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Sample records for environment investigation pfmi

  1. Toward Understanding Pore Formation and Mobility during Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment Investigation (PFMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Luz, Paul; Jeter, Linda; Volz, Martin P.; Spivey, Reggie; Smith, G.

    2003-01-01

    The generation and inclusion of detrimental porosity, e.g., pipes and rattails can occur during controlled directional solidification processing. The origin of these defects is generally attributed to gas evolution and entrapment during solidification of the melt. On Earth, owing to buoyancy, an initiated bubble can rapidly rise through the liquid melt and pop at the surface; this is obviously not ensured in a low gravity or microgravity environment. Clearly, porosity generation and inclusion is detrimental to conducting any meaningful solidification-science studies in microgravity. Thus it is essential that model experiments be conducted in microgravity, to understand the details of the generation and mobility of porosity, so that methods can be found to eliminate it. In hindsight, this is particularly relevant given the results of the previous directional solidification experiments conducted in Space. The current International Space Station (ISS) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) investigation addresses the central issue of porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification processing in microgravity. The study will be done using a transparent metal-analogue material, succinonitrile (SCN) and succinonitrile-water 'alloys', so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made during the experiments. Succinonitrile is particularly well suited for the proposed investigation because it is transparent, it solidifies in a manner analogous to most metals, it has a convenient melting point, its material properties are well characterized and, it has been successfully used in previous microgravity experiments. The PFMI experiment will be launched on the UF-2, STS-111 flight. Highlighting the porosity development problem in metal alloys during microgravity processing, the poster will describe: (i) the intent of the proposed experiments, (ii) the theoretical rationale behind using SCN as the study material for

  2. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development and Initial Analysis of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMI investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMI uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMI is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity Environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station. .

  3. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  4. Bubble Induced Disruption of a Planar Solid-Liquid Interface During Controlled Directional Solidification in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Brush, Lucien N.; Anilkumar, Amrutur V.

    2013-01-01

    Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) experiments were conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station with the intent of better understanding the role entrained porosity/bubbles play during controlled directional solidification. The planar interface in a slowing growing succinonitrile - 0.24 wt% water alloy was being observed when a nitrogen bubble traversed the mushy zone and remained at the solid-liquid interface. Breakdown of the interface to shallow cells subsequently occurred, and was later evaluated using down-linked data from a nearby thermocouple. These results and other detrimental effects due to the presence of bubbles during solidification processing in a microgravity environment are presented and discussed.

  5. Dendrite Array Disruption by Bubbles during Re-melting in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI), Succinonitrile Water alloys consisting of aligned dendritic arrays were re-melted prior to conducting directional solidification experiments in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station. Thermocapillary convection initiated by bubbles at the solid-liquid interface during controlled melt back of the alloy was observed to disrupt the initial dendritic alignment. Disruption ranged from detaching large arrays to the transport of small dendrite fragments at the interface. The role of bubble size and origin is discussed along with subsequent consequences upon reinitiating controlled solidification.

  6. Investigation on geological environments (IGE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, C.; Widory, D.; Guerrot, C.; Gaucher, E.C. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Buschaert, S. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Dir. Scientifique, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Kurikami, H.; Takeuchi, R. [JAEA - Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hokkaido (Japan); Yabuuchi, S. [METI - Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Kunimaru, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Horonobe Underground Research Unit, Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate, Hokkaido (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Technology Center, Taisei Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Matray, J.M.; Savoye, S.; Cabrera, J.; Lecathelinais, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Goncalves, J.; Girardin, I. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7619-Sisyphe, 75 - Paris (France); Craen, M. de; Honty, M.; Wemaere, I.; Van Geet, M. [SCK-CEN - Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - Environment, Healt and Safety Institute, Mol (Belgium); Van Geet, M. [ONDRAF/NIRAS - Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, Brussel (Belgium); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Lancelot, J. [Nimes Univ., GIS, UMR 6635 CNRS, 30 (France); Benedetti, L.; Bourles, D.; Hamelin, B. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ., CEREGE, UMR 6635 CNRS, 13 (France); Fatmi, H.; Ababou, R. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 -Toulouse (France); Wemaere, I.; Marivoet, J.; Labat, S. [SCK-CEN - Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Fedor, F. [MECSEKERC Ltd, Dir. of Environmental Protection (Hungary); Mathe, Z. [MECSEKERC Ltd, Lab. of Env. Geology and Soil Mechanics (Hungary); Hamos, G. [MECSEKERC Ltd, Dept. of Geosciences (Hungary); Somodi, G. [MECSEKERC Ltd, Dept. of Geotechnics (Hungary)

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 9 articles (posters) dealing with: (S, O, Sr) isotopic constraints on the diagenetic evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation at the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL; the scale effect and heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity of sedimentary rocks at Horonobe URL site; the investigation and modeling of 3D distribution of water chemistries in Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan; PH4: a 250 m deep borehole in Tournemire for assessing the contribution of transport phenomena to assumed overpressures in the Toarcian/Domerian semipermeable; the lateral variability of mineralogy and pore water chemistry of the Boom Clay; {sup 36}Cl in groundwaters of Oxfordian and Dogger limestones of the Eastern Paris basin: implications for old groundwater dating; the statistical preprocessing and analyses of hydro-geo-meteorologic time series in the PP experiment of Mont Terri (method. and first results); the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom Clay in north-east Belgium based on four core-drilled boreholes; and a new approach of laboratory permeability measurement of very tight rocks: experimental data of BCF, Mecsek Mts, SW Hungary.

  7. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reports of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, as well as the findings of hypersaline paleo-environments on that planet, have underscored the need to evaluate the importance of biological (as opposed to geological) trace gas production and consumption. Methane in the atmosphere of Mars may be an indication of life but might also be a consequence of geologic activity and/or the thermal alteration of ancient organic matter. Hypersaline environments have now been reported to be extremely likely in several locations in our solar system, including: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Modern hypersaline microbial mat communities, (thought to be analogous to those present on the early Earth at a period of time when Mars was experiencing very similar environmental conditions), have been shown to produce methane. However, very little is known about the physical and/or biological controls imposed upon the rates at which methane, and other important trace gases, are produced and consumed in these environments. We describe here the results of our investigations of methane production in hypersaline environments, including field sites in Chile, Baja California Mexico, California, USA and the United Arab Emirates. We have measured high concentrations of methane in bubbles of gas produced both in the sediments underlying microbial mats, as well as in areas not colonized by microbial mats in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline ecosystem, Baja California Mexico, in Chile, and in salt ponds on the San Francisco Bay. The carbon isotopic (d13C) composition of the methane in the bubbles exhibited an extremely wide range of values, (ca. -75 per mille ca. -25 per mille). The hydrogen isotopic composition of the methane (d2H) ranged from -60 to -30per mille and -450 to -350per mille. These isotopic values are outside of the range of values normally considered to be biogenic, however incubations of the sediments in contact with these gas bubbles reveals that the methane is indeed being

  8. An Investigation of Person-Environment Congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Marissa Johnstun

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis derived from Holland's (1997) theory of personality and environment that congruence between person and environment would influence satisfaction with doctoral training environments and career certainty. Doctoral students' (N = 292) vocational interests were measured using questions from the Interest Item Pool, and…

  9. Integrated site investigation procedure for environment protection toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Roslan, R; Baharuddin, I N Z

    2013-01-01

    The spatial configuration of cities and their relationship to the urban environment has recently been the subject of empirical, theoretical and policy research. An awareness of environmental issues can assist policy makers, planners, developers and others to recognize the constraints imposed upon development due the physical environment especially in areas, which are susceptible to erosion, flooding and landslide. This paper highlights the key requirements for considering an assessment to protect our urban environment by incorporating three main factor i.e. policy practice, planning process and engineering investigation. Base on this three main factor the framework of the assessment is carried out. The assessment can be divided into three different categories, namely as investigation for planning, investigation for urban development and specialized investigation and mitigation. The minimum requirements for the planning and urban development investigation are listed. These guidelines suggest the level at which the various types of investigation should be carried out as well as the range of application, the scope and methodology to be used for different investigation. It is hoped that this procedure will provide guidance in the establishment and protection of urban ecosystem toward sustainable development.

  10. A preliminary investigation into genotype x environment interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to investigate a possible genotype by environment interaction in first calf South African Holstein cows for both production and reproduction traits. Data from 100 975 cows on a total mixed ration (TMR) and 22 083 pasture based cows were used. These cows were the progeny of 4 391 sires and ...

  11. Utilizing the Human, Machine, and Environment Matrix in investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, David; McKinney, John M.

    2006-01-01

    'How did we get into this situation?' How many times has this question been asked at the outset of an investigation, or more importantly, at the completion of an investigation? If the answer is not readily and thoroughly apparent, the investigation is not complete. Subsequently, those who will have the responsibility for correction of the conditions leading to the incident will not have all the information necessary to properly complete their task. For many years, in many writings, the Human/Machine interaction and its impact on process design has been discussed. The same impact should be examined when performing incident investigations. Consideration of the interaction of human and machine along with the environment in which they are used has long been recommended by the National Safety Council, in both design and investigation

  12. Investigating antibiotic resistance in non-clinical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eWalsh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been many calls for more information about the natural resistome and these have also highlighted the importance of understanding the soil resistome in the preservation of antibiotics for the treatment of infections. However, to date there have been few studies which have investigated the culturable soil resistome, which highlights the difficulties faced by microbiologists in designing these experiments to produce meaningful data. The World Health Organization definition of resistance is the most fitting to non-clinical environmental studies: Antimicrobial resistance is resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial medicine to which it was previously sensitive. The ideal investigation of non-clinical environments for antibiotic resistance of clinical relevance would be using standardized guidelines and breakpoints. This review outlines different definitions and methodologies used to understand antibiotic resistance and suggests how this can be performed outside of the clinical environment.

  13. Fluorescent Proteins for Investigating Biological Events in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shinoda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interior lumen of acidic organelles (e.g., endosomes, secretory granules, lysosomes and plant vacuoles is an important platform for modification, transport and degradation of biomolecules as well as signal transduction, which remains challenging to investigate using conventional fluorescent proteins (FPs. Due to the highly acidic luminal environment (pH ~ 4.5–6.0, most FPs and related sensors are apt to lose their fluorescence. To address the need to image in acidic environments, several research groups have developed acid-tolerant FPs in a wide color range. Furthermore, the engineering of pH insensitive sensors, and their concomitant use with pH sensitive sensors for the purpose of pH-calibration has enabled characterization of the role of luminal ions. In this short review, we summarize the recent development of acid-tolerant FPs and related functional sensors and discuss the future prospects for this field.

  14. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  15. Oskarshamn site investigation. Programme for further investigations of bedrock, soil, water and environment in Laxemar subarea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), has been conducting a site investigation at Simpevarp and Laxemar in Oskarshamn for siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. An equivalent investigation is being conducted in Forsmark in Ohmmeter's. The initial part of the site investigations had been completed for the both of the subareas Simpevarp and Laxemar in the autumn of 2004. Based on the results of these investigations, SKB preliminarily prioritized the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A programme was presented for the first stage of the complete site investigation in the Laxemar subarea, along with the main features of the remainder of the site investigation. The programme included investigations up until the summer of 2005 and was particularly aimed at obtaining answers to several vital questions so that the subsequent investigations could be focused on the rock areas judged to be most suitable for a final repository. These investigations have now been completed. This report presents the programme for the remainder of the site investigation. The points of departure are the general goals for the Deep Repository Project during the site investigation phase, analyses and evaluations of data from completed investigations, and the needs for additional data to be able to evaluate the site as a siting alternative for the final repository. The account mainly covers the investigations on the site. All other work - analyses, site descriptive modelling, facility design, safety assessments and studies and assessments of consequences for the environment, human health and society - are only mentioned to the extent necessary in order to place the investigations in their context. The direction of the site investigation in Oskarshamn and the investigation programme presented in this report is based on SKB's preliminary decision to prioritize the Laxemar subarea for further investigations. A final decision on the direction of the site

  16. A preliminary investigation into genotype x environment interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... Genotype x environment interaction (G x E) in dairy cattle is a contentious ... environments, if it exists, with a negative impact on genetic response ..... interaction for Holstein milk yield in Colombia, Mexico and Puerto Rico.

  17. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, O; Koulidiati, J; Ouedraogo, A; Kuznik, F; Baillis, D

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m 2 /year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  18. Investigating the Possibility of Adaptation and Personalization in Virtual Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Octavia, Johanna Renny; RAYMAEKERS, Chris; CONINX, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The complex nature of virtual environments customarily hinders users to interact in a natural, intuitive and optimal way. Different user characteristics are hardly taken into account when designing 3D user interfaces for virtual environments. We envision that user interaction in virtual environments can be enhanced by integrating adaptation and personalization into 3D user interfaces. Through our research, we aim to provide adaptive and personalized 3D user interfaces for enhancing user inter...

  19. Results of microbiological Investigations of Orbital Station MIR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.

    15-year experience of orbital station MIR service demonstrated that specifically modified space vehicle environment allows to consider spaceship habitats as a certain ecological niche of microbial community development and functioning, which was formed from the organisms of different physiological and taxonomical groups. As a result of on-board experiments and revision of interior and equipment more than 234 microorganisms were identified. They were represented by technophylic specia, which cause material damage, as well as potential pathogens (bacteria, actinomyces spp, fungi), which capable to grow on artificial substrates. Resident colonization of interior and equipment of space habitat by bacterial and fungal associations, taking place during long-term microbiota exposure on cosmophysic, physic-chemical and biological factors, which is accompanied by appearance of technological and medical risks, capable to provide significant influence on safety of humans and reliability of space equipment. These risks are due to such processes: biodestruction of synthetic and organic polymeres, biocorrosion of metals, biofoulding of surfaces (biofilms), formation of obturation in vital activity support system, occurrence of biodisturbances resulting in devise and equipment failure, occurrence and development of supertolerants and other variants with unpredictable attributes, which are expressed as a result of phenotypical and genotypical modifications. Based on the information from results of in-flight and laboratory microbiological investigations, the following suppositions can be made to characterize evolution of the microbial community aboard long-operating space vehicle: - environment of a long-operating piloted space vehicle may be a peculiar kind of ecological niche for development and reproduction of bacilli and fungi belonging to particular species, - bacteriofungal associations primarily reside on decorative-finish and structural materials of space interior and

  20. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  1. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  2. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  3. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Torriani, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  4. Integrated site investigation and groundwater monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherl, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding groundwater dynamics around cities and other areas of human influence is of crucial importance for water resource management and protection, especially in a time of environmental and societal change. The human environment presents a unique challenge in terms of hydrological characterization, as the water cycle is generally artificialized and emissions of treated waste and chemical products into the surface- and groundwater system tend to disrupt the natural aqueous signature in significant ways. This project presents an integrated approach for robust characterization and monitoring of an urban aquifer which is actively exploited for municipal water supply. The study is carried out in the town of Fehraltorf, in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. This particular town encompasses industrial and agricultural zones in addition to its standard urban setting. A minimal amount of data exist at this site, and the data that do exist are spatially and temporally sparse. Making use of traditional hydrogeological methods alongside evolving and emerging technologies, we aim to identify sources of contamination and to define groundwater flow and solute transport through space and time. Chemical and physical indicator parameters are identified for tracing contaminations including micropollutants and plant nutrients. Wireless sensors are installed for continuous on-line monitoring of essential parameters (electrical conductivity, temperature, water level). A wireless sensor network has previously been installed in the sewer system of the study site, facilitating investigation into interactions between sewer water and groundwater. Our approach illustrates the relations between land use, climate, rainfall dynamics, and the groundwater signature through time. At its conclusion, insights gained from this study will be used by municipal authorities to refine protective zones around pumping wells and to direct resources towards updating practices and replacing

  5. Investigation of human-robot interface performance in household environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sven; Mirza, Fahad; Tuladhar, Yathartha; Alonzo, Rommel; Hingeley, Anthony; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Today, assistive robots are being introduced into human environments at an increasing rate. Human environments are highly cluttered and dynamic, making it difficult to foresee all necessary capabilities and pre-program all desirable future skills of the robot. One approach to increase robot performance is semi-autonomous operation, allowing users to intervene and guide the robot through difficult tasks. To this end, robots need intuitive Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that support fine motion control without overwhelming the operator. In this study we evaluate the performance of several interfaces that balance autonomy and teleoperation of a mobile manipulator for accomplishing several household tasks. Our proposed HMI framework includes teleoperation devices such as a tablet, as well as physical interfaces in the form of piezoresistive pressure sensor arrays. Mobile manipulation experiments were performed with a sensorized KUKA youBot, an omnidirectional platform with a 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) arm. The pick and place tasks involved navigation and manipulation of objects in household environments. Performance metrics included time for task completion and position accuracy.

  6. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    investigation of land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes. The results obtained tend ... mainstay of the people. (marine, tourism and fishing activities) has been adversely affected. ... can refer to biotic and abiotic features, including soil, topography,.

  7. A comprehensive Radiological Investigation for the Industrial Helwan City Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafaa, F.; El-Tahawy, M.S.; El-Mongy, S.A.; Sayed, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The non nuclear process industries supply a considerable contribution to the radiological pollution of the environment. A comprehensive radiological studies for determining radiation levels and radionuclides distribution in the environment of Helwan city (the major industrial region in Cairo) are carried out. The radioactivity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 and the man made Cs-137 in samples of soil plants, ores and products collected from and around some of Helwan factories were analyzed using high resolution gamma spectrometers. A bad correlation between the observed 137 Cs and 40 K was found. The collected water and factories waste water samples were also analyzed by laser fluorimetry. The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity in the soil one meter above the ground and the radium equivalent activities are calculated and presented. The representative external hazard index values for the soil samples to be used as construction materials are also estimated and given. The results obtained are considered as reference values to be used in the case of emergency action and as baseline data for drawing a radiological map of the city

  8. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-01-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  9. Investigation of Subject perceptions of the Environment in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In a country such as the United States, the largest employee sector is in the restaurant industry. This makes the commercial kitchens an important space that needs to be evaluated and consequently improved in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions, for the wellbeing of the emp......In a country such as the United States, the largest employee sector is in the restaurant industry. This makes the commercial kitchens an important space that needs to be evaluated and consequently improved in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality conditions, for the wellbeing....... Today, no study on subjective feedback from kitchen employees has been reported. In the present paper, two types of survey were developed and tested in the field. The questions are based on the ISO 10551 standard and adapted to the kitchen environment. Answers dealing with the working conditions...

  10. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  11. UVES Investigates the Environment of a Very Remote Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Surplus of Intergalactic Material May Be Young Supercluster Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to study in unprecedented detail the surroundings of a very remote galaxy, almost 12 billion light-years distant [2]. The corresponding light travel time means that it is seen at a moment only about 3 billion years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is designated MS 1512-cB58 and is the brightest known at such a large distance and such an early time. This is due to a lucky circumstance: a massive cluster of galaxies ( MS 1512+36 ) is located about halfway along the line-of-sight, at a distance of about 7 billion light-years, and acts as a gravitational "magnifying glass". Thanks to this lensing effect, the image of MS1512-cB58 appears 50 times brighter . Nevertheless, the apparent brightness is still as faint as magnitude 20.6 (i.e., nearly 1 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). Moreover, MS 1512-cB58 is located 36° north of the celestial equator and never rises more than 29° above the horizon at Paranal. It was therefore a great challenge to secure the present observational data with the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope . The extremely detailed UVES-spectrum of MS 1512-cB58 displays numerous signatures (absorption lines) of intergalactic gas clouds along the line-of-sight . Some of the clouds are quite close to the galaxy and the astronomers have therefore been able to investigate the distribution of matter in its immediate surroundings. They found an excess of material near MS 1512-cB58, possible evidence of a young supercluster of galaxies , already at this very early epoch. The new observations thus provide an invaluable contribution to current studies of the birth and evolution of structures in the early Universe. This is the first time this kind of observation has ever been done of a galaxy at such a large distance . All

  12. Final report investigation project agricultural products and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Jimenez Dam, R.; Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the after-action report on six investigation projects: Thermoluminescence, Spectrometry gamma of low level, Agricultural products, Radon in the subsoil, Nuclear instrumentation, and X-ray fluorescence, executed between 1995-1997 by the Laboratory of Physical Nuclear Applied of the University of Costa Rica, in the which objectives are shown, applied methodology as well as the achievements and results each project. (Author) [es

  13. Cyber Event Artifact Investigation Training in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    information was desired in the logs as well as best practices provided by Microsoft: 1. Every Success or Failure for: Account Logon Events, Account ...use this artifact in conjunction with information discovered through investigation of other artifacts, such as logs and accounts . For instance, the...when coupled with logs, accounts , and process data, this information may provide enough evidence for transition into the reporting and Preliminary

  14. Laboratory investigations: Low Earth orbit environment chemistry with spacecraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jon B.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term space operations that require exposure of material to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment must take into account the effects of this highly oxidative atmosphere on material properties and the possible contamination of the spacecraft surroundings. Ground-based laboratory experiments at Los Alamos using a newly developed hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) source have shown that not only are hydrocarbon based materials effected but that inorganic materials such as MoS2 are also oxidized and that thin protective coatings such as Al2O3 can be breached, producing oxidation of the underlying substrate material. Gas-phase reaction products, such as SO2 from oxidation of MoS2 and CO and CO2 from hydrocarbon materials, have been detected and have consequences in terms of spacecraft contamination. Energy loss through gas-surface collisions causing spacecraft drag has been measured for a few select surfaces and has been found to be highly dependent on the surface reactivity.

  15. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes...... an investigation of the indoor air quality, relative humidity and air change rate in eight Danish houses. The houses were selected as they are all having recurrent problems with condensation on the windows. The houses were built between 1930 and 2007. Some of them have been only slightly renovated where others......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...

  16. Investigating and improving pedestrian safety in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Mohd Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Mitzner, Molly; Wu, Michael; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Prompted by a series of fatal and nonfatal pedestrian-vehicle collisions, university leadership from one urban institution collaborated with its academic injury research center to investigate traffic-related hazards facing pedestrians. This descriptive epidemiologic study used multiple data collection strategies to determine the burden of pedestrian injury in the target area. Data were collected in 2011 through a review of university crash reports from campus police; a systematic environmental audit and direct observations using a validated instrument and trained raters; and focus groups with faculty, students, and staff. Study findings were synthesized and evidence-informed recommendations were developed and disseminated to university leadership. Crash reports provided some indication of the risks on the streets adjacent to the campus. The environmental audit identified a lack of signage posting the speed limit, faded crosswalks, issues with traffic light and walk sign synchronization, and limited formal pedestrian crossings, which led to jaywalking. Focus groups participants described dangerous locations and times, signal controls and signage, enforcement of traffic laws, use of cell phones and iPods, and awareness of pedestrian safety. Recommendations to improve pedestrian safety were developed in accordance with the three E's of injury prevention (education, enforcement, and engineering), and along with plans for implementation and evaluation, were presented to university leadership. These results underscore the importance of using multiple methods to understand fully the problem, developing pragmatic recommendations that align with the three E's of injury prevention, and collaborating with leadership who have the authority to implement recommended injury countermeasures. These lessons are relevant for the many colleges and universities in urban settings where a majority of travel to offices, classrooms, and surrounding amenities are by foot.

  17. Application of radio-geochemical exploration to investigation on geo-ecological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qingsen

    2000-01-01

    Taking investigation on radon hazards and natural radioactivity as examples, the author expounds the prospects of the application of radio-geochemical exploration to the investigation on geo-ecological environment. It is especially emphasized that the methods of radio-geochemical exploration can not be only widely applied in the field of traditional radio-geological prospecting but also play an important role in the investigation on geo-ecological environment

  18. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  19. An Empirical Investigation of the Dimensionality of the Physical Literacy Environment in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…

  20. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance in an Immersive Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Branscome, Teresa A; Grynovicki, Jock O

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study included in a series of investigations designed to increase fundamental knowledge and understanding of the factors affecting multi-task performance in a military environment...

  1. First investigations on the feasibility of integration of a smart sensor in harsh environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Krit, S.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Coulie-Castellani, K.; Micolau, G.; Lyoussi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Investigations of the feasibility of smart sensor in harsh environment is presented. This very first study takes place in the framework of the I-SMART European project. First approach on the feasibility of integration of the full system is introduced. This system will have to work in harsh environment in terms of temperature and radiations what makes necessary the development of specifications for operation and reliability of the components and the investigation of margins for the interplay of the components. Implementation of the analog conditioning chain is investigated where electrical performances have been validated at SPICE-level simulations. (authors)

  2. A virtual auditory environment for investigating the auditory signal processing of realistic sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favrot, Sylvain Emmanuel; Buchholz, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a novel multichannel loudspeaker-based virtual auditory environment (VAE) is introduced. The VAE aims at providing a versatile research environment for investigating the auditory signal processing in real environments, i.e., considering multiple sound sources and room...... reverberation. The environment is based on the ODEON room acoustic simulation software to render the acoustical scene. ODEON outputs are processed using a combination of different order Ambisonic techniques to calculate multichannel room impulse responses (mRIR). Auralization is then obtained by the convolution...... the VAE development, special care was taken in order to achieve a realistic auditory percept and to avoid “artifacts” such as unnatural coloration. The performance of the VAE has been evaluated and optimized on a 29 loudspeaker setup using both objective and subjective measurement techniques....

  3. Clinical trials using a radiopharmaceutical investigational drug: What legal environment and what authorizations required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, G.; Nguon, B.; Tibi, A.; Rizzo-Padoin, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent revision of the legal environment for clinical research in France provided an opportunity to review what a hospital needs to carry out clinical trials using a radiopharmaceutical investigational drug. Legal measures concerning radiopharmaceutical investigational drugs are indeed more complex than those of classical clinical trials because of the additional legal provisions governing the use of ionizing radiation. Thus, requirements by the concerned staff (sponsor, pharmacist, person in charge of the nuclear activity) are described here. (authors) [fr

  4. An Investigation of an Open-Source Software Development Environment in a Software Engineering Graduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xun; Huang, Kun; Dong, Yifei

    2010-01-01

    A semester-long ethnography study was carried out to investigate project-based learning in a graduate software engineering course through the implementation of an Open-Source Software Development (OSSD) learning environment, which featured authentic projects, learning community, cognitive apprenticeship, and technology affordances. The study…

  5. Investigation of DBMS for Use in a Research Environment. Rand Paper Series 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Pilar N.

    This investigation of the use of database management systems (DBMS) in a research environment used the Rand Corporation as a case study. After a general introduction in section 1, eight sections present the major components of the study. Section 2 contains an overview of DBMS terminology and concepts, followed in section 3 by a general dsecription…

  6. Living with robots: investigating the user acceptance of social robots in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the most recent decades, the field of social robotics has advanced rapidly. There are a growing number of different types of robots, and their roles within society are expanding. This dissertation has argued that investigating the long-term acceptance of social robots in home environments is

  7. Investigating the Problem Solving Competency of Pre Service Teachers in Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haja, Shajahan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the problem-solving competency of four secondary pre service teachers (PSTs) of University of London as they explored geometry problems in dynamic geometry environment (DGE) in 2004. A constructivist experiment was designed in which dynamic software Cabri-Geometre II (hereafter Cabri) was used as an interactive medium.…

  8. Investigation on wear behavior of graphite baII under different pneumatic conveying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform was built in the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) to investigate the wear behavior of the graphite ball under the operational condition of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel handling system. In this experimental platform, a series of experiments were carried out under different pneumatic conveying environments with the graphite balls, which were made of the material same as the fuel element matrix graphite (A3) of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR-10). The effect of the pneumatic conveying condition on the wear rate of graphite ball has been investigated, and the results include: (1) There is an obvious linear relationship between the wear rate and the feeding velocity of graphite ball elevated in the stainless steel elevating tube, and the wear rate will increase with the increase of the feeding velocity. (2) The wear rate of graphite ball under helium environment is significantly greater than that under air and nitrogen environments, which is caused by the different effects of various gas environments on mechanical properties of graphite. (author)

  9. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadeera P.G. Cheong, Brendan Lay, Rizal Razman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect.

  10. Investigating Pre-service Mathematics Teachers’ Geometric Problem Solving Process in Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ open geometric problem solving process in a Dynamic Geometry Environment. With its qualitative inquiry based research design employed, the participants of the study are three pre-service teachers from 4th graders of the Department of Elementary Mathematics Teaching. In this study, clinical interviews, screencaptures of the problem solving process in the Cabri Geomery Environment, and worksheets included 2 open geometry problems have been used to collect the data. It has been investigated that all the participants passed through similar recursive phases as construction, exploration, conjecture, validate, and justification in the problem solving process. It has been thought that this study provide a new point of view to curriculum developers, teachers and researchers

  11. Sustainable development of cabins. An investigation of cabin owners' attitudes towards the environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velvin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An investigation on private cabin owners in the three Buskerud (Norway) municipalities: Sigdal, Rollag and Hol. The main purpose has been to evaluate the state of local value-creation related to cabin tourism, energy and environmental aspects of the cabin-usage, and other conditions related to sustainable development. This report deals in specific with environment and energy questions concerning cabin owners, and their attitudes towards energy-saving measures. Results from the investigation show that the standard on facilities of cabins has increased, indicating that the energy consumption will rise accordingly. Income is the primary explanation factor in relation to energy consumption. More results are presented in the report (ml)

  12. Geosciences research: development of techniques and instruments for investigation geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the geological environment in Japan, new investigation techniques have been developed. These include: 1) Geological techniques for fracture characterization, 2) Nondestructive investigation techniques for detailed geological structure, 3) Instruments for hydraulic characterization, 4) Instruments for hydrochemical characterization. Results so far obtained are: 1) Fractures can be classified by their patterns, 2) The applicability and limitations of conventional geophysical methods were defined, 3) Instruments for measuring very low permeability were successfully developed, 4) Instruments for sampling formation water without changing in-situ conditions were developed. (author)

  13. An approach for investigation of secure access processes at a combined e-learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romansky, Radi; Noninska, Irina

    2017-12-01

    The article discuses an approach to investigate processes for regulation the security and privacy control at a heterogenous e-learning environment realized as a combination of traditional and cloud means and tools. Authors' proposal for combined architecture of e-learning system is presented and main subsystems and procedures are discussed. A formalization of the processes for using different types resources (public, private internal and private external) is proposed. The apparatus of Markovian chains (MC) is used for modeling and analytical investigation of the secure access to the resources is used and some assessments are presented.

  14. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  15. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  16. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. - Highlights: • Environment dependent (dry-wet) properties of shrimp exoskeleton are analyzed. • Mechanical properties are correlated with the structure and composition. • Presence of water leads to lower reduced modulus and hardness. • SEM images shows the Bouligand pattern based structure. • Creep-relaxation of polymer chains, interface slip is high in presence of water.

