人; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2012-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact by space debris on spacecraft is one of the most important issues for space development and operation, especially considering the growing amount of space debris in recent years. It is therefore important for spacecraft design to evaluate the impact risk by using environment models. In this paper, the authors compared the results of the debris impact flux in low Earth orbit, as calculated by four debris environment engineering models -NASA's ORDEM2000 and ESA's MASTER-2001...

  17. Family Food Security and Children’s Environment: A Comprehensive Analysis with Structural Equation Modeling

    Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2017-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...

  18. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    Wenyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  19. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement.

  20. Stress-reducing preventive maintenance model for a unit under stressful environment

    Park, J.H.; Chang, Woojin; Lie, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a preventive maintenance (PM) model for a unit operated under stressful environment. The PM model in this paper consists of a failure rate model and two cost models to determine the optimal PM scheduling which minimizes a cost rate. The assumption for the proposed model is that stressful environment accelerates the failure of the unit and periodic maintenances reduce stress from outside. The failure rate model handles the maintenance effect of PM using improvement and stress factors. The cost models are categorized into two failure recognition cases: immediate failure recognition and periodic failure detection. The optimal PM scheduling is obtained by considering the trade-off between the related cost and the lifetime of a unit in our model setting. The practical usage of our proposed model is tested through a numerical example.

  1. Virtual age model for equipment aging plant based on operation environment and service state

    Zhang Liming; Cai Qi; Zhao Xinwen; Chen Ling

    2010-01-01

    The accelerated life model based on the operation environment and service state was established by taking the virtual age as the equipment aging indices. The effect of different operation environments and service states on the reliability and virtual age under the continuum operation conditions and cycle operation conditions were analyzed, and the sensitivities of virtual age on operational environments and service states were studied. The results of the example application show that the effect of NPP equipment lifetime and the key parameters related to the reliability can be quantified by this model, and the result is in accordance with the reality.(authors)

  2. Experimental checking results of mathematical modeling of the radiation environment sensor based on diamond detectors

    Gladchenkov, E V; Kolyubin, V A; Nedosekin, P G; Zaharchenko, K V; Ibragimov, R F; Kadilin, V V; Tyurin, E M

    2017-01-01

    Were conducted a series of experiments, the purpose of which had to verify the mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Theoretical values of the beta particles count rate from 90 Sr - 90 Y source registered by radiation environment sensor was compared with the experimental one. Theoretical (calculated) count rate of beta particles was found with using the developed mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Deviation of the calculated values of the beta particle count rate does not exceed 10% from the experimental. (paper)

  3. The Revised Space Environment Models in CREME-MC: A Replacement for CREME96

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Reed, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Watts, John W.; Weller, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The CREME96 model has been available on the WWW for more than 10 years now. While principally for the estimation of radiation effects on spacecraft electronics, it contains space radiation environment models that have been used for instrument design calculations, estimation of instrumental background, estimation of radiation hazards and many other purposes. Because of the evolution of electronic part design we have found it necessary to revise CREME96, creating CREME-MC. As part of this revision, we are revising and extending the environmental models in CREME96. This talk will describe the revised radiation environment models that are being made available in CREME-MC

  4. Automatic Conversion of a Conceptual Model to a Standard Multi-view Web Services Definition

    Anass Misbah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are becoming more and more heterogeneous and here comes the need to have more generic transformation algorithms and more automatic generation Meta rules. In fact, the large number of terminals, devices, operating systems, platforms and environments require a high level of adaptation. Therefore, it is becoming more and more difficult to validate, generate and implement manually models, designs and codes.Web services are one of the technologies that are used massively nowadays; hence, it is considered as one of technologies that require the most automatic rules of validation and automation. Many previous works have dealt with Web services by proposing new concepts such as Multi-view Web services, standard WSDL implementation of Multi-view Web services and even further Generic Meta rules for automatic generation of Multi-view Web services.In this work we will propose a new way of generating Multi-view Web ser-vices, which is based on an engine algorithm that takes as input both an initial Conceptual Model and user’s matrix and then unroll a generic algorithm to gen-erate dynamically a validated set of points of view. This set of points of view will be transformed to a standard WSDL implementation of Multi-view Web services by means of the automatic transformation Meta rules.

  5. THE MOBILE SPACE AND MOBILE TARGETING ENVIRONMENT FOR INTERNET USERS: FEATURES OF MODEL SUBMISSION AND USING IN EDUCATION

    V. Bykov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Article submitted the results of the analysis of the use of mobile devices in education. The substantiation of the definition of user mobility in the Internet space, taking into account the variability of mobile devices and communications. The use of mobile devices in the educational process is based on the paradigm of open and equal access to quality education. Considered the technology of using different types of devices and their functions . The conditions of user mobility in the internet environment, the factors influencing it, the creation and storage of mobile communications resources . Provided with basic mathematical model of user behavior in a virtual network. A model of migration as a user from device to device , and its geographic move , and then use the resulting model for the design of distance learning systems . Preliminary forecasts have been made on the development of education in the transition from the remote technology to open. It is assumed the appearance of new types of personal devices that will combine the power of a desktop PC and the autonomy of smartphones with constant access for broadband wireless connection to the Internet. The use of cloud technology to store and process information resources training helps centralize and synchronize data and access to them from different devices.

  6. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  7. A cooperative model for IS security risk management in distributed environment.

    Feng, Nan; Zheng, Chundong

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing cooperation between organizations, the flexible exchange of security information across the allied organizations is critical to effectively manage information systems (IS) security in a distributed environment. In this paper, we develop a cooperative model for IS security risk management in a distributed environment. In the proposed model, the exchange of security information among the interconnected IS under distributed environment is supported by Bayesian networks (BNs). In addition, for an organization's IS, a BN is utilized to represent its security environment and dynamically predict its security risk level, by which the security manager can select an optimal action to safeguard the firm's information resources. The actual case studied illustrates the cooperative model presented in this paper and how it can be exploited to manage the distributed IS security risk effectively.

  8. Improvement of sweating model in 2-Node Model and its application to thermal safety for hot environments

    Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 8505 (Japan); Minami, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Sakoi, Tomonori [International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Tsuzuki, Kazuyo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Rijal, H.B. [Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, due to global warming and the heat-island effect, more and more people are exposed to the dangers of heat disorders. A hot thermal environment can be evaluated using various indices, such as new Standard Effective Temperature (SET{sup *}) using the 2-Node Model (2 NM), Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, and so on. The authors aim to develop a safety evaluation approach for hot environments. Subject experiments are performed in a laboratory to comprehend the physiological response of the human body. The results are compared with the computed values from the 2 NM and PHS models, and improved the sweating model in 2 NM in order to take into account the relationship with metabolic rate. A demonstration is provided of using the new sweating model for evaluating thermal safety in a hot environment. (author)

  9. The future of the global environment. A model-based analysis supporting UNEP's first global environment outlook

    Bakkes, J.; Van Woerden, J.; Alcamo, J.; Berk, M.; Bol, P.; Van den Born, G.J.; Ten Brink, B.; Hettelingh, J.P.; Niessen, L.; Langeweg, F.; Swart, R.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated assessments in support of environmental policy have been applied to a number of countries and regions, and to international negotiations. UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook (GEO-1) can be seen as a step towards making the tool of integrated assessment more widely available as a means for focusing action. This technical report documents RIVM's contribution to the GEO-1 report, focusing on the subject 'looking ahead'. It is illustrated that a 'what if' analysis helps to look beyond the delays in environmental and resource processes. This report illustrates that integrated assessment and modelling techniques can be excellent tools for environment and development policy-setting. The methodology, however, will need to be further developed and adapted to the realities and expectations of diverse regions, incorporating alternative policy strategies and development scenarios. This report focuses primarily on the period 1970-2015, because reliable historical data are often only generally available from 1970 onwards and the year 2015 is believed to match the time perspective of decision-makers. The findings of the analysis are reported in terms of six regions, corresponding with the division of the UNEP regional offices. Questions asked are: how will socioeconomic driving forces affect freshwater and land resources, and how will these changes mutually interact, and why are these changes important for society? Chapter 2 deals with the development of the social and economic driving forces. In the Chapters 3 and 4 it is discussed how this pressure influences selected aspects of the environment. Chapter 3 alone addresses the importance of selected elements of the interacting global element cycles for environmental quality, while Chapter 4 addresses land resources, their potential for food production and associated dependence on freshwater resources. The impacts on selected components of natural areas (Chapter 5) and society (Chapter 6) are subsequently addressed

  10. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  11. Bottom-up learning of hierarchical models in a class of deterministic POMDP environments

    Itoh Hideaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs is a useful tool for developing various intelligent agents, and learning hierarchical POMDP models is one of the key approaches for building such agents when the environments of the agents are unknown and large. To learn hierarchical models, bottom-up learning methods in which learning takes place in a layer-by-layer manner from the lowest to the highest layer are already extensively used in some research fields such as hidden Markov models and neural networks. However, little attention has been paid to bottom-up approaches for learning POMDP models. In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up learning algorithm for hierarchical POMDP models and prove that, by using this algorithm, a perfect model (i.e., a model that can perfectly predict future observations can be learned at least in a class of deterministic POMDP environments

  12. Optimization of multi-environment trials for genomic selection based on crop models.

    Rincent, R; Kuhn, E; Monod, H; Oury, F-X; Rousset, M; Allard, V; Le Gouis, J

    2017-08-01

    We propose a statistical criterion to optimize multi-environment trials to predict genotype × environment interactions more efficiently, by combining crop growth models and genomic selection models. Genotype × environment interactions (GEI) are common in plant multi-environment trials (METs). In this context, models developed for genomic selection (GS) that refers to the use of genome-wide information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates need to be adapted. One promising way to increase prediction accuracy in various environments is to combine ecophysiological and genetic modelling thanks to crop growth models (CGM) incorporating genetic parameters. The efficiency of this approach relies on the quality of the parameter estimates, which depends on the environments composing this MET used for calibration. The objective of this study was to determine a method to optimize the set of environments composing the MET for estimating genetic parameters in this context. A criterion called OptiMET was defined to this aim, and was evaluated on simulated and real data, with the example of wheat phenology. The MET defined with OptiMET allowed estimating the genetic parameters with lower error, leading to higher QTL detection power and higher prediction accuracies. MET defined with OptiMET was on average more efficient than random MET composed of twice as many environments, in terms of quality of the parameter estimates. OptiMET is thus a valuable tool to determine optimal experimental conditions to best exploit MET and the phenotyping tools that are currently developed.

  13. Modeling Students' Problem Solving Performance in the Computer-Based Mathematics Learning Environment

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…

  14. Model to predict the radiological consequences of transportation of radioactive material through an urban environment

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; DuCharme, A.R.; Finley, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    A model has been developed which predicts the radiological consequences of the transportation of radioactive material in and around urban environments. This discussion of the model includes discussion of the following general topics: health effects from radiation exposure, urban area characterization, computation of dose resulting from normal transportation, computation of dose resulting from vehicular accidents or sabotage, and preliminary results and conclusions

  15. A body temperature model for lizards as estimated from the thermal environment

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Venus, V.; Wang, T.; Schlerf, M.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Overjijk, van S.; Bian, B.M.; Liu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A physically based model was built to predict the transient body temperature of lizards in a thermally heterogeneous environment. Six heat transfer terms were taken into account in this model: solar radiation, convective heat flow, longwave radiation, conductive heat flow, metabolic heat gain and

  16. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  17. The retention characteristics of nonvolatile SNOS memory transistors in a radiation environment: Experiment and model

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Dellin, T.A.; Axness, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and a model to accurately and quantitatively predict the data are presented for retention of SNOS memory devices over a wide range of dose rates. A wide range of SNOS stack geometries are examined. The model is designed to aid in screening nonvolatile memories for use in a radiation environment

  18. Establishing 3d numerical reservoir analogues : Modelling the formation of sand bodies in deltaic environments

    van der Vegt, H.; Storms, J.E.A.; Walstra, D.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and production of hydrocarbon resources incorporates geological models created from core and wireline well data, as well as seismic data. This data is spatially discrete but is used create a spatially continuous model. However, the heterogeneity within depositional environments is on

  19. Conceptualization of Approaches and Thought Processes Emerging in Validating of Model in Mathematical Modeling in Technology Aided Environment

    Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Bukova Güzel, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conceptualize the approaches displayed for validation of model and thought processes provided in mathematical modeling process performed in technology-aided learning environment. The participants of this grounded theory study were nineteen secondary school mathematics student teachers. The data gathered from the…

  20. Homogenization of a Directed Dispersal Model for Animal Movement in a Heterogeneous Environment.

    Yurk, Brian P

    2016-10-01

    The dispersal patterns of animals moving through heterogeneous environments have important ecological and epidemiological consequences. In this work, we apply the method of homogenization to analyze an advection-diffusion (AD) model of directed movement in a one-dimensional environment in which the scale of the heterogeneity is small relative to the spatial scale of interest. We show that the large (slow) scale behavior is described by a constant-coefficient diffusion equation under certain assumptions about the fast-scale advection velocity, and we determine a formula for the slow-scale diffusion coefficient in terms of the fast-scale parameters. We extend the homogenization result to predict invasion speeds for an advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) model with directed dispersal. For periodic environments, the homogenization approximation of the solution of the AD model compares favorably with numerical simulations. Invasion speed approximations for the ADR model also compare favorably with numerical simulations when the spatial period is sufficiently small.