  17. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. - Highlights: • Environment dependent (dry-wet) properties of shrimp exoskeleton are analyzed. • Mechanical properties are correlated with the structure and composition. • Presence of water leads to lower reduced modulus and hardness. • SEM images shows the Bouligand pattern based structure. • Creep-relaxation of polymer chains, interface slip is high in presence of water

  18. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  19. Investigation on thermal environment improvement by waste heat recovery in the underground station in Qingdao metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jiaquan; Wang, Fengyin; Wang, Cuiping

    2018-03-01

    The thermal environment parameters, like the temperature and air velocity, are measured to investigate the heat comfort status of metro staff working area in winter in Qingdao. The temperature is affected obviously by the piston wind from the train and waiting hall in the lower Hall, and the temperature is not satisfied with the least heat comfort temperature of 16 °C. At the same time, the heat produced by the electrical and control equipments is brought by the cooling air to atmosphere for the equipment safety. Utilizing the water-circulating heat pump, it is feasible to transfer the emission heat to the staff working area to improve the thermal environment. Analyzed the feasibility from the technique and economy when using the heat pump, the water-circulating heat pump could be the best way to realize the waste heat recovery and to help the heat comfort of staff working area in winter in the underground metro station in north China.

  20. Investigations on potential bacteria for the bioremediation treatment of environments contaminated with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, I.; Voicu, A.; Dobrota, S.; Stefanescu, M. [Institute of Biology of Romanian Academy, Bucharest (Romania)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    In Romania after more than 135 years of oil production and processing, some severe environmental pollution problems have accumulated. In this context a joint research group from Institute of Biology Bucharest and S.C. Petrostar S.A. Ploiesti became involved in a research project on bioremediation of an environment contaminated with hydrocarbon waste. In the first stage of this project, investigations on microbial communities occurring in environments contaminated with oil were carried out. In the second stage, the hundreds of bacterial strains and populations isolated from soils, slops, and water sites contaminated with waste oil and water waste oil mix were submitted to a screening program, to select a naturally occurring mixed culture with a high ability to degrade hydrocarbons.

  1. Investigating the Contextual Interference Effect Using Combination Sports Skills in Open and Closed Skill Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jadeera P G; Lay, Brendan; Razman, Rizal

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to present conditions that were closer to the real-world setting of team sports. The primary purpose was to examine the effects of blocked, random and game-based training practice schedules on the learning of the field hockey trap, close dribble and push pass that were practiced in combination. The secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of predictability of the environment on the learning of field hockey sport skills according to different practice schedules. A game-based training protocol represented a form of random practice in an unstable environment and was compared against a blocked and a traditional random practice schedule. In general, all groups improved dribble and push accuracy performance during the acquisition phase when assessed in a closed environment. In the retention phase, there were no differences between the three groups. When assessed in an open skills environment, all groups improved their percentage of successful executions for trapping and passing execution, and improved total number of attempts and total number of successful executions for both dribbling and shooting execution. Between-group differences were detected for dribbling execution with the game-based group scoring a higher number of dribbling successes. The CI effect did not emerge when practicing and assessing multiple sport skills in a closed skill environment, even when the skills were practiced in combination. However, when skill assessment was conducted in a real-world situation, there appeared to be some support for the CI effect. Key pointsThe contextual interference effect was not supported when practicing several skills in combination when the sports skills were assessed in a closed skill environment.There appeared to be some support for the contextual interference effect when sports skills were assessed in an open skill environment, which were similar to a real game situation.A game-based training schedule can be used as an alternative

  2. Investigation of individual radiation exposures from discharges to the aquatic environment: techniques used in habits surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.; Jones, P.G.W.

    1982-01-01

    The techniques used by the Fisheries Radiobiological Laboratory (FRL) in conducting habits surveys are described and discussed. The main objectives of these surveys are to investigate exposure pathways to the public resulting from radioactive discharges to the aquatic environment and to provide the basic data from which critical groups can be identified. Preparation, conduct and interpretation of the results of surveys are described and possible errors obtained by the interview technique are highlighted. A means of verifying the results of interviews by a logging technique has been devised and some comparative results are presented. (author)

  3. Archival Legacy Investigations of Circumstellar Environments (ALICE): Statistical assessment of point source detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Élodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall D.; Hagan, J. Brendan; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Aguilar, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The ALICE program, for Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environment, is currently conducting a virtual survey of about 400 stars, by re-analyzing the HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive with advanced post-processing techniques. We present here the strategy that we adopted to identify detections and potential candidates for follow-up observations, and we give a preliminary overview of our detections. We present a statistical analysis conducted to evaluate the confidence level on these detection and the completeness of our candidate search.

  4. Multi-Sensory-Motor Research: Investigating Auditory, Visual, and Motor Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Kluss

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perception in natural environments is inseparably linked to motor action. In fact, we consider action an essential component of perceptual representation. But these representations are inherently difficult to investigate: Traditional experimental setups are limited by the lack of flexibility in manipulating spatial features. To overcome these problems, virtual reality (VR experiments seem to be a feasible alternative, but these setups typically lack ecological realism due to the use of “unnatural” interface-devices (joystick. Thus, we propose an experimental apparatus which combines multisensory perception and action in an ecologically realistic way. The basis is a 10-foot hollow sphere (VirtuSphere placed on a platform that allows free rotation. A subject inside can walk in any direction for any distance immersed into virtual environment. Both the rotation of the sphere and movement of the subject's head are tracked to process the subject's view within the VR-environment presented on a head-mounted display. Moreover, auditory features are dynamically processed taking greatest care of exact alignment of sound-sources and visual objects using ambisonic-encoded audio processed by a HRTF-filterbank. We present empirical data that confirm ecological realism of this setup and discuss its suitability for multi-sensory-motor research.

  5. Corrosion on Mars: An Investigation of Corrosion Mechanisms Under Relevant Simulated Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Johansen, Michael R.; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year project was selected by NASA's Science Innovation Fund in FY17 to address Corrosion on Mars which is a problem that has not been addressed before. Corrosion resistance is one of the most important properties in selecting materials for landed spacecraft and structures that will support surface operations for the human exploration of Mars. Currently, the selection of materials is done by assuming that the corrosion behavior of a material on Mars will be the same as that on Earth. This is understandable given that there is no data regarding the corrosion resistance of materials in the Mars environment. However, given that corrosion is defined as the degradation of a metal that results from its chemical interaction with the environment, it cannot be assumed that corrosion is going to be the same in both environments since they are significantly different. The goal of this research is to develop a systematic approach to understand corrosion of spacecraft materials on Mars by conducting a literature search of available data, relevant to corrosion in the Mars environment, and by performing preliminary laboratory experiments under relevant simulated Martian conditions. This project was motivated by the newly found evidence for the presence of transient liquid brines on Mars that coincided with the suggestion, by a team of researchers, that some of the structural degradation observed on Curiosity's wheels may be caused by corrosive interactions with the brines, while the most significant damage was attributed to rock scratching. An extensive literature search on data relevant to Mars corrosion confirmed the need for further investigation of the interaction between materials used for spacecraft and structures designed to support long-term surface operations on Mars. Simple preliminary experiments, designed to look at the interaction between an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA7075-T73) and the gases present in the Mars atmosphere, at 20degC and a pressure of 700 Pa

  6. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  7. Investigation of Chernobyl NPP and recovery of environment and medical service in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Hamamoto, Kazuko; Mizumachi, Wataru; Okamoto, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident will be terminated, if sufficient care of recovery for heart of people, economy and environment leads to happy Fukushima. It might be taken more than 20 years or more. The overseas NPP investigation group in the study committee for safety regulatory of NPP in PES division in JSME visited Chernobyl NPP, Ministry of Emergencies, National Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of Ukraine, Chernobyl Center, Slavutych, Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, National University of Life and Environmental Science of Ukraine, Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants and Chernobyl Museum. The investigation of bases of their new technology for deep LRW cleaning of Fukushima genesis from the whole range of radionuclides, including uranium and transuranic elements, organic impurities and simultaneous concentration of radioactive components in a small volume. The recovery of environment and care of heart of people were good in Ukraine. The lessons derived from the accident, we can decide what we should do. (author)

  8. An investigation into the impact of cryogenic environment on mechanical stresses in FRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifo, O.; Basu, B.

    2015-07-01

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are fast becoming a highly utilised engineering material for high performance applications due to their light weight and high strength. Carbon fibre and other high strength fibres are commonly used in design of aerospace structures, wind turbine blades, etc. and potentially for propellant tanks of launch vehicles. For the aforementioned fields of application, stability of the material is essential over a wide range of temperature particularly for structures in hostile environments. Many studies have been conducted, experimentally, over the last decade to investigate the mechanical behaviour of FRP materials at varying subzero temperature. Likewise, tests on aging and cycling effect (room to low temperature) on the mechanical response of FRP have been reported. However, a relatively lesser focused area has been the mechanical behaviour of FRP composites under cryogenic environment. This article reports a finite element method of investigating the changes in the mechanical characteristics of an FRP material when temperature based analysis falls below zero. The simulated tests are carried out using a finite element package with close material properties used in the cited literatures. Tensile test was conducted and the results indicate that the mechanical responses agree with those reported in the literature sited.

  9. Investigation of the tritium level in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.; Schueler, H.; Tachlinski, W.

    1976-06-01

    Under an IAEA sponsored measurement program the tritium level is investigated in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The tritium concentration in precipitations, surface, ground and drinking water is measured within a long-term program. In addition, relationships existing between the tritium concentration of plants and the concentrations of ground water, precipitation, soil and air humidities are investigated at three points in special series of measurement. A summary report is presented on recent measured results. According to these results, the annual mean values for precipitations and surface water tend to rise. In 1975 the annual mean values amounted to 0.89 nCi/l of tritium concentration in precipitations in the more distant environment of the Nuclear Research Center and to 0.68 nCi/l in the Rhine river. In plants tritium concentrations were observed which correspond to that measured in the humidity of the air. The radiation exposure of people living in large towns is calculated to be about 50 μrem/a in the region monitored, due to the presence of tritium in the drinking water. A little group of the population takes up as much as 110 μrem/a. (orig.) [de

  10. Investigations of the diverse corrosion products on steel in a hydrogen sulfide environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Pengpeng; Zheng, Shuqi; Zhao, Hui; Ding, Yu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Diverse corrosion products on steel are investigated in H 2 S environment. • The sequence of the main corrosion products is mackinawite + cubic FeS → troilite. • The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. • The flower-like troilite develops from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains. • The corresponding crystal structure and morphology of the products are provided. - Abstract: The corrosion products of carbon steel in aqueous H 2 S environment are investigated. The products, which include mackinawite, cubic FeS, troilite, and pyrite, are characterized through their shapes, chemical compositions and crystal structures. Mackinawite appears with a flake shape. Cubic FeS has a perfect/truncated octahedral shape, and pyrite is framboid-shaped. Flower-shaped troilite is developed from beam- or hexagonal wire-shaped grains by electrostatic interactions along a certain lattice plane. The large single beam-shaped troilite has a growth pattern along the c axis. The corresponding crystal structure and micro-morphology of the corrosion products are provided, and the three-dimensional models of them are generated

  11. The COURAGE Built Environment Outdoor Checklist: an objective built environment instrument to investigate the impact of the environment on health and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Bucciarelli, Paola; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Olaya, Beatriz; Chatterji, Somnath; Galas, Aleksander; Meriläinen-Porras, Satu; Frisoni, Giovanni; Russo, Emanuela; Minicuci, Nadia; Power, Mick; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    A tool to assess the built environment, which takes into account issues of disability, accessibility and the need for data comparable across countries and populations, is much needed. The Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE) in Europe Built Environment Outdoor Checklist (CBE-OUT) helps us to understand when features of the neighbourhood environment have either a positive or negative impact on the accessibility of neighbourhoods for healthy ageing. The CBE-OUT is composed of 128 items that can be recorded when present in the evaluated environment. Audits were performed in households randomly selected from each cluster of the sample for Finland, Poland and Spain, following precise rules defined by experts. Global scores were computed both section by section and in the overall checklist, rescaling the resulting scores from 0 (negative environment) to 100 (positive). The total number of completed CBE-OUT checklists was 2452 (Finland, 245; Poland, 972; and Spain, 1235). Mean global score for our sample is 49.3, suggesting an environment composed both of facilitating and hindering features. Significant differences were observed in the built environment features of the three countries and in particular between Finland and the other two. The assessment of features of built environment is crucial when thinking about ageing and enhanced participation. The COURAGE in Europe project developed this tool to collect information on built environment in an objective evaluation of environmental features and is a recommended methodology for future studies. The CBE-OUT checklist is an objective evaluation of the built environment and is centred on technical measurement of features present in the environment and has its foundations in the concepts of disability and accessibility operating in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model. The CBE-OUT checklist can be analysed using both the total score and the single section score

  12. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300 degrees C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss

  14. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300{degrees}C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss.

  15. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYING IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT ON ENHANCING SPATIAL PERCEPTION WITHIN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawan Taisser Abu Alatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in Information Technology (IT and digital media have introduced new opportunities to design studio and new dimensions to design and architecture. The current research studies how the immersion of Virtual Reality (VR in architectural design studio affects spatial perception through the design process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of using such environments on changing the way how to design for human experience: how it will improve students' spatial understanding of Three Dimensions (3D volumes, and how it will enhance their imagination, enrich their creativity and promote their ability to experience their design's sensations. This study hypothesizes that using an immersive virtual environment in design studio will empower students' imaginations and give them the ability to understand and experience their ideas. It will give them the opportunity to check their design's validity with greater 3D exploration, understanding and comprehension of spatial volumes.  Within a framework of an experimental design research, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate what had been assumed.  The research used teaching, monitoring, explanatory observation and evaluation methods. The results showed that VR can not only enhance spatial perception and improve the design, but also it can affect the design process and make changes in the architectural design way of thinking. It can help designers to incorporate human experience within the design process.

  16. Coordination Environment of Copper Sites in Cu-CHA Zeolite Investigated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Anita; Stappen, Frederick N.; Vennestrøm, Peter N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cu-CHA combines high activity for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction with better hydrothermal stability and selectivity compared to other copper-substituted zeolites. At the same time Cu-CHA offers an opportunity for unraveling the coordination environment of the copper centers since...... the zeolite framework is very simple with only one crystallographically independent tetrahedral site (T-site). In this study the results of an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigation of ion-exchanged Cu-CHA zeolite with a Si/Al ratio of 14 ± 1 is presented. Different dehydration treatments...... of the EPR silent monomeric Cu2+ in copper-substituted zeolites is suggested to be copper species with an approximate trigonal coordination sphere appearing during the dehydration. After complete dehydration at 250 °C the majority of the EPR silent Cu2+ is suggested to exist as Cu2+–OH– coordinated to two...

  17. Investigation of corrosion resistance of alloys with high mechanical characteristics in some environments of food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremoureux, Yves

    1978-01-01

    This research thesis aimed at improving knowledge in the field of stress-free corrosion of alloys with high mechanical characteristics in aqueous environments, at highlighting some necessary aspects of their behaviour during cleaning or disinfection, and at selecting alloys which possess a good stress-free corrosion resistance in view of a later investigation of their stress corrosion resistance. After a presentation of the metallurgical characteristics of high mechanical strength alloys and the report of a bibliographical study on corrosion resistance of these alloys, the author presents and discusses the results obtained in the study of a possible migration of metallic ions in a milk product which is submitted to a centrifugation, and of the corrosion resistance of selected alloys with respect to the different media they will be in contact with during ultra-centrifugation. The following alloys have been used in this research: Marval 18, Marphynox, Marval X12, 17-4PH steel, Inconel 718 [fr

  18. Parental divorce and disordered eating: an investigation of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suisman, Jessica L; Burt, S Alexandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G; Klump, Kelly L

    2011-03-01

    We investigated gene-environment interactions (GxE) for associations between parental divorce and disordered eating (DE). Participants were 1,810 female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry and the Minnesota Twin Family Study. The Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey was used to assess DE. We tested for GxE by comparing the heritability of DE in twins from divorced versus intact families. It was hypothesized that divorce would moderate the heritability of DE, in that heritability would be higher in twins from divorced than twins from intact families. As expected, the heritability of body dissatisfaction was significantly higher in twins from divorced than intact families. However, genetic influences were equal in twins from divorced and intact families for all other forms of DE. Although divorce did not moderate heritability of most DE symptoms, future research should replicate GxEs for body dissatisfaction and identify factors underlying this unique relationship. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Plan for Investigating the Radiation Environment around the KAERI Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-11-15

    The investigation of the radiation environment is carried out broadly for the environmental radiation measurement, analyses of the environmental radioactivity and radiological assessment for the public. Environmental radiation dose is measured by a continuous and a portable environmental radiation monitor (ERM) in the range of the radius of 30 km from the sites. And the accumulated radiation dose is measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). The environmental radioactivity on gross alpha and gross beta, Uranium, Tritium, Strontium, and gamma-radionuclides are analyzed routinely in the various samples such as air particulate, air iodine, air moisture, soil, sediment, pine needle, rainwater, surface water, underground water, fallout, farm products, and stock farm products. Effective dose assessment by monitoring results is performed to obtain the public confidence.

  20. QuakeSim: a Web Service Environment for Productive Investigations with Earth Surface Sensor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Granat, R. A.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; McLeod, D.; Al-Ghanmi, R.; Pierce, M.; Fox, G.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The QuakeSim science gateway environment includes a visually rich portal interface, web service access to data and data processing operations, and the QuakeTables ontology-based database of fault models and sensor data. The integrated tools and services are designed to assist investigators by covering the entire earthquake cycle of strain accumulation and release. The Web interface now includes Drupal-based access to diverse and changing content, with new ability to access data and data processing directly from the public page, as well as the traditional project management areas that require password access. The system is designed to make initial browsing of fault models and deformation data particularly engaging for new users. Popular data and data processing include GPS time series with data mining techniques to find anomalies in time and space, experimental forecasting methods based on catalogue seismicity, faulted deformation models (both half-space and finite element), and model-based inversion of sensor data. The fault models include the CGS and UCERF 2.0 faults of California and are easily augmented with self-consistent fault models from other regions. The QuakeTables deformation data include the comprehensive set of UAVSAR interferograms as well as a growing collection of satellite InSAR data.. Fault interaction simulations are also being incorporated in the web environment based on Virtual California. A sample usage scenario is presented which follows an investigation of UAVSAR data from viewing as an overlay in Google Maps, to selection of an area of interest via a polygon tool, to fast extraction of the relevant correlation and phase information from large data files, to a model inversion of fault slip followed by calculation and display of a synthetic model interferogram.

  1. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Gon, E-mail: wgkim@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young [Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  2. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  3. Experimental investigation on hard turning using mixed ceramic insert under accelerated cooling environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanuj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports on the application of accelerated cooling environment (ACE in hard turning of AISI D2 steel (55 ± 1HRC using mixed ceramic insert (Al2O3 + TiCN which is rarely being investigated and to address the major problems of brittle fracture of tool tip that arises through cutting forces and friction at tool-work and chip-tool interface. In spraying process, some portion of spraying coolant vaporize due to heat when it reaches to cutting zone where as remaining portion of coolant easily penetrate in cutting zone through capillary action and reduces friction as well as heat in cutting zone. Abrasion and chipping are noticed to be dominant wear mechanism. Cutting speed and depth of cut are significant for flank wear as well as cutting temperature whereas feed is significant for average surface roughness. Serrated chips have been identified at higher cutting speed and higher feeds. Optimal parametric combination is found to be d1-f1-v2 (0.1mm-0.04 m/min-108 m/min and tool life and machining cost per part are 70 minutes and Rs 76.76 respectively. Investigation shows the worthy of application of ACE in hard turning in industrial sectors ecologically and economically. Empirical models reveal statistically significance due to higher coefficient of correlations.

  4. Investigating Factors That Influence Students' Management of Study Environment in Online Collaborative Groupwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines empirical models of students' management of the learning environment in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Such environment management is an important component of students' overall self-regulated learning strategy for effective learning. Student- and group-level predictors for study environment management in…

  5. Investigation by gamma-ray spectrometry and INAA of radioactivity impact on phosphate fertilizer plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Companis, I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Pincovshi, E.

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive polluting effect of a phosphate fertilizer plant on the environment was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The hazards could arise from industrial plants using raw phosphate materials to prepare fertilizers for agricultural purposes due to the phosphate rock which, depending on the type and geographical zone of provenance may contain rather large amounts of uranium. The fertilizer plant under study is situated about 4 km from the town of Turnu Magurele, on the left bank of the Danube River in Romania. The main by-products of the factory are: nitro phosphate type fertilizers (NP, NPK), Ammonia, Nitric acid, Ammonium nitrate, Urea, Sulfuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Sodium fluorosilicate and Aluminum sulfate. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ( 2 26Ra, 2 35U, 2 38U, 2 32Th, and 4 0K), as well as 1 37Cs man-made radionuclide in surface soils collected from semicircular areas within radii of 0.5 and 15 km of the plant; in addition, different NPK type fertilizers and phosphate rocks were investigated. The samples (mass of about 100-g each) were kept tightly closed for one month to permit 2 26Ra to establish radioactive equilibrium with its decay products. This method makes it possible to assess U, Th, and K contents in samples by measuring 2 38U and 2 32Th (in equilibrium with their radioactive daughters) and 4 0K radioactivity, taken into account that 1 g of U, Th and K yield 1 2358 Bq 2 38U, 569 Bq 2 35U, 4057.2 Bq 2 32Th and 33.11 Bq 4 0K, respectively. The spectrometrical chain was based on a HPGe (EG and G Ortec) detector of 30 % relative efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution at 1332 keV of 6 0Co. INAA technique (neutron irradiation at TRIGA reactor of SCN Pitesti) was used to determine macro, micro and trace elements in samples collected from both technological shops of the factory (air dust and drinking tap water) and its surroundings

  6. MetNet - In situ observational Network and Orbital platform to investigate the Martian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Leinonen, Jussi; Merikallio, Sini; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni

    2007-09-01

    MetNet Mars Mission is an in situ observational network and orbital platform mission to investigate the Martian environment and it has been proposed to European Space Agency in response to Call for proposals for the first planning cycle of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 D/SCI/DJS/SV/val/21851. The MetNet Mars Mission is to be implemented in collaboration with ESA, FMI, LA, IKI and the payload providing science teams. The scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy 16 MetNet Landers (MNLs) on the Martian surface by using inflatable descent system structures accompanied by an atmospheric sounder and data relay onboard the MetNet Orbiter (MNO), which is based on ESA Mars Express satellite platform. The MNLs are attached on the three sides of the satellite and most of the MNLs are deployed to Mars separately a few weeks prior to the arrival to Mars. The MetNet Orbiter will perform continuous atmospheric soundings thus complementing the accurate in situ observations at the Martian ground produced by the MetNet observation network, as well as the orbiter will serve as the primary data relay between the MetNet Landers and the Earth. The MNLs are equipped with a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterisation of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatological cycles, as well as interior investigations, require simultaneous in situ meteorological, seismic and magnetic measurements from networks of stations on the Martian surface. MetNet Mars Mission will also provide a crucial support for the safety of large landing missions in general and manned Mars missions in particular. Accurate knowledge of atmospheric conditions and weather data is essential to guarantee safe landings of the forthcoming Mars mission elements.

  7. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  8. COSMO-SkyMed Image Investigation of Snow Features in Alpine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Paloscia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, X band images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK on alpine environment have been analyzed for investigating snow characteristics and their effect on backscattering variations. Preliminary results confirmed the capability of simultaneous optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images (Landsat-8 and CSK in separating snow/no-snow areas and in detecting wet snow. The sensitivity of backscattering to snow depth has not always been confirmed, depending on snow characteristics related to the season. A model based on Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory (DMRT-QMS was applied for simulating the backscattering response on the X band from snow cover in different conditions of grain size, snow density and depth. By using DMRT-QMS and snow in-situ data collected on Cordevole basin in Italian Alps, the effect of grain size and snow density, beside snow depth and snow water equivalent, was pointed out, showing that the snow features affect the backscatter in different and sometimes opposite ways. Experimental values of backscattering were correctly simulated by using this model and selected intervals of ground parameters. The relationship between simulated and measured backscattering for the entire dataset shows slope >0.9, determination coefficient, R2 = 0.77, and root mean square error, RMSE = 1.1 dB, with p-value <0.05.

  9. Investigating Hydrocarbon Seep Environments with High-Resolution, Three-Dimensional Geographic Visualizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, D. F.; Gharib, J. J.; Mitchell, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed photographic imagery and bathymetric maps of the seafloor acquired by deep submergence vehicles such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) are expanding how scientists and the public view and ultimately understand the seafloor and the processes that modify it. Several recently acquired optical and acoustic datasets, collected during ECOGIG (Ecosystem Impacts of Oil and Gas Inputs to the Gulf) and other Gulf of Mexico expeditions using the National Institute for Undersea Science Technology (NIUST) Eagle Ray, and Mola Mola AUVs, have been fused with lower resolution data to create unique three-dimensional geovisualizations. Included in these data are multi-scale and multi-resolution visualizations over hydrocarbon seeps and seep related features. Resolution of the data range from 10s of mm to 10s of m. When multi-resolution data is integrated into a single three-dimensional visual environment, new insights into seafloor and seep processes can be obtained from the intuitive nature of three-dimensional data exploration. We provide examples and demonstrate how integration of multibeam bathymetry, seafloor backscatter data, sub-bottom profiler data, textured photomosaics, and hull-mounted multibeam acoustic midwater imagery are made into a series a three-dimensional geovisualizations of actively seeping sites and associated chemosynthetic communities. From these combined and merged datasets, insights on seep community structure, morphology, ecology, fluid migration dynamics, and process geomorphology can be investigated from new spatial perspectives. Such datasets also promote valuable inter-comparisons of sensor resolution and performance.

  10. Investigation on the electrochemical properties and crack growth rates of stainless steels in BWR alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.H.; Hsu, T.Y.; Huang, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing pH of reactor water to mildly alkaline is considered as one of the mitigating water chemistry strategies to reduce the activity release of radioactive oxides and suppress the growth rate of stress corrosion cracking. However, only limited experimental data are currently available in the published literature, it is imperative to perform additional tests to verify the effectiveness of slightly alkaline reactor water. Because the electrochemical behavior and SCC are intricately related, this study will attempt to investigates the electrochemical properties and measures the crack growth rates (CGRs) of type 304 stainless steel (SS) in both normal water chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , neutral pH 25 ) and alkaline chemistry (200 ppb O 2 , pH 25 = 8.0). The additive for pH control is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The crack growth rate was monitored by reversing DC potential drop technique. The electrochemical measurements include AC impedance measurement and potential pulsing test to measure the repassivation behavior. The characteristics of electrochemical properties and its effect on stress corrosion crocking in BWR alkaline environments have been further examined. (author)

  11. Thermodynamic investigation and environment impact assessment of hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis and environmental impact assessment of H 2 production system. • Thermodynamic analysis identifies optimal conditions for H 2 production. • LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of H 2 production system. • Inventories data are derived from process simulation and from literature review. • Thermal energy process is the main contributor to the environmental impact. - Abstract: In this research, various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate hydrogen production from steam reforming of poultry tallow (PT). These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic performance and perform an environment impact assessment using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The chemical reaction investigation identifies thermodynamically optimal operating conditions at which PT may be converted to hydrogen via the steam reforming process. The synthesis gas composition was determined by simulations to minimize the Gibbs free energy using the Aspen Plus™ 10.2 software. These optimal conditions are, subsequently, used in the design and simulation of the entire PT-to-hydrogen process. LCA is applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of PT-to-hydrogen system. The system boundaries include rendering and reforming along with the required transportation process. The reforming inventories data are derived from process simulation in Aspen Plus™, whereas the rendering data are adapted from a literature review. The life cycle inventories data of PT-to-hydrogen are computationally implemented into SimaPro 7.3. A set of seven relevant environmental impact categories are evaluated: global warming, abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, and cumulative non-renewable fossil and nuclear energy demand. The results are subject to a systematic sensitivity analysis and compared

  12. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, J., E-mail: jinhun.joung@nucaremed.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel imaging method that can be applied to most applications in the field of radiological environment imaging. It resolves either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) distributions of radioactive sources in applications for homeland security, environmental monitoring, radiation contamination monitoring, baggage inspection, nuclear power plant monitoring, and more. The proposed imaging method uses a simple detector configured as a radiation-counting detector with spectroscopic capabilities. The detector module consists of two components: a flat field-of-view (FOV) collimator with a 30° FOV opening and a typical single-channel radiation detector made of a 2 in.×2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a 2 in photomultiplier tube (PMT). This simple detector module makes it possible to develop a cost-effective imaging system and provide design freedom in extending the system configuration to include one-dimensional (1D) or 2D detector-array shapes to meet the needs of various applications. One of most distinctive features of the new imaging method is that it uses only a pair of 2D projections to obtain a 3D reconstruction. The projections are measured by the proposed detector module at two positions orthogonal to one another; the measured projections are manipulated to enhance the resolution of the reconstructed 3D image. The imaging method comprises several steps performed consecutively: projection measurement, energy re-binning, projection separation, resolution and attenuation recovery, image reconstruction, and image consolidation and quantitative analysis. The resolution and attenuation recovery step provides the most distinctive and important processing by which the poor quality of projection data is enhanced. Such poor quality is mainly due to the use of a simple detector with a wide-opening flat FOV collimator. Simulation and experimental studies have been conducted to validate the proposed method. In this investigation, we

  13. Investigating Effects of Problem-Based versus Lecture-Based Learning Environments on Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of two learning environments (i.e., problem-based learning [PBL] versus lecture-based [LB] environments) on undergraduates' study motivation. Survey results demonstrated that PBL students scored higher on competence but did not differ from LB students on autonomous motivation. Analyses of focus groups further…

  14. Investigating Learners' Attitudes toward Virtual Reality Learning Environments: Based on a Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Rauch, Ulrich; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The use of animation and multimedia for learning is now further extended by the provision of entire Virtual Reality Learning Environments (VRLE). This highlights a shift in Web-based learning from a conventional multimedia to a more immersive, interactive, intuitive and exciting VR learning environment. VRLEs simulate the real world through the…

  15. Investigation of Primary Dew-Point Saturator Efficiency in Two Different Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, D.; Heinonen, M.; Sestan, D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation process of the performance of the low-range saturator (LRS), when exposed to two different thermal environments. The examined saturator was designed, built, and tested at MIKES (Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland), and then transported to the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM) in Croatia, where it was implemented in a new dew-point calibration system. The saturator works on a single-pressure-single-pass generation principle in the dew/frost-point temperature range between and . The purpose of the various tests performed at MIKES was to examine the efficiency and non-ideality of the saturator. As a test bath facility in Croatia differs from the one used in Finland, the same tests were repeated at LPM, and the effects of different thermal conditions on saturator performance were examined. Thermometers, pressure gauges, an air preparation system, and water for filling the saturator at LPM were also different than those used at MIKES. Results obtained by both laboratories indicate that the efficiency of the examined saturator was not affected either by the thermal conditions under which it was tested or by equipment used for the tests. Both laboratories concluded that LRS is efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew/frost-point temperature scale in the range from to , with flow rates between and . It is also shown that a considerable difference of the pre-saturator efficiency, indicated by two laboratories, did not have influence to the overall performance of the saturator. The results of the research are presented in graphical and tabular forms. This paper also gives a brief description of the design and operation principle of the investigated low-range saturator.