  1. Urbancontext: A Management Model For Pervasive Environments In User-Oriented Urban Computing

    Claudia L. Zuniga-Canon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, urban computing has gained a lot of interest for guiding the evolution of citiesinto intelligent environments. These environments are appropriated for individuals’ inter-actions changing in their behaviors. These changes require new approaches that allow theunderstanding of how urban computing systems should be modeled.In this work we present UrbanContext, a new model for designing of urban computingplatforms that applies the theory of roles to manage the individual’s context in urban envi-ronments. The theory of roles helps to understand the individual’s behavior within a socialenvironment, allowing to model urban computing systems able to adapt to individuals statesand their needs.UrbanContext collects data in urban atmospheres and classifies individuals’ behaviorsaccording to their change of roles, to optimize social interaction and offer secure services.Likewise, UrbanContext serves as a generic model to provide interoperability, and to facilitatethe design, implementation and expansion of urban computing systems.

  2. The Johnson Space Center Management Information Systems (JSCMIS). 1: Requirements Definition and Design Specifications for Versions 2.1 and 2.1.1. 2: Documented Test Scenario Environments. 3: Security Design and Specifications

    1986-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Management Information System (JSCMIS) is an interface to computer data bases at NASA Johnson which allows an authorized user to browse and retrieve information from a variety of sources with minimum effort. This issue gives requirements definition and design specifications for versions 2.1 and 2.1.1, along with documented test scenario environments, and security object design and specifications.

  3. The advancement of the built environment research through employment of structural equation modeling (SEM)

    Wasilah, S.; Fahmyddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    The employment of structural equation modeling (SEM) in research has taken an increasing attention in among researchers in built environment. There is a gap to understand the attributes, application, and importance of this approach in data analysis in built environment study. This paper intends to provide fundamental comprehension of SEM method in data analysis, unveiling attributes, employment and significance and bestow cases to assess associations amongst variables and constructs. The study uses some main literature to grasp the essence of SEM regarding with built environment research. The better acknowledgment of this analytical tool may assist the researcher in the built environment to analyze data under complex research questions and to test multivariate models in a single study.

  4. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  5. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  6. Model-Based Learning Environment Based on The Concept IPS School-Based Management

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results showed: (1 learning model IPS-oriented environment can grow and not you love the cultural values of the area as a basis for the development of national culture, (2 community participation, and the role of government in implementing learning model of IPS-based environment provides a positive impact for the improvement of management school resources, (3 learning model IPS-based environment effectively creating a way of life together peacefully, increase the intensity of togetherness and mutual respect (4 learning model IPS-based environment can improve student learning outcomes, (5 there are differences in the expression of attitudes and results learning among students who are located in the area of conflict with students who are outside the area of conflict (6 analysis of the scale of attitudes among school students da SMA result rewards high school students to the values of unity and nation, respect for diversity and peaceful coexistence, It is recommended that the Department of Education authority as an institution of Trustees and the development of social and cultural values in the province can apply IPS learning model based environments.

  7. A Model for Urban Environment and Resource Planning Based on Green GDP Accounting System

    Linyu Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment and resources are currently on course that is unsustainable in the long run due to excessive human pursuit of economic goals. Thus, it is very important to develop a model to analyse the relationship between urban economic development and environmental resource protection during the process of rapid urbanisation. This paper proposed a model to identify the key factors in urban environment and resource regulation based on a green GDP accounting system, which consisted of four parts: economy, society, resource, and environment. In this model, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method and a modified Pearl curve model were combined to allow for dynamic evaluation, with higher green GDP value as the planning target. The model was applied to the environmental and resource planning problem of Wuyishan City, and the results showed that energy use was a key factor that influenced the urban environment and resource development. Biodiversity and air quality were the most sensitive factors that influenced the value of green GDP in the city. According to the analysis, the urban environment and resource planning could be improved for promoting sustainable development in Wuyishan City.

  8. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE IN THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF UKRAINE

    Maryna V. Pirko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental feature of economy of postindustrial society is the knowledge that represents the basic source of competitive advantage. In the article the circle of didactic, psychological indicators in researches of problems of achievement of a high degree of quality of education and educational services is considered and described. The attention is paid to pedagogical requirements of the given period which are a standard substantiation in orientations for quality estimation of software tools for educational purpose of the general educational environment in Ukraine. The scheme of internal model of maintenance of quality of software tools for educational purpose is considered, the aspects integrated by internal model of quality of software for educational purpose are listed. The article describes the directions of researches in the conditions of formation of the global international educational environment and uniform information space of  education system taking into account the growth of availability of educational services. It is specified the main principles in the organization of pedagogical software tools.

  9. Designing distributed user interfaces for ambient intelligent environments using models and simulations

    LUYTEN, Kris; VAN DEN BERGH, Jan; VANDERVELPEN, Chris; CONINX, Karin

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing demand for design support to create interactive systems that are deployed in ambient intelligent environments. Unlike traditional interactive systems, the wide diversity of situations these type of user interfaces need to work in require tool support that is close to the environment of the end-user on the one hand and provide a smooth integration with the application logic on the other hand. This paper shows how the model-based user interface development methodology can be ...

  10. AMMI model in the analysis of genotype by environment interaction of conventionally and organically grown onion

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to assess the stability of direct yield components (bulb weight and number plot-1 and other yield contributing characteristics (bulb diameter, height and index, neck diameter and length, plant height, emergence and vegetation period in five commercial onion cultivars grown in conventional and organic environments, by employing additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI statistical model in data analysis. The two-year field trial organized in complete randomized blocks included the plots maintained in four regimes: mineral fertilization (conventional, without fertilization, fertilization with farmyard manure and with bacterial fertilizer (organic. Each treatment by year combination was considered as an environment. Analysis of variance of AMMI model calculated for the investigated traits showed that all sources of variation (genotypes, environments, genotype by environment interaction were highly significant. The largest proportions of the total sum of squares were encompassed by environments, except for emergence and bulb index with the pronounced effect of genotypes (67.26 and 52.54%, respectively and neck length with the genotype by environment interaction amounting 44.59%. Generally, the effects of the interactions were in the common range. The AMMI model with two axes was concluded as the best model for the investigated traits. Onions grown in conventional system outperformed the organic ones. However, good performance of the genotypes was accompanied with low stability across the environments and vice versa. Therefore breeding programs intended to develop cultivars adapted to alternative production systems should rely on the experiments set in the corresponding environments that include various combinations of genotypes and agro-technical procedures based on the principles of organic agriculture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31059

  11. ANTHEM2000TM: Integration of the ANTHEM Thermal Hydraulic Model in the ROSETM Environment

    Boire, R.; Nguyen, M; Salim, G.

    1999-01-01

    ROSEN TM is an object oriented, visual programming environment used for many applications, including the development of power plant simulators. ROSE provides an integrated suite of tools for the creation, calibration, test, integration, configuration management and documentation of process, electrical and I and C models. CAE recently undertook an ambitious project to integrate its two phase thermal hydraulic model ANTHEM TM into the ROSE environment. ANTHEM is a non equilibrium, non-homogenous model based on the drift flux formalism. CAE has used the model in numerous two phase applications for nuclear and fossil power plant simulators. The integration of ANTHEM into ROSE brings the full power of visual based programming to two phase modeling applications. Features include graphical model building, calibration tools, a superior test environment and process visualisation. In addition the integration of ANTHEM into ROSE makes it possible to easily apply the fidelity of ANTHEM to BOP applications. This paper describes the implementation of the ANTHEM model within the ROSE environment and gives examples of its use. (author)

  12. Mathematical model of a current of two plastic environments in the forming channel extruders at coextrusion

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the classical equations of an isothermal pressure head current of two rheology the various not mixing up viscou- plastic environments in the cylindrical channel, Ostvald-de-Vil submitting to the law, the model of a current of two viscous-plastic environments in the moulding channel extruder is synthesised at co-extrusion on which basis the technique of a choice of diameter of a dosing out branch pipe on the demanded value of the ratio of volume expenditures of two viscous-plastic environments (extrudat and stuffings is offered.

  13. Spontaneous cortical activity reveals hallmarks of an optimal internal model of the environment.

    Berkes, Pietro; Orbán, Gergo; Lengyel, Máté; Fiser, József

    2011-01-07

    The brain maintains internal models of its environment to interpret sensory inputs and to prepare actions. Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that these internal models are optimally adapted to the statistics of the environment, the neural underpinning of this adaptation is unknown. Using a Bayesian model of sensory cortical processing, we related stimulus-evoked and spontaneous neural activities to inferences and prior expectations in an internal model and predicted that they should match if the model is statistically optimal. To test this prediction, we analyzed visual cortical activity of awake ferrets during development. Similarity between spontaneous and evoked activities increased with age and was specific to responses evoked by natural scenes. This demonstrates the progressive adaptation of internal models to the statistics of natural stimuli at the neural level.

  14. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among ...

  15. A Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere Model for the Circumstellar Environments of Magnetic OB Stars

    Townsend, R.; Owocki, S.; Groote, D.

    2005-11-01

    We report on a new model for the circumstellar environments of rotating, magnetic hot stars. This model predicts the channeling of wind plasma into a corotating magnetosphere, where -- supported against gravity by centrifugal forces -- it can steadily accumulate over time. We apply the model to the B2p star σ Ori E, demonstrating that it can simultaneously reproduce the spectroscopic, photometric and magnetic variations exhibited by the star.

  16. Integrated model of port oil piping transportation system safety including operating environment threats

    Kołowrocki Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.

  17. The effect of neighbourhood definitions on spatio-temporal models of disease outbreaks: Separation distance versus range overlap.

    Laffan, Shawn W; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Ward, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    The definition of the spatial relatedness between infectious and susceptible animal groups is a fundamental component of spatio-temporal modelling of disease outbreaks. A common neighbourhood definition for disease spread in wild and feral animal populations is the distance between the centroids of neighbouring group home ranges. This distance can be used to define neighbourhood interactions, and also to describe the probability of successful disease transmission. Key limitations of this approach are (1) that a susceptible neighbour of an infectious group with an overlapping home range - but whose centroid lies outside the home range of an infectious group - will not be considered for disease transmission, and (2) the degree of overlap between the home ranges is not taken into account for those groups with centroids inside the infectious home range. We assessed the impact of both distance-based and range overlap methods of disease transmission on model-predicted disease spread. Range overlap was calculated using home ranges modelled as circles. We used the Sirca geographic automata model, with the population data from a nine-county study area in Texas that we have previously described. For each method we applied 100 model repetitions, each of 100 time steps, to 30 index locations. The results show that the rate of disease spread for the range-overlap method is clearly less than the distance-based method, with median outbreaks modelled using the latter being 1.4-1.45 times larger. However, the two methods show similar overall trends in the area infected, and the range-overlap median (48 and 120 for cattle and pigs, respectively) falls within the 5th-95th percentile range of the distance-based method (0-96 and 0-252 for cattle and pigs, respectively). These differences can be attributed to the calculation of the interaction probabilities in the two methods, with overlap weights generally resulting in lower interaction probabilities. The definition of spatial

  18. Lithium-ion Battery Electrothermal Model, Parameter Estimation, and Simulation Environment

    Simone Orcioni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The market for lithium-ion batteries is growing exponentially. The performance of battery cells is growing due to improving production technology, but market request is growing even more rapidly. Modeling and characterization of single cells and an efficient simulation environment is fundamental for the development of an efficient battery management system. The present work is devoted to defining a novel lumped electrothermal circuit of a single battery cell, the extraction procedure of the parameters of the single cell from experiments, and a simulation environment in SystemC-WMS for the simulation of a battery pack. The electrothermal model of the cell was validated against experimental measurements obtained in a climatic chamber. The model is then used to simulate a 48-cell battery, allowing statistical variations among parameters. The different behaviors of the cells in terms of state of charge, current, voltage, or heat flow rate can be observed in the results of the simulation environment.