  16. Investigating the associations between Mediterranean diet, physical activity and living environment with childhood asthma using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphantonogeorgos, George; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Grigoropoulou, Dimitra; Yfanti, Konstantina; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Papadimitriou, Anastasios; Anthracopoulos, Michael B; Bakoula, Chryssa; Priftis, Kostas N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity with relation to living environment and childhood asthma. 1125 children (529 boys), 10 to 12 years old were recruited either in an urban environment (Athens, n = 700) or rural environment (n = 425) in Greece. A path analytic model was developed to assess the causal relation between urban environment and asthma prevalence (standardized ISAAC questionnaire), through the mediation of the Mediterranean diet (evaluated by the KIDMED food frequency questionnaire) and physical activity (evaluated by the PALQ physical activity questionnaire). The proposed model had a very good fit (χ2/df ratio =1.05, RMSEA=0.007, 90% confidence interval: 0.01 to 0.046, p=0.97, CFI = 0.98). A significant total positive effect was found between urban environment and asthma symptoms (standardized beta= 0.09, penvironment - asthma relation (standardized beta=-0.029, penvironment on childhood asthma.

  17. Investigation of local environment around rare earths (La and Eu) by fluorescence line narrowing during borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molières, Estelle; Panczer, Gérard; Guyot, Yannick; Jollivet, Patrick; Majérus, Odile; Aschehoug, Patrick; Barboux, Philippe; Gin, Stéphane; Angeli, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The local environment of europium in soda-lime borosilicate glasses with a range of La 2 O 3 content was probed by continuous luminescence and Fluorescence Line Narrowing (FLN) to investigate the local environment of rare earth elements in pristine and leached glass. After aqueous leaching at 90 °C at pH 7 and 9.5, rare earths were fully retained and homogeneously distributed in the amorphous alteration layer (commonly called gel). Two separate silicate environments were observed in pristine and leached glasses regardless of the lanthanum content and the leaching conditions. A borate environment surrounding europium was not observed in pristine and leached glasses. During glass alteration, OH groups were located around the europium environment, which became more organized (higher symmetry) in the first coordination shell. -- Highlights: • No borate environment surrounding europium was detected in pristine borosilicate glasses. • Up to 12 mol% of REE2O3 in glass, local environment of europium does not significantly change. • Europium environment becomes more ordered and symmetric in gels than in pristine glasses. • Two distinct silicate sites were observed, as well in pristine glass as in gels (leached glasses). • In altered glasses, OH groups were located around europium

  18. Investigation of local environment around rare earths (La and Eu) by fluorescence line narrowing during borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molières, Estelle [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Panczer, Gérard; Guyot, Yannick [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Jollivet, Patrick [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Majérus, Odile; Aschehoug, Patrick; Barboux, Philippe [Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, UMR-CNRS 7574, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP Chimie-ParisTech), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Gin, Stéphane [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Angeli, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA – DEN-DTCD-LCV-SECM Laboratoire d' études du Comportement à Long Terme, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-01-15

    The local environment of europium in soda-lime borosilicate glasses with a range of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} content was probed by continuous luminescence and Fluorescence Line Narrowing (FLN) to investigate the local environment of rare earth elements in pristine and leached glass. After aqueous leaching at 90 °C at pH 7 and 9.5, rare earths were fully retained and homogeneously distributed in the amorphous alteration layer (commonly called gel). Two separate silicate environments were observed in pristine and leached glasses regardless of the lanthanum content and the leaching conditions. A borate environment surrounding europium was not observed in pristine and leached glasses. During glass alteration, OH groups were located around the europium environment, which became more organized (higher symmetry) in the first coordination shell. -- Highlights: • No borate environment surrounding europium was detected in pristine borosilicate glasses. • Up to 12 mol% of REE2O3 in glass, local environment of europium does not significantly change. • Europium environment becomes more ordered and symmetric in gels than in pristine glasses. • Two distinct silicate sites were observed, as well in pristine glass as in gels (leached glasses). • In altered glasses, OH groups were located around europium.

  19. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  20. Investigating walking environments in and around assisted living facilities: a facility visit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores assisted living residents' walking behaviors, locations where residents prefer to walk, and walking environments in and around assisted living facilities. Regular walking is beneficial to older adults' physical and psychological health. Yet frail older residents in assisted living are usually too sedentary to achieve these benefits. The physical environment plays an important role in promoting physical activity. However, there is little research exploring this relationship in assisted living settings. The researcher visited 34 assisted living facilities in a major Texas city. Methods included walk-through observation with the Assisted Living Facility Walking Environment Checklist, and interviews with administrators by open- and close-ended questions. The data from 26 facilities were analyzed using descriptive statistics (for quantitative data) and content analysis (for qualitative data). The results indicate that (a) residents were walking both indoors and outdoors for exercise or other purposes (e.g., going to destinations); (b) assisted living facility planning and design details-such as neighborhood sidewalk conditions, facility site selection, availability of seating, walking path configuration (e.g., looped/nonlooped path), amount of shading along the path, presence of handrails, existence of signage, etc.-may influence residents' walking behaviors; and (c) current assisted living facilities need improvement in all aspects to make their environments more walkable for residents. Findings of the study provide recommendations for assisted living facilities to improve the walkability of environments and to create environmental interventions to promote regular walking among their residents. This study also implies several directions for future research.

  1. Investigating How to Align Schools' Marketing Environments With Federal Standards for Competitive Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacsek, Michele; O'Brien, Liam M; Pratt, Elizabeth; Whatley-Blum, Janet; Adler, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    Limiting food and beverage marketing to children is a promising approach to influence children's nutrition behavior. School-based marketing influences nutrition behavior and studies have consistently found marketing for nonnutritious foods and beverages in schools. No studies have examined the resources necessary to align school marketing environments with federal school nutrition standards. The purpose of this study was to determine how to improve school marketing environments so that they align with new federal competitive food nutrition standards. We assessed food marketing environments in 3 Portland, Maine schools using the Food and Beverage Marketing Survey (FBMS) and provided technical assistance to bring their marketing environments into conformity with the federal competitive food regulations, tracking resources and strategies for marketing removal. Noncompliant marketing was significantly reduced pre- to postintervention. Intervention strategies were facilitated by the School Health Coordinator and school-based wellness teams. Low monetary resources were required to remove marketing not compliant with federal nutrition standards for foods sold in schools. Several key challenges remain to sustain efforts. This study provides timely information for policymakers to support crafting policies that address the realities of school nutrition environments and universal enforcement challenges. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  2. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    IGT's efforts in environmental protection are primarily concerned with reducing the level of undesirable emissions from combustion, treating solid and liquid waste materials, and producing cleaner fuels. Projects being funded include: an ultra-low-emission gas-fired cyclonic burner for firetube boiler retrofit; a combination of IGT's de-NOX technology for municipal solid waste combustors with the injection of sorbents to reduce pollutants; second-generation NOx reduction techniques for regenerative glass melting furnaces; investigation of the applicability of electric DC field flame stabilization; development of a slagging cyclonic combustor for a class of industrial solid wastes; remediation research of various biological, chemical, and thermal technologies for cleaning and/or immobilizing contaminants in soils and sludges; and fuel cell research on molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells

  3. Preliminary investigation for the development of surrogate debris from nuclear detonations in marine-urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seybert, A.G.; Auxier II, J.D.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Hall, H.L.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2017-01-01

    Since no nuclear weapon surface detonations have occurred in urban harbor environments, the nuclear forensic community has no actual debris from which to develop and validate analytical methods for radiochemistry analysis, making the development of surrogate debris representative of this a marine-urban detonation a vital undertaking. This work seeks to build a robust model that accounts for natural and manmade environmental variations in harbor environments and vessel compositions to statistically define the elemental composition of vaporized debris from a marine-urban nuclear detonation. This initial work is necessary for follow-on neutron-activation and debris formation analysis. (author)

  4. Study on systemizing technology on investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. Japanese fiscal year, 2007 (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Keiji; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Aoki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kunio; Nishigaki, Makoto; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Jun; Tochiyama, Osamu; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Ogata, Nobuhisa; Nishio, Kazuhisa

    2009-03-01

    In this year, the following studies were carried out with the aim of systemizing the technology on the investigation and analysis to understand the deep underground geological environment in relation to the radioactive waste disposal. (1) The study on the research and development (R and D) subjects which turned to the practical investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. (2) The study on the advanced technical basis for the investigation and analysis of deep underground geological environment. The results obtained from the studies are as follows: Regarding (1), the specific investigations, measurements and numerical and chemical analyses were performed particularly for research subjects: 1) engineering technology and 2) geological environment. Based on the results on (1), 3) tasks of collaboration research on intermediate area between the research fields, including the safety assessment field, were selected. Also redefinition of the NFC (Near Field Concept) were discussed. Regarding (2), based on the extracted tasks of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) research project, the study was implemented considering previous R and D results and detailed research at the research field was carried out. This study contributed to the R and D development for its practical application. Concurrently, information exchange and discussion on the 2nd phase (the Construction Phase) of the MIU (Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory) research program were often held. (author)

  5. Transformational and Passive Leadership: An Initial Investigation of University Instructors as Leaders in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Caspi, Avner; Roccas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether students perceive their university instructors in a virtual learning environment as leaders. Referring to the full range leadership theory (FRLT), we examined the effects of transformational and passive leadership styles of university instructors on students' satisfaction and learning outcomes. Completed web-based…

  6. The Development of Route Learning in Down Syndrome, Williams Syndrome and Typical Development: Investigations with Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Sockeel, Pascal; Mellier, Daniel; Blades, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The ability to navigate new environments has a significant impact on the daily life and independence of people with learning difficulties. The aims of this study were to investigate the development of route learning in Down syndrome (N = 50), Williams syndrome (N = 19), and typically developing children between 5 and 11 years old (N = 108); to…

  7. Investigating Plane Geometry Problem-Solving Strategies of Prospective Mathematics Teachers in Technology and Paper-and-Pencil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ilhan; Akyuz, Didem; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate plane geometry problem-solving strategies of prospective mathematics teachers using dynamic geometry software (DGS) and paper-and-pencil (PPB) environments after receiving an instruction with GeoGebra (GGB). Four plane geometry problems were used in a multiple case study design to understand the solution strategies…

  8. Investigating the Potential of MOOCs in K-12 Teaching and Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Jennifer; Pytash, Kristine E.; Ferdig, Richard E.; Merchant, William

    2015-01-01

    The massive open online course (MOOC) is a relatively new concept in K-12 teaching and learning environments. Although significant work has been done with MOOCs since 2008, it has only been recently that MOOCs have been studied with K-12 populations. The purpose of this study was to further examine the motivation of K-12 students enrolled in a…

  9. Augmented Reality in Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Short-term and Long-term Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerauer, Peter; Müller, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    field experiment with 24 participants at a mathematics exhibition to measure the effect of AR on acquiring and retaining mathematical knowledge in an informal learning environment, both short-term (i.e., directly after visiting the exhibition) and long-term (i.e., two months after the museum visit). Our...

  10. Investigation of a coupling model of coordination between urbanization and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Shi, Yalou; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2012-05-15

    China's coastal cities are experiencing rapid urbanization, which has resulted in many challenges. This paper presents a comprehensive index system for assessment of the level of urbanization based on four aspects: demographic urbanization, economic urbanization, social urbanization and spatial urbanization. The developed index system also characterizes the environment based on three factors: environmental pressure, environmental level and environmental control. Furthermore, a coupling coordination degree model (CCDM) focusing on the degree of coordination between urbanization and the environment was established using panel data collected from 2000 to 2008 for Lianyungang, China. The results showed that: (1) the dynamic of coordination between urbanization and the environment showed a U-shaped curve, and both sub-systems evolved into a superior balance during rapid urbanization; (2) social urbanization and environmental control make the greatest contribution to the coupling system, indicating that they are the critical factors to consider when adjusting coordination development during decision-making; and (3) the two parameters (α-urbanization, β-environment) that have been widely used in previous studies had less of an effect on the coupling coordinated system than the other factors considered herein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating Maternal Self-Efficacy and Home Learning Environment of Families Enrolled in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojczyk, Kathryn Elizabeth; Haverback, Heather Rogers; Pae, Hye K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, their preschool children's home learning environments, and literacy skills. A sample of 112 mother-child dyads was recruited from Head Start centers in rural and urban communities. The measures included maternal self-efficacy and maternal perceptions of…

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdugül, Halil; Menzi Çetin, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Learners can access and participate in online learning environments regardless of time and geographical barriers. This brings up the umbrella concept of learner autonomy that contains self-directed learning, self-regulated learning and the studying process. Motivation and learning strategies are also part of this umbrella…

  13. The Investigation of the Attitudes of Geography Teachers towards Environment in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to reveal whether the attitudes of the geography teachers in Turkey towards the environment change according to different variables, using ''Attitude Scale" for 404 geography teachers working in various high schools throughout the country. The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. The result revealed…

  14. Investigation of 210Po/210Pb in terrestrial environment of uranium mineralized area of Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethy, N.K.; Jha, V.N.; Singh, S.; Sharma, B.D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Soil is the major components for evaluation of migration characteristics and distribution of radionuclides like 210 Po and 210 Pb in a terrestrial ecosystem. In this study spatial profile of 210 Po in to soil and its equilibrium status with 210 Pb in the terrestrial environment have been studied and correlated with basic soil quality parameters

  15. The Woman Engineering Academic: An Investigation of Departmental and Institutional Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendall, Sherron Benson

    2000-01-01

    Interviewed women engineering faculty at two universities to determine their experiences and perceptions of departmental and institutional environments. Most participants had experienced some type of isolation or singling out due to gender. Some questioned whether they were overreacting. Many had difficulty balancing home and work lives.…

  16. Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

    2003-07-01

    The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed.

  17. Investigations Into Internal and External Aspects of Dynamic Agent-Environment Couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    This paper originates from my work on `social agents'. An issue which I consider important to this kind of research is the dynamic coupling of an agent with its social and non-social environment. I hypothesize `internal dynamics' inside an agent as a basic step towards understanding. The paper therefore focuses on the internal and external dynamics which couple an agent to its environment. The issue of embodiment in animals and artifacts and its relation to `social dynamics' is discussed first. I argue that embodiment is linked to a concept of a body and is not necessarily given when running a control program on robot hardware. I stress the individual characteristics of an embodied cognitive system, as well as its social embeddedness. I outline the framework of a physical-psychological state space which changes dynamically in a self-modifying way as a holistic approach towards embodied human and artificial cognition. This framework is meant to discuss internal and external dynamics of an embodied, natural or artificial agent. In order to stress the importance of a dynamic memory I introduce the concept of an `autobiographical agent'. The second part of the paper gives an example of the implementation of a physical agent, a robot, which is dynamically coupled to its environment by balancing on a seesaw. For the control of the robot a behavior-oriented approach using the dynamical systems metaphor is used. The problem is studied through building a complete and co-adapted robot-environment system. A seesaw which varies its orientation with one or two degrees of freedom is used as the artificial `habitat'. The problem of stabilizing the body axis by active motion on a seesaw is solved by using two inclination sensors and a parallel, behavior-oriented control architecture. Some experiments are described which demonstrate the exploitation of the dynamics of the robot-environment system.

  18. Investigation of the radioactivity in the environment around the Blayais CNPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbey, P.; Boilley, D.; Josset, M.; Migeon, A.; Bernollin, A.; Dunand, E.

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the identification of potential sources of radioactive pollutions of the Blayais CNPE (nuclear power plant for the production of electricity) in France, recalls the results of a previous study, and indicates the geographic and radiologic perimeters of the investigation. It reports the radio-ecological investigation of the aqueous medium (sediments, aqueous plants, fish, water), of the ground medium (soil and plants), and the investigation of transfers of chemical species (hydrazine, morpholine, boron, lithium) by the power plant

  19. Investigating Time and Spectral Dependence in Neutron Radiation Environments for Semiconductor Damage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    approach, a Bateman -like [16] equation can be developed that describes the time rate of change of the number of defects in the device, Nd, as dNd dt...16. H. Bateman , “Solution of a system of differential equations occurring in the theory of radioactive transformations,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc...environment. The mathematical model proceeded through a num- ber of steps in development, starting out with Bateman -like equations of the accu- mulation

  20. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Multi-Task Performance in an Immersive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    in Team Sports . Personality and Individual Differences July 1998, 25 (1), 119- 128. Potosky, D. A Field Study of Computer Efficacy Beliefs as an...vacation I like to engage in active sports rather than just lie around. ____ 60. I’ll try anything once. ____ 61. I often feel unsure of myself...heart rate variability ( HRV ). • To identify non-invasive psychological and physiological measures of cognitive readiness in a multi-task environment

  1. An Investigation of Anaerobic Processes in Fuel/Natural Seawater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    separated esters and glycerin. Biodiesel contains no sulfur. In the United States the term "biodiesel" is standardized as fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ...crude oil remaining. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils by converting the triglyceride oils to methyl (or ethyl) esters with a process known...water from the environment. Microbial growth in seawater can be limited by nutrients, including carbon. Biodiesel methyl esters are quite sparingly

  2. Investigation on Oracle GoldenGate Veridata for Data Consistency in WLCG Distributed Database Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Asko, Anti; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the distributed database environment, the data divergence can be an important problem: if it is not discovered and correctly identified, incorrect data can lead to poor decision making, errors in the service and in the operative errors. Oracle GoldenGate Veridata is a product to compare two sets of data and identify and report on data that is out of synchronization. IT DB is providing a replication service between databases at CERN and other computer centers worldwide as a par...

  3. Investigation to identify the inhibitors and facilitators of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment / Dianne Williamson

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment. Absenteeism can be one of the most important human resource issues in any organisation. Absenteeism can be really difficult, but with good understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, organisations can limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues. Absenteeism is not only a behaviour caused by an individual's character...

  4. Investigation of fission products release and structural changes of WWER spent fuel in inert and oxidizing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungurtsev, I.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Kuzmin, I.V.; Lebeduk, I.V.; Pimonov, Y.I.; Sohcilin, G.I.; Stupina, L.N.; Chesanov, V.V.; Shtuckert, Y.A.; Zvir, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in-cell experiments were carried out which were aimed at investigation of WWER spent fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Gaseous and volatile fission products release and the influence of gaseous swelling, fuel interaction with the cladding and oxidation on it have been investigated. At the present time, series of experiments in inert and air environments have been finished and the tests in steam environment have been carrying out. In all series the samples in the form of fuel pellets fragments and fuel elements pieces were used. This report presents some results of annealing tests and investigations of the sample microstructure after annealing. (author). 4 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Investigation on applicability of Biota dose assessment model to Japanese environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Isao; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    We examined applicability of established assessment tools to Japanese environment, which are developed to evaluate radiological impact for biota. In this study, we chose two assessment tools, the one is RESRAD-BIOTA which was developed by US-DOE, and the other is ERICA assessment tools which developed by EURATOM. We considered paddy field as the typical Asian environment and used maximum of global fallout nuclide concentrations which were monitored in Joetsu. From our trial calculation for general screening, Tier 1 of ERICA suggested that concentration of 137 Cs in aquatic systems is exceeded the screening level. On the other hand, RESRAD-BIOTA, concentration of 90 Sr, and terrestrial systems in ERICA were less than screening levels. Thus, we proceeded to apply the ERICA Tier 2 using with same parameter set in Tier 1, and found that each species was not exceeded the screening level. Finally, we calculated dosimetries of considerable species living in paddy field. We tested both tools and we adopted ERICA because of flexibility in body dimensions of adding organism. From our calculation, we concluded that graded approaches which are adopted in RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA are effective to apply Japanese environment. (author)

  6. An investigation of Chinese attitudes toward the environment: case study using the Grain for Green Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Liu, Zhande

    2009-02-01

    China is the world's most populous country and has one of the largest territories. As such, Chinese attitudes and behavior with regard to environmental issues are key factors in protecting the world's natural resources and environment. In this study, we surveyed a random sample of 5000 citizens from six Chinese provinces (Beijing, Shanghai, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, and Shaanxi) to understand their environmental attitudes, contrasts between the attitudes of citizens in different demographic groups, and their willingness to invest in environmental conservation. The results indicated that policymakers and the public increasingly recognize the key role that environmental restoration plays in protecting the overall health of the environment. In total, 91% of the interviewees believed that the environment had deteriorated severely during the past decade, compared with 44% in a 1999 survey. In addition, 78% of the interviewees supported their government's investment of more than 300 billion RMB (approximately 10% of total government revenues in 2004) in the "Grain for Green Project", which discouraged unsustainable land use by compensating farmers and herders for abandoning farming and grazing on marginal land. There was a strong correlation between environmental attitudes and net income and education levels, and other differences were based on the respondents' age, gender, job, and location. Net income and education level were the key factors that affected environmental attitudes. Based on these results, we propose that successful environmental restoration projects must include both an education component and an economic development component.

  7. Investigating the Connection between hgcA and Mercury Methylation Rates in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. J.; Christensen, G. A.; Wymore, A. M.; Podar, M.; Hurt, R. A., Jr.; Brown, S. D.; Palumbo, A. V.; Bender, K. S.; Fields, M. W.; Gilmour, C. C.; Santillan, E. F. U.; Brandt, C. C.; Elias, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a common contaminant in many natural environments and is known to be a neurotoxin that impacts human health through bioaccumulation in food webs. The anaerobic conversion of mercury (Hg) to MeHg by microorganisms requires the presence of both HgcA and HgcB. In an effort to link hgcAB abundance and diversity with MeHg generation rates, we performed metagenomic and 16S rRNA sequencing as well as qualitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of hgcA on samples from eight mercury-contaminated sites ranging from tidal marshes to Arctic permafrost. Custom algorithms were developed to filter hgcA sequences from the metagenomes, and to then select for those lineages that also contained hgcB. In the metagenomes, the Deltaproteobacteria dominated the pool of hgcAB from all eight sites; however, Firmicutes and methanogenic Archaea were each 50% less abundant. In parallel to the metagenomics studies, clone libraries of hgcAB were constructed for each site. This more cost-effective approach allowed us to verify the identity of the hgcAB+ organism, and yielded similar results to the metagenomes. Additionally, to determine the accuracy of our new degenerate qPCR primer sets (three sets specific to the three major clades of mercury methylators) in the environment, qPCR hgcA abundance values were compared to those derived from the metagenomes. Finally, we present evidence that hgcA abundance can correlate with MeHg concentrations but that the relationship is influenced by local environmental conditions. Our work demonstrates the relative efficacy of genetic methods for assessing the presence of mercury-methylators in eight different environments contaminated with mercury as well as the strength of association between abundance of hgcA and the rate of mercury methylation.

  8. Conversation analysis as a method for investigating interaction in care home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwin, John

    2014-11-01

    This article gives an outline of how the socio-linguistic approach of conversation analysis can be applied to the analysis of carer-patient interaction in care homes. A single case study from a routine encounter in a residential care home is presented. This is used to show how the conversation analysis method works, the kinds of interactional and communication features it can expose, and what specific contribution this kind of micro-interactional approach may make to improving quality of care in these environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Investigation of high temperature corrosion behavior on 304L austenite stainless steel in corrosive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahri, M. I.; Othman, N. K.; Samsu, Z.; Daud, A. R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this work, 304L stainless steel samples were exposed at 700 °C for 10hrs in different corrosive environments; dry oxygen, molten salt, and molten salt + dry oxygen. The corrosion behavior of samples was analyzed using weight change measurement technique, optical microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The existence phases of corroded sample were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The lowest corrosion rate was recorded in dry oxygen while the highest was in molten salt + dry oxygen environments with the value of 0.0062 mg/cm{sup 2} and −13.5225 mg/cm{sup 2} respectively. The surface morphology of sample in presence of salt mixture showed scale spallation. Oxide scales of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were the main phases developed and detected by XRD technique. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was not developed in every sample as protective layers but chromate-rich oxide was developed. The cross-section analysis found the oxide scales were in porous, thick and non-adherent that would not an effective barrier to prevent from further degradation of alloy. EDX analysis also showed the Cr-element was low compared to Fe-element at the oxide scale region.

  10. The performance environment of the England youth soccer teams: a quantitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Matthew A; Harwood, Chris G

    2008-09-01

    We examined the performance environment of the England youth soccer teams. Using a conceptually grounded questionnaire developed from the themes identified by Pain and Harwood (2007), 82 players and 23 national coaches and support staff were surveyed directly following international tournaments regarding the factors that positively and negatively influenced performance. The survey enabled data to be captured regarding both the extent and magnitude of the impact of the factors comprising the performance environment. Overall, team and social factors were generally perceived to have the greatest positive impact, with players and staff showing high levels of consensus in their evaluations. Team leadership and strong team cohesion were identified by both groups as having the greatest positive impact. Overall, far fewer variables were perceived to have a negative impact on performance, especially for players. The main negatives common to both groups were players losing composure during games, player boredom, and a lack of available activities in the hotel. The major findings support those of Pain and Harwood (2007) and in using a larger sample helped to corroborate and strengthen the generalizability of the findings.

  11. The importance of early investigation and publishing in an emergent health and environment crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kaori

    2016-10-01

    To minimize the damage resulting from a long-term environmental disaster such as the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, early disclosure of research data by scientists and prompt decision making by government authorities are required in place of careful, time-consuming research and deliberation about the consequences and cause of the accident. A Bayesian approach with flexible statistical modeling helps scientists and encourages government authorities to make decisions based on environmental data available in the early stages of a disaster. It is evident from Fukushima and similar accidents that classical research methods involving statistical methodologies that require rigorous experimental design and complex data sets are too cumbersome and delay important actions that may be critical in the early stages of an environmental disaster. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:680-682. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2014-01-01

    comfort and the performance of the air heating system and solar shading. Thermal comfort category B according to ISO 7730 was obtained in the building during field measurements, indicating that the air heating system was able to maintain comfort conditions in winter, when the outdoor temperature had been...... building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... unusual low for a longer period. The dynamic simulations also indicated that air heating during winter can provide a comfortable thermal environment. Dynamic simulations also demonstrated that during summer, apartments with automatic external solar screens had no serious overheating, whereas in apartments...

  13. Investigation of the transport of actinide-bearing soil colloids in the soil-aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.C.; Campbell, M.J.; Kittrick, J.; Cheng, T.

    1980-04-01

    Uranium-233 particle size dependent distribution ratios for the 10 to 60 range were determined for muscatine silt loam, Burbank loamy sand, Ritzville silt loam, Fuquay sand, and Idaho sandy clay. A mathematical method for the analysis of centrifuge data was developed to determine particle size dependent distribution ratio for the 10 to 60 nm range. Comparison of the distribution ratio data for the 0 to 60 nm particle size range strongly suggests that particles in the 1 to 10 nm (8000 to 50,000 MW) range play a dominate role. Since these particles are probably humic acid polymers, future research should be focused on humic acid complexing of radionuclides. A mathematical analysis is given to demonstrate the role of humic acid complexing in the transport of radionuclides in the soil-aquatic environment

  14. Modeling Unidirectional Pedestrian Movement: An Investigation of Diffusion Behavior in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unidirectional pedestrian movement is a special phenomenon in the evacuation process of large public buildings and urban environments at pedestrian scale. Several macroscopic models for collective behaviors have been built to predict pedestrian flow. However, current models do not explain the diffusion behavior in pedestrian crowd movement, which can be important in representing spatial-temporal crowd density differentiation in the movement process. This study builds a macroscopic model for describing crowd diffusion behavior and evaluating unidirectional pedestrian flow. The proposed model employs discretization of time and walking speed in geometric distribution to calculate downstream pedestrian crowd flow and analyze movement process based on upstream number of pedestrians and average walking speed. The simulated results are calibrated with video observation data in a baseball stadium to verify the model precision. Statistical results have verified that the proposed pedestrian diffusion model could accurately describe pedestrian macromovement behavior within the margin of error.

  15. Investigation of the process for ruthenium fixation on stainless steel in concentrated nitric environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massit, Hubert

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a process and the determination of the conditions for the fixation of insoluble ruthenium compounds on a Z2CN180 stainless steel in a concentrated nitric environment. The original characteristics and results of this research work are the use of a rotating disk to control the hydrodynamic conditions of suspension particle transport towards the collector surface, and the application of X ray spectrometry of solid deposits of ruthenium compounds fixed on this surface. Characterization techniques (granulometry, Auger electron spectroscopy or AES, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis or ESCA) allowed the assessment of the influence of various parameters (size, surface chemical composition) on the studied process. Electrochemical techniques are used to show the role of particle-substrate Coulomb interactions, on the quantity of fixed particles and on fixation kinetics. The author evokes possible developments and applications, notably decontamination processes [fr

  16. METRIC: A Dedicated Earth-Orbiting Spacecraft for Investigating Gravitational Physics and the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Peron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A dedicated mission in low Earth orbit is proposed to test predictions of gravitational interaction theories and to directly measure the atmospheric density in a relevant altitude range, as well as to provide a metrological platform able to tie different space geodesy techniques. The concept foresees a small spacecraft to be placed in a dawn-dusk eccentric orbit between 450 and 1200 km of altitude. The spacecraft will be tracked from the ground with high precision, and a three-axis accelerometer package on-board will measure the non-gravitational accelerations acting on its surface. Estimates of parameters related to fundamental physics and geophysics should be obtained by a precise orbit determination, while the accelerometer data will be instrumental in constraining the atmospheric density. Along with the mission scientific objectives, a conceptual configuration is described together with an analysis of the dynamical environment experienced by the spacecraft and the accelerometer.

  17. An investigation into the application of customer profitability analysis as a strategic decision-making tool in a hospitality environment

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, Breffni M

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the Applicability of Customer Profitability Analysis as a strategic decision-making technique in a hospitality environment. The study commenced with a review of literature in the fields of Yield Management, Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA) and Activity-Based Costing (ABC), with ABC being identified as an appropriate method of costing to use in CPA. Issues arising from the implementation of an Activity-Based CPA including the purpose ...

  18. Investigating Learning through Work: The Development of the "Provider Learning Environment Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Clive; Hawke, Geof

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research activity was to investigate contemporary understandings of the connections between learning and work. This initial work was then used to inform the development of an organisational tool that registered training organisations (RTOs) could use to identify organisational practices likely to lead to greater learning at…

  19. The effect of external electron injection and the environment composition on development of atmospheric discharge investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Oginov, A.V.; Chajkovskij, S.A.; Shpakov, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of external electron injection (with energy about 150 keV) on initial phase development of the high-voltage (1.0-1.2 MV) long (500-700 mm) gas discharge is investigated. The experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure air and in a mixture of air and water droplet phase [ru

  20. Intergenerational Continuity in High-Conflict Family Environments: Investigating a Mediating Depressive Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, W. Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M.; Chassin, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that family conflict shows continuity across generations and that intergenerational family conflict can be more intense and deleterious than conflict experienced in a single generation. However, few investigations have identified etiological mechanisms by which family conflict is perpetuated across generations.…

  1. The Woman Engineering Academic: An Investigation of Departmental and Institutional Environments. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sherron D.

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate the institutional and departmental climates of women engineering faculty. Seven female engineering faculty from two universities completed semi-structured interviews that were coded for common themes. All the participants indicated that they had had a natural interest or talent for science…

  2. Variable g- Mars environmental chamber: a small window of the martian environment for life science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambati, Antonella; Slenzka, Klaus; Schmeyers, Bernd; Di Capua, Massimiliano; Harting, Benjamin

    Human exploration and permanent settlement on the Martian surface is the one of the most attractive and ambitious endeavors mankind has ever faced. As technology and research progress, solutions and information that were before unavailable are slowly making the dream become everyday more feasible. In the past years a huge amount of knowledge was gathered by the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity and now, even more insight is being gathered through the latest rover of the family, Curiosity. In this work, data from the various missions will be used to define and reproduce on Earth the characteristic Martian atmospheric conditions. A small Mars environmental chamber has been designed and built with the objective of studying the effects of the Martian environment on biological systems. The Variable gravity Mars Environmental Chamber (VgMEC) will allow researchers to replicate atmospheric pressure, gas composition, temperature and UVA/B exposure typical of the equatorial regions of Mars. By exposing biological systems to a controllable set of stressor it will be possible to identify both multi and single stressor effects on the system of interest. While several Mars environment simulation facilities exist, due to their size and mass, all are confined to floor-fixed laboratory settings. The VgMEC is an OHB funded project that wishes to bring together the scientific community and the industry. Collaborations will be enabled by granting low cost access to cutting-edge instrumentation and services. Developed at OHB System AG, VgMEC has been designed from the ground up to be a 28L, compact and lightweight test volume capable of being integrated in existing centrifuges (such as the ESA-ESTEC LCD), gimbal systems and parabolic flight aircraft. The VgMEC support systems were designed to accommodate continuous operations of virtually unlimited duration through the adoption of solutions such as: hot swappable gas/liquid consumables bottles, low power requirements, an

  3. Some investigations into the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.; Jefferies, D.F.; Lovett, M.B.

    1975-01-01

    Plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced during the operation of magnox reactors, although they do not usually present any problems of waste management until the fuel reaches the reprocessing stage. At this stage one of the chief aims is to separate and recover the plutonium from the depleted uranium and the fission products, the incentive being the value of plutonium itself as a nuclear fuel particularly for the fast breeder reactors. For this reason the amounts of plutonium appearing in the low activity waste streams for discharge to the environment are usually small, and their radiological impact insignificant compared with that of the more abundant fission products. However, with the prospect of use of large quantities of plutonium in the fast reactors, considerable interest surrounds all aspects of the properties of plutonium, and in an attempt to give a fuller understanding of the behaviour of plutonium in the marine environment use has been made of the small amounts which have been discharged in recent years to the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale in Cumbria. Details of the amounts of 239 Pu and 240 Pu discharged to sea are given and the resultant measured concentrations of the isotopes in the water throughout the Irish Sea are shown. The distribution of plutonium in sea water is shown to follow the same basic pattern as the fission products, details of which have been reported previously. By comparing the concentration gradients with distance from the point of discharge for plutonium and caesium, a value for the rate of loss of plutonium from the water to the other important compartment, namely the sediment, has been deduced. Measurements have been made of 239 Pu and 240 Pu in seabed and estuarine sediments and by combining these with the water data values of the concentration factor for the nuclide in sediment have been calculated. The results of a number of core samples have been used to calculate an

  4. Predicting DUI decisions in different legal environments: investigating deterrence with a conjoint experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Johnson, Mark B; Beck, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) enforcement practices and sanctions contribute differentially to the certainty, swiftness, and severity of punishment, which are the key components of general deterrence theory. This study used a conjoint experiment to understand the decision-making process of potential DUI offenders and tested how variation in enforcement and legal punishment affects drinking and driving decisions. It sought to verify and quantify the unique deterrent effects of certainty, severity, and swiftness and to predict the rates of drinking and driving in different legal environments. One hundred twenty-one college seniors and graduate students at the University of Maryland participated in the Web-based conjoint experiment. They were randomly assigned to 4 blocks, each of which included 9 hypothetical scenarios composed of different levels of DUI enforcement and penalties. Respondents were asked to state their likelihood of drinking and driving under each scenario, as well as their estimated chance of being caught by the police for DUI. Intensified enforcement, harsh jail penalty, and immediate long license suspension were found to be the strongest deterrents to drinking and driving. Alternative ways to get home were also important in reducing people's willingness to drive. These factors accounted for most of the attribute effect on the DUI decision, whereas delayed punishment due to judicial processing, fine penalty, and legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit had negligible effects. For the personal characteristics, college seniors and those who had previously driven after drinking were more likely to choose to drink and drive, whereas those who expect a jail penalty for a DUI offense were less likely to drive. Our research confirmed and quantified certainty of punishment as the greatest deterrent to DUI, but it also indicated the equally important effect of a severe jail penalty. It provides evidence on the feasibility of using a conjoint

  5. An empirical investigation on the forecasting ability of mallows model averaging in a macro economic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper investigates the forecasting ability of Mallows Model Averaging (MMA) by conducting an empirical analysis of five Asia countries, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia and China's GDP growth rate. Results reveal that MMA has no noticeable differences in predictive ability compared to the general autoregressive fractional integrated moving average model (ARFIMA) and its predictive ability is sensitive to the effect of financial crisis. MMA could be an alternative forecasting method for samples without recent outliers such as financial crisis.

  6. Radionuclides in the investigation of the circulation of toxic metals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Zeman, A.; Kratzer, K.; Prasilova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclides of chromium(III) and (VI), zinc, cadmium, inorganic mercury(II), methylmercury and phenylmercury were used for the investigation of the cumulation of these toxic elements or compounds in algae and fish in different experimental conditions in order to describe quantitatively the processes occurring in nature. Cumulation factors of different chemical forms of elements studied were determined for algae as were biological half-times for fish which allowed the calculation of the maximum concentration of toxic elements in fish. (author)

  7. Spacer engineered Trigate SOI TFET: An investigation towards harsh temperature environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjunarao; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pradhan, K. P.; Artola, L.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel N-channel Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) i.e., Trigate Silicon-ON-Insulator (SOI) N-TFET with high-k spacer is proposed for better Sub-threshold swing (SS) and OFF-state current (IOFF) by keeping in mind the sensitivity towards temperature. The proposed model can achieve a Sub-threshold swing less than 35 mV/decade at various temperatures, which is desirable for designing low power CTFET for digital circuit applications. In N-TFET source doping has a significant effect on the ON-state current (ION) level; therefore more electrons will tunnel from source to channel region. High-k Spacer i.e., HfO2 is used to enhance the device performance and also it avoids overlapping of transistors in an integrated circuits (IC's). We have designed a reliable device by performing the temperature analysis on Transfer characteristics, Drain characteristics and also on various performance metrics like ON-state current (ION), OFF-state current (IOFF), ION/IOFF, Trans-conductance (gm), Trans-conductance Generation Factor (TGF), Sub-threshold Swing (SS) to observe the applications towards harsh temperature environment.

  8. Investigation of the subsurface environment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, B.F.; Mizell, S.A.; Hull, L.C.; Smith, T.H.; Lewis, B.D.; Barraclough, J.T.; Humphrey, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive, 10-year plan to investigate radionuclide migration in the subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) has been prepared and initiated (in FY-84). The RWMC Subsurface Investigation is designed to address two objectives set forth by the DOE Idaho Operations Office: (1) determine the extent of radionuclide migration, if any, from the buried waste, and (2) develop and calibrate a computer model to simulate long-term radionuclide migration. At the RWMC, the Snake River Plain Aquifer underlies about 177 m of partially saturated, fractured basalts and thin sedimentary units. Three sedimentary units, accounting for no more than 20 m of the partially saturated thickness, appear to be continuous throughout the area. Thinner sedimentary units are discontinuous. Low-level waste and (prior to 1970) transuranic waste have been buried in the surficial sediments at the RWMC. The first burials took place in 1952. Due to the complicated disposal system, a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art vadose zone monitoring instrumentation and techniques, an analysis of conceptual migration pathways, and an evaluation of potential hazard from buried radionuclides were conducted to guide preparation of the investigation plan. The plan includes an overview of the RWMC facility, subsurface work conducted to date at the RWMC and other DOE laboratory facilities, an evaluation and selection of the methods and studies to be used, a radionuclide hazard evaluation, a cost analysis, and external peer review results. In addition, an Appendix contains the details for each method/study to be employed. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  9. Investigation for rapid measurement of radio strontium in environment by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding described that investigation of applies AMS to "9"0Sr measurement in environmental samples. Conventional method for measurement of "9"0Sr takes longer time. However, "9"0Sr-AMS is not required complex chemical separation and longer times due to not counting decay signals. It will be produce good results for case of emergency and routine monitoring. This project has already launched and carries it out by plan for three years. "9"0Sr-AMS involves two major barriers, but it will be expect that solve by improved equipment and new accelerator in the University of Tsukuba. (author)

  10. A nanoscale friction investigation during the manipulation of nanoparticles in controlled environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Future micro/nanodevices will contain very small features such that liquid lubrication is not practical and inherent lubricity is needed. In this study, a nanoscale friction investigation was carried out during the manipulation of Au and SiO 2 nanoparticles on silicon using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nanoparticle sliding was characterized by quantifying the lateral force associated with the AFM tip twisting as it hits the particle edge. The friction force varies with particle area and humidity, illustrating how meniscus forces on nanoparticles affect friction. A large tip slid on the nanoparticle-coated surface exhibited friction reduction due to nanoparticle sliding and contact area reduction

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigation for SO3 production in SO2-rich astrophysical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Víctor de Souza; Pilling, Sergio; Castilho, Roberto B; Baptista, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results for the irradiation of pure SO 2 sample that was condensed in a preevacuated chamber, from Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP), at low temperature (12 K) and irradiated by ionizing photons which simulate Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays range. The infrared spectra of irradiated sample have presented the formation of SO 3 . Experimental formation cross section was determined. Theoretical investigations were performed at Second-order Moller- Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) level and indicate the most likely SO 3 formation channels vary with the reaction supporting medium. (paper)

  12. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-Level Measuring Accuracy in a Low Pressure Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    Dip Tubes which are used for determining liquid level in many processes at SRS will be used to measure the liquid level of the Am/Cm solution in the Feed Tank at the MPPF. The Feed Tank operates under a vacuum, therefore the Dip Tubes will operate under a vacuum. Uncertainty in how accurate the Dip Tubes would perform in a vacuum environment led to testing. The Am/Cm Melter Liquid-Feed Tank measurement test was mocked-up per Figure 1. The Feed Tank was designed to simulate actual conditions in which the Dip Tubes would measure the differential pressure. The Feed Tank was made of Stainless Steel with a Lexan window to view inside the tank during testing. The Feed Tank was built per Drawing SRT-ETF-DD-96008, Revision A. The accuracy of the Dip Tubes was checked first by filling the Feed Tank at a flow rate of 3.5 L/min and venting it to the atmosphere. Figure 2 shows that the Dip Tubes were responsive and accurate when compared to the data from the measuring scale on the view window. Then tests were conducted with 23y Hg vacuum inside the tank and water flow rates of 3.9 L/min, 1.8 L/min, and 0.7 L/min being fed to the tank. The data from each test are depicted in Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5, respectively. The Dip Tubes responded accurately for the three test with a maximum error range of +0.31y to -0.19y when compared to the measuring scale located next to the view window on the Feed Tank

  13. Investigation of tenuous plasma environment using Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Jeszenszky, Harald; Torkar, Klaus; Andriopoulou, Maria; Fremuth, Gerhard; Taijmar, Martin; Scharlemann, Carsten; Svenes, Knut; Escoubet, Philippe; Prattes, Gustav; Laky, Gunter; Giner, Franz; Hoelzl, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    The NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission is planned to be launched on March 12, 2015. The scientific objectives of the MMS mission are to explore and understand the fundamental plasma physics processes of magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere. The region of scientific interest of MMS is in a tenuous plasma environment where the positive spacecraft potential reaches an equilibrium at several tens of Volts. An Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instrument neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. ASPOC thereby reduces the potential in order to improve the electric field and low-energy particle measurement. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each of the MMS spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for MMS includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics enabling lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. A perfectly stable spacecraft potential precludes the utilization of the spacecraft as a plasma probe, which is a conventional technique used to estimate ambient plasma density from the spacecraft potential. The small residual variations of the potential controlled by ASPOC, however, still allow to determine ambient plasma density by comparing two closely separated spacecraft and thereby reconstructing the uncontrolled potential variation from the controlled potential. Regular intercalibration of controlled and uncontrolled potentials is expected to increase the reliability of this new method.

  14. Investigations on Chlorophytum comosum ability to remove toluene from air in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, G.; Lakel, A.

    Plants play a major role in bioregenerative systems for air and water supplies. They may also contribute to the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air in a closed environment, based on the ability to absorb toxic compounds and to detoxify them. The aim of our work was to study the capabilities of Chlorophytum comosum for toluene removal and to identify the main parts of the plants which are responsible for the elimination. A 1-m3 sealed chamber was designed and built in 8-mm window glass assembled with UV-polymerized glue. It was equipped with one internal fan for air mixing. The other materials (low-emitting and low-adsorptive) were aluminium and PTFE. A cooling system was also used to regulate humidity content which was monitored continuously as well as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Experiments were carried out in this chamber with Chlorophytum comosum plants exposed to an initial concentration of 11.5x103 μg toluene m-3. Pollutant concentration was measured every five minutes during several days. Toluene removal was studied in various configurations (potting media, hydroponic conditions{ldots}) in order to document the level of contribution of each component (leaves, roots, microorganisms and soil) of the potted plants. Results show that 54 % of toluene was removed in 72 h with the whole potted plant. A large participation of the soil in the purification process was noticed whereas foliage seemed to have little effect at the light intensity used in the experiments. Moreover, the tests realized with both natural and sterilized soils suggest that soil bacteria (in potting media) play a significant role in the removal process showing that soil and its microorganisms may have complementary roles in the elimination phenomena. Detoxifying function of potted plants could find current applications in improving air quality, in particular indoor air from domestic buildings.

  15. Investigations of radiocaesium in the natural terrestrial environment in Norway following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretten, S.; Steinnes, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident affected parts of central Norway to a considerable extent, in particular the 134 Cs + 137 Cs deposition had a significant impact on the natural environment. When this became apparent, a comprehensive radioecological research programme was initiated in order to study the behaviour of radiocaesium in boreal and alpine ecosystems, with emphasis on food-chains leading to exposure of species used for human consumption, i.e., reindeer and freshwater fish. In this paper results from the terrestrial part of this research programme during the period 1986-1990 are presented. The work was mainly confined to the mountain areas of Dovre and Rondane. Parallel studies were performed in eutrophic and strongly oligotrophic communities. The influence of local variations in topography and microclimate on the observed radiocaesium levels in topsoils, lichens and vascular plants was studied in detail. Currently a significant re-distribution of radiocaesium from the originally strongly exposed surfaces to those that were less exposed is observed. In the soil, radiocaesium is strongly retained in the litter and raw humus layers. Current levels in lichens are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in vascular plants. This strongly affects the seasonal variation of radiocaesium in reindeer, showing winter maxima of about 5 times higher than the August levels. The radiocaesium levels in reindeer showed a decline of approximately a factor of 3 during the period 1987-1990. Other animal species studied in the programme exhibited substantially lower radiocaesium levels than reindeer, but a considerable interspecies variation was observed. (author)

  16. Investigating the physics and environment of Lyman limit systems in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis

    2015-07-01

    In this work, I investigate the properties of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) using state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological galaxy formation simulations with on the fly radiative transfer, which includes both the cosmic UV background (UVB) and local stellar sources. I compare the simulation results to observations of the incidence frequency of LLSs and the H I column density distribution function over the redshift range z = 2-5 and find good agreement. I explore the connection between LLSs and their host haloes and find that LLSs reside in haloes with a wide range of halo masses with a nearly constant covering fraction within a virial radius. Over the range z = 2-5, I find that more than half of the LLSs reside in haloes with M test a simple model which encapsulates many of their properties. I confirm that LLSs have a characteristic absorption length given by the Jeans length and that they are in photoionization equilibrium at low column densities. Finally, I investigate the self-shielding of LLSs to the UVB and explore how the non-sphericity of LLSs affects the photoionization rate at a given N_{H I}. I find that at z ≈ 3, LLSs have an optical depth of unity at a column density of ˜1018 cm-2 and that this is the column density which characterizes the onset of self-shielding.

  17. The physical work environment and end-user requirements: Investigating marine engineering officers' operational demands and ship design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica

    2016-08-12

    Physical environments influence how individuals perceive a space and behave within it. Previous research has revealed deficiencies in ship engine department work environments, and their impact on crew productivity, health and wellbeing. Connect operational task demands to pragmatic physical design and layout solutions by implementing a user-centric perspective. Three focus groups, each consisting of three marine engineers participated in this study. Focus groups were divided into two sessions: first, to investigate the end-user's operational requirements and their relationship with ship physical design and layout. Second, criteria formulated from group discussions were applied to a ship design case study. All focus group sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Design choices made in a ships general arrangement were described to inherently influence how individuals and teams are able to function within the system. Participants detailed logistical relationships between key areas, stressing that the work environment and physical linkages must allow for flexibility of work organization and task execution. Traditional engine control paradigms do not allow effective mitigation of traditional engine department challenges. The influence of technology and modernization of ship systems can facilitate improvement of physical environments and work organization if effectively utilized.

  18. [Investigation on Cheyletoidea mites breeding in culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and morphologic observation of Eucheyletia reticulate Cunliffe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Wei, Guo; Shao-Sheng, Wang; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-01-27

    To investigate the species of Cheyletoidea mites breeding in the culture environment of Eupolyphaga sinensis and to observe the morphology of Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe. The soil samples from an E. sinensis farm in northern Anhui were collected. The mites in the soil samples were separated directly under a microscope and the glass specimens were made to observe the morphological feature of the mites under a light microscope, then the mites species were identified and classified based on the morphological characteristics. In the culture soil of E. sinensis , totally 7 kinds of Cheyletoidea mites were isolated, namely Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe, Cheyletus eruditus Schrank, Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans, Cheyletus troussarti Oudemans, Cheyletus aveisor Rohdendorz, Acaropsis sollers Rohdendorz and Cheletomorpha lepidopterorum Shaw. They belonged to genera Eucheyletia , Cheletomorpha , Acaropsis and Cheyletus of Cheyletidae Leach family. The Eucheyletia reticulata Cunliffe was firstly found in the culture environment of E. sinensis , and its gnathosoma was large, the pedipalpal femurs were expanding and there were two strips of comb hair and two smooth bristles on the pedipalpal tarsus, and the back of the body was covered with two pieces of tergum, which were decorated with reticular pattern. The body and foot setae were fan-shape. There are various of Cheyletoidea mites found in the breeding environment of E. sinensis . These mites are important species for pest control in the culture environments of E. sinensis . Related measures should be taken to prevent the excessive growth of Cheyletoidea mites, so as to avoid the adverse effects on the quality and quantity of E. sinensis .

  19. A Review on Investigation and Assessment of Path Loss Models in Urban and Rural Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, G. R.; Kokate, P. A.; Lokhande, S. K.; Shrawankar, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims at providing a clear knowledge of Path Loss (PL) to the researcher. The important data have been extracted from the papers and mentioned in clear and precise manner. The limited studies were based on identification of PL due to FM frequency. Majority of studies based on identification of PL considering telephonic frequency as a source. In this paper the PL in urban and rural areas of different places due to various factors like buildings, trees, antenna height, forest etc. have been studied. The common parameters like frequency, model and location based studies were done. The studies were segregated based on various parameters in tabular format and they were compared based on frequency, location and best fit model in that table. Scatter chart was drawn in order to make the things clearer and more understandable. However, location specific PL models are required to investigate the RF propagation in identified terrain.

  20. Emotional and cognitive influences in air traffic controller tasks: An investigation using a virtual environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truschzinski, Martina; Betella, Alberto; Brunnett, Guido; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2018-05-01

    Air traffic controllers are required to perform complex tasks which require attention and high precision. This study investigates how the difficulty of such tasks influences emotional states, cognitive workload and task performance. We use quantitative and qualitative measurements, including the recording of pupil dilation and changes in affect using questionnaires. Participants were required to perform a number of air traffic control tasks using the immersive human accessible Virtual Reality space in the "eXperience Induction Machine". Based on the data collected, we developed and validated a model which integrates personality, workload and affective theories. Our results indicate that the difficulty of an air traffic control task has a direct influence on cognitive workload as well as on the self-reported mood; whereas both mood and workload seem to change independently. In addition, we show that personality, in particular neuroticism, affects both mood and performance of the participants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  2. Studies on the geological environment of the Nanjido waste disposal site: Gravity and magnetic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Byung Doo; Kim, Cha Seop; Chung, Ho Joon; Oh, Seok Hoon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Gravity and magnetic surveys were carried out to investigate the three dimensional configuration and characteristics of the landfills at Nanjido waste disposal site. For terrain correction and three dimensional density inversion of gravity data an algorithm, which calculates the gravity effect of a three dimensional body by using the solid angle method, is developed. This algorithm has been proved to give more accurate terrain correction values for the small survey area having varied topography like Nanjido site as compared with widely used methods such as Hammer`s method and multiquadric equation method. Density inversion of gravity anomaly data gives very useful information about the lateral and vertical variation of the landfills, which can be used to discriminate the kinds of wastes. The average density of filled materials appears to be 1.7 g/cm{sup 3} which is much higher than the value (0.8 g/cm{sup 3}) estimated by Seoul City. The lateral variation of density shows high correlation with the pattern of ongoing depression of the landfills. The northern region of the landfill no. 1, which shows low density and high depression, is closely associated with the industrial waste and sludge filled area. The magnetic anomaly data provide information about relative concentration of magnetic materials, which is also very useful to investigate characteristics of the fills. Several high positive anomaly regions on the reduced-to-pole magnetic anomaly map are appeared to be associated with the industrial waste fills, but certain industrial waste fills show low negative anomalies. This kind of magnetic information can be used in selecting drilling locations over landfills away from buried metal products during the stabilization process. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. Investigating fundamental physics and space environment with a dedicated Earth-orbiting spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto

    The near-Earth environment is a place of first choice for performing fundamental physics experiments, given its proximity to Earth and at the same time being relatively quiet dynamically for particular orbital arrangements. This environment also sees a rich phenomenology for what concerns gravitation. In fact, the general theory of relativity is an incredibly accurate description of gravitational phenomenology. However, its overall validity is being questioned by the theories that aim at reconciling it with the microscopic domain. Challenges come also from the ‘mysteries’ of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, though mainly at scales from the galactic up to the cosmological. It is therefore important to precisely test the consequences of the theory -- as well as those of competing ones -- at all the accessible scales. At the same time, the development of high-precision experimental space techniques, which are needed for tests in fundamental physics, opens the way to complementary applications. The growth of the (man-made) orbital debris population is creating problems to the future development of space. The year 2009 witnessed the first accidental collision between two satellites in orbit (Iridium and Cosmos) that led to the creation of more debris. International and national agencies are intervening by issuing and/or adopting guidelines to mitigate the growth of orbital debris. A central tenet of these guidelines requires a presence in space shorter than 25 years to satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) after the conclusion of their operational lives. However, the determination of the natural lifetime of a satellite in LEO is very uncertain due to a large extent to the short-term and long-term variability of the atmospheric density in LEO and the comparatively low-accuracy of atmospheric density models. Many satellites orbiting in the 500-1200 km region with circular or elliptical orbits will be hard pressed to establish before flight whether or not they meet the 25

  4. Numerical investigation of optimized CZTSSe based solar cell in Wx-Amps environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soumya Priyadarshini; Padhy, Srinibasa; Chowdhury, Joy; Sing, Udai P.

    2018-05-01

    The CZTSSe is the modified version of CZTS with selenium infusion. It shows maximum efficiency in the band gap from 1 to 1.4 eV. In our present work CZTSSe based solar cell is investigated using Wx-Amps tool. The Mo layer, absorber layer, CdS layer, i-ZnO [4]and Al-ZnO layers with their electrical, optical and material parameters are fitted in the tool. The vital parameters such as carrier density, thickness of the CZTSSe absorber layer, operating temperature, CdS buffer layer thickness and its carrier density on the cell interpretation are calculated. From[4] the simulation results it is apparent that the optimal absorber layer varies from 2.9 µm to 3.7 µm. The temperature variation has a strong influence on the efficiency of the cell. An optimal efficiency of 22% (With Jsc=33 mA/cm2, Voc=0.98 V, and fill factor= 68%) are attained. These results will give some insight for makeing higher efficiency CZTSSe based solar cell.

  5. Modeling and Simulation for the Investigation of Radar Responses to Electronic Attacks in Electronic Warfare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Ryoung Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic warfare (EW simulator is presented to investigate and evaluate the tracking performance of radar system under the electronic attack situations. The EW simulator has the input section in which the characteristic parameters of radar threat, radar warning receiver, jammer, electromagnetic wave propagation, and simulation scenario can be set up. During the process of simulation, the simulator displays the situations of simulation such as the received signal and its spectrum, radar scope, and angle tracking scope and also calculates the transient and root-mean-squared tracking errors of the range and angle tracking system of radar. Using the proposed EW simulator, we analyze the effect of concealment according to the noise and signal powers under the noise jamming and also analyze the effect of deception by calculating errors between the desired value and the estimated one under the deceptive jamming. Furthermore, the proposed EW simulator can be used to figure out the feature of radar threats based on the information collected from the EW receiver and also used to carry out the electronic attacks efficiently in electronic warfare.

  6. An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p ¯ ) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results

  7. An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, M. K., E-mail: pandey@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K., E-mail: ykho@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p{sup ¯}) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results.

  8. An investigation of radon release and mobility in the subsurface environment. Final project report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.

    1997-01-01

    Processes affecting transport of volatile species in the shallow soil column have recently been recognized as having a substantial impact on a broad array of real world problems. Investigations of volatile transport have ranged from studies of probable health impacts of radon infiltration into homes to pesticide and volatile organic contaminant mobility in the soil column. The objectives of many of these studies has been the development of numerical models of vapor phase (and solute) transport in shallow soils. An early model, LEACHM, developed by Hutson and Wagenent was recently modified enabling it to describe both solute and vapor phase transport of volatile chemicals in the soil. Subsequent tests of the latter model, named LEACHV, showed that use outside of a very restricted range of soil conditions resulted in large mass balance errors and unreasonable values for soil gas concentrations and vapor flux. The present research was undertaken in an effort to identify and correct the subroutines responsible for the problems and to allow the model to describe vapor phase transport in a much broader range of soil conditions

  9. Investigation of Joint Visibility Between SAR and Optical Images of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, L. H.; Auer, S.; Schmitt, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a work-flow to investigate the joint visibility between very-high-resolution SAR and optical images of urban scenes. For this task, we extend the simulation framework SimGeoI to enable a simulation of individual pixels rather than complete images. Using the extended SimGeoI simulator, we carry out a case study using a TerraSAR-X staring spotlight image and a Worldview-2 panchromatic image acquired over the city of Munich, Germany. The results of this study indicate that about 55 % of the scene are visible in both images and are thus suitable for matching and data fusion endeavours, while about 25 % of the scene are affected by either radar shadow or optical occlusion. Taking the image acquisition parameters into account, our findings can provide support regarding the definition of upper bounds for image fusion tasks, as well as help to improve acquisition planning with respect to different application goals.