  19. Model for evaluation of the radiological exposure in an urban environment after a radioactive contamination

    Rochedo, Elaine Rua Rodriguez

    1994-08-01

    A dynamic model aimed on the assessment of the long-term consequences of an accidental contamination of an urban environments has been developed. The model was designed to assess the radiation exposure, as a function of time, of the different kinds of people that uses the contaminated environment, the relative contribution of each exposure pathway and to simulate the application of countermeasures and its effects on the reduction of surfaces contamination and on the exposure of the individuals and of the population. The model is an empirical one, mainly based on environmental data gathered after the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents, and takes into account climatic and population habits characteristic of tropical areas. The model was applied here to a contamination with the radionuclide 137 Cs but can be easily adapted to other nuclides by changes on parameter values. An analysis of the variabilities associated to the model outputs regarding population habits, different kinds of urban environment and parameters uncertainty has shown that the main source of uncertainty on model predictions is associated to a correct knowledge of population characteristics, its habits and used of the contaminated environment. (author)

  20. A web-based, collaborative modeling, simulation, and parallel computing environment for electromechanical systems

    Xiaoliang Yin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex electromechanical system is usually composed of multiple components from different domains, including mechanical, electronic, hydraulic, control, and so on. Modeling and simulation for electromechanical system on a unified platform is one of the research hotspots in system engineering at present. It is also the development trend of the design for complex electromechanical system. The unified modeling techniques and tools based on Modelica language provide a satisfactory solution. To meet with the requirements of collaborative modeling, simulation, and parallel computing for complex electromechanical systems based on Modelica, a general web-based modeling and simulation prototype environment, namely, WebMWorks, is designed and implemented. Based on the rich Internet application technologies, an interactive graphic user interface for modeling and post-processing on web browser was implemented; with the collaborative design module, the environment supports top-down, concurrent modeling and team cooperation; additionally, service-oriented architecture–based architecture was applied to supply compiling and solving services which run on cloud-like servers, so the environment can manage and dispatch large-scale simulation tasks in parallel on multiple computing servers simultaneously. An engineering application about pure electric vehicle is tested on WebMWorks. The results of simulation and parametric experiment demonstrate that the tested web-based environment can effectively shorten the design cycle of the complex electromechanical system.

  1. DETERMINATION OF RESOLUTION LIMITS OF ELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY ON THE BLOCK MODEL IN A HOMOGENOUS ENVIRONMENT BY MEANS OF ELECTRICAL MODELLING

    Franjo Šumanovac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The block model in a homogenous environment can generally serve for presentation of some geological models: changes of facies, changes of rock compactness-fragmentation, underground cavities, bauxite deposits, etc. Therefore, on the block model of increased resistivities in a homogenous environment of low resistivity, the potentials of the electrical tomography method were tested for the purpose of their detection. Regarding potentials of block detection, resolution methods depend on: depth of block location, ratio between block resistivity and the environment in which it is located as well as applied survey geometry, i.e. electrode array. Thus the analyses carried out for the most frequently used electrode arrays in the investigations are the following: the Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole and pole-pole arrays. For each array, maximum depths at which a block can be detected relative to the ratio between block resistivity and parent rock environment were analyzed. The results are shown in the two-dimensional graphs, where the ratio between the block resistivity and the environment is shown on the X-axis, and the resolution depth on the Y-axis, after which the curves defining the resolution limits were drawn. These graphs have a practical use, since they enable a fast, simple determination of potentials of the method application on a specific geological model.

  2. Introduction to the development of models of radionuclides transfer in the environment

    Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1994-01-01

    This work explores the foundations of radioecological modelization with environmental assessment pourposes. In particular its relation with the theory of dynamic systems, and the basic hypothesis underlying the modelization practices. Some very theoretical considerations are followed by some guidelines for the application of the concepts to specific problems of radiological modelization in assessment of consequences. In particular, the report studies the mechanisms most frequently involved in the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the steps to generate a predictive model, the obtaining of generic parameters and finally the uncertainty analysis of the model. (Author) 41 refs

  3. Introduction to the development of models of radionuclides transfer in the environment

    Garcia-Olivares, A.

    1994-01-01

    This work explores the foundations of radioecological modelization with environmental assessment purposes. In particular its relation with the theory of dynamic systems, and the basic hypothesis underlying the modelization practices. Some very theoretical considerations are followed by some guidelines for the application of the concepts to specific problems of radiological modelization in assessment of consequences. In particular, the report studies the mechanisms most frequently involved in the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the steps to generate a predictive model, the obtaining of generic parameters and finally the uncertainty analysis of the model. (Author) 41 refs

  4. Introduction to the development of models of radionuclides transfer in the environment

    Garcia-Olivares, A

    1994-07-01

    This work explores the foundations of radioecological modelization with environmental assessment purposes. In particular its relation with the theory of dynamic systems, and the basic hypothesis underlying the modelization practices. Some very theoretical considerations are followed by some guidelines for the application of the concepts to specific problems of radiological modelization in assessment of consequences. In particular, the report studies the mechanisms most frequently involved in the radionuclide transfer through the environment, the steps to generate a predictive model, the obtaining of generic parameters and finally the uncertainty analysis of the model. (Author) 41 refs.

  5. Development of a QTL-environment-based predictive model for node addition rate in common bean.

    Zhang, Li; Gezan, Salvador A; Eduardo Vallejos, C; Jones, James W; Boote, Kenneth J; Clavijo-Michelangeli, Jose A; Bhakta, Mehul; Osorno, Juan M; Rao, Idupulapati; Beebe, Stephen; Roman-Paoli, Elvin; Gonzalez, Abiezer; Beaver, James; Ricaurte, Jaumer; Colbert, Raphael; Correll, Melanie J

    2017-05-01

    This work reports the effects of the genetic makeup, the environment and the genotype by environment interactions for node addition rate in an RIL population of common bean. This information was used to build a predictive model for node addition rate. To select a plant genotype that will thrive in targeted environments it is critical to understand the genotype by environment interaction (GEI). In this study, multi-environment QTL analysis was used to characterize node addition rate (NAR, node day - 1 ) on the main stem of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L). This analysis was carried out with field data of 171 recombinant inbred lines that were grown at five sites (Florida, Puerto Rico, 2 sites in Colombia, and North Dakota). Four QTLs (Nar1, Nar2, Nar3 and Nar4) were identified, one of which had significant QTL by environment interactions (QEI), that is, Nar2 with temperature. Temperature was identified as the main environmental factor affecting NAR while day length and solar radiation played a minor role. Integration of sites as covariates into a QTL mixed site-effect model, and further replacing the site component with explanatory environmental covariates (i.e., temperature, day length and solar radiation) yielded a model that explained 73% of the phenotypic variation for NAR with root mean square error of 16.25% of the mean. The QTL consistency and stability was examined through a tenfold cross validation with different sets of genotypes and these four QTLs were always detected with 50-90% probability. The final model was evaluated using leave-one-site-out method to assess the influence of site on node addition rate. These analyses provided a quantitative measure of the effects on NAR of common beans exerted by the genetic makeup, the environment and their interactions.

  6. Community Digital Library Requirements for the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME)

    Moore, R.; Faerman, M.; Minster, J.; Day, S. M.; Ely, G.

    2003-12-01

    A community digital library provides support for ingestion, organization, description, preservation, and access of digital entities. The technologies that traditionally provide these capabilities are digital libraries (ingestion, organization, description), persistent archives (preservation) and data grids (access). We present a design for the SCEC community digital library that incorporates aspects of all three systems. Multiple groups have created integrated environments that sustain large-scale scientific data collections. By examining these projects, the following stages of implementation can be identified: \\begin{itemize} Definition of semantic terms to associate with relevant information. This includes definition of uniform content descriptors to describe physical quantities relevant to the scientific discipline, and creation of concept spaces to define how the uniform content descriptors are logically related. Organization of digital entities into logical collections that make it simple to browse and manage related material. Definition of services that are used to access and manipulate material in the collection. Creation of a preservation environment for the long-term management of the collection. Each community is faced with heterogeneity that is introduced when data is distributed across multiple sites, or when multiple sets of collection semantics are used, and or when multiple scientific sub-disciplines are federated. We will present the relevant standards that simplify the implementation of the SCEC community library, the resource requirements for different types of data sets that drive the implementation, and the digital library processes that the SCEC community library will support. The SCEC community library can be viewed as the set of processing steps that are required to build the appropriate SCEC reference data sets (SCEC approved encoding format, SCEC approved descriptive metadata, SCEC approved collection organization, and SCEC managed storage

  7. Using ecosystem services to represent the environment in hydro-economic models

    Momblanch, Andrea; Connor, Jeffery D.; Crossman, Neville D.; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Demand for water is expected to grow in line with global human population growth, but opportunities to augment supply are limited in many places due to resource limits and expected impacts of climate change. Hydro-economic models are often used to evaluate water resources management options, commonly with a goal of understanding how to maximise water use value and reduce conflicts among competing uses. The environment is now an important factor in decision making, which has resulted in its inclusion in hydro-economic models. We reviewed 95 studies applying hydro-economic models, and documented how the environment is represented in them and the methods they use to value environmental costs and benefits. We also sought out key gaps and inconsistencies in the treatment of the environment in hydro-economic models. We found that representation of environmental values of water is patchy in most applications, and there should be systematic consideration of the scope of environmental values to include and how they should be valued. We argue that the ecosystem services framework offers a systematic approach to identify the full range of environmental costs and benefits. The main challenges to more holistic representation of the environment in hydro-economic models are the current limits to understanding of ecological functions which relate physical, ecological and economic values and critical environmental thresholds; and the treatment of uncertainty.

  8. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Sergio eLuengo-Sanchez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by experts in neuroanatomy to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons more or less as an expert does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  9. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models.

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species.

  10. A univocal definition of the neuronal soma morphology using Gaussian mixture models

    Luengo-Sanchez, Sergio; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the soma is fuzzy, as there is no clear line demarcating the soma of the labeled neurons and the origin of the dendrites and axon. Thus, the morphometric analysis of the neuronal soma is highly subjective. In this paper, we provide a mathematical definition and an automatic segmentation method to delimit the neuronal soma. We applied this method to the characterization of pyramidal cells, which are the most abundant neurons in the cerebral cortex. Since there are no benchmarks with which to compare the proposed procedure, we validated the goodness of this automatic segmentation method against manual segmentation by neuroanatomists to set up a framework for comparison. We concluded that there were no significant differences between automatically and manually segmented somata, i.e., the proposed procedure segments the neurons similarly to how a neuroanatomist does. It also provides univocal, justifiable and objective cutoffs. Thus, this study is a means of characterizing pyramidal neurons in order to objectively compare the morphometry of the somata of these neurons in different cortical areas and species. PMID:26578898

  11. Genotype by environment interaction for 450-day weight of Nelore cattle analyzed by reaction norm models

    Newton T. Pégolo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype by environment interactions (GEI have attracted increasing attention in tropical breeding programs because of the variety of production systems involved. In this work, we assessed GEI in 450-day adjusted weight (W450 Nelore cattle from 366 Brazilian herds by comparing traditional univariate single-environment model analysis (UM and random regression first order reaction norm models for six environmental variables: standard deviations of herd-year (RRMw and herd-year-season-management (RRMw-m groups for mean W450, standard deviations of herd-year (RRMg and herd-year-season-management (RRMg-m groups adjusted for 365-450 days weight gain (G450 averages, and two iterative algorithms using herd-year-season-management group solution estimates from a first RRMw-m and RRMg-m analysis (RRMITw-m and RRMITg-m, respectively. The RRM results showed similar tendencies in the variance components and heritability estimates along environmental gradient. Some of the variation among RRM estimates may have been related to the precision of the predictor and to correlations between environmental variables and the likely components of the weight trait. GEI, which was assessed by estimating the genetic correlation surfaces, had values < 0.5 between extreme environments in all models. Regression analyses showed that the correlation between the expected progeny differences for UM and the corresponding differences estimated by RRM was higher in intermediate and favorable environments than in unfavorable environments (p < 0.0001.

  12. Modelling categorical data to identify factors influencing concern for the natural environment in Iran.

    Parizanganeh, Abdolhossein; Lakhan, V Chris; Yazdani, Mahmoud; Ahmad, Sajid R

    2011-10-01

    Loglinear modelling techniques were used to identify the interactions and interrelationships underlying categorical environmental concern data collected from 9062 respondents in Iran. After fitting various loglinear models to the data, the most parsimonious model highlighted that a combination of interacting factors, namely educational attainment, age, gender, and residential location were responsible for influencing personal concern for the environment. Although high educational attainment had a close correspondence with high concern for the environment the loglinear results, when visualized with a geographical information system, demonstrated wide spatial variations in educational attainment and concern for the environment. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents were not highly educated, and were therefore not highly concerned for the environment. The finding that both rural and urban male and female respondents in the 15-24 years age category, with 10-12 years of education, had the strongest interaction with personal concern for the environment could be beneficial for policy planners to utilize education as the primary instrument to enhance environmental governance and prospects for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 51.1000 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 51.1000 Section 51.1000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1000 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this...

  14. 40 CFR 26.202 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.202 Section 26.202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Prohibition of... Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.202 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.102 shall be applicable to this...

  15. 40 CFR 26.1202 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1202 Section 26.1202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Prohibition of... Pregnant or Nursing Women § 26.1202 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.1102 shall be applicable to this...

  16. Gaps Analysis of Integrating Product Design, Manufacturing, and Quality Data in The Supply Chain Using Model-Based Definition.