  10. A longitudinal investigation of work environment stressors on the performance and wellbeing of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of degradation products of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in the aquatic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Boix, Clara [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Niessen, Wilfried M.A. [hyphen MassSpec, Leiden (Netherlands); Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Hernández, Félix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF MS) has allowed the discovery and elucidation of degradation products of cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in water. Spiked surface water was subjected to hydrolysis, chlorination and photo-degradation (both ultraviolet irradiation and simulated sunlight). After degradation of cocaine, up to sixteen compounds were detected and tentatively identified (1 resulting from hydrolysis; 8 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), three of which are well known cocaine metabolites (BE, norbenzoylecgonine and norcocaine). Regarding BE degradation, up to ten compounds were found (3 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), including one known metabolite (norbenzoylecgonine). Since reference standards were available for the major metabolites, they could be confirmed using information on retention time and fragment ions. The other degradates resulted from chlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation and nitration, or from a combination of these processes. Several influent and effluent sewage water, and surface water samples were then screened for the identified compounds (known and unknown) using UHPLC–tandem MS with triple quadrupole. BE, norcocaine and norbenzoylecgonine were identified in these samples as major metabolites. Four previously unreported degradates were also found in some of the samples under study, illustrating the usefulness and applicability of the degradation experiments performed in this work. Highlights: ► Cocaine and benzoylecgonine degradation/transformation products investigated in water ► Hydrolysis, chlorination and photo degradation studied under laboratory conditions ► Several TPs discovered and tentatively elucidated by high resolution MS ► Structures of non-previously reported TPs have been suggested. ► Several reported/known TPs but also new TPs were found in sewage and surface

  12. Investigation of degradation products of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Boix, Clara; Niessen, Wilfried M.A.; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernández, Félix

    2013-01-01

    In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF MS) has allowed the discovery and elucidation of degradation products of cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in water. Spiked surface water was subjected to hydrolysis, chlorination and photo-degradation (both ultraviolet irradiation and simulated sunlight). After degradation of cocaine, up to sixteen compounds were detected and tentatively identified (1 resulting from hydrolysis; 8 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), three of which are well known cocaine metabolites (BE, norbenzoylecgonine and norcocaine). Regarding BE degradation, up to ten compounds were found (3 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), including one known metabolite (norbenzoylecgonine). Since reference standards were available for the major metabolites, they could be confirmed using information on retention time and fragment ions. The other degradates resulted from chlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation and nitration, or from a combination of these processes. Several influent and effluent sewage water, and surface water samples were then screened for the identified compounds (known and unknown) using UHPLC–tandem MS with triple quadrupole. BE, norcocaine and norbenzoylecgonine were identified in these samples as major metabolites. Four previously unreported degradates were also found in some of the samples under study, illustrating the usefulness and applicability of the degradation experiments performed in this work. Highlights: ► Cocaine and benzoylecgonine degradation/transformation products investigated in water ► Hydrolysis, chlorination and photo degradation studied under laboratory conditions ► Several TPs discovered and tentatively elucidated by high resolution MS ► Structures of non-previously reported TPs have been suggested. ► Several reported/known TPs but also new TPs were found in sewage and surface

  13. An electric and electromagnetic geophysical approach for subsurface investigation of anthropogenic mounds in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Tapete, Deodato; Cappuccini, Luca; Fanti, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    cost-effective approach is to inform the design of maintenance and restoration measures based on improved geognostic knowledge. The geophysical and surface evidence informs decisions on where interventions are to be prioritised and whether costly invasive investigations are needed.

  14. Investigations of Water-Bearing Environments on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie

    Water is a critical resource for future human missions, and is necessary for understanding the evolution of the Solar System. The Moon and Mars have water in various forms and are therefore high-priority targets in the search for accessible extraterrestrial water. Complementary remote sensing analyses coupled with laboratory and field studies are necessary to provide a scientific context for future lunar and Mars exploration. In this thesis, I use multiple techniques to investigate the presence of water-ice at the lunar poles and the properties of martian chloride minerals, whose evolution is intricately linked with liquid water. Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at the lunar poles may contain substantial water ice, but radar signatures at PSRs could indicate water ice or large block populations. Mini-RF radar and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) products were used to assess block abundances where radar signatures indicated potential ice deposits. While the majority of PSRs in this study indicated large block populations and a low likelihood of water ice, one crater--Rozhdestvenskiy N--showed indirect indications of water ice in its interior. Chloride deposits indicate regions where the last substantial liquid water existed on Mars. Major ion abundances and expected precipitation sequences of terrestrial chloride brines could provide context for assessing the provenance of martian chloride deposits. Chloride minerals are most readily distinguished in the far-infrared (45+ microm), where their fundamental absorption features are strongest. Multiple chloride compositions and textures were characterized in far-infrared emission for the first time. Systematic variations in the spectra were observed; these variations will allow chloride mineralogy to be determined and large variations in texture to be constrained. In the present day, recurring slope lineae (RSL) may indicate water flow, but fresh water is not stable on Mars. However

  15. Investigation of infant brain with or without hydrocephalous in our environment using anterior transfontanelle ultrasound scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobechukwu T Marchie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study aimed to suggest easy and simple reproducible ventricular site that will be basic measurement plane and normal dimension determined, correlated to sizes of infants for comparative evaluation of hydrocephalous infants and should be reproducible in follow-up. Materials and Methods: A prospective study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. This study used 50 consecutive infants with Ultrasound scan (US diagnosis of hydrocephalus and a control group of 50 US normal from 1 st January 2007 to 30 th June 2008. The infants were scan through the mid-patent anterior fontanelle in sagittal, and transverse planes with minor angulations to properly outline the ventricles and the position of measurement determined at the foramen of Monro of lateral ventricles and the diameter measured. The infants′ weight, crown-heel length, and head circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI calculated and correlated to lateral ventricular measurement. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc, USA, Version 11.0. Results: There was no statistically sex and age-related difference. There is statistically comparative high mean weight and height and lower BMI in hydrocephalic infants as against the control group (P < 0.001. The mean head circumference for hydrocephalus was 45.6 (± 10.5 standard deviation [SD], whereas the control group was 35.9 (± 2.7 SD with P < 0.001. The mean diameter of the anterior horn of left and right lateral ventricles at the level of foramen of Monro in hydrocephalic subjects is 18.4 mm ± 14.3 mm and 20.1 mm ± 16.8 mm with median diameter of 14.1 mm and 15.2 mm, respectively, whereas control group is 2.5 mm ± 0.6 mm and 2.5 mm ± 0.7 mm with median diameter of 2.5 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Transfontanelle US was found highly useful in investigation of hydrocephalous in infant.

  16. Investigation of urban environment from photographic information (photosurvey). Part I. Method and survey of vigor of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, S; Oshima, T

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental data were gathered for a tree-planting program by surveying photometrically the growth state of plants in relation to topography in Suginami Ward, where the living environment is drastically changing. The photographs taken for the purpose were natural color 1972, infrared color 1972, panchromatic 1963 and 1966, panchromatio-infrachromatic 1970, and infrared 1971. The methods of evaluating tree vigor is explained. The tree species investigated were pasania, zelkova, ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, cherry, and pine. The results were summarized in a tree-vigor map. Vigor was in the descending order of ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, pasania, pine, zelkova and cherry. Along railroads and main roads, vigor was lower.

  17. Investigation and supplement of the national database of anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Nhu Sieu; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Truong Y; Phan Son Hai; Nguyen Trong Ngo; Nguyen Van Phuc; Nguyen Thi Linh; Tran Dinh Khoa; Nguyen Van Phu; Nguyen Dinh Tung; Tran Van Hoa

    2015-01-01

    marine organisms, the radioactivity ratio of "9"0Sr/"2"3"9","2"4"0Pu & atomic ratio between "2"4"0Pu and "2"3"9Pu in some of oyster and seaweed samples and the radioactivity ratio of "1"3"7Cs/"9"0Sr, "1"3"7Cs/"2"3"9","2"4"0Pu, "9"0Sr/"2"3"9","2"4"0Pu & atomic ratio of "2"4"0Pu/"2"3"9Pu in individual samples have been evaluated and most of these ratios are slightly higher than the values of the global fallout. Depth distribution of "1"3"7Cs radionuclides in soil samples taken from soil profile with layers of 5 cm soil depth down to 50 cm have been investigated, and thereby the relaxation length factor, RL, and the absorption coefficient α of each position were determined. The range of RL factor is from 13.7 to 34.5; the average value is of 22.6. This value in comparison with the period after the fallout by ICRU Report 53, is greater than 20 years. (author)

  18. Investigating the Relation Between Prevalence of Asthmatic Allergy with the Characteristics of the Environment Using Association Rule Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Sadat, Y.; Karimipour, F.; Kanani Sadat, A.

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases has highly increased in recent decades due to contamination of the environment with the allergy stimuli. A common treat is identifying the allergy stimulus and, then, avoiding the patient to be exposed with it. There are, however, many unknown allergic diseases stimuli that are related to the characteristics of the living environment. In this paper, we focus on the effect of air pollution on asthmatic allergies and investigate the association between prevalence of such allergies with those characteristics of the environment that may affect the air pollution. For this, spatial association rule mining has been deployed to mine the association between spatial distribution of allergy prevalence and the air pollution parameters such as CO, SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and O3 (compiled by the air pollution monitoring stations) as well as living distance to parks and roads. The results for the case study (i.e., Tehran metropolitan area) indicates that distance to parks and roads as well as CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 is related to the allergy prevalence in December (the most polluted month of the year in Tehran), while SO2 and O3 have no effect on that.

  19. A large-scale laboratory investigation into the movement of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a large scale laboratory investigation into the movements of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment. The test beds, each 3m square were constructed and filled with clay to a depth of 400 mm, after compaction. One test bed contained London Clay, the other Glacial Till. The clays were subjected to accelerated environmental cycling and tests carried out on samples of the clays at appropriate intervals. The tests included measurements of the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the clays and their permeability to gas and water. Gas permeability emerged as the more appropriate for the clays being investigated. The report discusses the difficulties of measuring the permeability of partially saturated clays and the need to define the measuring techniques when specifying limiting acceptability values. 55 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs., 27 plates

  20. Good places for ageing in place: development of objective built environment measures for investigating links with older people's wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Lynne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed interest in the role of the built environment in public health. Relatively little research to date investigates its impact on healthy ageing. Ageing in place has been adopted as a key strategy for coping with the challenges of longevity. What is needed is a better understanding of how individual characteristics of older people's residential environments (from front door to wider neighbourhood contribute to their wellbeing, in order to provide the basis for evidence-based housing/urban design and development of interventions. This research aimed to develop a tool to objectively measure a large range of built environment characteristics, as the basis for a preliminary study of potential relationships with a number of 'place-related' functional, emotional and social wellbeing constructs. Methods Through a review of urban design literature, design documents, and existing measures, a new tool, the NeDeCC (Neighbourhood Design Characteristics Checklist was developed. It was piloted, refined, and its reliability validated through inter-rater tests. A range of place-related wellbeing constructs were identified and measured through interviews with 200 older people living in a wide variety of rural-urban environments and different types of housing in England. The NeDeCC was used to measure the residential environment of each participant, and significant bivariate relationships with wellbeing variables were identified. Results The NeDeCC was found to have convincing face and construct validity and good inter-rater and test/retest reliability, though it would benefit from use of digital data sources such as Google Earth to eliminate the need for on-site survey. The significant relationships found in the study suggest that there may be characteristics of residential environments of potential relevance for older people's lives that have been overlooked in research to date, and that it may be worthwhile to question some of

  1. Seismic site survey investigations in urban environments: The case of the underground metro project in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Colberg-Larsen, J.; Ploug, C.

    2009-05-01

    Near surface geophysics applications are gaining more widespread use in geotechnical and engineering projects. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey time, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of wide-scale geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face great challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic pre-investigation was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using seismic methods to obtain information about the subsurface layer locations and media properties in Copenhagen. Such information is needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling related to the Cityringen underground metro project. The pre-investigation objectives were to validate methods in an urban environment and optimize field survey procedures, processing and interpretation methods in urban settings in the event of further seismic investigations. The geological setting at the survey site is characterized by several interlaced layers of clay, till and sand. These layers are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present varying thickness, overlaying several different unit types of limestone at shallow depths. Specific results objectives were to map the bedrock surface, ascertain a structural geological framework and investigate bedrock media properties relevant to the construction design. The seismic test consisted of a combined seismic reflection and refraction analyses of a profile line conducted along an approximately 1400 m section in the northern part of Copenhagen, along the projected metro city line. The data acquisition was carried out using a 192 channels array, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 10 m spacing. Complementarily, six vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were performed at boreholes located along the line. The reflection

  2. Experimental Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of Individual Micron/Submicron-Size Dust Grains in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains constitute a significant component of matter in the universe, and play an important and crucial role in the formation and evolution of the stellar/planetary systems in interstellar dust clouds. Knowledge of physical and optical properties of dust grains is required for understanding of a variety of processes in astrophysical and planetary environments. The currently available and generally employed data on the properties of dust grains is based on bulk materials, with analytical models employed to deduce the corresponding values for individual small micron/submicron-size dust grains. However, it has been well-recognized over a long period, that the properties of individual smallsize dust grains may be very different from those deduced from bulk materials. This has been validated by a series of experimental investigations carried out over the last few years, on a laboratory facility based on an Electrodynamic Balance at NASA, which permits levitation of single small-size dust grains of desired composition and size, in vacuum, in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present a brief review of the results of a series of selected investigations carried out on the analogs of interstellar and planetary dust grains, as well as dust grains obtained by Apollo-l1-17 lunar missions. The selected investigations, with analytical results and discussions, include: (a) Direct measurements of radiation on individual dust grains (b) Rotation and alignments of dust grains by radiative torque (c) Charging properties of dust grains by: (i) UV Photo-electric emissions (ii) Electron Impact. The results from these experiments are examined in the light of the current theories of the processes involved.

  3. Investigating a tool for modelling the supply-side profile of South Africa's built environment professionals (BEPs)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matyila, NA

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Environment Statutory Professional Councils. This paper highlighted aims and identifies impediments in reviewing the available professional skills in the Built Environment sector data base...

  4. An investigation on the effect of bleaching environment on pitting corrosion and trans-passive dissolution of 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moayed, M.H.; Golestanipour, M.

    2004-01-01

    Pitting corrosion and trans-passive dissolution of 316 stainless steel in solution containing five percent of commercial bleaching liquid was investigated by employing potentiodynamic polarization method and recording corrosion potential during immersion. Today commercial bleaching liquids are widely used as cleaner additives, therefore, those house appliances made from stainless steels are in contact with aqueous solution containing bleaching liquid. This may cause sever localized corrosion and trans-passive dissolution. In order to investigate the possibility of trans-passive dissolution of stainless steel by bleaching liquid, potentiodynamic polarization and recording variation of corrosion potential of specimens were carried out in 0.2 M Na 2 SO 4 solution containing 5 %wt. commercial bleaching liquid. A 500 mV drop in trans-passive potential and also instantaneously ennobling corrosion potential revealed the possibility of trans-passive dissolution due to oxidizing effect of the species such as free chlorine and its derivatives in bleaching liquid. Evaluation of the occurrence of localized corrosion at the presence of Cl - and bleaching liquid was investigated by similar electrochemical experiments in 0.2 M Na 2 SO 4 + 0.4M NaCl containing 5%wt. bleaching solution. Initiation of stable pitting at potentials lower than trans-passive potential as well as sharp increasing of corrosion potential in this environment demonstrates the possibility of pitting corrosion. (authors)

  5. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  6. Investigation of total α and total β radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wenhua; Wan Jun; Liu Li; He Chao; Tang Hua; Tu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total α and total β radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total α and β radioactivity. Results: Total α in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total β were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total α in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total α of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total β in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

  7. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys in alcoholic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traldi, S. M.; Rossi, J. L.; Costa, I.

    2003-01-01

    Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys produced by spray forming are mostly used in the automotive industry, especially for cylinder liners. they the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties- mainly wear resistance at high temperatures. The corrosion s resistance of these alloys in fuels, particularly alcoholic media, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarisation hove been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of a hyper eutectic Al-Si-Cu alloy in alcoholic environments. the EIS tests carried out in pure ethanol, and ethanol with small additions (1 mM) of acid an chloride to investigate the effect of these contaminants on corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of a grey cast iron has also been evaluated in pure ethanol for comparison. The Al-Si-Cu alloy showed high corrosion resistance in pure ethanol, far superior to that of grey cast iron in the same medium. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Investigation of Ageing Behaviour of Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber with Added Graphene in an Accelerated Thermal Ageing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Zhou Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the thermal ageing of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR reinforced with different graphene (GE concentrations has been investigated. NBR and NBR-GE composites were exposed to an accelerated thermal ageing environment produced by an air-circulating oven for seven days. The mechanical properties, chemical changes, and thermal stability of ageing samples and neat samples were evaluated. The results showed that the surface damage of NBR was severe and inhomogeneous, and the degree of ageing was most serious on the edge region of the voids, but NBR-GE composites were changed slightly before and after ageing. The tensile strength increased with the increase of GE concentration, up to a maximum value, and decreased with further increases in GE concentration. The GE embedded crosslinked network limited the segment movement of chains in the stretch direction and played a role in the composites properties, and the GE sheets (contained the functional groups of −OH, −C=O and C=C after ageing. This behaviour may indicate greater interface adhesion between the GE and NBR. In addition, results obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that the thermal stability of NBR significantly changed with accelerated thermal ageing environment, but with addition of a certain amount of GE to NBR, the thermal stability of NBR could be improved. The NBR/GE composites exhibited good comprehensive performance with a mass fraction of GE of 10 %. Before and after the thermal ageing, the failure mechanism of NBR-GE composites appeared intergranular and ductile fracture, respectively.

  9. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors’ stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees’ affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors (n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees (n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors’ job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees’ affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors’ affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees’ affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained. PMID:29495360

  10. Stress-Preventive Management Competencies, Psychosocial Work Environments, and Affective Well-Being: A Multilevel, Multisource Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderi, Stefano; Balducci, Cristian

    2018-02-26

    The Management Competencies for Preventing and Reducing Stress at Work framework represents one of the few tailored models of leadership for work stress prevention purposes, but it has never been empirically evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supervisors' stress-preventive management competencies, as measured by the Stress Management Competencies Indicator Tool (SMCIT), are related to employees' affective well-being through psychosocial work environmental factors. To this end, multilevel structural equation modelling (MSEM) was developed and tested, including data provided by both supervisors and employees. Supervisors ( n = 84) self-assessed their stress-preventive management competencies (i.e., being respectful and responsible, managing and communicating existing and future work, reasoning and managing difficult situations, and managing the individual within the team) with a previously validated reduced version of the SMCIT. The supervised employees ( n = 584) rated job content (e.g., job demands) and work context (e.g., role clarity) psychosocial factors and their job-related affective well-being. Supervisors' job-related affective well-being was also included in the tested model. The results revealed that the stress-preventive competencies factor was related to employees' affective well-being through the psychosocial work environment only when the latter was operationalized by means of contextual work factors. Supervisors' affective well-being was related to their stress-preventive competencies, but it was not related to employees' affective well-being. We discuss the implications of the results obtained.

  11. Cognitive issues in autonomous spacecraft-control operations: An investigation of software-mediated decision making in a scaled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth Drummond

    As advances in technology are applied in complex, semi-automated domains, human controllers are distanced from the controlled process. This physical and psychological distance may both facilitate and degrade human performance. To investigate cognitive issues in spacecraft ground-control operations, the present experimental research was undertaken. The primary issue concerned the ability of operations analysts who do not monitor operations to make timely, accurate decisions when autonomous software calls for human help. Another key issue involved the potential effects of spatial-visualization ability (SVA) in environments that present data in graphical formats. Hypotheses were derived largely from previous findings and predictions in the literature. Undergraduate psychology students were assigned at random to a monitoring condition or an on-call condition in a scaled environment. The experimental task required subjects to decide on the veracity of a problem diagnosis delivered by a software process on-board a simulated spacecraft. To support decision-making, tabular and graphical data displays presented information on system status. A level of software confidence in the problem diagnosis was displayed, and subjects reported their own level of confidence in their decisions. Contrary to expectations, the performance of on-call subjects did not differ significantly from that of continuous monitors. Analysis yielded a significant interaction of sex and condition: Females in the on-call condition had the lowest mean accuracy. Results included a preference for bar charts over line graphs and faster performance with tables than with line graphs. A significant correlation was found between subjective confidence and decision accuracy. SVA was found to be predictive of accuracy but not speed; and SVA was found to be a stronger predictor of performance for males than for females. Low-SVA subjects reported that they relied more on software confidence than did medium- or high

  12. Diet, Environments, and Gut Microbiota. A Preliminary Investigation in Children Living in Rural and Urban Burkina Faso and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta De Filippo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the main factors that affects the composition of gut microbiota. When people move from a rural environment to urban areas, and experience improved socio-economic conditions, they are often exposed to a “globalized” Western type diet. Here, we present preliminary observations on the metagenomic scale of microbial changes in small groups of African children belonging to the same ethnicity and living in different environments, compared to children living on the urban area of Florence (Italy. We analyzed dietary habits and, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, gut microbiota profiles from fecal samples of children living in a rural village of Burkina Faso (n = 11, of two groups of children living in different urban settings (Nanoro town, n = 8; Ouagadougou, the capital city, n = 5 and of a group of Italian children (n = 13. We observed that when foods of animal origin, those rich in fat and simple sugars are introduced into a traditional African diet, composed of cereals, legumes and vegetables, the gut microbiota profiles changes. Microbiota of rural children retain a geographically unique bacterial reservoir (Prevotella, Treponema, and Succinivibrio, assigned to ferment fiber and polysaccharides from vegetables. Independently of geography and ethnicity, in children living in urban areas these bacterial genera were progressively outcompeted by bacteria more suited to the metabolism of animal protein, fat and sugar rich foods, similarly to Italian children, as resulted by PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, a predictive functional profiling of microbial communities using 16S rRNA marker gene. Consequently, we observed a progressive reduction of SCFAs measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, in urban populations, especially in Italian children, respect to rural ones. Our results even if in a limited number of individuals point out that dietary habit modifications

  13. Investigating the Quality of Project-Based Science and Technology Learning Environments in Elementary School: A Critical Review of Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Miranda; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim; Laevers, Ferre

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review of instruments that have the potential to measure the quality of project-based science and technology (S&T) learning environments in elementary school. To this end, a comprehensive literature search was undertaken for the large field of S&T learning environments. We conducted a horizontal bottom-up…

  14. The Workplace as Learning Environment in Early Childhood Teacher Education: An Investigation of Work-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarby, Karen Marie Eid; Lindboe, Inger Marie

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the workplace as a learning environment in work-based early childhood teacher education in Norway. The main question is: Which understandings of the workplace as a learning environment are to be found in regulations and policy documents, among students and among staff managers? Taking as the point of departure, a theoretical…

  15. A Preliminary Investigation of Self-Directed Learning Activities in a Non-Formal Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, Richard A.; Morrison, Dirk; Daniel, Ben K.

    2009-01-01

    This research considers how professional participants in a non-formal self-directed learning environment (NFSDL) made use of self-directed learning activities in a blended face-to-face and on line learning professional development course. The learning environment for the study was a professional development seminar on teaching in higher education…

  16. An investigation into perception-altering lighting concepts for supporting game designers in setting certain atmospheres within a videogame environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwdorp, H.J.; Beresford, M.; Khan, J.V.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.

    2014-01-01

    Lighting in video games is used to set moods and atmosphere, or can serve as a gameplay tool. This paper examines the effects lighting concepts can have on a virtual game environment on the players’ navigation within the game. Previously known lighting concepts were tested in a virtual environment

  17. An electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys in alcoholic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traldi, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si-Cu hypereutetic alloys produced by spray forming are mostly used in the automotive industry, especially for cylinder liners. They have the advantage of low weight associated with low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent mechanical properties - mainly wear resistance at high temperatures. The corrosion resistance of these alloys in fuels, particularly alcoholic media, however is not yet known. In this investigation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarisation have been used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of a hypereutectic Al-Si-Cu alloy in alcoholic environments. The EIS tests were carried out in pure ethanol, and ethanol with small additions (1 mM of acid and chloride, to investigate the effect of these contaminants on corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of a grey cast iron has also been evaluated in pure ethanol for comparison. The Al-Si-Cu alloy showed high corrosion resistance in pure ethanol, far superior to that of grey cast iron in the same medium.

    Aleaciones hipereutécticas producidas por conformación por spray son muy empleadas en la industria automovilística, especialmente en los revestimientos de los cilindros. Tienen la ventaja de añadir menos peso con bajo coeficiente de expansión térmica y excelentes propiedades mecánicas, sobre todo resistencia al desgaste en altas temperaturas. Todavía, la resistencia a la corrosión de estas aleaciones en combustibles no es conocida. En este estudio fueron utilizadas las técnicas de espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica y polarización potenciodinámica, para evaluar la resistencia a la corrosión de una aleación hipereutéctica Al-Si-Cu en medio alcohólico. Las pruebas fueron conducidas en etanol puro y etanol con pequeñas adiciones (1 mM de ácido y cloruro, con la finalidad de investigar el efecto de estos contaminantes en la resistencia a la corrosión. Hierro fundido gris, también fue

  18. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of perfluorote...

  19. Experimental investigation into the application of a magnetic dense medium cyclone in a production environment / Ilana Katinka Myburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Myburgh, Ilana Katinka

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic dense medium cyclone project was undertaken at Koingnaas Mine on a 250 mm diameter cyclone during 1998 and a 510 mm cyclone during 2000. The aim of the project was to evaluate the performance of a magnetic DM cyclone in a production environment. Previous test work on magnetic DM cyclones were conducted during 1995 and 1996 on small (100 mm) cyclones in a laboratory environment, with medium feed only. Solenoid position, magnetic field strength and medium inlet de...

  20. An empirical investigation of the work environment on board industrial- and cruise ships and the associations with safety

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenstrøm, Øyvind Teige

    2011-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the work environment and the associations with safety, and see the relations with occupational accidents and undesired events on board industrial and cruise ships. 215 seafarers participated in this quantitative survey study, with a response rate of 35%. When conducting the hierarchical block regression analysis separately on superiors/officers and subordinates/ratings, the work environment emerged as a predictor for safety status (compliance, atti...

  1. Computational Investigation of Environment-Noise Interaction in Single-Cell Organisms: The Merit of Expression Stochasticity Depends on the Quality of Environmental Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, Anja; Klimmasch, Lukas; Großmann, Peter; Germerodt, Sebastian; Kaleta, Christoph

    2018-01-10

    Organisms need to adapt to changing environments and they do so by using a broad spectrum of strategies. These strategies include finding the right balance between expressing genes before or when they are needed, and adjusting the degree of noise inherent in gene expression. We investigated the interplay between different nutritional environments and the inhabiting organisms' metabolic and genetic adaptations by applying an evolutionary algorithm to an agent-based model of a concise bacterial metabolism. Our results show that constant environments and rapidly fluctuating environments produce similar adaptations in the organisms, making the predictability of the environment a major factor in determining optimal adaptation. We show that exploitation of expression noise occurs only in some types of fluctuating environment and is strongly dependent on the quality and availability of nutrients: stochasticity is generally detrimental in fluctuating environments and beneficial only at equal periods of nutrient availability and above a threshold environmental richness. Moreover, depending on the availability and nutritional value of nutrients, nutrient-dependent and stochastic expression are both strategies used to deal with environmental changes. Overall, we comprehensively characterize the interplay between the quality and periodicity of an environment and the resulting optimal deterministic and stochastic regulation strategies of nutrient-catabolizing pathways.

  2. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  3. Preliminary investigation of a sensitive biomarker of organotin pollution in Chinese coastal aquatic environment and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qunfang; Li Zhongyang; Jiang Guibin; Yang Ruiqiang

    2003-01-01

    A new sensitive biomarker can be potentially used to indicate the pollution status of organotin in oceanic environment. - In nine batches of sea bivalves collected from Chinese coastal cities during the year of 2000 to 2002, a special sample named Mya arenaria was found to have strong ability of butyltin accumulation compared with the other sampled bivalves in the corresponding batches. Tributyltin compound was the predominant pollutant with the detection rate high up to 100%. Special high levels of μg Sn/g were detected in some Mya arenaria samples. The results obtained showed that Mya arenaria was potentially a biomarker to indicate organotin pollution in coastal aquatic environment

  4. Supporting cognitive engagement in a learning-by-doing learning environment: Case studies of participant engagement and social configurations in Kitchen Science Investigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christina M.

    Learning-by-doing learning environments support a wealth of physical engagement in activities. However, there is also a lot of variability in what participants learn in each enactment of these types of environments. Therefore, it is not always clear how participants are learning in these environments. In order to design technologies to support learning in these environments, we must have a greater understanding of how participants engage in learning activities, their goals for their engagement, and the types of help they need to cognitively engage in learning activities. To gain a greater understanding of participant engagement and factors and circumstances that promote and inhibit engagement, this dissertation explores and answers several questions: What are the types of interactions and experiences that promote and /or inhibit learning and engagement in learning-by-doing learning environments? What are the types of configurations that afford or inhibit these interactions and experiences in learning-by-doing learning environments? I explore answers to these questions through the context of two enactments of Kitchen Science Investigators (KSI), a learning-by-doing learning environment where middle-school aged children learn science through cooking from customizing recipes to their own taste and texture preferences. In small groups, they investigate effects of ingredients through the design of cooking and science experiments, through which they experience and learn about chemical, biological, and physical science phenomena and concepts (Clegg, Gardner, Williams, & Kolodner, 2006). The research reported in this dissertation sheds light on the different ways participant engagement promotes and/or inhibits cognitive engagement in by learning-by-doing learning environments through two case studies. It also provides detailed descriptions of the circumstances (social, material, and physical configurations) that promote and/or inhibit participant engagement in these

  5. Promotion project to develop the global environment related industrial technology. Investigation on the possibility of research exchange; Chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo. Kenkyu koryu kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Through visits to US universities and research institutes, investigation was made on the trend of global environment-related research and possibility of their exchanging the result of research with the RITE (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth). To investigate the process technology to utilize microbes harmoniously with the environment, the visit was paid to Cornell University, Battelle Memorial Institute and Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, where the investigation was made on the environmental bioremediation with microbial functions and clean process production without by-producing substances to load the environment. To investigate the technical measures against the global warming, the visit was paid to Brookhaven National Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California University, Hawaii University and Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, where the investigation was made, through discussion and exchange of research information and opinion with researchers and engineers, on the possibility of their exchanging the result of research with the RITE. Judging from the investigation of this time, the research which is mutually complementary between Japan and USA is easy to promote, because their respective advanced fields do not overlap with each other. 88 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The Impact of Student Self-Efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in "River City," a Multi-User Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and…

  7. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  8. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Investigate Expert Teachers' Observational Skills in Natural Ecological Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Karin; Bjorklund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers' ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two…

  9. Magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium(III) in a low-symmetry environment: a theoretical and experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Kevin; Luzon, Javier; Bogani, Lapo; Etienne, Mael; Sangregorio, Claudio; Shanmugam, Muralidharan; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-04-22

    A mixed theoretical and experimental approach was used to determine the local magnetic anisotropy of the dysprosium(III) ion in a low-symmetry environment. The susceptibility tensor of the monomeric species having the formula [Dy(hfac)(3)(NIT-C(6)H(4)-OEt)(2)], which contains nitronyl nitroxide (NIT-R) radicals, was determined at various temperatures through angle-resolved magnetometry. These results are in agreement with ab initio calculations performed using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method, validating the predictive power of this theoretical approach for complex systems containing rare-earth ions, even in low-symmetry environments. Susceptibility measurements performed with the applied field along the easy axis eventually permitted a detailed analysis of the temperature and field dependence of the magnetization, providing evidence that the Dy ion transmits an antiferromagnetic interaction between radicals but that the Dy-radical interaction is ferromagnetic.