    Trainer, Asa; Hedberg, Thomas; Feeney, Allison Barnard; Fischer, Kevin; Rosche, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in information technology triggered a digital revolution that holds promise of reduced costs, improved productivity, and higher quality. To ride this wave of innovation, manufacturing enterprises are changing how product definitions are communicated - from paper to models. To achieve industry's vision of the Model-Based Enterprise (MBE), the MBE strategy must include model-based data interoperability from design to manufacturing and quality in the supply chain. The Model-Based Definition (MBD) is created by the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. This information is then shared with the supplier so that they can manufacture and inspect the physical parts. Today, suppliers predominantly use Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) models for these tasks. Traditionally, the OEM has provided design data to the supplier in the form of two-dimensional (2D) drawings, but may also include a three-dimensional (3D)-shape-geometry model, often in a standards-based format such as ISO 10303-203:2011 (STEP AP203). The supplier then creates the respective CAM and CMM models and machine programs to produce and inspect the parts. In the MBE vision for model-based data exchange, the CAD model must include product-and-manufacturing information (PMI) in addition to the shape geometry. Today's CAD tools can generate models with embedded PMI. And, with the emergence of STEP AP242, a standards-based model with embedded PMI can now be shared downstream. The on-going research detailed in this paper seeks to investigate three concepts. First, that the ability to utilize a STEP AP242 model with embedded PMI for CAD-to-CAM and CAD-to-CMM data exchange is possible and valuable to the overall goal of a more efficient process. Second, the research identifies gaps in tools, standards, and processes that inhibit industry's ability to cost-effectively achieve model-based-data interoperability in the pursuit of the

  17. Applying nonlinear MODM model to supply chain management with quantity discount policy under complex fuzzy environment

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to deal with the supply chain management (SCM with quantity discount policy under the complex fuzzy environment, which is characterized as the bi-fuzzy variables. By taking into account the strategy and the process of decision making, a bi-fuzzy nonlinear multiple objective decision making (MODM model is presented to solve the proposed problem.Design/methodology/approach: The bi-fuzzy variables in the MODM model are transformed into the trapezoidal fuzzy variables by the DMs's degree of optimism ?1 and ?2, which are de-fuzzified by the expected value index subsequently. For solving the complex nonlinear model, a multi-objective adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm (MO-APSO is designed as the solution method.Findings: The proposed model and algorithm are applied to a typical example of SCM problem to illustrate the effectiveness. Based on the sensitivity analysis of the results, the bi-fuzzy nonlinear MODM SCM model is proved to be sensitive to the possibility level ?1.Practical implications: The study focuses on the SCM under complex fuzzy environment in SCM, which has a great practical significance. Therefore, the bi-fuzzy MODM model and MO-APSO can be further applied in SCM problem with quantity discount policy.Originality/value: The bi-fuzzy variable is employed in the nonlinear MODM model of SCM to characterize the hybrid uncertain environment, and this work is original. In addition, the hybrid crisp approach is proposed to transferred to model to an equivalent crisp one by the DMs's degree of optimism and the expected value index. Since the MODM model consider the bi-fuzzy environment and quantity discount policy, so this paper has a great practical significance.

  18. A Memory Hierarchy Model Based on Data Reuse for Full-Search Motion Estimation on High-Definition Digital Videos

    Alba Sandyra Bezerra Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion estimation is the most complex module in a video encoder requiring a high processing throughput and high memory bandwidth, mainly when the focus is high-definition videos. The throughput problem can be solved increasing the parallelism in the internal operations. The external memory bandwidth may be reduced using a memory hierarchy. This work presents a memory hierarchy model for a full-search motion estimation core. The proposed memory hierarchy model is based on a data reuse scheme considering the full search algorithm features. The proposed memory hierarchy expressively reduces the external memory bandwidth required for the motion estimation process, and it provides a very high data throughput for the ME core. This throughput is necessary to achieve real time when processing high-definition videos. When considering the worst bandwidth scenario, this memory hierarchy is able to reduce the external memory bandwidth in 578 times. A case study for the proposed hierarchy, using 32×32 search window and 8×8 block size, was implemented and prototyped on a Virtex 4 FPGA. The results show that it is possible to reach 38 frames per second when processing full HD frames (1920×1080 pixels using nearly 299 Mbytes per second of external memory bandwidth.

  19. A critical assessment of the JULES land surface model hydrology for humid tropical environments

    Zulkafli, Z.; Buytaert, W.; Onof, C.; Lavado, W.; Guyot, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Global land surface models (LSMs) such as the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) are originally developed to provide surface boundary conditions for climate models. They are increasingly used for hydrological simulation, for instance to simulate the impacts of land use changes and other perturbations on the water cycle. This study investigates how well such models represent the major hydrological fluxes at the relevant spatial and temporal scales - an important question for reliable model applications in poorly understood, data-scarce environments. The JULES-LSM is implemented in a 360 000 km2 humid tropical mountain basin of the Peruvian Andes-Amazon at 12-km grid resolution, forced with daily satellite and climate reanalysis data. The simulations are evaluated using conventional discharge-based evaluation methods, and by further comparing the magnitude and internal variability of the basin surface fluxes such as evapotranspiration, throughfall, and surface and subsurface runoff of the model with those observed in similar environments elsewhere. We find reasonably positive model efficiencies and high correlations between the simulated and observed streamflows, but high root-mean-square errors affecting the performance in smaller, upper sub-basins. We attribute this to errors in the water balance and JULES-LSM's inability to model baseflow. We also found a tendency to under-represent the high evapotranspiration rates of the region. We conclude that strategies to improve the representation of tropical systems to be (1) addressing errors in the forcing and (2) incorporating local wetland and regional floodplain in the subsurface representation.

  20. A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model basing on geomagnetic environment simulation

    Lin, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jian-jun; Yang, Zhen-yu

    2015-01-01

    In aeromagnetic survey, it is difficult to solve the aircraft magnetic field model by flying for some unman controlled or disposable aircrafts. So a model solving method on the ground is proposed. The method simulates the geomagnetic environment where the aircraft is flying and creates the background magnetic field samples which is the same as the magnetic field arose by aircraft’s maneuvering. Then the aircraft magnetic field model can be solved by collecting the magnetic field samples. The method to simulate the magnetic environment and the method to control the errors are presented as well. Finally, an experiment is done for verification. The result shows that the model solving precision and stability by the method is well. The calculated model parameters by the method in one district can be used in worldwide districts as well. - Highlights: • A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model on the ground is proposed. • The method solves the model by simulating dynamic geomagnetic environment as in the real flying. • The way to control the error of the method was analyzed. • An experiment is done for verification

  1. Modeling and validation of autoinducer-mediated bacterial gene expression in microfluidic environments

    Austin, Caitlin M.; Stoy, William; Su, Peter; Harber, Marie C.; Bardill, J. Patrick; Hammer, Brian K.; Forest, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors exploiting communication within genetically engineered bacteria are becoming increasingly important for monitoring environmental changes. Currently, there are a variety of mathematical models for understanding and predicting how genetically engineered bacteria respond to molecular stimuli in these environments, but as sensors have miniaturized towards microfluidics and are subjected to complex time-varying inputs, the shortcomings of these models have become apparent. The effects of microfluidic environments such as low oxygen concentration, increased biofilm encapsulation, diffusion limited molecular distribution, and higher population densities strongly affect rate constants for gene expression not accounted for in previous models. We report a mathematical model that accurately predicts the biological response of the autoinducer N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated green fluorescent protein expression in reporter bacteria in microfluidic environments by accommodating these rate constants. This generalized mass action model considers a chain of biomolecular events from input autoinducer chemical to fluorescent protein expression through a series of six chemical species. We have validated this model against experimental data from our own apparatus as well as prior published experimental results. Results indicate accurate prediction of dynamics (e.g., 14% peak time error from a pulse input) and with reduced mean-squared error with pulse or step inputs for a range of concentrations (10 μM–30 μM). This model can help advance the design of genetically engineered bacteria sensors and molecular communication devices. PMID:25379076

  2. A probabilistic approach using deformable organ models for automatic definition of normal anatomical structures for 3D treatment planning

    Fritsch, Daniel; Yu Liyun; Johnson, Valen; McAuliffe, Matthew; Pizer, Stephen; Chaney, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective : Current clinical methods for defining normal anatomical structures on tomographic images are time consuming and subject to intra- and inter-user variability. With the widespread implementation of 3D RTP, conformal radiotherapy, and dose escalation the implications of imprecise object definition have assumed a much higher level of importance. Object definition and volume-weighted metrics for normal anatomy, such as DVHs and NTCPs, play critical roles in aiming, shaping, and weighting beams. Improvements in object definition, including computer automation, are essential to yield reliable volume-weighted metrics and gains in human efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate a probabilistic approach using deformable models to automatically recognize and extract normal anatomy in tomographic images. Materials and Methods: Object models were created from normal organs that were segmented by an interactive method which involved placing a cursor near the center of the object on a slice and clicking a mouse button to initiate computation of structures called cores. Cores describe the skeletal and boundary shape of image objects in a manner that, in 2D, associates a location on the skeleton with the width of the object at that location. A significant advantage of cores is stability against image disturbances such as noise and blur. The model was composed of a relatively small set of extracted points on the skeleton and boundary. The points were carefully chosen to summarize the shape information captured by the cores. Neighborhood relationships between points were represented mathematically by energy functions that penalize, due to warping of the model, the ''goodness'' of match between the model and the image data at any stage during the segmentation process. The model was matched against the image data using a probabilistic approach based on Bayes theorem, which provides a means for computing a posteriori (posterior) probability from 1) a

  3. Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model With Mappings to ACE Requirements for the General Availability User Environment Capabilities Release Version 1.1

    Vigil,Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ballance, Robert [SNL; Haskell, Karen [SNL

    2012-08-09

    Cielo is a massively parallel supercomputer funded by the DOE/NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, and operated by the Alliance for Computing at Extreme Scale (ACES), a partnership between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The primary Cielo compute platform is physically located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model documents the capabilities and the environment to be provided for the Q1 FY12 Level 2 Cielo Capability Computing (CCC) Platform Production Readiness Milestone. This document describes specific capabilities, tools, and procedures to support both local and remote users. The model is focused on the needs of the ASC user working in the secure computing environments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, or Sandia National Laboratories, but also addresses the needs of users working in the unclassified environment. The Cielo Computational Environment Usage Model maps the provided capabilities to the tri-Lab ASC Computing Environment (ACE) Version 8.0 requirements. The ACE requirements reflect the high performance computing requirements for the Production Readiness Milestone user environment capabilities of the ASC community. A description of ACE requirements met, and those requirements that are not met, are included in each section of this document. The Cielo Computing Environment, along with the ACE mappings, has been issued and reviewed throughout the tri-Lab community.

  4. A model for flexible tools used in minimally invasive medical virtual environments.

    Soler, Francisco; Luzon, M Victoria; Pop, Serban R; Hughes, Chris J; John, Nigel W; Torres, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Within the limits of current technology, many applications of a virtual environment will trade-off accuracy for speed. This is not an acceptable compromise in a medical training application where both are essential. Efficient algorithms must therefore be developed. The purpose of this project is the development and validation of a novel physics-based real time tool manipulation model, which is easy to integrate into any medical virtual environment that requires support for the insertion of long flexible tools into complex geometries. This encompasses medical specialities such as vascular interventional radiology, endoscopy, and laparoscopy, where training, prototyping of new instruments/tools and mission rehearsal can all be facilitated by using an immersive medical virtual environment. Our model recognises and uses accurately patient specific data and adapts to the geometrical complexity of the vessel in real time.

  5. CFD model of thermal and velocity conditions in a particular indoor environment

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Guillen Guillamon, Ignacio [Applied Physics Department, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for maintaining high indoor environmental quality (IEQ) with the minimum energy consumption is rapidly increasing. In the recent years, several studies have been completed to investigate the impact of indoor environment factors on human comfort, health and energy efficiency. Therefore, the design of the thermal environment in any sort of room, specially offices, has huge economic consequences. In this paper, a particular analysis on the air temperature in a multi-task room environment is modeled, in order to represent the velocities and temperatures inside the room by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. This model will help to designers to analyze the thermal comfort regions inside the studied air volume and to visualize the whole temperatures inside the room, determining the effect of the fresh external incoming air in the internal air temperature.

  6. The Large Office Environment - Measurement and Modeling of the Wideband Radio Channel

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Bauch, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    In a future 4G or WLAN wideband application we can imagine multiple users in a large office environment con-sisting of a single room with partitions. Up to now, indoor radio channel measurement and modelling has mainly concentrated on scenarios with several office rooms and corridors. We present...... here measurements at 5.8GHz for 100 MHz bandwidth and a novel modelling approach for the wideband radio channel in a large office room envi-ronment. An acoustic like reverberation theory is pro-posed that allows to specify a tapped delay line model just from the room dimensions and an average...... calculated from the measurements. The pro-posed model can likely also be applied to indoor hot spot scenarios....

  7. Models of bending strength for Gilsocarbon graphites irradiated in inert and oxidising environments

    Eason, Ernest D.; Hall, Graham N.; Marsden, Barry J.; Heys, Graham B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation of an empirical model of fast neutron damage and radiolytic oxidation effects on bending strength for the moulded Gilsocarbon graphites used in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs). The inert environment model is based on evidence of essentially constant strength as fast neutron dose increases in inert environment. The model of combined irradiation and oxidation calibrates that constant along with an exponential function representing the degree of radiolytic oxidation as measured by weight loss. The change in strength with exposure was found to vary from one AGR station to another. The model was calibrated to data on material trepanned from AGR moderator bricks after varying operating times

  8. An Empirical Path-Loss Model for Wireless Channels in Indoor Short-Range Office Environment

    Ye Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel empirical path-loss model for wireless indoor short-range office environment at 4.3–7.3 GHz band is presented. The model is developed based on the experimental datum sampled in 30 office rooms in both line of sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS scenarios. The model is characterized as the path loss to distance with a Gaussian random variable X due to the shadow fading by using linear regression. The path-loss exponent n is fitted by the frequency using power function and modeled as a frequency-dependent Gaussian variable as the standard deviation σ of X. The presented works should be available for the research of wireless channel characteristics under universal indoor short-distance environments in the Internet of Things (IOT.

  9. An Interactive, Web-based High Performance Modeling Environment for Computational Epidemiology.

    Deodhar, Suruchi; Bisset, Keith R; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Ma, Yifei; Marathe, Madhav V

    2014-07-01

    We present an integrated interactive modeling environment to support public health epidemiology. The environment combines a high resolution individual-based model with a user-friendly web-based interface that allows analysts to access the models and the analytics back-end remotely from a desktop or a mobile device. The environment is based on a loosely-coupled service-oriented-architecture that allows analysts to explore various counter factual scenarios. As the modeling tools for public health epidemiology are getting more sophisticated, it is becoming increasingly hard for non-computational scientists to effectively use the systems that incorporate such models. Thus an important design consideration for an integrated modeling environment is to improve ease of use such that experimental simulations can be driven by the users. This is achieved by designing intuitive and user-friendly interfaces that allow users to design and analyze a computational experiment and steer the experiment based on the state of the system. A key feature of a system that supports this design goal is the ability to start, stop, pause and roll-back the disease propagation and intervention application process interactively. An analyst can access the state of the system at any point in time and formulate dynamic interventions based on additional information obtained through state assessment. In addition, the environment provides automated services for experiment set-up and management, thus reducing the overall time for conducting end-to-end experimental studies. We illustrate the applicability of the system by describing computational experiments based on realistic pandemic planning scenarios. The experiments are designed to demonstrate the system's capability and enhanced user productivity.

  10. AN ENVIRON-ECONOMICAL MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WATER POLLUTION IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN REFERENCE TO INDIAN SCENARIO

    Hemant PATHAK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of the mathematical modeling to such a specific area as environ-economical interaction in prospect of big countries like India. A model of mutual interaction of dirty drinking water resulting water borne diseases, badly affected economy is proposed. For the description of some of these models illustrates drinking water resources, incapable municipal water treatment consequently expansion of diseases, World Bank loan, affected biggest labour forces (mankind and ultimate results in the form of decrease in GDP. These mathematical models may be used in the solving of similar type problems exist in south and eastern Asian economies.

  11. Definition of Videogames

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to the games theorist. A disjunctive definition of videogaming seems the most appropriate of these definitional options. The disjunctive definition I offer here is motivated by the observation that there is more than one characteristic way of being a videogame.

  12. Between and beyond additivity and non-additivity : the statistical modelling of genotype by environment interaction in plant breeding

    Eeuwijk, van, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    In plant breeding it is a common observation to see genotypes react differently to environmental changes. This phenomenon is called genotype by environment interaction. Many statistical approaches for analysing genotype by environment interaction rely heavily on the analysis of variance model. Genotype by environment interaction is then taken to be equivalent to non-additivity. This thesis criticizes the analysis of variance approach. Modelling genotype by environment interaction by non-addit...

  13. Coupled energy economic model framework for analyzing Swiss electricity markets in changing policy environments

    Maire, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy needs to rely on the proper understanding of the interactions between policy instruments, consumer preferences, investment behavior, market structure, electricity supply, and the wider policy environment. This asks for appropriate modeling tools, able to represent precisely electricity supply options, model all types of energy and climate policies, as well as the reactions of the rest of the economy. Chapter 2 describes the ELECTRA-CH framework, developed to analyze electrici...

  14. Fast, Automated, Scalable Generation of Textured 3D Models of Indoor Environments

    2014-12-18

    throughs of environments, gaming entertainment, augmented reality , indoor navigation, and energy simulation analysis. These applications rely on the...models are used in virtual reality , gaming, navigation, and simulation applica- tions. State-of-the-art scanning produces accurate point-clouds of...meshes that remove furniture and other temporary objects. We propose a method to texture-map these models from captured camera imagery to produce

  15. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    Liu, Bing; Xu, Ling; Kang, Baolin

    2013-01-01

    By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity ...

  16. DrModelica - An Interactive Environment for Learning Modelica and Modeling using MathModelica

    Lengquist Sandelin, Eva-Lena; Monemar, Susanna; Fritzson, Peter; Bunus, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper states the need for interactive teaching materials for programming languages within the area of modeling and simulation. We propose an interactive teaching material for the modeling language Modelica inspired by existing tutoring systems for Java and Scheme. The purpose of this new teaching material, called DrModelica, is to facilitate the learning of Modelica through an environment that integrates programming, program documentation and visualization. The teaching material is inten...

  17. Specification and Generation of Environment for Model Checking of Software Components

    Pařízek, P.; Plášil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 176, - (2007), s. 143-154 ISSN 1571-0661 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * behavior protocols * model checking * automated generation of environment Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  18. Detecting Rumors Through Modeling Information Propagation Networks in a Social Media Environment.

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Songhua; Tourassi, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    In the midst of today's pervasive influence of social media content and activities, information credibility has increasingly become a major issue. Accordingly, identifying false information, e.g. rumors circulated in social media environments, attracts expanding research attention and growing interests. Many previous studies have exploited user-independent features for rumor detection. These prior investigations uniformly treat all users relevant to the propagation of a social media message as instances of a generic entity. Such a modeling approach usually adopts a homogeneous network to represent all users, the practice of which ignores the variety across an entire user population in a social media environment. Recognizing this limitation of modeling methodologies, this study explores user-specific features in a social media environment for rumor detection. The new approach hypothesizes that whether a user tends to spread a rumor is dependent upon specific attributes of the user in addition to content characteristics of the message itself. Under this hypothesis, information propagation patterns of rumors versus those of credible messages in a social media environment are systematically differentiable. To explore and exploit this hypothesis, we develop a new information propagation model based on a heterogeneous user representation for rumor recognition. The new approach is capable of differentiating rumors from credible messages through observing distinctions in their respective propagation patterns in social media. Experimental results show that the new information propagation model based on heterogeneous user representation can effectively distinguish rumors from credible social media content.

  19. Informative-Consulting Model for Ecological Estimation of Influence of NPP on Surrounding Environment

    Vlasenko, N.I.; Vlasova, E.V.; Korotenko, M.N.; Pyshnaya, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    In the NAEK 'Energoatom' the development of informative-consulting model (ICM) for ecological estimation of influence of NPP on surrounding an environment has began. In ICM the use of modern program complexes is foreseen that will allow to analyses data of the radio ecological monitoring in the real-time mode and promote the validity of administrative decisions

  20. Fusing range and intensity images for generating dense models of three-dimensional environments

    Ellekilde, Lars-Peter; Miró, Jaime Valls; Dissanayake., Gamini

    This paper presents a novel strategy for the construction of dense three-dimensional environment models by combining images from a conventional camera and a range imager. Ro- bust data association is ?rst accomplished by exploiting the Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) technique...

  1. Modeling and Analysis Compute Environments, Utilizing Virtualization Technology in the Climate and Earth Systems Science domain

    Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Wang, W.; Votava, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Given the increasing complexity of climate modeling and analysis tools, it is often difficult and expensive to build or recreate an exact replica of the software compute environment used in past experiments. With the recent development of new technologies for hardware virtualization, an opportunity exists to create full modeling, analysis and compute environments that are “archiveable”, transferable and may be easily shared amongst a scientific community or presented to a bureaucratic body if the need arises. By encapsulating and entire modeling and analysis environment in a virtual machine image, others may quickly gain access to the fully built system used in past experiments, potentially easing the task and reducing the costs of reproducing and verify past results produced by other researchers. Moreover, these virtual machine images may be used as a pedagogical tool for others that are interested in performing an academic exercise but don't yet possess the broad expertise required. We built two virtual machine images, one with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and one with Weather Research Forecast Model (WRF), then ran several small experiments to assess the feasibility, performance overheads costs, reusability, and transferability. We present a list of the pros and cons as well as lessoned learned from utilizing virtualization technology in the climate and earth systems modeling domain.

  2. On the Physical Interpretation of the Saleh-Valenzuela Model and the definition of its power delay profiles

    Meijerink, Arjan; Molisch, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    The physical motivation and interpretation of the stochastic propagation channel model of Saleh and Valenzuela are discussed in detail. This motivation mainly relies on assumptions on the stochastic properties of the positions of transmitter, receiver and scatterers in the propagation environment,

  3. Development of a computational environment for the General Curvilinear Ocean Model

    Thomas, Mary P; Castillo, Jose E

    2009-01-01

    The General Curvilinear Ocean Model (GCOM) differs significantly from the traditional approach, where the use of Cartesian coordinates forces the model to simulate terrain as a series of steps. GCOM utilizes a full three-dimensional curvilinear transformation, which has been shown to have greater accuracy than similar models and to achieve results more efficiently. The GCOM model has been validated for several types of water bodies, different coastlines and bottom shapes, including the Alarcon Seamount, Southern California Coastal Region, the Valencia Lake in Venezuela, and more recently the Monterey Bay. In this paper, enhancements to the GCOM model and an overview of the computational environment (GCOM-CE) are presented. Model improvements include migration from F77 to F90; approach to a component design; and initial steps towards parallelization of the model. Through the use of the component design, new models are being incorporated including biogeochemical, pollution, and sediment transport. The computational environment is designed to allow various client interactions via secure Web applications (portal, Web services, and Web 2.0 gadgets). Features include building jobs, managing and interacting with long running jobs; managing input and output files; quick visualization of results; publishing of Web services to be used by other systems such as larger climate models. The CE is based mainly on Python tools including a grid-enabled Pylons Web application Framework for Web services, pyWSRF (python-Web Services-Resource Framework), pyGlobus based web services, SciPy, and Google code tools.

  4. An empirical model of the high-energy electron environment at Jupiter

    Soria-Santacruz, M.; Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Jun, I.; Kim, W.; Paranicas, C.; Drozdov, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present an empirical model of the energetic electron environment in Jupiter's magnetosphere that we have named the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron Model version-2 (GIRE2) since it is based on Galileo data from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD). Inside 8RJ, GIRE2 adopts the previously existing model of Divine and Garrett because this region was well sampled by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft but poorly covered by Galileo. Outside of 8RJ, the model is based on 10 min averages of Galileo EPD data as well as on measurements from the Geiger Tube Telescope on board the Pioneer spacecraft. In the inner magnetosphere the field configuration is dipolar, while in the outer magnetosphere it presents a disk-like structure. The gradual transition between these two behaviors is centered at about 17RJ. GIRE2 distinguishes between the two different regions characterized by these two magnetic field topologies. Specifically, GIRE2 consists of an inner trapped omnidirectional model between 8 to 17RJ that smoothly joins onto the original Divine and Garrett model inside 8RJ and onto a GIRE2 plasma sheet model at large radial distances. The model provides a complete picture of the high-energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere from ˜1 to 50RJ. The present manuscript describes in great detail the data sets, formulation, and fittings used in the model and provides a discussion of the predicted high-energy electron fluxes as a function of energy and radial distance from the planet.

  5. Modeling landslide susceptibility in data-scarce environments using optimized data mining and statistical methods

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Sameen, Maher Ibrahim; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Park, Hyuck-Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the generalizability of five models to select a suitable approach for landslide susceptibility modeling in data-scarce environments. In total, 418 landslide inventories and 18 landslide conditioning factors were analyzed. Multicollinearity and factor optimization were investigated before data modeling, and two experiments were then conducted. In each experiment, five susceptibility maps were produced based on support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), weight-of-evidence (WoE), ridge regression (Rid_R), and robust regression (RR) models. The highest accuracy (AUC = 0.85) was achieved with the SVM model when either the full or limited landslide inventories were used. Furthermore, the RF and WoE models were severely affected when less landslide samples were used for training. The other models were affected slightly when the training samples were limited.

  6. Robust optimization model and algorithm for railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment.

    Liu, Xing-Cai; He, Shi-Wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  7. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Xing-cai Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  8. Definition of an Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Enterprise Architecture

    Lê, Lam Son; Wegmann, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In enterprise architecture, the goal is to integrate business resources and IT resources in order to improve an enterprises competitiveness. In an enterprise architecture project, the development team usually constructs a model that represents the enterprise: the enterprise model. In this paper, we present a modeling language for building such enterprise models. Our enterprise models are hierarchical object-oriented representations of the enterprises. This paper presents the foundations of o...