  10. ENDOR-investigations in the environment of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature of γ-irradiated TSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter, M.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of the CH 3 NHCH 2 COOH radical in the paraelectric phase and during the transition into the ferroelectric phase has been determined by means of ENDOR measurements. The carboxyl group of the radical is a sensitive probe for the study of crystal field changes. Structural differences of the radical between the paraelectric and the ferroelectric phase were attributed to structural changes within the nearest environment

  11. Persistent Monitoring of Urban Infrasound Phenomenology-Report 2: Investigation of Structural Infrasound Signals in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    rural environments where anthropological noise sources are limited. As interest in monitoring sources at local distances grows in the infrasound...TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER J62BH4 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S...where anthropological noise sources are limited. As interest in monitoring sources at local distances grows in the infrasound community, it is vital to

  12. Investigations of the local environment and macroscopic alignment behavior of novel polymerizeable lyotropic liquid crystals using nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Elizabeth

    In this dissertation, a variety of NMR techniques were used to explore the local environment of novel polymerizeable lyotropic liquid crystals (LLC). The LLC monomers examined in this study self-assemble in the presence of a small amount of water to form uniform, nanometer-scale tubes with aqueous interiors. The phase architecture is retained upon photopolymerization to yield the resulting nanoporous material. By dissolving reactive precursors into the aqueous phase, well- structured nancomposite materials have also been formed. Proposed uses for these novel polymerizeable LLCs are as porous water filtration membranes, as heterogeneous organic catalysts, and as nanocomposite materials for load bearing and optical applications. In order to better exploit these polymerizeable LLCs for materials development, the local environment must be examined. In addition, the macroscopic orientation of these materials remains an important step in their advancement. Various NMR studies were conducted on these novel LLCs. NMR T1 relaxation measurements were conducted to elucidate the local environment and dynamics of the 23Na counterions located inside the aqueous channels. 2H NMR line shape analyses were used to characterize the local structure and dynamics near the hydrophilic headgroup. 29 Si NMR studies were performed on silica nanocomposites formed with these LLC structures. Finally, the macroscopic alignment behavior of these novel LLCs using shear and magnetic fields was examined.

  13. An investigation on changes in chemical properties of pure ethylene-propylene-diene rubber in aqueous acidic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The influence of two aqueous acidic environments on two types of pure ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber (i.e., elastomer) thin films is studied. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) results revealed the formation of several oxygenated species...... formation on the surface of EPDM rubbers compared to 20% H2SO4 under identical conditions. Complex formation on the surface of EPDM samples exposed to 20% Cr(VI)/H2SO4 through reactions of carboxylic groups (generated due to EPDM degradation) with Cr(III) (formed due to reduction of Cr(VI)) was also evident...

  14. Combining remote sensing and on-site monitoring methods to investigate footpath erosion within a popular recreational heathland environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway-Dyer, Sue; Ellis, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    Footpaths are a prominent consequence of natural area tourism and reflect damage caused to valuable, sensitive habitats by people pressure. Degradation impacts on vegetation, wildlife, on and off-site soil movement and loss, creation of additional informal off-path footpaths (desire lines), and visual destruction of landscapes. Impacts need to be measured and monitored on a large temporal and spatial scale to aid in land management to maintain access and preserve natural environments. This study combined remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] and aerial photography) with on-site measurement of footpaths within a sensitive heathland habitat (Land's End, Cornwall, UK). Soil loss, slope angle change, vegetation damage and a hydrology model were combined to comprehensively study the site. Results showed 0.09 m mean soil loss over five years, footpath widening, increasing grass cover into heathland, and water channelling on the footpaths exacerbating erosion. The environments surrounding the footpaths were affected with visitors walking off path, requiring further management and monitoring. Multiple remote sensing techniques were highly successful in comprehensively assessing the area, particularly the hydrology model, demonstrating the potential of providing a valuable objective and quantitative monitoring and management tool. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers as a potential source of PFOA in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P H; Yamada, T; Striebich, R C; Graham, J L; Giraud, R J

    2014-09-01

    In light of the widespread presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, a comprehensive laboratory-scale study has developed data requested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether municipal and/or medical waste incineration of commercial fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTBPs) at end of life is a potential source of PFOA that may contribute to environmental and human exposures. The study was divided into two phases (I and II) and conducted in accordance with EPA Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) as described in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP) for each phase. Phase I testing determined that the PFOA transport efficiency across the thermal reactor system to be used in Phase II was greater than 90%. Operating at 1000°C over 2s residence time with 3.2-6.6mgdscm(-1) hydrogen fluoride (HF), corrected to 7% oxygen (O2), and continuously monitored exhaust oxygen of 13%, Phase II testing of the FTBP composites in this thermal reactor system yielded results demonstrating that waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers does not result in the formation of detectable levels of PFOA under conditions representative of typical municipal waste combustor (MWC) and medical waste incinerator (MWI) operations in the U.S. Therefore, waste incineration of these polymers is not expected to be a source of PFOA in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of the oxidation behavior of dispersion stabilized alloys when exposed to a dynamic high temperature environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of TD-NiCr and TD-NiCrAlY alloys have been studied at 2000 and 2200 F in static and high speed flowing air environments. The TD-NiCrAlY alloys preoxidized to produce an Al2O3 scale on the surface showed good oxidation resistance in both types of environments. The TD-NiCr alloy which had a Cr2O3 oxide scale after preoxidation was found to oxidize more than an order of magnitude faster under the dynamic test conditions than at comparable static test conditions. Although Cr2O3 normally provides good oxidation protection, it was rapidly lost due to formation of volatile CrO3 when exposed to the high speed air stream. The preferred oxide arrangement for the dynamic test consisted of an external layer of NiO with a porous mushroom type morphology, an intermediate duplex layer of NiO and Cr2O3, and a continuous inner layer of Cr2O3 in contact with the alloy substrate. An oxidation model has been developed to explain the observed microstructure and overall oxidation behavior of all alloys.

  17. Investigation of local environments in Nafion-SiO(2) composite membranes used in vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, S; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L; Hu, Jianzhi

    2012-04-01

    Proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, polymer composite membranes, such as SiO(2) incorporated Nafion membranes, are recently reported as highly promising for the use in redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this type of Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the (19)F and (29)Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The (29)Si NMR shows that the silica particles interact via hydrogen bonds with the sulfonic groups of Nafion and the diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

    2014-07-30

    The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation on the corrosion resistance of PIM 316L stainless steel in PEM fuel cell simulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes de; Costa, Isolda; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar plates play main functions in PEM fuel cells, accounting for the most part of the weight and cost of these devices. Powder metallurgy may be an interesting manufacturing process of these components owing to the production of large scale, complex near-net shape parts. However, corrosion processes are a major concern due to the increase of the passive film thickness on the metal surface, lowering the power output of the fuel cell. In this work, the corrosion resistance of PIM AISI 316L stainless steel specimens was evaluated in 1M H 2 SO 4 + 2 ppm HF solution at room temperature during 30 days of immersion. The electrochemical measurements comprised potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the specimens was observed before and after the corrosion tests through SEM images. The material presented low corrosion current density suggesting that it is suitable to operate in the PEM fuel cell environment. (author)

  20. Multi-Temporal Interferometry to Investigate Landslide Dynamics in a Tropical Urban Environment: Focus on Bukavu (DR Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsieurs, E.; Dille, A.; Nobile, A.; d'Oreye, N.; Kervyn, F.; Dewitte, O.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides can lead to high impacts in less developed countries, particularly in some urban tropical environments where a combination of intense rainfall, active tectonics, steep topography and high population density can be found. However, the processes controlling landslides initiation and their evolution through time remains poorly understood. Here we show the relevance of the use of multi-temporal differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) to characterize ground deformations associated to landslides in the rapidly expanding city of Bukavu (DR Congo). A series of 70 COSMO-SkyMed SAR images acquired between March 2015 and April 2016 with a mean revisiting time of 8 days were used to produce displacement rate maps and ground deformation time series using the Small Baseline Subset approach. Results show that various landslide processes of different ages, mechanisms and state of activity can be identified across Bukavu city. InSAR ground deformation maps reveal for instance the complexity of a large (1.5 km²) active slide affecting a densely inhabited slum neighbourhood and characterized by the presence of sectors moving at different rates (ranging from 10 mm/yr up to 75 mm/yr in LOS direction). The evaluation of the ground deformations captured by DInSAR through a two-step validation procedure combining Differential GPS measurements and field observations attested the reliability of the measurements as well as the capability of the technique to grasp the deformation pattern affecting this complex tropical-urban environment. However, longer time series will be needed to infer landside response to climate, seismic and anthropogenic activities.

  1. Application of CFD in Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for Improvement of Working Environment in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Kragh, Hans

    In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, VS Amagerforbn:ending, had expanded to supply both district heating and power. Because of that too high temperatures were...... generated in the working zones and measures to reduce these levels had to be taken ....

  2. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  3. Radioecological investigations in the environment of the Research Centre Seibersdorf and of a comparable control biotop in Klosterneuburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatzber, F.; Irlweck, K.; Sorantin, H.; Schaller, F.

    1981-09-01

    Investigations concerning the distribution of radionuclides were carried out on the area and the closer surroundings of the Seibersdorf Research Center and a comparable control biotop in Klosterneuburg. No environmental encroachment on the biosphere could be shown even after 20 years of operation of the research plant (10MW). Gammaspectrometric measurements and radiochemical analysis of various animal samples proved that contaminations found were in most cases due to fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon testing in the early sixties. Only single surveys give hints of small quantities of 60-Co being spread. Maximum concentrations of 60-Co 0.5 pCi/g dry weight were found in those samples, which is about the value of fallout concentration of radiocaesium and may be neglected from the point of view of health physics. Additionally soil radioactivity investigations were done to estimate the part of total radioactivity which is spread by animals. Results showed that only 10sup-4 of the total quantity of fallout deposited radionuclides present in a soil layer of some square meters and a depth of 10 cm are spread by the investigated animals. (author) [de

  4. EXAFS as a tool for investigation of the local environment of Ge atoms in buried low-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, I.N.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Zakharov, D.N.; Zhuravlev, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of large number of articles dedicated to the investigation of GeSi islands, a lot of problems concerning growth mechanism and island composition, as well as elastic strains inside the QDs, are still unsolved. To solve such problems, the GeSi low dimensional structures were studied by Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The aim of this investigation was to get knowledge about the local structure around Ge atoms inside formed quantum dots. The paper presents a series of measurements performed for a single Ge layer buried in the silicon matrix at A1 station at the HASYLAB/DESY (Germany) with the angle of 45 o between the incident beam and sample surface. The fluorescence, total electron yield and the transmission modes of detection were used. To confirm the EXAFS analysis conclusion more measurements were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The low temperature samples with 8-20 ML of Ge were investigated by cross-section and plan-view TEM. The reported results of TEM studies of the local structure of germanium quantum dots (QDs) in Si/Ge/Si '' sandwich '' structures are in good correlation with EXAFS conclusion

  5. Investigation of Bucket Wheel Excavator Lattice Structure Internal Stress in Harsh Environment through a Remote Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risteiu, M.; Dobra, R.; Andras, I.; Roventa, M.; Lorincz, A.

    2017-06-01

    The paper shows the results of a lab model for strain gauges based measuring system for multiple measuring heads of the mechanical stress in lattice structures of the bucket wheel excavator for open pit mines-harsh environment. The system is designed around a microcontroller system. Because of specific working conditions, the measuring system sends data to a processing system (a PC with Matlab software), we have implemented a secure communication solution based on ISM standard, by using NRF24L01 module. The transceiver contains a fully integrated frequency synthesizer based on crystal oscillator, and a Enhanced ShockBurst™ protocol engine. The proposed solution has a current consumption around 9.0 mA at an output power of -6dBm and 12.3mA in RX mode. Built-in Power Down and Standby modes makes power saving easily realizable for our solution battery powered. The stress from structures is taken by specific strain gauges adapted to low frequency vibrations. We are using a precision 24-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) designed for weigh scales and industrial control applications to interface directly with a bridge sensor-instrumentation device, with low drift voltage, low noise, common mode rejection signal, frequency and temperature stability. As backup implementation for measurements a high speed storage implementation is used.

  6. Long-term in situ corrosion investigation of Zr alloys in simulated PWR environment by electrochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehr, H.; Schaller, J.; Ruhmann, H.; Garzarolli, F.

    1996-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Zircaloy-type alloys with different tin contents of 1.55, 0.70, and 0.55 wt% was studied at 350 C and 17 MPa in an environment similar to PWR primary water. Impedance spectra were taken at time intervals and evaluated for thickness and morphology of the oxide layer as well as for its electrical resistance. The tests without any temperature and pressure cycling showed similar oxidation behavior with repeated transitions as in discontinuously performed standard autoclave tests. Early in the pre-transition range, a dense oxide layer is formed, and fast changes of corrosion potential and electrical resistance are observed. The dense layer increases in thickness and homogeneity up to the transition, where a sudden breakdown occurs. Abrupt changes of the corrosion potential and electrical resistance were observed also at those points. After transition, a new dense layer is built up. The corrosion potential changes are caused by a decrease of the electrical corrosion current with increasing oxide layer thickness, by the formation of a potential drop over the high-resistance dense oxide layer, and by structural changes at the transition points. In general, alloys with different tin contents show similar behavior. However, they show differences in the time to transition, the kinetic constants deduced from their impedance spectra, and in the ionic and electronic resistance of the dense inner layer controlling corrosion

  7. New fixed-point mini-cell to investigate thermocouple drift in a high-temperature environment under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Vlahovic, L.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Sadli, M.; Failleau, G. [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie, LNE-Cnam, Saint-Denis, (France); Fuetterer, M.; Lapetite, J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [Thermocoax, 8 rue du pre neuf, F-61100 St Georges des Groseillers, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Temperature measurements in the nuclear field require a high degree of reliability and accuracy. Despite their sheathed form, thermocouples subjected to nuclear radiations undergo changes due to radiation damage and transmutation that lead to significant EMF drift during long-term fuel irradiation experiment. For the purpose of a High Temperature Reactor fuel irradiation to take place in the High Flux Reactor Petten, a dedicated fixed-point cell was jointly developed by LNE-Cnam and JRC-IET. The developed cell to be housed in the irradiation rig was tailor made to quantify the thermocouple drift during the irradiation (about two year duration) and withstand high temperature (in the range 950 deg. C - 1100 deg. C) in the presence of contaminated helium in a graphite environment. Considering the different levels of temperature achieved in the irradiation facility and the large palette of thermocouple types aimed at surveying the HTR fuel pebble during the qualification test both copper (1084.62 deg. C) and gold (1064.18 deg. C) fixed-point materials were considered. The aim of this paper is to first describe the fixed-point mini-cell designed to be embedded in the reactor rig and to discuss the preliminary results achieved during some out of pile tests as much as some robustness tests representative of the reactor scram scenarios. (authors)

  8. "Where does the damp come from?" Investigations into the indoor environment and respiratory health in Boston public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, H Patricia; Brugge, Doug; Osgood, Neal-Dra; Snell, John; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John

    2003-01-01

    The self-reported prevalence of asthma increased by 75% from 1980 to 1994, a trend found to be significant and evident in every region of the country. The increase has been most marked in children 0-14 years of age, and there is evidence that, as with lead poisoning, inner-city and urban populations are most at risk. Attention has turned to the role of indoor environment risk factors, especially in homes and schools. Such factors include moisture and mold growth, pest infestation, dust mites, the building envelope, heating systems, inadequate ventilation, NO2, and environmental tobacco smoke. The Healthy Public Housing Initiative (HPHI) is a Boston-based community-centered research and intervention project designed to engage Boston Housing Authority residents in a collaborative process to improve respiratory health, quality of life, building conditions, and building maintenance in public housing. This article summarizes the significant research findings from four pilot studies in housing developments that lay the foundation for the larger HPHI asthma-related environmental intervention study. The research design for the pilot projects is informed by principles of community-collaborative research. The strengths of this model of research to our work are also discussed.

  9. [An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment: there are more accidents than expected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Tsukasa; Yamatani, Yuya; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (e.g. stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials.

  10. Investigation of photo-biodegradation of starch-filled polyethylene films under the environment conditions of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeimian, F.; Khoylou, F.; Sheikh, N.; Akhavan, A.; Hassanpour, S.; Sohrabpour, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work biodegradable polymers have been formulated for packaging purposes and with a view to reduce the environmental accumulation of plastic waste. Degradation of the polymers under the specific weathering conditions of Tehran was studied. In this work low-density polyethylene was formulated with two wheat starch concentrations, maleic anhydride, glycerol as well as a pro-oxidant system of oleic acid, benzoyl peroxide and ferric stearate. The formulated master batches were mixed by using a laboratory two-roll mill at 190 d ig C prepared master batches were mixed with the commercial low-density polyethylene to prepare compounds 1 and 2 containing 1.2 and 6.4 percents wheat starch. The low-density polyethylene control films as well as the formulated compounds were compression moulded in a hot press at 130 d ig C films were subjected to three general conditions of atmospheric exposure, buried in soil and combined conditions of soil burial/ atmospheric exposure. The three environmental conditions impact upon the formulated and control films were investigated through tensile strength, elongation-at-break, carbonyl index, water absorption, weight loss as well as SEM analysis. The microbial investigation was followed by growing the Penicillium Asymmetrica, which had the main population in microbial flora of the soil, on formulated and control films. The studies revealed that the incorporation of this pro-oxidant system with the addition of 6.4% wheat starch enhance the degradation rate of commercial low-density polyethylene films to a significant degree

  11. Birth outcomes and background exposures to select elements, the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michael S; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose M; Steuerwald, Amy J; Parsons, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. To investigate further, we used multiple regression to assess associations between preconception parental exposures to Pb, Cd, and total Hg in blood, and 21 elements in urine, with n=235 singleton birth outcomes, adjusted for confounders and partner's exposure. Earlier gestational age at delivery (GA) was associated with higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22 days) and paternal U (-1.07 days), but GA was later for higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11 days) and paternal (+1.30 days) blood Hg. Additional analysis indicated shorter GA associated with higher paternal urine Ba, W, and U, and with higher maternal blood Pb for boys, but GA was longer in association with higher maternal urine Cr. Birth weight (BW) was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine Cs (-237.85g), U (-187.34g), and Zn (-209.08g), and for higher continuous Cr (P=0.021). In contrast, BW was higher for higher tertiles of paternal urine As (+194.71g) and counterintuitively for maternal blood Cd (+178.52g). Birth length (BL) was shorter for higher tertiles of urine maternal W (-1.22cm) and paternal U (-1.10cm). Yet, higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11cm) and paternal (+1.30) blood Hg were associated with longer BL. Head circumference at delivery was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine U (-0.83cm), and for higher continuous Mo in boys (-0.57cm). Overall, associations were most consistently indicated for GA and measures of birth size with urine W and U, and paternal exposures were more frequently associated than maternal. Though limited by several factors, ours is the largest multi-element investigation of prospective couple-level trace exposures and birth outcomes to date; the novel observations for W and U merit further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the liquefaction dynamics of a phase change material in a normal gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, R. L.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were undertaken to determine the role of gravity-induced free convection upon the liquefaction dynamics of a cylindrical paraffin slab under normal gravity conditions. The experimental equipment consisted of a test cell, a fluid-loop heating system, and a multipoint recorder. The test chamber was annular in shape with an effective radius of 1.585 cm and a length of 5.08 cm. The heating chamber was a 1.906 cm diameter tube going through the center of the test chamber, and connected to the fluid loop heating system. All experimental runs were made with the longitudinal axis of the test cell in the vertical direction to insure that convection was not a function of the angular axis of the cell. Ten melting runs were made at various hot wall temperatures. Also, two pure conduction solidification runs were made to determine an experimental latent heat of fusion.

  13. VOCABULARY, TEXTUAL COMPLEXITY AND READING COMPREHENSION IN DIGITAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS: AN INITIAL INVESTIGATION WITH HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Bocorny Finatto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an initial investigation that intended to qualify the elaboration and usability of didactic resources for Distance Learning (DL in the field of Languages/Portuguese Language and Reading. We present the planning of the resource, the selection of materials and the theoretical notions involved, and the initial design of the activity, which consisted in reading and evaluating the complexity of a set of short texts. The experience was successful only for a small controlled group of students and unsuccessful for the large uncontrolled group. In order to improve the devised resource and implement it didactically, there is the need to perform previous presential learning activities with the involved groups and proceed with the student’s evaluation of the results after the task is accomplished.

  14. Numerical investigation of renormalization group equations in a model of vector field advected by anisotropic stochastic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busa, J.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Jurcisinova, E.; Jurcisin, M.; Remecky, R.

    2009-01-01

    Using the field-theoretic renormalization group, the influence of strong uniaxial small-scale anisotropy on the stability of inertial-range scaling regimes in a model of passive transverse vector field advected by an incompressible turbulent flow is investigated. The velocity field is taken to have a Gaussian statistics with zero mean and defined noise with finite time correlations. It is shown that the inertial-range scaling regimes are given by the existence of infrared stable fixed points of the corresponding renormalization group equations with some angle integrals. The analysis of integrals is given. The problem is solved numerically and the borderline spatial dimension d e (1,3] below which the stability of the scaling regime is not present is found as a function of anisotropy parameters

  15. A novel genetic score approach using instruments to investigate interactions between pathways and environment: application to air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Abele Bind

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been associated with increased systemic inflammation markers. We developed a new pathway analysis approach to investigate whether gene variants within relevant pathways (oxidative stress, endothelial function, and metal processing modified the association between particulate air pollution and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Our study population consisted of 822 elderly participants of the Normative Aging Study (1999-2011. To investigate the role of biological mechanisms and to reduce the number of comparisons in the analysis, we created pathway-specific scores using gene variants related to each pathway. To select the most appropriate gene variants, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso to relate independent outcomes representative of each pathway (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine for oxidative stress, augmentation index for endothelial function, and patella lead for metal processing to gene variants. A high genetic score corresponds to a higher allelic risk profile. We fit mixed-effects models to examine modification by the genetic score of the weekly air pollution association with the outcome. Among participants with higher genetic scores within the oxidative stress pathway, we observed significant associations between particle number and fibrinogen, while we did not find any association among participants with lower scores (p(interaction = 0.04. Compared to individuals with low genetic scores of metal processing gene variants, participants with higher scores had greater effects of particle number on fibrinogen (p(interaction = 0.12, CRP (p(interaction = 0.02, and ICAM-1 (pinteraction = 0.08. This two-stage penalization method is easy to implement and can be used for large-scale genetic applications.

  16. A 25-year laboratory experiment on French SON68 nuclear glass leached in a granitic environment - First investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guittonneau, C. [CEA Marcoule DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Gin, S., E-mail: stephane.gin@cea.f [CEA Marcoule DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Godon, N.; Mestre, J.P. [CEA Marcoule DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Dugne, O.; Allegri, P. [CEA Marcoule DTEC/SGCS/LMAC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated a 25.75-year old leaching experiment to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling glass dissolution in geological disposal conditions. A SON68 glass block was leached in slowly renewed synthetic groundwater (at 90 {sup o}C, 100 bar) in contact with some pieces of granite and Ni-Cr-Mo alloy as environmental storage materials. One hundred and sixty-three samplings were carried out over the entire duration of the experiment and were used to calculate the mean thickness of the altered glass (28 ({+-}9) {mu}m) and the glass dissolution rate. After few months, the rate remained very constant at 6 x 10{sup -3} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} which is about 20 times higher than the residual rate measured in a batch reactor at the same temperature. At the end of the experiment, mainly SEM analyses were performed on the entire glass block. Surprisingly, the glass alteration layer has neither a homogeneous thickness, nor a homogeneous morphology. The location of the sampling valve (at half height of the glass block) seems to divide the glass block into two parts. In the upper half (above the sampling valve), the general morphology of the alteration layer consists in a relatively simple and uniform gel and some secondary phases which are rare-earth phosphates. The mean measured thickness of this alteration layer is 6.7 ({+-}0.3) {mu}m. However, in the lower half of the glass block, the gel is globally larger and frequently contains rounded shapes which are rare-earth phosphates. This section is edged by secondary phases bearing Mg, Na, Zn and Ni. The mean measured thickness is 81.3 ({+-}1.1) {mu}m in the lower half. In this experiment, the flow rate which leads to the hydrodynamic transport of the soluble species must be a key factor for the local glass alteration process. We have also shown that this unexpected behavior is likely due to heterogeneities of the chemistry of the solution. This conclusion is supported by the behavior of Mg. This element

  17. Investigation of microbial diversity in a desert Mars-like environment: Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Maria Susana; Staats, Martijn; Foing, Bernard H.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Roling, Wilfred

    The Utah Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) harbours geo-morphology and geo-processes analogues to the planet Mars. Soil samples were collected during the EuroGeoMars campaign (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) from different locations and depths [1]. Samples were distributed among scientific collaborator institutes for analysis of microbial diversity, amino acid content and degradation, content of PAH or larger organic molecules, and respective soil properties. Our sample analysis had the objective of characterizing the microbial communities in this Mars analogue: DNA isolation, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) using primers for DNA amplification of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments, DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and clone library construction with the final aim of sequencing. Results indicate that life is present in all the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), while the most diversity was found in the domain Bacteria. Microorgan-isms are heterogeneously present and their identities are currently investigated. The obtained information will be later related to the other scientific analysis in order to obtain a better understanding of this Mars analogue site, which in turn will provide important information for the search for life on Mars. [1] Foing, B.H. et al . (2009). Exogeolab lander/rover instruments and EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign. LPI, 40, 2567.

  18. Expanding Interaction Potentials within Virtual Environments: Investigating the Usability of Speech and Manual Input Modes for Decoupled Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Stedmon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed technologies and ubiquitous computing now support users who may be detached or decoupled from traditional interactions. In order to investigate the potential usability of speech and manual input devices, an evaluation of speech input across different user groups and a usability assessment of independent-user and collaborative-user interactions was conducted. Whilst the primary focus was on a formative usability evaluation, the user group evaluation provided a formal basis to underpin the academic rigor of the exercise. The results illustrate that using a speech interface is important in understanding user acceptance of such technologies. From the usability assessment it was possible to translate interactions and make them compatible with innovative input devices. This approach to interaction is still at an early stage of development, and the potential or validity of this interfacing concept is still under evaluation; however, as a concept demonstrator, the results of these initial evaluations demonstrate the potential usability issues of both input devices as well as highlighting their suitability for advanced virtual applications.

  19. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  20. Investigation of scaling characteristics for defining design environments due to transient ground winds and near-field, nonlinear acoustic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to establish a foundation of scaling laws for the highly nonlinear waves associated with the launch vehicle, the basic knowledge of the relationships among the paramaters pertinent to the energy dissipation process associated with the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves in thermoviscous media is required. The problem of interest is to experimentally investigate the temporal and spacial velocity profiles of fluid flow in a 3-inch open-end pipe of various lengths, produced by the propagation of nonlinear pressure waves for various diaphragm burst pressures of a pressure wave generator. As a result, temporal and spacial characteristics of wave propagation for a parametric set of nonlinear pressure waves in the pipe containing air under atmospheric conditions were determined. Velocity measurements at five sections along the pipes of up to 210 ft. in length were made with hot-film anemometers for five pressure waves produced by a piston. The piston was derived with diaphragm burst pressures at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 psi in the driver chamber of the pressure wave generator.

  1. Performative Microforests: Investigating the potential benefits of integrating spatial vegetation environments into buildings, in regards to the performance of buildings, their occupants + local ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mangone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of office buildings can substantially improve the building, social, and ecological performance of office building projects. However, existing research on improving the performance of work environments has primarily focused on identifying and evaluating methods to make work environments less bad, rather than focusing on how to develop work environments that are positively performing. Moreover, the potential of building projects to perform positively, in terms of economic, social, and ecological performance, remains relatively unexplored in existing research and building projects. To this end, this PhD research project is focused on exploring the positive economic, social, and ecological performance potential of buildings. Specifically, this research project identifies and evaluates the potential economic, social, and ecological performance benefits of integrating microforests into office buildings. Microforests are defined in this book as dynamic, stimulating, cohesive spatial environments that are composed of vegetation and soil layers that mimic the structural, perceptual, and ecological composition of a forest ecosystem, yet are not large enough to reliably provide the myriad of functions of a robust, mature forest ecosystem. This design research focus is based on findings from existing literature that suggest that natural environments and stimuli can provide a diverse range of economic, social, and ecological performance benefits. The Design Research Methodology [DRM], an established research methodology that facilitates the use of diverse research methods in a rigorous, effective manner, is used in this research project to explore and evaluate the performance potential of microforests, by investigating the following sub research questions: • How can microforests improve the performance of office buildings? • How can microforests improve employee performance + comfort? • How can microforests improve the ecological performance

  2. Ab initio investigation of the surface properties of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in aqueous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rák, Zs., E-mail: zrak@ncsu.edu; Brenner, D.W.

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • The trend in the surface energies of austenitic stainless steels is: (111) < (100) < (110). • On the (111) orientation Ni segregates to the surface and Cr segregates into the bulk. • The surface stability of the alloys in contact with water decrease with temperature and pH. - Abstract: The surface energetics of two austenitic stainless steel alloys (Type 304 and 316) and three Ni-based alloys (Alloy 600, 690, and 800) are investigated using theoretical methods within the density functional theory. The relative stability of the low index surfaces display the same trend for all alloys; the most closely packed orientation and the most stable is the (111), followed by the (100) and the (110) surfaces. Calculations on the (111) surfaces using various surface chemical and magnetic configurations reveal that Ni has the tendency to segregate toward the surface and Cr has the tendency to segregate toward the bulk. The magnetic frustration present on the (111) surfaces plays an important role in the observed segregation tendencies of Ni and Cr. The stability of the (111) surfaces in contact with aqueous solution are evaluated as a function of temperature, pH, and concentration of aqueous species. The results indicate that the surface stability of the alloys decrease with temperature and pH, and increase slightly with concentration. Under conditions characteristic to an operating pressurized water reactor, the Ni-based alloy series appears to be of better quality than the stainless steel series with respect to corrosion resistance and release of aqueous species when in contact with aqueous solutions.