  9. Applying a Framework for Student Modeling in Exploratory Learning Environments: Comparing Data Representation Granularity to Handle Environment Complexity

    Fratamico, Lauren; Conati, Cristina; Kardan, Samad; Roll, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Interactive simulations can facilitate inquiry learning. However, similarly to other Exploratory Learning Environments, students may not always learn effectively in these unstructured environments. Thus, providing adaptive support has great potential to help improve student learning with these rich activities. Providing adaptive support requires a…

  10. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to

  11. A Data Stream Model For Runoff Simulation In A Changing Environment

    Yang, Q.; Shao, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff simulation is of great significance for water engineering design, water disaster control, water resources planning and management in a catchment or region. A large number of methods including concept-based process-driven models and statistic-based data-driven models, have been proposed and widely used in worldwide during past decades. Most existing models assume that the relationship among runoff and its impacting factors is stationary. However, in the changing environment (e.g., climate change, human disturbance), their relationship usually evolves over time. In this study, we propose a data stream model for runoff simulation in a changing environment. Specifically, the proposed model works in three steps: learning a rule set, expansion of a rule, and simulation. The first step is to initialize a rule set. When a new observation arrives, the model will check which rule covers it and then use the rule for simulation. Meanwhile, Page-Hinckley (PH) change detection test is used to monitor the online simulation error of each rule. If a change is detected, the corresponding rule is removed from the rule set. In the second step, for each rule, if it covers more than a given number of instance, the rule is expected to expand. In the third step, a simulation model of each leaf node is learnt with a perceptron without activation function, and is updated with adding a newly incoming observation. Taking Fuxi River catchment as a case study, we applied the model to simulate the monthly runoff in the catchment. Results show that abrupt change is detected in the year of 1997 by using the Page-Hinckley change detection test method, which is consistent with the historic record of flooding. In addition, the model achieves good simulation results with the RMSE of 13.326, and outperforms many established methods. The findings demonstrated that the proposed data stream model provides a promising way to simulate runoff in a changing environment.

  12. Towards Spherical Mesh Gravity and Magnetic Modelling in an HPC Environment

    Lane, R. J.; Brodie, R. C.; de Hoog, M.; Navin, J.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Liang, Q.; Wang, H.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Staff at Geoscience Australia (GA), Australia's Commonwealth Government geoscientific agency, have routinely performed 3D gravity and magnetic modelling as part of geoscience investigations. For this work, we have used software programs that have been based on a Cartesian mesh spatial framework. These programs have come as executable files that were compiled to operate in a Windows environment on single core personal computers (PCs). To cope with models with higher resolution and larger extents, we developed an approach whereby a large problem could be broken down into a number of overlapping smaller models (';tiles') that could be modelled separately, with the results combined back into a single output model. To speed up the processing, we established a Condor distributed network from existing desktop PCs. A number of factors have caused us to consider a new approach to this modelling work. The drivers for change include; 1) models with very large lateral extents where the effects of Earth curvature are a consideration, 2) a desire to ensure that the modelling of separate regions is carried out in a consistent and managed fashion, 3) migration of scientific computing to off-site High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, and 4) development of virtual globe environments for integration and visualization of 3D spatial objects. Some of the more surprising realizations to emerge have been that; 1) there aren't any readily available commercial software packages for modelling gravity and magnetic data in a spherical mesh spatial framework, 2) there are many different types of HPC environments, 3) no two HPC environments are the same, and 4) the most common virtual globe environment (i.e., Google Earth) doesn't allow spatial objects to be displayed below the topographic/bathymetric surface. Our response has been to do the following; 1) form a collaborative partnership with researchers at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the China University of Geosciences (CUG

  13. Creating an inclusive mall environment with the PRECEDE-PROCEED model: a living lab case study.

    Ahmed, Sara; Swaine, Bonnie; Milot, Marc; Gaudet, Caroline; Poldma, Tiiu; Bartlett, Gillian; Mazer, Barbara; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Barbic, Skye; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Lefebvre, Hélène; Archambault, Philippe; Kairy, Dahlia; Fung, Joyce; Labbé, Delphine; Lamontagne, Anouk; Kehayia, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Although public environments provide opportunities for participation and social inclusion, they are not always inclusive spaces and may not accommodate the wide diversity of people. The Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall is a unique, interdisciplinary, and multi-sectoral research project with an aim to transform a shopping complex in Montreal, Canada, into an inclusive environment optimizing the participation and social inclusion of all people. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE Model (PPM), a community-oriented and participatory planning model, was applied as a framework. The PPM is comprised of nine steps divided between planning, implementation, and evaluation. The PPM is well suited as a framework for the development of an inclusive mall. Its ecological approach considers the environment, as well as the social and individual factors relating to mall users' needs and expectations. Transforming a mall to be more inclusive is a complex process involving many stakeholders. The PPM allows the synthesis of several sources of information, as well as the identification and prioritization of key issues to address. The PPM also helps to frame and drive the implementation and evaluate the components of the project. This knowledge can help others interested in using the PPM to create similar enabling and inclusive environments world-wide. Implication for rehabilitation While public environments provide opportunities for participation and social inclusion, they are not always inclusive spaces and may not accommodate the wide diversity of people. The PRECEDE PROCEDE Model (PPM) is well suited as a framework for the development, implementation, and evaluation of an inclusive mall. Environmental barriers can negatively impact the rehabilitation process by impeding the restoration and augmentation of function. Removing barriers to social participation and independent living by improving inclusivity in the mall and other environments positively impacts the lives of people with disabilities.

  14. Study of thermal environment in Jingjintang urban agglomeration based on WRF model and Landsat data

    Huang, Q N; Cao, Z Q; Guo, H D; Xi, X H; Li, X W

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, unprecedented urban expansion has taken place in developing countries resulting in the emergence of megacities or urban agglomeration. It has been highly concerned by many countries about a variety of urban environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and urban heat island phenomenon associated with urbanization. Generally, thermal environment is monitored by remote sensing satellite data. This method is usually limited by weather and repeated cycle. Another approach is relied on numerical simulation based on models. In the study, these two means are combined to study the thermal environment of Jingjintang urban agglomeration. The high temperature processes of the study area in 2009 and 1990s are simulated by using WRF (the Weather Research and Forecasting Model) coupled with UCM (Urban Canopy Model) and the urban impervious surface estimated from Landsat-5 TM data using support vector machine. Results show that the trend of simulated air temperature (2 meter) is in accord with observed air temperature. Moreover, it indicates the differences of air temperature and Land Surface Temperature caused by the urbanization efficiently. The UHI effect at night is stronger than that in the day. The maximum difference of LST reaches to 8–10°C for new build-up area at night. The method provided in this research can be used to analyze impacts on urban thermal environment caused by urbanization and it also provides means on thermal environment monitoring and prediction which will benefit the coping capacity of extreme event

  15. Modeling passive power generation in a temporally-varying temperature environment via thermoelectrics

    Bomberger, Cory C.; Attia, Peter M.; Prasad, Ajay K.; Zide, Joshua M.O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model to predict the power generation of a thermoelectric generator in a temporally-varying temperature environment. The model employs a thermoelectric plate sandwiched between two different heat exchangers to convert a temporal temperature gradient in the environment to a spatial temperature gradient within the device suitable for thermoelectric power generation. The two heat exchangers are designed such that their temperatures respond to a change in the environment's temperature at different rates which sets up a temperature differential across the thermoelectric and results in power generation. In this model, radiative and convective heat transfer between the device and its surroundings, and heat flow between the two heat exchangers across the thermoelectric plate are considered. The model is simulated for power generation in Death Valley, CA during the summer using the diurnal variation of air temperature and radiative exchange with the sun and night sky as heat sources and sinks. The optimization of power generation via scaling the device size is discussed. Additional applications of this device are considered. -- Highlights: • Thermoelectric power generation with time-varying temperature is modeled. • The ability to generate power without a natural spatial gradient is demonstrated. • Time dependent heat-transfer and differential heat flow rates are considered. • Optimization of power generation via scaling the device size is discussed

  16. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  17. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  18. An Innovative Economic Incentive Model for Improvement of the Working Environment in Europe

    Koch, Christian

    1997-01-01

    work injury compensation system, that a number of European countries operate. Building on an understanding of enterprise decision processes and ressources, it is suggested to implement a range of tools targetting different groups of enterprises. The central tools are bonus schemes, a special scheme......The design of economic incentive schemes to promote working environment embetterment has proven complicated. The contribution list some central preconditions and tools of an economic incentive model for improving the working environment. The economic incentive is proposed built into the compulsory...... for small enterprises, a marketing label and low interest investment aid. It is finally discussed what contrains the implementation of such a scheme can be confronted with....

  19. Merging assistance function with task distribution model to enhance user performance in collaborative virtual environment

    Khalid, S.; Alam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) falls under Virtual Reality (VR) where two or more users manipulate objects collaboratively. In this paper we have made some experiments to make assembly from constituents parts scattered in Virtual Environment (VE) based on task distribution model using assistance functions for checking and enhancing user performance. The CVEs subjects setting on distinct connected machines via local area network. In this perspective, we consider the effects of assistance function with oral communication on collaboration, co-presence and users performance. Twenty subjects performed collaboratively an assembly task on static and dynamic based task distribution. We examine the degree of influence of assistance function with oral communications on user's performance based on task distribution model. The results show that assistance functions with oral communication based on task distribution model not only increase user performance but also enhance the sense of copresence and awareness. (author)

  20. A model for assessing information technology effectiveness in the business environment

    Sandra Cristina Riascos Erazo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technology on administrative processes has improved business strategies (especially regarding the e-ffect of information technology - IT, often leading to organisational success. Its effectiveness in this environment was thus modelled due to such importance; this paper describes studying a series of models aimed at assessing IT, its ad-vantages and disadvantages. A model is proposed involving different aspects for an integral assessment of IT effecti-veness and considering administrative activities’ particular characteristics. This analytical study provides guidelines for identifying IT effectiveness in a business environment and current key strategies in technological innovation. This stu-dy was based on ISO 9126, ISO 9001, ISO 15939 and ISO 25000 standards as well as COBIT and CMM stan-dards.

  1. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  2. Affordances perspective and grammaticalization: Incorporation of language, environment and users in the model of semantic paths

    Alexander Andrason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper demonstrates that insights from the affordances perspective can contribute to developing a more comprehensive model of grammaticalization. The authors argue that the grammaticalization process is afforded differently depending on the values of three contributing parameters: the factor (schematized as a qualitative-quantitative map or a wave of a gram, environment (understood as the structure of the stream along which the gram travels, and actor (narrowed to certain cognitive-epistemological capacities of the users, in particular to the fact of being a native speaker. By relating grammaticalization to these three parameters and by connecting it to the theory of optimization, the proposed model offers a better approximation to realistic cases of grammaticalization: The actor and environment are overtly incorporated into the model and divergences from canonical grammaticalization paths are both tolerated and explicable.

  3. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Paula Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  4. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models.

    Moran, Paula; Stokes, Jennifer; Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia.

  5. Gene × Environment Interactions in Schizophrenia: Evidence from Genetic Mouse Models

    Marr, Julia; Bock, Gavin; Desbonnet, Lieve; Waddington, John

    2016-01-01

    The study of gene × environment, as well as epistatic interactions in schizophrenia, has provided important insight into the complex etiopathologic basis of schizophrenia. It has also increased our understanding of the role of susceptibility genes in the disorder and is an important consideration as we seek to translate genetic advances into novel antipsychotic treatment targets. This review summarises data arising from research involving the modelling of gene × environment interactions in schizophrenia using preclinical genetic models. Evidence for synergistic effects on the expression of schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes will be discussed. It is proposed that valid and multifactorial preclinical models are important tools for identifying critical areas, as well as underlying mechanisms, of convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors, and their interaction in schizophrenia. PMID:27725886

  6. Illumination modelling of a mobile device environment for effective use in driving mobile apps

    Marhoubi, Asmaa H.; Saravi, Sara; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2015-05-01

    The present generation of Ambient Light Sensors (ALS) of a mobile handheld device suffer from two practical shortcomings. The ALSs are narrow angle, i.e. they respond effectively only within a narrow angle of operation and there is a latency of operation. As a result mobile applications that operate based on the ALS readings could perform sub-optimally especially when operated in environments with non-uniform illumination. The applications will either adopt with unacceptable levels of latency or/and may demonstrate a discrete nature of operation. In this paper we propose a framework to predict the ambient illumination of an environment in which a mobile device is present. The predictions are based on an illumination model that is developed based on a small number of readings taken during an application calibration stage. We use a machine learning based approach in developing the models. Five different regression models were developed, implemented and compared based on Polynomial, Gaussian, Sum of Sine, Fourier and Smoothing Spline functions. Approaches to remove noisy data, missing values and outliers were used prior to the modelling stage to remove their negative effects on modelling. The prediction accuracy for all models were found to be above 0.99 when measured using R-Squared test with the best performance being from Smoothing Spline. In this paper we will discuss mathematical complexity of each model and investigate how to make compromises in finding the best model.

  7. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  8. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  9. Potential transformation of trace species including aircraft exhaust in a cloud environment. The `Chedrom model`

    Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.

  10. 78 FR 79579 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition...

    2013-12-31

    ... features to be excluded from certification, verification, and enforcement testing as long as specific... class* that must be tested Self-Contained Open Refrigerators... 2 Basic Models. Self-Contained Open... Open Freezers..... 2 Basic Models. Self-Contained Closed Refrigerators. 2 Basic Models. Self-Contained...

  11. Mathematical modeling for corrosion environment estimation based on concrete resistivity measurement directly above reinforcement

    Lim, Young-Chul; Lee, Han-Seung; Noguchi, Takafumi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to formulate a resistivity model whereby the concrete resistivity expressing the environment of steel reinforcement can be directly estimated and evaluated based on measurement immediately above reinforcement as a method of evaluating corrosion deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It also aims to provide a theoretical ground for the feasibility of durability evaluation by electric non-destructive techniques with no need for chipping of cover concrete. This Resistivity Estimation Model (REM), which is a mathematical model using the mirror method, combines conventional four-electrode measurement of resistivity with geometric parameters including cover depth, bar diameter, and electrode intervals. This model was verified by estimation using this model at areas directly above reinforcement and resistivity measurement at areas unaffected by reinforcement in regard to the assessment of the concrete resistivity. Both results strongly correlated, proving the validity of this model. It is expected to be applicable to laboratory study and field diagnosis regarding reinforcement corrosion. (author)

  12. Improving science and mathematics education with computational modelling in interactive engagement environments

    Neves, Rui Gomes; Teodoro, Vítor Duarte

    2012-09-01

    A teaching approach aiming at an epistemologically balanced integration of computational modelling in science and mathematics education is presented. The approach is based on interactive engagement learning activities built around computational modelling experiments that span the range of different kinds of modelling from explorative to expressive modelling. The activities are designed to make a progressive introduction to scientific computation without requiring prior development of a working knowledge of programming, generate and foster the resolution of cognitive conflicts in the understanding of scientific and mathematical concepts and promote performative competency in the manipulation of different and complementary representations of mathematical models. The activities are supported by interactive PDF documents which explain the fundamental concepts, methods and reasoning processes using text, images and embedded movies, and include free space for multimedia enriched student modelling reports and teacher feedback. To illustrate, an example from physics implemented in the Modellus environment and tested in undergraduate university general physics and biophysics courses is discussed.

  13. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  14. Modeling of the hERG K+ Channel Blockage Using Online Chemical Database and Modeling Environment (OCHEM).

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Huanhuan; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K+ channel plays an important role in cardiac action potential. Blockage of hERG channel may result in long QT syndrome (LQTS), even cause sudden cardiac death. Many drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of the serious hERG-related cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is quite essential to estimate the chemical blockage of hERG in the early stage of drug discovery. In this study, a diverse set of 3721 compounds with hERG inhibition data was assembled from literature. Then, we make full use of the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM), which supplies rich machine learning methods and descriptor sets, to build a series of classification models for hERG blockage. We also generated two consensus models based on the top-performing individual models. The consensus models performed much better than the individual models both on 5-fold cross validation and external validation. Especially, consensus model II yielded the prediction accuracy of 89.5 % and MCC of 0.670 on external validation. This result indicated that the predictive power of consensus model II should be stronger than most of the previously reported models. The 17 top-performing individual models and the consensus models and the data sets used for model development are available at https://ochem.eu/article/103592. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [Effect of solution environments on ceramic membrane microfiltration of model system of Chinese medicines].

    Zhang, Lianjun; Lu, Jin; Le, Kang; Fu, Tingming; Guo, Liwei

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effect of differents solution environments on the ceramic membrane microfiltration of model system of Chinese medicines. Taking binary system of soybean protein-berberine as the research object, flux, transmittance of berberine and traping rate of protein as indexes, different solution environment on membrane process were investigated. When the concentration of soybean protein was under 1 g x L(-1), the membrane flux was minimum with the traping of berberine decreased slightly as the concentration increased. When pH was 4, the flux was maximum with the traping rate of protein was 99%, and the transmittance of berberine reached above 60%. The efficiency of membrane separation can be improved by optimizing the solution environment of water-extraction of chinese medicines. The efficiency of membrane separation is the best when adjust the pH to the isoelectric point of proteins for the proteins as the main pollutant in aqueous solution.

  16. Model of tritium transfer into environment by the personnel of nuclear enterprises

    Batalin, J.; Krechetova, A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the ways of radionuclide transfer from a nuclear enterprise into an environment is analysed. This way of transfer is the transport of radionuclides by the personnel of a nuclear enterprise. During an active work in a nuclear enterprise the personnel accumulate radionuclides from the air of industrial premises. Accumulated radionuclides are released from the organism into an environment according to the effective period of half-draw. The main part of radionuclides is transferred from the organism of professional workers into an environment: first of all into the air and on furniture of their dwellings and later - into the organisms of their family members. In this way contamination of workers' dwellings and irradiation of their family members exceed the contamination through air and water. The model is confirmed as an example of tritium transfer from nuclear enterprises. (author)

  17. Modelling and prediction of radionuclide migration from shallow, subgrade nuclear waste facilities in arid environments

    Smith, A.; Ward, A.; Geldenhuis, S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, prodigious efforts and significant advances have been made in methods of prediction of the migration rate of dissolved species in aqueous systems. Despite such work, there remain formidable obstacles in prediction of solute transport in the unsaturated zone over the long time periods necessarily related to the radionuclide bearing wastes. The objective of this paper is to consider the methods, issues and problems with the use of predictive solute transport models for radionuclide migration from nuclear waste disposal in arid environments, if and when engineering containment of the waste fails. Having considered the ability for long term solute prediction for a number of geological environments, the advantages of a disposal environment in which the solute transport process is diffusion controlled will be described

  18. Application of dynamic model to predict some inside environment variables in a semi-solar greenhouse

    Behzad Mohammadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses are one of the most effective cultivation methods with a yield per cultivated area up to 10 times more than free land cultivation but the use of fossil fuels in this production field is very high. The greenhouse environment is an uncertain nonlinear system which classical modeling methods have some problems to solve it. There are many control methods, such as adaptive, feedback and intelligent control and they require a precise model. Therefore, many modeling methods have been proposed for this purpose; including physical, transfer function and black-box modeling. The objective of this paper is to modeling and experimental validation of some inside environment variables in an innovative greenhouse structure (semi-solar greenhouse. For this propose, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (38°10′N and 46°18′E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. The main inside environment factors include inside air temperature (Ta and inside soil temperature (Ts were collected as the experimental data samples. The dynamic heat transfer model used to estimate the temperature in two different points of semi-solar greenhouse with initial values. The results showed that dynamic model can predict the inside temperatures in two different points (Ta and Ts with RMSE, MAPE and EF about 5.3 °C, 10.2% and 0.78% and 3.45 °C, 7.7% and 0.86%, respectively. Keywords: Semi-solar greenhouse, Dynamic model, Commercial greenhouse

  19. The Future of the Global Environment: A Model-based Analysis Supporting UNEP's First Global Environment Outlook

    Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; Swart RJ; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenia; MNV

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional...

  20. Mathematical Ability and Socio-Economic Background: IRT Modeling to Estimate Genotype by Environment Interaction.

    Schwabe, Inga; Boomsma, Dorret I; van den Berg, Stéphanie M

    2017-12-01

    Genotype by environment interaction in behavioral traits may be assessed by estimating the proportion of variance that is explained by genetic and environmental influences conditional on a measured moderating variable, such as a known environmental exposure. Behavioral traits of interest are often measured by questionnaires and analyzed as sum scores on the items. However, statistical results on genotype by environment interaction based on sum scores can be biased due to the properties of a scale. This article presents a method that makes it possible to analyze the actually observed (phenotypic) item data rather than a sum score by simultaneously estimating the genetic model and an item response theory (IRT) model. In the proposed model, the estimation of genotype by environment interaction is based on an alternative parametrization that is uniquely identified and therefore to be preferred over standard parametrizations. A simulation study shows good performance of our method compared to analyzing sum scores in terms of bias. Next, we analyzed data of 2,110 12-year-old Dutch twin pairs on mathematical ability. Genetic models were evaluated and genetic and environmental variance components estimated as a function of a family's socio-economic status (SES). Results suggested that common environmental influences are less important in creating individual differences in mathematical ability in families with a high SES than in creating individual differences in mathematical ability in twin pairs with a low or average SES.

  1. Technical Work Plan for: Near Field Environment: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report

    J.D. Schreiber

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with

  2. Yield response of winter wheat cultivars to environments modeled by different variance-covariance structures in linear mixed models

    Studnicki, M.; Mądry, W.; Noras, K.; Wójcik-Gront, E.; Gacek, E.

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of multi-environmental trials (METs) are to assess cultivar adaptation patterns under different environmental conditions and to investigate genotype by environment (G×E) interactions. Linear mixed models (LMMs) with more complex variance-covariance structures have become recognized and widely used for analyzing METs data. Best practice in METs analysis is to carry out a comparison of competing models with different variance-covariance structures. Improperly chosen variance-covariance structures may lead to biased estimation of means resulting in incorrect conclusions. In this work we focused on adaptive response of cultivars on the environments modeled by the LMMs with different variance-covariance structures. We identified possible limitations of inference when using an inadequate variance-covariance structure. In the presented study we used the dataset on grain yield for 63 winter wheat cultivars, evaluated across 18 locations, during three growing seasons (2008/2009-2010/2011) from the Polish Post-registration Variety Testing System. For the evaluation of variance-covariance structures and the description of cultivars adaptation to environments, we calculated adjusted means for the combination of cultivar and location in models with different variance-covariance structures. We concluded that in order to fully describe cultivars adaptive patterns modelers should use the unrestricted variance-covariance structure. The restricted compound symmetry structure may interfere with proper interpretation of cultivars adaptive patterns. We found, that the factor-analytic structure is also a good tool to describe cultivars reaction on environments, and it can be successfully used in METs data after determining the optimal component number for each dataset. (Author)

  3. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  4. Modelling of crustal rock mechanics for radioactive waste storage in Fennoscandia - problem definition

    Stephansson, O.

    1987-05-01

    Existing knowledge of crustal stresses for Fennoscandia is presented. Generic, two-dimensional models are proposed for vertical and planar sections of a traverse having a direction NW-SE in Northern Fennoscandia. The proposed traverse will include the major neotectonic structures at Lansjaerv and Paervie, respectively, and also the study site for storage of spent nuclear fuel at Kamlunge. The influence of glaciation, deglaciation, glacial rebound on crustal rock mechanics and stability is studied for the modelling work. Global models, with a length of roughly 100 km, will increase our over all understanding of the change in stresses and deformations. These can provide boundary conditions for regional and near-field models. Properties of strength and stiffness of intact granitic rock masses, faults and joints are considered in the modelling of the crustal rock mechanics for any of the three models described. (orig./HP)

  5. IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment for a smart space management system.

    Choi, Hoan-Suk; Rhee, Woo-Seop

    2014-11-20

    The existing Internet environment has been extended to the Internet of Things (IoT) as an emerging new paradigm. The IoT connects various physical entities. These entities have communication capability and deploy the observed information to various service areas such as building management, energy-saving systems, surveillance services, and smart homes. These services are designed and developed by professional service providers. Moreover, users' needs have become more complicated and personalized with the spread of user-participation services such as social media and blogging. Therefore, some active users want to create their own services to satisfy their needs, but the existing IoT service-creation environment is difficult for the non-technical user because it requires a programming capability to create a service. To solve this problem, we propose the IoT-based user-driven service modeling environment to provide an easy way to create IoT services. Also, the proposed environment deploys the defined service to another user. Through the personalization and customization of the defined service, the value and dissemination of the service is increased. This environment also provides the ontology-based context-information processing that produces and describes the context information for the IoT-based user-driven service.

  6. Modeling Age-Friendly Environment, Active Aging, and Social Connectedness in an Emerging Asian Economy

    Ming-Ming Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically tested eight key features of WHO guidelines to age-friendly community by surveying 211 informal caregivers and 402 self-care adults (aged 45 to 85 and above in Malaysia. We examined the associations of these eight features with active aging and social connectedness through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A structural model with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.11, RMSEA = 0.02, NFI = 0.97, TLI = 1.00, CFI = 1.00, and GFI = 0.96 indicates that transportation and housing, community support and health services, and outdoor spaces and buildings are statistically significant in creating an age-friendly environment. We found a statistically significant positive relationship between an age-friendly environment and active aging. This relationship is mediated by social connectedness. The results indicate that built environments such as accessible public transportations and housing, affordable and accessible healthcare services, and elderly friendly outdoor spaces and buildings have to be put into place before social environment in building an age-friendly environment. Otherwise, the structural barriers would hinder social interactions for the aged. The removal of the environmental barriers and improved public transportation services provide short-term solutions to meet the varied and growing needs of the older population.