  3. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  4. Investigando o processo de leitura por meio de ambientes colaborativos Investigating the Reading Process by Means of Collaborative Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Neitzel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones brasileñas acerca de los factores determinantes para el éxito de programas de formación de lectores señalan la necesidad del empleo de la literatura como objeto estético para que el niño se aproxime al libro. Esta investigación se propuso estudiar las concepciones de los profesores acerca de la literatura a partir del punto de vista del lector infantil. Se utilizó el chat como mecanismo de recolección de datos, propuesto entre dos clases de la enseñanza fundamental, y entrevistas con las profesoras regentes. El análisis de los chats siguió la metodología de Franco (1997, evidenciando que los docentes no consideran al libro como un objeto estético que necesita ser disfrutado. Esta investigación señala tres ejes básicos para la conquista de un público lector: a recursos humanos calificados con claridad acerca de la concepción de literatura como fenómeno estético; b procedimientos metodológicos coherentes con esa concepción; c acervo bibliográfico ajustado a esa concepción. Brazilian research on the determining factors for the success of programs to teach reading indicates a need to view literature as an aesthetic object that will encourage children to appreciate books. This study proposes investigating teachers' concepts of literature, from the point of view of the children. Chat was used as a data collection mechanism, proposed between two groups of elementary school children and interviews with the teachers. The analysis of the chats followed the methodology of Franco (1997. This study indicates three key areas for winning a reading public: a qualified human resources, with a clear concept of literature as an aesthetic phenomenon; b methodological procedures that are coherent with this concept; c a bibliographical archive that is aligned with this concept.

  5. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation for the Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: vertical crustal movements - a manifestation of intraplate geological processes (reports of vertical crustal movements observed by geodetic levelling in intraplate environments; vertical crustal movements and the geological record; possible causes of vertical crustal movements); an investigation of recent crustal movements in a test area of the United Kingdom by comparison of geodetic levelling records; vertical crustal movements and the isolation of nuclear waste in intraplate geological systems (conventional methods of site appraisal - a perspective of geological hazard assessment; the role of vertical crustal movements as a tool for rationalisation of hazard assessment, site selection and the assessment of future geological change); research options. (U.K.)

  6. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  7. A comparison on determining activities of 238U and 232Th based on transfer samples and some associations of ideas for some investigation passed of environment radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Cheng Jianping; Diao Lijun; Li Guiqun

    2006-01-01

    A comparison on determining activities of 238 U and 232 Th based on transfer samples is reported in the paper. Especially, disturbance of X-ray from out-sources i.e. non-nucleus-self are studied and more detailed. And other factors that influence this time comparison result are discussed too in the work. In the paper it is pointed out definitely that the characteristic peaks that are disturbed by characteristic X-rays from out-sources ought to be not adopted to determine activities of the samples. In final some associations of ideas for some investigation passed of environment radiation are also described. (authors)

  8. A comparison on determining activities of 238U and 232Th based on transfer samples and some associations of ideas for some investigation passed of environment radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Cheng Jianping; Diao Lijun; Li Guiqun

    2007-01-01

    A comparison on determining activities of 238 U and 232 Th based on transfer samples is reported in the paper. Especially, disturbance of X-ray from out-sources i.e. non-nucleus-self are studied and more detailed. And other factors that influence this time comparison result are discussed too in the work. In the paper it is pointed out definitely that the characteristic peaks that are disturbed by characteristic X-rays from out-sources ought to be not adopted to determine activities of the samples. In final some associations of ideas for some investigation passed of environment radiation are also described. (authors)

  9. Investigation of the distal margins of the LVF/LDA environments in the northern midlatitudes of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G. A.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The northern dichotomy boundary on Mars consists of an abrupt escarpment between the cratered uplands and the northern plains. The boundary is characterized by fretted valleys which divide the uplands into a series of plateaus and mesas which become progressively smaller to the north and eventually merge with the northern plains [1]. Lineated Valley Fill (LVF) and Lobate Debris Aprons (LDA) deposits are a prominent feature of the dichotomy boundary [2] and have been attributed by some [e.g., 3] to be the remains of debris-covered glaciers that were active during previous climatic regimes when snow was deposited along the dichotomy boundary [4-5]. Recent in depth analysis of LVF/LDA has been made possible by new comprehensive high-resolution data from Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. and has revealed evidence for multiple LVF/LDA emplacement events [6-8], as well as evidence for plateau glaciation [4] and evidence that glacial conditions extended much further from the margins of the dichotomy boundary than previously thought [4]. However, remaining unexamined, however, are the regions adjacent to the current positions of the LVF/LDA deposits where one can explore the relationship between the distal landforms present there and the main bodies of LVF/LDA. We have therefore investigated an area of the northern plains directly north of a region of the dichotomy boundary where detailed studies have reported largescale integrated LVF systems >10,000 km3 in extent, that are analogous to terrestrial debris covered glacial systems [3,6-8]. Through the utilization of the most recent data sets (CTX and HiRISE) we have categorized the distinct landform assemblages associated with this area and documented the degraded nature of lobate debris aprons and related features present there. Degraded Lobate Debris Aprons All of the LDAs in the study region have troughs cut into their surface which are aligned in the same direction as the flanks of

  10. Technology advancing the study of animal cognition: using virtual reality to present virtually simulated environments to investigate nonhuman primate spatial cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweller, Kenneth; Milne, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Virtual simulated environments provide multiple ways of testing cognitive function and evaluating problem solving with humans (e.g., Woollett et al. 2009). The use of such interactive technology has increasingly become an essential part of modern life (e.g., autonomously driving vehicles, global positioning systems (GPS), and touchscreen computers; Chinn and Fairlie 2007; Brown 2011). While many nonhuman animals have their own forms of "technology", such as chimpanzees who create and use tools, in captive animal environments the opportunity to actively participate with interactive technology is not often made available. Exceptions can be found in some state-of-the-art zoos and laboratory facilities (e.g., Mallavarapu and Kuhar 2005). When interactive technology is available, captive animals often selectively choose to engage with it. This enhances the animal’s sense of control over their immediate surroundings (e.g., Clay et al. 2011; Ackerman 2012). Such self-efficacy may help to fulfill basic requirements in a species’ daily activities using problem solving that can involve foraging and other goal-oriented behaviors. It also assists in fulfilling the strong underlying motivation for contrafreeloading and exploration expressed behaviorally by many species in captivity (Young 1999). Moreover, being able to present nonhuman primates virtual reality environments under experimental conditions provides the opportunity to gain insight into their navigational abilities and spatial cognition. It allows for insight into the generation and application of internal mental representations of landmarks and environments under multiple conditions (e.g., small- and large-scale space) and subsequent spatial behavior. This paper reviews methods using virtual reality developed to investigate the spatial cognitive abilities of nonhuman primates, and great apes in particular, in comparison with that of humans of multiple age groups. We make recommendations about training

  11. Technology advancing the study of animal cognition: using virtual reality to present virtually simulated environments to investigate nonhuman primate spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, Francine L; Schweller, Kenneth; Milne, Scott

    2017-02-01

    Virtual simulated environments provide multiple ways of testing cognitive function and evaluating problem solving with humans (e.g., Woollett et al. 2009). The use of such interactive technology has increasingly become an essential part of modern life (e.g., autonomously driving vehicles, global positioning systems (GPS), and touchscreen computers; Chinn and Fairlie 2007; Brown 2011). While many nonhuman animals have their own forms of "technology", such as chimpanzees who create and use tools, in captive animal environments the opportunity to actively participate with interactive technology is not often made available. Exceptions can be found in some state-of-the-art zoos and laboratory facilities (e.g., Mallavarapu and Kuhar 2005). When interactive technology is available, captive animals often selectively choose to engage with it. This enhances the animal's sense of control over their immediate surroundings (e.g., Clay et al. 2011; Ackerman 2012). Such self-efficacy may help to fulfill basic requirements in a species' daily activities using problem solving that can involve foraging and other goal-oriented behaviors. It also assists in fulfilling the strong underlying motivation for contrafreeloading and exploration expressed behaviorally by many species in captivity (Young 1999). Moreover, being able to present nonhuman primates virtual reality environments under experimental conditions provides the opportunity to gain insight into their navigational abilities and spatial cognition. It allows for insight into the generation and application of internal mental representations of landmarks and environments under multiple conditions (e.g., small- and large-scale space) and subsequent spatial behavior. This paper reviews methods using virtual reality developed to investigate the spatial cognitive abilities of nonhuman primates, and great apes in particular, in comparison with that of humans of multiple age groups. We make recommendations about training, best

  12. Investigations on an environment friendly chemical reaction process (eco-chemistry). 2; Kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (eko chemistry) ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to structure a chemical reaction process that does not discharge a large amount of waste by-products or harmful chemical substances, or so-called environment friendly process, investigations and discussions were given based on the results derived in the previous fiscal year. A proposal was made to reduce environmental load on development of oxidized and dehydrogenated catalysts that can produce selectively ethylene, propylene and isobutylene in an oxidation process. In liquid phase oxidation, redox-based oxidation and solid catalyzation of automatic oxidation reaction were enumerated. In acid base catalyst reaction, development of ultra strong solid acid was described to structure no pollution discharging process. In the fine chemical and pharmaceutical fields, the optical active substance method and the position-selective aromatics displacement reaction were evaluated to reduce environmental load. A questionnaire survey performed on major chemical corporations inside and outside the country revealed the following processes as the ones that can cause hidden environmental problems: processes discharging large amount of wastes, processes treating dangerous materials, and processes consuming large amount of energy. Development of catalysts is important that can realize high yield, high selectivity and reactions under mild conditions as a future environment harmonizing chemical process. 117 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. An investigation into thermal comfort and residential thermal environment in an intertropical sub-Saharan Africa region: Field study report during the Harmattan season in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djongyang, Noel; Tchinda, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on thermal comfort have attracted authors for years throughout the world and the most important findings are now the basis of international thermal comfort standards. There is little information available concerning occupant comfort and residential thermal environment in the intertropical sub-Saharan Africa. Thus the purpose for this study is to conduct a field study on comfort and residential thermal environments in a typical intertropical climatic region. A field survey has been conducted during the Harmattan season in two cities from the two climatic regions of Cameroon concerned by that wind. Specific study objectives were to evaluate and characterize some thermal perceptions of occupants in their residence, compare observed and predicted percent of dissatisfied, and discern differences between the study area and other climate zones where similar studies have been performed. It was found that the thermoneutral temperatures in both climatic regions range from 24.69 deg. C to 27.32 deg. C and, in traditional living room, it differs from that of modern living room with approximately 1 deg. C.

  14. The investigation of the Japanese black cattle as well as their rearing environment inside the 'difficult-to-return zone' due to Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, K.

    2016-01-01

    We are continuously investigating the effect of persistent exposure to low level radiation on Japanese Black cattle kept on 3 ranches as well as their rearing environment inside the 'difficult-to-return zone' due to Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. The spatial radiation dose rate at 1 m above ground was 40 μSv/h in the spring of 2013 but it decreased to about 20 μSv/h after 1 year 7 months. Accumulated spatial radiation dose throughout the year of was 220 mSv and exposure dose of cattle throughout that year was 170 mSv. The effect of radiation exposure due to the nuclear power plant disaster has not been clearly recognized in cattle. (author)

  15. Removing Regional Trends in Microgravity in Complex Environments: Testing on 3D Model and Field Investigations in the Eastern Dead Sea Coast (Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Zoubi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity investigations are now recognized as a powerful tool for subsurface imaging and especially for the localization of underground karsts. However numerous natural (geological, technical, and environmental factors interfere with microgravity survey processing and interpretation. One of natural factors that causes the most disturbance in complex geological environments is the influence of regional trends. In the Dead Sea coastal areas the influence of regional trends can exceed residual gravity effects by some tenfold. Many widely applied methods are unable to remove regional trends with sufficient accuracy. We tested number of transformation methods (including computing gravity field derivatives, self-adjusting and adaptive filtering, Fourier series, wavelet, and other procedures on a 3D model (complicated by randomly distributed noise, and field investigations were carried out in Ghor Al-Haditha (the eastern side of the Dead Sea in Jordan. We show that the most effective methods for regional trend removal (at least for the theoretical and field cases here are the bilinear saddle and local polynomial regressions. Application of these methods made it possible to detect the anomalous gravity effect from buried targets in the theoretical model and to extract the local gravity anomaly at the Ghor Al-Haditha site. The local anomaly was utilized for 3D gravity modeling to construct a physical-geological model (PGM.

  16. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-06-04

    The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how 'risk environments' produce harm. Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Body satisfaction was an important factor when deciding to start the use of anabolic steroids. Many users were unaware of the potential dangers of using drugs from the illicit market, whereas some had adopted a range of strategies to negotiate the hazards relating to the use of adulterated products, including self-experimentation to gauge the perceived efficacy and unwanted effects of these drugs. Viewpoints, first-hand anecdotes, norms and practices among groups of steroid users created boundaries of 'sensible' drug use, but also promoted practices that may increase the chance of harms occurring. Established users encouraged young users to go to harm reduction services but, at the same time, promoted risky injecting practices in the belief that this would enhance the efficacy of anabolic steroids. Current steroid-related viewpoints and practices contribute to the risk environment surrounding the use of these drugs and may undermine the goal of current public health strategies including harm reduction interventions. The level of harms among anabolic steroid users are determined by multiple and intertwining factors, in addition to the harms caused by the pharmacological action or injury and illness associated with incorrect injecting techniques. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. [Investigation on sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments and Clonorchis sinensis intermediate host infection in a city of Pearl River Delta region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wang; Le, Luo; Xue-Qin, Chen; Lei, Li; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2017-10-19

    To understand the current status of the sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments, and Clonorchis sinensis infection of freshwater fish in the aquaculture and market in a city of Pearl River Delta region, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis sinensis. In 2016, based on the distribution of freshwater aquaculture, 36 freshwater fish ponds among 14 towns were selected for sampling and investigation, and 10-20 pieces were collected from each pond. Besides, 3 aquatic product wholesale markets were included, among which 3-6 stalls were selected from each market, and 20-30 pieces were collected from each stall. The metacercaria in the fish was examined by the digestion method. In the 36 fish ponds, there were no toilets with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly, and there was only one pond with duck sheds with the stool being drained into fish ponds directly. Totally 437 pieces of freshwater fish from ponds were detected, with a metacercaria positive rate of 4.35% (19/437). The metacercaria positive fish were distributed in 50% (7/14) of towns and 25% (9/36) ponds. The positive rates of crucian carp, grass carp, dace, aristichthysnobilis, and tilapia were 13.95% (6/43), 4.76% (9/189), 4.44 (2/45), 1.55% (2/129), and 0 (0/31) respectively, with statistically significant difference ( χ 2 = 13.46, P = 0.01). Totally 307 pieces of freshwater fish were collected from the wholesale markets, with a total positive rate of 1.95% (6/307). The positive rate of grass carp and aristichthysnobilis were 3.20% (4/125) and 2.78% (2/72) respectively, and no positive samples were found in crucian carp, dace and tilapia, with no statistically significant difference among the different fish in the infection rate (Fisher exact P = 0.75). The sanitation of freshwater aquaculture environments in a city of Pearl River Delta region is relative good. However, there are different degrees of Clonorchis sinensis

  18. Do students with higher self-efficacy exhibit greater and more diverse scientific inquiry skills: An exploratory investigation in "River City", a multi-user virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    In this thesis, I conduct an exploratory study to investigate the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into authentic scientific activity and the scientific inquiry behaviors they employ while engaged in that process, over time. Scientific inquiry has been a major standard in most science education policy doctrines for the past two decades and is exemplified by activities such as making observations, formulating hypotheses, gathering and analyzing data, and forming conclusions from that data. The self-efficacy literature, however, indicates that self-efficacy levels affect perseverance and engagement. This study investigated the relationship between these two constructs. The study is conducted in a novel setting, using an innovative science curriculum delivered through an interactive computer technology that recorded each student's conversations, movements, and activities while behaving as a practicing scientist in a "virtual world" called River City. River City is a Multi-User Virtual Environment designed to engage students in a collaborative scientific inquiry-based learning experience. As a result, I was able to follow students' moment-by-moment choices of behavior while they were behaving as scientists. I collected data on students' total scientific inquiry behaviors over three visits to River City, as well as the number of sources from which they gathered their scientific data. I analyzed my longitudinal data on the 96 seventh-graders using individual growth modeling. I found that self-efficacy played a role in the number of data-gathering behaviors students engaged in initially, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. However, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender; by the end of the study, student self-efficacy did not impact data gathering. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different

  19. The application of Caesium-137 and Plutonium-239+240 measurements to investigate floodplain deposition in a semi-arid, low-fallout environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, K. J.; Croke, J. C.; Timmers, H.; Owens, P. N.

    2009-04-01

    Floodplains comprise geomorphologically important sources and sinks for sediments and associated pollutants, yet the sedimentology of large dryland floodplains is not well understood. Processes occurring on such floodplains are often difficult to observe, and techniques used to investigate smaller perennial floodplains are often not practical in these environments. This study assesses the utility of Cs-137 inventory and depth-profile techniques for determining relative amounts of floodplain sedimentation in the Fitzroy River, north-eastern Australia; a 143 000 km2 semi-arid river system. Caesium-137 inventories were calculated for floodplain and reference location bulk soil cores collected from four sites. Depth profiles of Cs-137 concentration from each floodplain site and a reference location were recorded. The areal density of Cs-137 at reference locations ranged from 13-978 Bq m-2 (0-1367 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), and the mean value ± 2(standard error of the mean) was 436±264 Bq m-2, similar to published data from other southern hemisphere locations. Floodplain inventories ranged from 68-1142 Bq m-2 (0-1692 Bq m-2 at the 95% confidence interval), essentially falling within the range of reference inventory values, thus preventing calculation of erosion or deposition. Depth-profiles of Cs-137 concentration indicate erosion at one site and over 66 cm of deposition at another since 1954. Analysis of 239+240Pu concentrations in a depositional core substantiated the interpretation made from Cs-137 data, and depict a more tightly constrained peak in concentration. Average annual deposition rates range from 0-15 mm. The similarity between floodplain and reference bulk inventories does not necessarily indicate a lack of erosion or deposition, due to low Cs-137 fallout in the region and associated high measurement uncertainties, and a likely influence of gully and bank eroded sediments with no or limited adsorbed Cs-137. In this low-fallout environment

  20. Teachers and Technology Use in Secondary Science Classrooms: Investigating the Experiences of Middle School Science Teachers Implementing the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Rachel Corinne

    This study investigated the intended teacher use of a technology-enhanced learning tool, Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), and the first experiences of teachers new to using it and untrained in its use. The purpose of the study was to learn more about the factors embedded into the design of the technology that enabled it or hindered it from being used as intended. The qualitative research design applied grounded theory methods. Using theoretical sampling and a constant comparative analysis, a document review of WISE website led to a model of intended teacher use. The experiences of four middle school science teachers as they enacted WISE for the first time were investigated through ethnographic field observations, surveys and interviews using thematic analysis to construct narratives of each teachers use. These narratives were compared to the model of intended teacher use of WISE. This study found two levels of intended teacher uses for WISE. A basic intended use involved having student running the project to completion while the teacher provides feedback and assesses student learning. A more optimal description of intended use involved the supplementing the core curriculum with WISE as well as enhancing the core scope and sequence of instruction and aligning assessment with the goals of instruction through WISE. Moreover, WISE projects were optimally intended to be facilitated through student-centered teaching practices and inquiry-based instruction in a collaborative learning environment. It is also optimally intended for these projects to be shared with other colleagues for feedback and iterative development towards improving the Knowledge Integration of students. Of the four teachers who participated in this study, only one demonstrated the use of WISE as intended in the most basic way. This teacher also demonstrated the use of WISE in a number of optimal ways. Teacher confusion with certain tools available within WISE suggests that there may be a

  1. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  2. The Impact of Student Self-efficacy on Scientific Inquiry Skills: An Exploratory Investigation in River City, a Multi-user Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelhut, Diane Jass

    2007-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated data-gathering behaviors exhibited by 100 seventh-grade students as they participated in a scientific inquiry-based curriculum project delivered by a multi-user virtual environment (MUVE). This research examined the relationship between students' self-efficacy on entry into the authentic scientific activity and the longitudinal data-gathering behaviors they employed while engaged in that process. Three waves of student behavior data were gathered from a server-side database that recorded all student activity in the MUVE; these data were analyzed using individual growth modeling. The study found that self-efficacy correlated with the number of data-gathering behaviors in which students initially engaged, with high self-efficacy students engaging in more data gathering than students with low self-efficacy. Also, the impact of student self-efficacy on rate of change in data gathering behavior differed by gender. However, by the end of their time in the MUVE, initial student self-efficacy no longer correlated with data gathering behaviors. In addition, students' level of self-efficacy did not affect how many different sources from which they chose to gather data. These results suggest that embedding science inquiry curricula in novel platforms like a MUVE might act as a catalyst for change in students' self-efficacy and learning processes.

  3. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  4. Utilising monitoring and modelling of estuarine environments to investigate catchment conditions responsible for stratification events in a typically well-mixed urbanised estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Serena B.; Birch, Gavin F.

    2012-10-01

    Estuarine health is affected by contamination from stormwater, particularly in highly-urbanised environments. For systems where catchment monitoring is insufficient, novel techniques must be employed to determine the impact of urban runoff on receiving water bodies. In the present work, estuarine monitoring and modelling were successfully employed to determine stormwater runoff volumes and establish an appropriate rainfall/runoff relationship capable of replicating fresh-water discharge due to the full range of precipitation conditions in the Sydney Estuary, Australia. Using estuary response to determine relationships between catchment rainfall and runoff is a widely applicable method and may be of assistance in the study of waterways where monitoring fluvial discharges is not practical or is beyond the capacity of management authorities. For the Sydney Estuary, the SCS-CN method replicated rainfall/runoff and was applied in numerical modelling experiments investigating the hydrodynamic characteristics affecting stratification and estuary recovery following high precipitation. Numerical modelling showed stratification in the Sydney Estuary was dominated by fresh-water discharge. Spring tides and up-estuary winds contributed to mixing and neap tides and down-estuary winds enhanced stratification.

  5. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers' observational skills in natural ecological learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Karin; Björklund, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers' ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two separate memory systems: the implicit, non-conscious, non-declarative system and the explicit, conscious, declarative system. This model provided the starting point for the research design. However, it was revised from the empirical findings supported by new theoretical insights. The teachers were video and audio recorded during their excursion and interviewed in a stimulated recall setting afterwards. The data were qualitatively analysed using the dual-memory system model. The results show that the teachers used holistic pattern recognition in their own identification of natural objects. However, teachers' main strategy to teach this ability is to give the students explicit rules or specific characteristics. According to the dual-memory system model the holistic pattern recognition is processed in the implicit memory system as a non-conscious match with earlier experienced situations. We suggest that this implicit pattern matching serves as an explanation for teachers' ecological and teaching observational skills. Another function of the implicit memory system is its ability to control automatic behaviour and non-conscious decision-making. The teachers offer the students firsthand sensory experiences which provide a prerequisite for the formation of implicit memories that provides a foundation for expertise.

  6. Investigations on the Behavior of HVOF and Cold Sprayed Ni-20Cr Coating on T22 Boiler Steel in Actual Boiler Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Niraj; Singh, Harpreet; Prakash, Satya; Karthikeyan, J.

    2012-01-01

    High temperature corrosion accompanied by erosion is a severe problem, which may result in premature failure of the boiler tubes. One countermeasure to overcome this problem is the use of thermal spray protective coatings. In the current investigation high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) and cold spray processes have been used to deposit commercial Ni-20Cr powder on T22 boiler steel. To evaluate the performance of the coatings in actual conditions the bare as well as the coated steels were subjected to cyclic exposures, in the superheater zone of a coal fired boiler for 15 cycles. The weight change and thickness loss data were used to establish kinetics of the erosion-corrosion. X-ray diffraction, surface and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS) and x-ray mapping techniques were used to analyse the as-sprayed and corroded specimens. The HVOF sprayed coating performed better than its cold sprayed counterpart in actual boiler environment.

  7. Investigating engagement, thinking, and learning among culturally diverse, urban sixth graders experiencing an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Sybil Schantz

    This mixed-methods study combined pragmatism, sociocultural perspectives, and systems thinking concepts to investigate students' engagement, thinking, and learning in science in an urban, K-8 arts, science, and technology magnet school. A grant-funded school-university partnership supported the implementation of an inquiry-based science curriculum, contextualized in the local environment through field experiences. The researcher worked as co-teacher of 3 sixth-grade science classes and was deeply involved in the daily routines of the school. The purposes of the study were to build a deeper understanding of the complex interactions that take place in an urban science classroom, including challenges related to implementing culturally-relevant instruction; and to offer insight into the role educational systems play in supporting teaching and learning. The central hypothesis was that connecting learning to meaningful experiences in the local environment can provide culturally accessible points of engagement from which to build science learning. Descriptive measures provided an assessment of students' engagement in science activities, as well as their levels of thinking and learning throughout the school year. Combined with analyses of students' work files and focus group responses, these findings provided strong evidence of engagement attributable to the inquiry-based curriculum. In some instances, degree of engagement was found to be affected by student "reluctance" and "resistance," terms defined but needing further examination. A confounding result showed marked increases in thinking levels coupled with stasis or decrease in learning. Congruent with past studies, data indicated the presence of tension between the diverse cultures of students and the mainstream cultures of school and science. Findings were synthesized with existing literature to generate the study's principal product, a grounded theory model representing the complex, interacting factors involved in

  8. Investigation of fatigue crack growth in SA508-2 in a 2880C PWR environment by a constant δK test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Sluys, W.A.; DeMiglio, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth experiments using a constant δK test technique were conducted on three 50.8 mm thick compact fracture specimens of SA508-2 in a 288 0 C simulated PWR water environment. Alternating stress intensity factor (δK) values were investigated in the range 16.5 to 44 MPa√m at sinusoidal loading frequencies ranging from 10 to .017 Hz (1 cpm) and R ratios 0.03 to 0.72. For a given δK and frequency, δK was held constant to within 1%. A steady-state rate of crack growth per cycle of stress (da/dN) was determined for each test condition. Over a typical crack extension of 1.3 mm, the crack growth rate in many cases was a constant. As many as 14 separate experiments were conducted on a single specimen. There was no influence of prior loading history or crack length on the crack growth rate. It was found that the crack growth rate was controlled by the δK, frequency, and R ratio of the test. Large changes in the crack growth rate did not occur as the frequency of loading was decreased from >1 Hz to .017 Hz (1 cpm). As compared to high frequency results (>1 Hz) the crack growth rate increased slightly at 1 cpm for δK > 22 MPa√m and decreased slightly for δK < 22 MPa√m. At 1 cpm the R ratio was observed to influence the crack growth rate; however, the magnitude of this effect was not well-defined

  9. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  10. Investigation of Unsteady Pressure-Sensitive Paint (uPSP) and a Dynamic Loads Balance to Predict Launch Vehicle Buffet Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.; Panda, Jayanta; Ross, James C.; Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Burnside, Nathan J.; Ngo, Christina L.; Kumagai, Hiro; Sellers, Marvin; Powell, Jessica M.; Sekula, Martin K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This NESC assessment examined the accuracy of estimating buffet loads on in-line launch vehicles without booster attachments using sparse unsteady pressure measurements. The buffet loads computed using sparse sensor data were compared with estimates derived using measurements with much higher spatial resolution. The current method for estimating launch vehicle buffet loads is through wind tunnel testing of models with approximately 400 unsteady pressure transducers. Even with this relatively large number of sensors, the coverage can be insufficient to provide reliable integrated unsteady loads on vehicles. In general, sparse sensor spacing requires the use of coherence-length-based corrections in the azimuthal and axial directions to integrate the unsteady pressures and obtain reasonable estimates of the buffet loads. Coherence corrections have been used to estimate buffet loads for a variety of launch vehicles with the assumption methodology results in reasonably conservative loads. For the Space Launch System (SLS), the first estimates of buffet loads exceeded the limits of the vehicle structure, so additional tests with higher sensor density were conducted to better define the buffet loads and possibly avoid expensive modifications to the vehicle design. Without the additional tests and improvements to the coherence-length analysis methods, there would have been significant impacts to the vehicle weight, cost, and schedule. If the load estimates turn out to be too low, there is significant risk of structural failure of the vehicle. This assessment used a combination of unsteady pressure-sensitive paint (uPSP), unsteady pressure transducers, and a dynamic force and moment balance to investigate the integration schemes used with limited unsteady pressure data by comparing them with direct integration of extremely dense fluctuating pressure measurements. An outfall of the assessment was to evaluate the potential of using the emerging uPSP technique in a production

  11. The avian community of the Karen Mogensen Reserve, a wealth of biodiversity within the poorly investigated and threatened environments of northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotto, Matteo Dal; Romeo, Giuseppe; Aguilar, Luis A Mena; Sonetti, Dario; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    Despite being characterized by some of the most threatened forest ecosystems of Mesoamerica, the Nicoya Peninsula is among the least known regions of neotropical Costa Rica in terms of its birdlife. Within this region, in the framework of an ongoing international cooperation program between Italy and Costa Rica, we had the opportunity to investigate the Karen Mogensen Reserve, a protected area distinguished by the presence of a variety of habitats, including tropical dry forest and moist forest. Species richness in the Reserve was relatively high compared with similar areas in northwestern Costa Rica. A series of surveys carried out over a 20-year period documented an avian community consisting of 207 species, of which 115 were breeding in the zone and another 14 were potentially breeding. We recorded five IUCN globally Vulnerable or Near-Threatened species, along with six species reported for the first time from the Nicoya Peninsula, each representing range extension of more than 100 km. Twenty-six species, mostly breeding in the area, are at their southernmost range borders, and are likely susceptible to global environmental alterations, such as the effects of climate change. Furthermore, our study revealed the presence of two species endemic to a restricted area of Central America and four subspecies endemic to Costa Rica, along with breeding populations of two species that are geographically isolated from the main ones. The present analysis led to the ecological characterization of the resident avian community, showing that 65% of the species are strictly associated with forested environments, and especially with the understory or middle tree level, hence more vulnerable to environmental change (climatic, anthropogenic, etc.) and susceptible to local extinction. These results underscore the importance of the Karen Mogensen Reserve for bird conservation within a vulnerable environmental context, and warrant the continuation of periodic bird surveys, taxonomic

  12. What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Maj Ottosen, Katharina; Ferreira, Ana Sofia

    2015-01-01

    academics in marine science this article explores if a shared research agenda in relation to global change in marine environments exists. The analysis demonstrates that marine scientists across disciplines are largely in agreement on some common features of global marine change. Nevertheless, the analysis...... also highlights where natural and social scientists diverge in their assessment. The article ends discussing what these findings imply for further improvement of interdisciplinary marine science......Marine scientists broadly agree on which major processes influence the sustainability of marine environments worldwide. Recent studies argue that such shared perceptions crucially shape scientific agendas and are subject to a confirmation bias. Based on these findings a more explicit engagement...