  7. Nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Dos Santos Alves, Daniela Fernanda; da Silva, Dirceu; de Brito Guirardello, Edinêis

    2017-01-01

    To assess correlations between the characteristics of the nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate. The nursing practice environment is critical to the well-being of professionals and to patient safety, as highlighted by national and international studies; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding this theme in paediatric units. A cross-sectional study, in two paediatric hospitals in Brazil, was conducted from December 2013 to February 2014. For data collection, we used the Nursing Work Index - Revised, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form 2006 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and for analysis Spearman's correlation coefficient and structural equation modelling were used. Two hundred and sixty-seven professional nurses participated in the study. Autonomy, control over the work environment and the relationship between nursing and medical staff are factors associated with job outcomes and safety climate and can be considered their predictors. Professional nurses with greater autonomy, good working relationships and control over their work environment have lower levels of emotional exhaustion, higher job satisfaction, less intention of leaving the job and the safety climate is positive. Initiatives to improve the professional practice environment can improve the safety of paediatric patients and the well-being of professional nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. PARAMETER ESTIMATION AND MODEL SELECTION FOR INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS BASED ON SPARSE OBSERVATIONS

    Y. Dehbi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for the parameter estimation and model selection for the reconstruction of indoor environments based on sparse observations. While most approaches for the reconstruction of indoor models rely on dense observations, we predict scenes of the interior with high accuracy in the absence of indoor measurements. We use a model-based top-down approach and incorporate strong but profound prior knowledge. The latter includes probability density functions for model parameters and sparse observations such as room areas and the building footprint. The floorplan model is characterized by linear and bi-linear relations with discrete and continuous parameters. We focus on the stochastic estimation of model parameters based on a topological model derived by combinatorial reasoning in a first step. A Gauss-Markov model is applied for estimation and simulation of the model parameters. Symmetries are represented and exploited during the estimation process. Background knowledge as well as observations are incorporated in a maximum likelihood estimation and model selection is performed with AIC/BIC. The likelihood is also used for the detection and correction of potential errors in the topological model. Estimation results are presented and discussed.

  9. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Indoor Environments Based on Sparse Observations

    Dehbi, Y.; Loch-Dehbi, S.; Plümer, L.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the parameter estimation and model selection for the reconstruction of indoor environments based on sparse observations. While most approaches for the reconstruction of indoor models rely on dense observations, we predict scenes of the interior with high accuracy in the absence of indoor measurements. We use a model-based top-down approach and incorporate strong but profound prior knowledge. The latter includes probability density functions for model parameters and sparse observations such as room areas and the building footprint. The floorplan model is characterized by linear and bi-linear relations with discrete and continuous parameters. We focus on the stochastic estimation of model parameters based on a topological model derived by combinatorial reasoning in a first step. A Gauss-Markov model is applied for estimation and simulation of the model parameters. Symmetries are represented and exploited during the estimation process. Background knowledge as well as observations are incorporated in a maximum likelihood estimation and model selection is performed with AIC/BIC. The likelihood is also used for the detection and correction of potential errors in the topological model. Estimation results are presented and discussed.

  10. Representing environment-induced helix-coil transitions in a coarse grained peptide model

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Sayar, Mehmet; Peter, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Coarse grained (CG) models are widely used in studying peptide self-assembly and nanostructure formation. One of the recurrent challenges in CG modeling is the problem of limited transferability, for example to different thermodynamic state points and system compositions. Understanding transferability is generally a prerequisite to knowing for which problems a model can be reliably used and predictive. For peptides, one crucial transferability question is whether a model reproduces the molecule's conformational response to a change in its molecular environment. This is of particular importance since CG peptide models often have to resort to auxiliary interactions that aid secondary structure formation. Such interactions take care of properties of the real system that are per se lost in the coarse graining process such as dihedral-angle correlations along the backbone or backbone hydrogen bonding. These auxiliary interactions may then easily overstabilize certain conformational propensities and therefore destroy the ability of the model to respond to stimuli and environment changes, i.e. they impede transferability. In the present paper we have investigated a short peptide with amphiphilic EALA repeats which undergoes conformational transitions between a disordered and a helical state upon a change in pH value or due to the presence of a soft apolar/polar interface. We designed a base CG peptide model that does not carry a specific (backbone) bias towards a secondary structure. This base model was combined with two typical approaches of ensuring secondary structure formation, namely a C α -C α -C α -C α pseudodihedral angle potential or a virtual site interaction that mimics hydrogen bonding. We have investigated the ability of the two resulting CG models to represent the environment-induced conformational changes in the helix-coil equilibrium of EALA. We show that with both approaches a CG peptide model can be obtained that is environment-transferable and that

  11. Structural Model for the Effects of Perceived Indoor Work Environment on Sick Building Syndrome and Stress

    Abdullah Nor Hazana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick Building syndrome (SBS and stress have a prevalent influence on organizational productivity and competitiveness. Unhealthy employees not only tend to have high medical leaves but also low productivity due to ailments and discomforts. Studies that investigate the effects of indoor work environment on Sick Building Syndrome (SBS have yielded mixed results while their effect on stress has not been empirically established. Furthermore, studies that simultaneously investigate both SBS and stress are almost non-existent. Thus, this study aimed to study the effects of perceived indoor work environment on SBS and stress and the link between SBS and stress. A cross-sectional survey participated by 598 employees from various industries was conducted from September to October 2015. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM to assess both the measurement model and the path structure. The results suggest that indoor work environment has significant yet the weak effect on SBS while it has no effect on stress. However, SBS has a strong significant relationship with stress. The implication of this study on the importance of conducive indoor work environment is discussed with suggestions for future studies.

  12. Risk attitudes in a changing environment: An evolutionary model of the fourfold pattern of risk preferences.

    Mallpress, Dave E W; Fawcett, Tim W; Houston, Alasdair I; McNamara, John M

    2015-04-01

    A striking feature of human decision making is the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes, involving risk-averse behavior in situations of unlikely losses and likely gains, but risk-seeking behavior in response to likely losses and unlikely gains. Current theories to explain this pattern assume particular psychological processes to reproduce empirical observations, but do not address whether it is adaptive for the decision maker to respond to risk in this way. Here, drawing on insights from behavioral ecology, we build an evolutionary model of risk-sensitive behavior, to investigate whether particular types of environmental conditions could favor a fourfold pattern of risk attitudes. We consider an individual foraging in a changing environment, where energy is needed to prevent starvation and build up reserves for reproduction. The outcome, in terms of reproductive value (a rigorous measure of evolutionary success), of a one-off choice between a risky and a safe gain, or between a risky and a safe loss, determines the risk-sensitive behavior we should expect to see in this environment. Our results show that the fourfold pattern of risk attitudes may be adaptive in an environment in which conditions vary stochastically but are autocorrelated in time. In such an environment the current options provide information about the likely environmental conditions in the future, which affect the optimal pattern of risk sensitivity. Our model predicts that risk preferences should be both path dependent and affected by the decision maker's current state. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF LASER RANGE FINDER FOR THREE DIMENSIONAL GRID CELL IN CLOSE RANGE ENVIRONMENT

    Hafiz b Iman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a laser scanner presents an important aspect for simultaneous localization and map-building (SLAM. However, the characteristic of the beam of the laser range finder under extreme incident angles approaching 900 has not been thoroughly investigated. This research paper reports the characteristic of the density of the range value coming from a laser range finder under close range circumstances where the laser is imposed with a high incident angle. The laser was placed in a controlled environment consisting of walls at a close range and 1000 iteration of scans was collected. The assumption of normal density of the metrical data collapses when the beam traverses across sharp edges in this environment. The data collected also shows multimodal density at instances where the range has discontinuity. The standard deviation of the laser range finder is reported to average at 10.54 mm, with 0.96 of accuracy. This significance suggests that under extreme incident angles, a laser range finder reading behaves differently compared to normal distribution. The use of this information is crucial for SLAM activity in enclosed environments such as inside piping grid or other cluttered environments.KEYWORDS:   Hokuyo UTM-30LX; kernel density estimation; probabilistic model  

  14. A review of gene-environment correlations and their implications for autism: a conceptual model.

    Meek, Shantel E; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Jahromi, Laudan B; Valiente, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    A conceptual model is proposed that explains how gene-environment correlations and the multiplier effect function in the context of social development in individuals with autism. The review discusses the current state of autism genetic research, including its challenges, such as the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of the disorder, and its limitations, such as the lack of interdisciplinary work between geneticists and social scientists. We discuss literature on gene-environment correlations in the context of social development and draw implications for individuals with autism. The review expands upon genes, behaviors, types of environmental exposure, and exogenous variables relevant to social development in individuals on the autism spectrum, and explains these factors in the context of the conceptual model to provide a more in-depth understanding of how the effects of certain genetic variants can be multiplied by the environment to cause largely phenotypic individual differences. Using the knowledge gathered from gene-environment correlations and the multiplier effect, we outline novel intervention directions and implications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A competing risk model of first failure site after definitive (chemo) radiation therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Nygård, Lotte; Vogelius, Ivan R; Fischer, Barbara M

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to build a model of first failure site and lesion specific failure probability after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 251 patients receiving definitive chemo......-regional failure, multivariable logistic regression was applied to assess risk of each lesion being first site of failure. The two models were used in combination to predict lesion failure probability accounting for competing events. RESULTS: Adenocarcinoma had a lower hazard ratio (HR) of loco-regional (LR...

  16. Growth structure and environment. 6 contributions to the macro economic model development

    Wier, Mette

    1998-04-01

    This thesis comprises 6 papers on the application of macro economic models to environmental problems. Interactions between the economic and the ecological models are elucidated and a description is given of a possible systematization of of the environmental-economic cycle within a macro economic model. Economic and technological limitations affecting the potential environmental advantages are discussed. In the second part of the thesis the general interdependence of production and consumption, and the various forms of environmental stress is analyzed. For this purpose an environment-related input-output model is presented, where for each industry there are given emissions and/or consumption of natural resources (so-called environmental coefficients), which are likely to originate from the activities of this industry. As examples of macro economic modelling,the nitrogen cycle in Denmark, environmental effects of consumer choice, use of building materials and emission due to energy generation and consumption etc. are analyzed. (EG) 146 refs

  17. Balance or Synergies between Environment and Economy—A Note on Model Structures

    Sarah Wolf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The UN sustainable development goals contain environmental, economic, and social objectives. They may only be reached, or at least it would be easier to reach them, if instead of a trade-off between these objectives that implies a need for balancing them, there are synergies to be reaped. This paper discusses how the structures of economic models typically used in policy analysis influence whether win–win strategies for the environment and the economy can be conceptualised and analysed. With a focus on climate policy modelling, the paper points out how, by construction, commonly used model structures find mitigation costs rather than benefits. This paper describes mechanisms that, when added to these model structures, can bring win–win options into a model’s solution horizon, and which provide a spectrum of alternative modelling approaches that allow for the identification of such options.

  18. Modelling accidental releases of tritium in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    Le Dizes, S.; Tamponnet, C.

    2004-01-01

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of tritium transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the two-pool model (organic tritium and tritiated water) that was developed estimates the concentration of tritium within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of tritium in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of tritium in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  19. Modelling accidental releases of carbon 14 in the environment: application as an excel spreadsheet

    Le Dizes, S.; Tamponnet, C.

    2004-01-01

    An application as an Excel spreadsheet of the simplified modelling approach of carbon 14 transfer in the environment developed by Tamponnet (2002) is presented. Based on the use of growth models of biological systems (plants, animals, etc.), the one-pool model (organic carbon) that was developed estimates the concentration of carbon 14 within the different compartments of the food chain and in fine the dose to man by ingestion in the case of a chronic or accidental release of carbon 14 in a river or the atmosphere. Data and knowledge have been implemented on Excel using the object-oriented programming language VisualBasic (Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0). The structure of the conceptual model and the Excel sheet are first briefly exposed. A numerical application of the model under a scenario of an accidental release of carbon 14 in the atmosphere is then presented. Simulation results and perspectives are discussed. (author)

  20. EIT forward problem parallel simulation environment with anisotropic tissue and realistic electrode models.

    De Marco, Tommaso; Ries, Florian; Guermandi, Marco; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging technology based on impedance measurements. To retrieve meaningful insights from these measurements, EIT relies on detailed knowledge of the underlying electrical properties of the body. This is obtained from numerical models of current flows therein. The nonhomogeneous and anisotropic electric properties of human tissues make accurate modeling and simulation very challenging, leading to a tradeoff between physical accuracy and technical feasibility, which at present severely limits the capabilities of EIT. This work presents a complete algorithmic flow for an accurate EIT modeling environment featuring high anatomical fidelity with a spatial resolution equal to that provided by an MRI and a novel realistic complete electrode model implementation. At the same time, we demonstrate that current graphics processing unit (GPU)-based platforms provide enough computational power that a domain discretized with five million voxels can be numerically modeled in about 30 s.