  13. Investigation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Particulate Reinforced Epoxy Coatings and Zinc-Rich Coatings Under an Erosion and Corrosion Environment for Oil and Gas Industry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin

    During oil and gas production and transportation, the presence of an oil-sand slurry, together with the presence of CO2, H2S, oxygen, and seawater, create an erosive/abrasive and corrosive environment for the interior surfaces of undersea pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms. Erosion/wear and corrosion are often synergic processes leading to a much greater material loss of pipeline cross-section than that caused by each individual process alone. Both organic coatings and metallic sacrificial coatings have been widely employed to provide protection to the pipeline steels against corrosion through barrier protection and cathodic protection, and these protection mechanisms have been well studied. However, coating performance under the synergic processes of erosion/wear and corrosion have been much less researched and coating degradation mechanisms when erosion/wear and corrosion are both going on has not been well elucidated. In the work presented in this dissertation, steel panels coated with filler reinforced epoxy coatings and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced zinc-rich coatings have been evaluated under erosion/wear followed by an exposure to a corrosive environment. Electrochemical tests and material characterization methods have been applied to study the degradation mechanisms of the coatings during the tests and coating degradation mechanisms have been proposed. While organic coatings with a lower amount of filler particles provided better protection in a corrosive environment alone and in solid particle impingement erosion testing alone, organic coatings with a higher amount of filler particles showed better performance during wear testing alone. A higher amount of filler particles was also beneficial in providing protection against wear and corrosion environment, and erosion and corrosion environment. Coating thickness played a significant role in the barrier properties of the coatings under both erosion and corrosion tests. When the

  14. Stability investigation of a high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 single-atom catalyst under different gas environments by HAADF-STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Sibin; Wang, Rongming; Liu, Jingyue

    2018-05-01

    Catalysis by supported single metal atoms has demonstrated tremendous potential for practical applications due to their unique catalytic properties. Unless they are strongly anchored to the support surfaces, supported single atoms, however, are thermodynamically unstable, which poses a major obstacle for broad applications of single-atom catalysts (SACs). In order to develop strategies to improve the stability of SACs, we need to understand the intrinsic nature of the sintering processes of supported single metal atoms, especially under various gas environments that are relevant to important catalytic reactions. We report on the synthesis of high number density Pt1/Fe2O3 SACs using a facial strong adsorption method and the study of the mobility of these supported Pt single atoms at 250 °C under various gas environments that are relevant to CO oxidation, water–gas shift, and hydrogenation reactions. Under the oxidative gas environment, Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms are stable even at high temperatures. The presence of either CO or H2 molecules in the gas environment, however, facilitates the movement of the Pt atoms. The strong interaction between CO and Pt weakens the binding between the Pt atoms and the support, facilitating the movement of the Pt single atoms. The dissociation of H2 molecules on the Pt atoms and their subsequent interaction with the oxygen species of the support surfaces dislodge the surface oxygen anchored Pt atoms, resulting in the formation of Pt clusters. The addition of H2O molecules to the CO or H2 significantly accelerates the sintering of the Fe2O3 supported Pt single atoms. An anchoring-site determined sintering mechanism is further proposed, which is related to the metal–support interaction.

  15. Molecular investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the patients, personnel, air and environment of an ICU in a hospital in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the patients, staff, air and environments of an ICU in a hospital in Tehran. During this study, 37 S. aureus isolates were collected and analyzed via the spa typing method. Of the 37 S. aureus isolates, 35 (94%) were methicillin resistant (MRSA), 28 (76%) were identified as SCCmec types III or IIIA, four (10%) were identified as SCCmec types I or IA and three (8%) were identified a SCCmec type IV. All of the MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin and contained mecA. The isolates were all spa typed and found to comprise 11 spa types, including t7688, t7689, and t7789, which have not previously been reported. The spa type t7688 was isolated from the hands of two ICU personnel. The spa type t7689 was observed among five isolates from the air and the environment. The spa type t7789 was observed among three isolates from the patients, ventilators and the air. The majority of the isolates (43%) belonged to spa types t030 and t037. Our results revealed that MRSA strains that were isolated from the air, the environment of the ICU and the patients who were colonized or infected with MRSA often exhibited the same spa and SCCmec types. These results also reveal that the isolates from the patients and environment were usually indistinguishable. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating polluted environment adaptation syndrome based on structuralism:A perspective of self-nonself circulation theory as a unified theory of life

    OpenAIRE

    村瀬, 雅俊; 村瀬, 智子

    2013-01-01

    As new scientific technology is continually being developed, the potential hazard of environmental pollution increases due to man-made chemicals, including nano-scale particles as well as physical energies - such as electromagnetic fields, sounds and temperatures. How today’s polluted environment affects our health is of great concern to most of us. But it has long been thought that it is very difficult to identify a clear correlation between suspected environmental causes and probable biolog...

  17. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  18. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km 2 ) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862± 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823±26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  19. Investigation of smooth specimen scc test procedures; variations in environment, specimen size, stressing frame, and stress state. [for high strength aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifka, B. W.; Sprowls, D. O.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    The variables studied in the stress-corrosion cracking performance of high strength aluminum alloys were: (1) corrosiveness of the environment, (2) specimen size and stiffness of the stressing system, (3) interpretation of transgranular cracking, and (4) interaction of the state of stress and specimen orientation in a product with an anisotropic grain structure. It was shown that the probability of failure and time to fracture for a specimen loaded in direct tension are influenced by corrosion pattern, the stressing assembly stiffness, and the notch tensile strength of the alloy. Results demonstrate that the combination of a normal tension stress and a shear stress acting on the plane of maximum susceptibility in a product with a highly directional grain cause the greatest tendency for stress-corrosion cracking.

  20. Stratigraphy and environments of deposition of the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (reconnaissance) and the Paleocene Ludlow Formation (detailed), southwestern North Dakota. Report of investigations No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Ludlow Formations of southwestern North Dakota, with the exception of the included lignite beds and minor amounts of concretions and nodules, are almost exclusively clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks. Massive clays, clays alternating with silts and sands, sandstones filling channels and other depressions, sheet sandstones, and lignites are the dominant sediment and rock types present. These sediments and sedimentary rocks were mostly deposited in a continental environment and were largely alluvial, lacustrine or paludal in origin; though marginal marine deposition, in part, is indicated by the occurrence of brackish water faunas in portions of the upper Ludlow Formation. With the possible exception of a persistent lignite near the base, persistent lignites are not present in the Hell Creek Formation. The Ludlow can be subdivided into several informal units, typically coal-bounded, which can be traced laterally over large areas. This informal subdivision permits isolation of stratigraphic units for the study of local environments of deposition. Channel and depression fill sandstones of the Ludlow Formation have a relatively low permeability and a high organic content at the surface and, for this reason, are considered poor prospective uranium host rocks. The lighter colored yellow winnowed sheet sandstones of the Ludlow are more permeable and relatively free of organic matter. They are considered as possible host rocks for uranium occurring in association with an oxidation/reduction interface at shallow depths. The uranium potential is enhanced where the latter sandstones occur along paleodivides which have been overlain by the Oligocene White River Formation, or in local areas where the latter formation is still preserved. Light yellow winnowed sheet sandstones are rare in the Hell Creek Formation, and the chances for uranium prospects in this interval seem correspondingly reduced

  1. 法律与行政环境对信托公司绩效的影响研究%Investigation on Effects of Legal and Administration Environment on the Performance of Trust Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋娴; 张强

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the influence of legal and administrative envi-ronment over the performance of trust corporations in China.The investigation is based on data of domestic trust corporations over the year span 2006 to 2012.The “Law and Finance”theory of LLSV is adapted and applied in this research.It is shown in this investigation that the complete-ness of trust law and good local legal environment has a significant positive effect on the perform-ance of trust corporations.The effect of an honest and effective administrative environment on the performance of trust corporations is also positive.%以2006~2012年的中国信托公司为样本,采用法与金融学理论研究方法,研究信托公司所处的法律环境与行政环境对公司绩效的影响。结果表明,信托法律体系的完善、投资保护力度的提升及良好的地方法治环境对信托公司绩效具有显著促进作用,政府廉洁度的提升对信托公司绩效也有显著的正向影响。

  2. Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Kimergård, Andreas; McVeigh, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The illicit use of anabolic steroids among the gym population continues to rise, along with the number of steroid using clients attending harm reduction services in the UK. This presents serious challenges to public health. Study objectives were to account for the experiences of anabolic steroid users and investigate how ‘risk environments’ produce harm. Methods Qualitative face-to-face interviews with 24 users of anabolic steroids engaged with harm reduction services in the UK. Re...

  3. Applications of UT results to confirm defects findings by utilization of relevant metallurgical investigations techniques on gas/condensate pipeline working in wet sour gas environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azhari, O. A.; Gajam, S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The gas/condensate pipe line under investigation is a 12 inch diameter, 48 km ASTM, A106 steel pipeline, carrying hydrocarbons containing wet CO2 and H2S.The pipe line had exploded in a region 100m distance from its terminal; after 24 years of service. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and sour gas corrosion were expected due to the presence of wet H2S in the gas analysis. In other areas of pipe line ultrasonic testing was performed to determine whether the pipeline can be re-operated. The results have shown presence of internal planner defects, this was attributed to the existence of either laminations, type II inclusions or some service defects such as HIC and step wise cracking (SWC).Metallurgical investigations were conducted on fractured samples as per NACE standard (TM-0284-84). The obtained results had shown macroscopic cracks in the form of SWC, microstructure of steel had MnS inclusions. Crack sensitivity analyses were calculated and the microhardness testing was conducted. These results had confirmed that the line material was suffering from sour gas deteriorations. This paper correlates the field UT inspection findings with those methods investigated in the laboratory. Based on the results obtained a new HIC resistance material pipeline needs to be selected.

  4. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  5. Effect of urea on bovine serum albumin in aqueous and reverse micelle environments investigated by small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and circular dichroism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itri, Rosangela; Caetano, Wilker; Barbosa, Leandro R.S.; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence that urea has on the conformation of water-soluble globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), exposed directly to the aqueous solution as compared to the condition where the macromolecule is confined in the Aerosol-OT (AOT - sodium bis-2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate)/n-hexane/water reverse micelle (RM) is addressed. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of aqueous BSA solution in the absence and in the presence of urea (3M and 5M) confirm the known denaturing effect of urea in proteins. The loss of the globular native structure is observed by the increase in the protein maximum dimension and gyration radius, through the Trp emission increase and maximum red-shift as well as the decrease in helix content. In RMs, the Trp fluorescence and CD spectra show that BSA is mainly located in its interfacial region independently of the micellar size. Addition of urea in this BSA/RM system also causes changes in the Trp fluorescence (emission decrease and maximum red-shift) and in the BSA CD spectra (decrease in helix content), which are compatible with the denaturation of the protein and Trp exposition to a more apolar environment in the RM. The fact that urea causes changes in the protein structure when it is located in the interfacial region (evidenced by CD) is interpreted as an indication that the direct interaction of urea with the protein is the major factor to explain its denaturing effect. (author)

  6. Comparative levels of radioactive air pollutants from industry and fallout. A progress report of radioecological investigations of airborne radioactivity in the Utah environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, R.C.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements carried on during the year 1971 and the first two months of 1972 on the radioactivity from natural as compared to artificial radiation sources in the environment in Utah. During this time, a major portion of our work was devoted to analyses of the data and preparation of a report related to the Baneberry venting event and the accumulation of data on fallout from the January 7, 1972 Chinese nuclear explosion. Calibration procedures were developed for air samplers for the establishment of the numbers of pCi/m 3 in air. The responses of the air monitors in relationship to the ventilation index, seasonal effect, and the industrial complexity of the area were analyzed. Continuous measurements were made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils and vegetation and the results of these studies are presented mainly in tabular form. Comparisons have been made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils on the basis of square mile levels and the distribution of the radioactive materials in the soil profiles. Measurements of farm crops, including the major sources from which dairy products would be produced, have been made, and some comparisons by year and location have been made. Studies of secondary aerosols have been made using the dust accumulated on farm implements as the indicator of the kinds of secondary aerosols to which farmers and outdoorsmen might be exposed. These results would also be indicative of the kinds of dusts produced when high winds resuspend soil deposited radionuclides

  7. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas M., E-mail: millertm@ornl.gov; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  8. Experimental investigation on the effect of process environment on the mechanical properties of AA5083/Al2O3 nanocomposite fabricated via friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashjari, M.; Mostafapour Asl, A.; Rouhi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir processing, a lately devised grain refining and also microstructure homogenizing technique, has extensively been used on aluminum alloys. Significance of limiting the grain growth during the process, has made lots of researchers make endeavor to keep, as one of the ways of controlling grain growth, the process temperature low; one way of doing so, is performing the friction stir process under water, which keeps the peak temperature low and increases the cooling rate as well. In the present work, research has been done to make known the effects of doing submerged friction stir processing on mechanical properties of AA5083/Al 2 O 3p composite. The process was completed on each sample without changing the rotation and traverse speed of the tool. The pin of the tool was a threaded cylindrical one. Tensile and micro-hardness tests were used to evaluate the effect of the process on these properties of the samples. Also to study the microstructure of the samples, optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs were used. The results show that, underwater friction stir process is capable of producing defect-free AA5083/Al 2 O 3p nanocomposite. Analyzing the properties of the processed samples showed that, by significantly reducing the grain size, water environment has positive impact on the mechanical properties of the alloy; And that, Hall–Petch effect is more powerful than Orowan mechanism in enhancing the mechanical properties of the samples

  9. An investigation into the challenges facing the future provision of continuing professional development for allied health professionals in a changing healthcare environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Vivien

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.

  10. Self-Care for Nurse Leaders in Acute Care Environment Reduces Perceived Stress: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study Merits Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan Mac Leod; Prestia, Angela S; Marquit, Doren-Elyse; Newman, David

    2018-03-01

    Acute care practice settings are stressful. Nurse leaders face stressful demands of numerous competing priorities. Some nurse leaders experience unmanageable stress, but success requires self-care. This article presents a repeated measures intervention design study using mixed methods to investigate a self-care simple meditation practice for nurse leaders. Themes and subthemes emerged in association with the three data collection points: at baseline (pretest), after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks (posttest) from introduction of the self-care simple meditation practice. An analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant drop in perceived stress at 6 weeks and again at 12 weeks. Conducting future research is merited.

  11. [Study of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate changes and plateau reaction of the Antarctic Kunlun station investigation team in different plateau environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-yun; Wu, Xin-min; Guo, Ya-min; Zhang, Shu-shun; An, Yan-ming; Li, Bing; Wang, Hao

    2013-06-11

    To explore the blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes of the Antarctic explorers. During August 2010 to April 2011, the changes in blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and plateau reaction of 16 Antarctic expedition team in different plateau environments (Tibetan plateau versus Antarctic plateau) were monitored with the noninvasive pulse oximeter MD300-C. The extent of acute mountain sickness was determined according to the Lake Louise Consensus acute mountain reaction symptom scores and judgment method. The changes of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate at different altitudes of 110, 3650, 4300 m (96.8% ± 1.2%,89.1% ± 1.2%, 86.1% ± 2.0%, (75.0 ± 5.4) times/min, (104.0 ± 4.3) times/min, (113.0 ± 5.2) times/min,F = 214.155, 240.088,both P rate at different altitudes of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4087 m(91.9% ± 1.3%,90.5% ± 1.3%,87.6% ± 1.4%,85.0% ± 1.8%,81.5% ± 2.2%, (85.9 ± 3.2) times/min, (90.6 ± 2.8) times/min, (97.8 ± 4.1) times/min, (102.0 ± 3.4) times/min, (106.3 ± 3.9) times/min, F = 105.418, 90.174, both P rate were both correlated with the risk of altitude sickness (r = -0.446 and 0.565, both P rate of the Antarctic explorers. And with the increases of altitude, the risk of altitude sickness gradually increases.

  12. Investigation of Facies Types and Associations of Kuhlan Red Bed Formation in NW Yemen: A New Hypothesis for Origin and Depositional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Wosabi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of thirteen facies types were recognized in the Kuhlan Formation represented by red bed siliciclastic sequences of argillaceous sediments. Examination of the Kuhlan stratigraphic column included sequence relationships, lithology, sedimentary characters, structures and petrography of the dominant rock types. These facies types are grouped in three distinct associations of facies. The lower unit A comprises association of facies (Distal turbidites represented by alternates of turbidity sequences including sandstone, siltstone and thick shale beds. These facies types confirm a regressive depositional environment in deep marine shelf conditions. There are three facies types which are identified as massive sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone and pebbly sandstone facies. The middle unit B association of facies (Proximal turbedites represents glaciomarine sequences displaying high lateral and vertical facies changes of glacioturbidite sediment alternates with diamictites and tillite beds. The sequences are affected by eustatic and eustatism of the glacial advance and retreat. This unit B includes eight types of facies. These are identified as; tillite, massive diamictites, stratified diamictites, laminated siltstone/shale, deformed siltstone/mudstone, graded rhythmic siltstone, massive conglomerate and cross-stratified sandy conglomerate facies. The upper unit C association of facies is represented by shallow marine shelf sequences displaying very thick massive and locally cross-bedded sand bar sandstone overlying the laminated siltstone/shale interbeds. The upward gradual changes in mineralogical composition and color confirms the start of marine transgression and later deposited platform Amran Group. Mineralogical composition of Kuhlan sandstone displays impure dirty rocks consisting of more than 30% of argillaceous matrix, 50% of cristobalite and quartz grains, more than 10% of ferruginous cement and 10% of detrital iron oxide grains, potash

  13. Characterization of volatile organic compounds at a roadside environment in Hong Kong: An investigation of influences after air pollution control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ling, Zhen Hao; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun Ji; Blake, Donald R.; Cheng, Yan; Lai, Sen Chao; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Cui, Long; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emission is one of the important anthropogenic pollution sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Four characterization campaigns were conducted at a representative urban roadside environment in Hong Kong between May 2011 and February 2012. Carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs including methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates were quantified. Both mixing ratios and compositions of the target VOCs show ignorable seasonal variations. Except CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tracers of propane, i-butane and n-butane are the three most abundant VOCs, which increased significantly as compared with the data measured at the same location in 2003. Meanwhile, the mixing ratios of diesel- and gasoline tracers such as ethyne, alkenes, aromatics, halogenated, and nitrated hydrocarbons decreased by at least of 37%. The application of advanced multivariate receptor modeling technique of positive matrix factorization (PMF) evidenced that the LPG fuel consumption is the largest pollution source, accounting for 60 ± 5% of the total quantified VOCs at the roadside location. The sum of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the target VOCs was 300.9 μg-O3 m-3, which was 47% lower than the value of 567.3 μg-O3 m-3 measured in 2003. The utilization of LPG as fuel in public transport (i.e., taxis and mini-buses) contributed 51% of the sum of OFP, significantly higher than the contributions from gasoline- (16%) and diesel-fueled (12%) engine emissions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the switch from diesel to LPG-fueled engine for taxis and mini-buses implemented by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government between the recent ten years, in additional to the execution of substitution to LPG-fueled engine and restrictions of the vehicular emissions in compliance with the updated European emission standards.

  14. Physical, chemical and agricultural investigations of fly ash originating from oil-fired equipment, with special regard to the damaging effect on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, I; Czibulya, J; Ravasz, T; Boszormenyi, Z

    1972-01-01

    Physical and chemical investigations and green house tests performed with fly ash samples from a large-capacity, oil-fired thermal power plant, are described. The vanadium content determined by a colorimetric method, ranged from 3.82 to 4.14% and the nickel content was determined by a gravimetric method as 0.59-0.62%. The bulk of the fly ash belonged in a fraction of 0.06-0.10 mm. A spherical, soot-like fraction and a mineral fraction with silica, iron oxides, and alkali earth metals as main components were distinguished by morphological investigations. The soot fraction, composed of spheres with smooth surface with limited adhesion, represents minor environmental, including corrosion, hazards, while the mineral fraction which contains hard, abrasive particulates of very irregular shape with large specific surface may produce slight silicosis in man and animals, and plug the stomata in plants. In addition, this fraction represents low-temperature corrosion hazards due to the presence of tetravalent vanacylsulfate and free sulfuric acid. Greenhouse tests with overdosed fly ash revealed white mustard (Brassica hirta) to be most sensitive for fly ash, which thus may be used as an indicator plant. The damage is also dependent on the water supply. The fairly high resistivity of leguminous species, especially of beans may be due to the stimulating effect of vanadium and the increased heat absorption through the fly ash buildups.

  15. Development of experimental concepts for investigating the strength behavior of fine-grained cohesive soil in the Spacelab/space shuttle zero-g environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaparte, R.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Three different sets of tests are proposed for the NASA Spacelab experimental program. The first of tests, designed to measure the true cohesion of several different soils, would be carried out in space through use of a specially prepared direct shear apparatus. As part of this first series of tests, it is recommended that a set of drained unconfined compression tests be performed terrestrially on the same soils as tested in space. A form of the direct tension test is planned to measure the true tensile strength of the same types of soils used in the first series of tests. The direct tension tests could be performed terrestrially. The combined results of the direct shear tests, direct tension tests, and unconfined compression tests can be used to construct approximate failure envelopes for the soils tested in the region of the stress origin. Relationships between true cohesion and true tensile strength can also be investigated. In addition, the role of physio-chemical variables should be studied. The third set of tests involves using a multiaxial cubical or true triaxial test apparatus to investigate the influence of gravity induced fabric anisotropy and stress nonhomogeneities on the stress strain behavior of cohesive soils at low effective stress levels. These tests would involve both in space and terrestrial laboratory testing.

  16. Investigation of mechanisms of dechlorination of archaeological ferrous objects corroded in marine environment. Case of processing in aerated and deaerated alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergourlay, Florian

    2012-01-01

    After a bibliographic study on the present knowledge on dechlorination mechanisms within corrosion layers of archaeological objects of submarine origin, this research thesis presents an analytical methodology which comprises characterization experimental techniques (from optical microscopy to Raman spectroscopy) and in situ investigation of the evolution of the corrosion layer during a processing under synchrotron radiation. The obtained results are then presented and discussed: morphological, elemental and structural characteristics. The author also compares the corrosion system between an object recently taken out of water and an object which has been air dried. He also comments and discusses the in situ observation by X ray diffraction under micro-beam of the evolution of the corrosion system during the processing. The ex situ characterization of corrosion systems after the rinsing and drying steps (after processing) is reported. Results are discussed in terms of thermodynamics. A kinetic approach is proposed

  17. The interplay of physical and social wellbeing in older adults: investigating the relationship between physical training and social interactions with virtual social environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khaghani Far

    2015-11-01

    study also confirms that a virtual gym service is effective for supporting individually tailored home-based physical training for older adults. The study also confirms that social facilitation tools motivate users to train together in a virtual fitness environment.Discussion. The study confirms that Gymcentral increases the participation of older adults in physical training compare to a similar version of the application without social and persuasive features. In addition, a significant increase in the co-presence of the Social group indicates that social presence motivates the participants to join training sessions at the same time with the other participants. These results are encouraging, as they motivate further research into using home-based training programs as an opportunity to stay physically and socially active, especially for those who for various reasons are bound to stay at home.

  18. The Mica Creek Experimental Watershed: An Outdoor Laboratory for the Investigation of Hydrologic Processes in a Continental/Maritime Mountainous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, T. E.; Gravelle, J.; Hubbart, J.; Warnsing, A.; Du, E.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.; Cundy, T.

    2004-12-01

    Experimental catchments have proven to be extremely useful for investigations focused on fundamental hydrologic processes and on the impacts of land cover change on hydrologic regimes and water quality. Recent studies have illustrated how watershed responses to experimental treatments vary greatly between watersheds with differing physical, ecological and hydroclimatic characteristics. Meteorological and hydrological data within catchments are needed to help identify how hydrologic mechanisms may be altered by land cover alterations, and to both constrain and develop spatially-distributed physically based models. Existing instrumentation at the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho is a fourth-order catchment that is undergoing expansion to produce a comprehensive dataset for model development and testing. The experimental catchments encompass a 28 km2 area spanning elevations from 975 to 1725 m msl. Snow processes dominate the hydrology of the catchment and climate conditions in the winter alternate between cold, dry continental and warm, moist maritime weather systems. Landcover is dominated by 80 year old second growth conifer forests, with partially cut (thinned) and clear-cut sub-catchments. Climate and precipitation data are collected at a SNOTEL site, three primary, and seven supplemental meteorological stations stratified by elevation and canopy cover. Manual snow depth measurements are recorded every 1-2 weeks during snowmelt, stratified by aspect, elevation and canopy cover. An air temperature transect spans three second-order sub-catchments to track air temperature lapse rate dynamics. Precipitation gauge arrays are installed within thinned and closed-canopy stands to track throughfall and interception loss. Nine paired and nested sub-catchments are monitored for flow, temperature, sediment, and nutrients. Hydroclimatic data are augmented by LiDAR and hyperspectral imagery for determination of canopy and topographic structure

  19. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Chapman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.

  20. An electrochemical investigation of TMJ implant metal alloys in an artificial joint fluid environment: the influence of pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royhman, Dmitry; Radhakrishnan, Rashmi; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Mathew, Mathew T; Mercuri, Louis G; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the corrosion behaviour of commonly used TMJ implants alloys (CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V) under simulated physiological conditions. Corrosion behaviour was evaluated using standard electrochemical corrosion techniques and galvanic corrosion techniques as per ASTM standards. Standard electrochemical tests (E(corr), I(corr), R(p) and C(f)) were conducted in bovine calf serum (BCS), as a function of alloys type and different pHs. Galvanic corrosion tests were conducted in BCS at a pH of 7.6. Alloy surfaces were characterized using white-light interferometry (WLI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The potentiodynamic test results exhibited the enhanced passive layer growth and a better corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V compared to CoCrMo. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements demonstrated the influence of protein as a function of pH on corrosion mechanisms/kinetics. Galvanic coupling was not a major contributor to corrosion. SEM and WLI images demonstrated a significantly higher in surface roughness in CoCrMo after corrosion. The results of this study suggest that Ti6Al4V shows superior corrosion behaviour to CoCrMo due to its strong passive layer, simulated joint fluid components can affect the electrochemical nature of the metal/electrolyte interface as a function of pH, and the galvanic effect of coupling CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V in a single joint is weak. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Automated microdialysis-based system for in situ microsampling and investigation of lead bioavailability in terrestrial environments under physiologically based extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel

    2013-10-15

    In situ automatic microdialysis sampling under batch-flow conditions is herein proposed for the first time for expedient assessment of the kinetics of lead bioaccessibility/bioavailability in contaminated and agricultural soils exploiting the harmonized physiologically based extraction test (UBM). Capitalized upon a concentric microdialysis probe immersed in synthetic gut fluids, the miniaturized flow system is harnessed for continuous monitoring of lead transfer across the permselective microdialysis membrane to mimic the diffusive transport of metal species through the epithelium of the stomach and of the small intestine. Besides, the addition of the UBM gastrointestinal fluid surrogates at a specified time frame is fully mechanized. Distinct microdialysis probe configurations and membranes types were investigated in detail to ensure passive sampling under steady-state dialytic conditions for lead. Using a 3-cm-long polysulfone membrane with averaged molecular weight cutoff of 30 kDa in a concentric probe and a perfusate flow rate of 2.0 μL min(-1), microdialysis relative recoveries in the gastric phase were close to 100%, thereby omitting the need for probe calibration. The automatic leaching method was validated in terms of bias in the analysis of four soils with different physicochemical properties and containing a wide range of lead content (16 ± 3 to 1216 ± 42 mg kg(-1)) using mass balance assessment as a quality control tool. No significant differences between the mass balance and the total lead concentration in the suite of analyzed soils were encountered (α = 0.05). Our finding that the extraction of soil-borne lead for merely one hour in the GI phase suffices for assessment of the bioavailable fraction as a result of the fast immobilization of lead species at near-neutral conditions would assist in providing risk assessment data from the UBM test on a short notice.

  2. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    Local neighbourhood environments can influence dietary behavior. There is limited evidence focused on older people who are likely to have greater dependence on local areas and may suffer functional limitations that amplify any neighbourhood impact. Using multi-level ordinal regression analysis we investigated the association between multiple dimensions of neighbourhood food environments (captured by fine-detail, foot-based environmental audits and secondary data) and self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was a cross-sectional analysis nested within two nationally representative cohorts in the UK: the British Regional Heart Study and the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Main exposures of interest were density of food retail outlets selling fruits and vegetables, the density of fast food outlets and a novel measure of diversity of the food retail environment. A total of 1124 men and 883 women, aged 69 - 92 years, living in 20 British towns were included in the analysis. There was strong evidence of an association between area income deprivation and fruit and vegetable consumption, with study members in the most deprived areas estimated to have 27% (95% CI: 7, 42) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in the least deprived areas. We found no consistent evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and a range of other food environment domains, including density of shops selling fruits and vegetables, density of premises selling fast food, the area food retail diversity, area walkability, transport accessibility, or the local food marketing environment. For example, individuals living in areas with greatest fruit and vegetable outlet density had 2% (95% CI: -22, 21) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in areas with no shops. Although small effect sizes in environment-diet relationships cannot be discounted

  3. An investigation of the use of cerium and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for the protection of polymeric epoxy compounds in the low Earth orbit environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piness, Jessica Miriam

    Low Earth orbit presents many hazards for composites including atomic oxygen, UV radiation, thermal cycling, micrometeoroids, and high energy protons. Atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation are of concern for space-bound polymeric materials as they degrade the polymers used as matrices for carbon fiber composites, which are used in satellites and space vehicles due to their high strength to weight ratios. Epoxy-amine thermosets comprise a common class of matrix due to processability and good thermal attributes. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) have shown the ability to reduce erosion in polyimides, polyurethanes, and other polymers when exposed to atomic oxygen. The POSS particle is composed of a SiO1.5 cage from which up to eight organic pendant groups are attached at the silicon corners of the cage. POSS reduced atomic oxygen impact on polymers by a process known as glassification wherein the organic pendants are removed from the cage upon atomic oxygen exposure and then the cage rearranges to a passive silica network. In addition, POSS shows good UV absorbance in the UVb and UVc ranges and POSS can aid dispersion of titanium dioxide in a nanocomposite. In this work, Chapter I focuses on hazards in low Earth orbit, strategies for protecting organic material in orbit, and the capabilities of POSS. Chapter II details the experimental practices used in this work. Chapter III focuses on work to induce POSS phase separation and layering at the surface of an epoxy-amine thermoset. Generally, POSS is dispersed throughout a nanocomposite, and in the process of erosion by atomic oxygen, some polymer mass loss is lost before enough POSS is exposed to begin glassification. Locating POSS at a surface of composite could possibly reduce this mass loss and the objective of this research was to investigate the formation of POSS-rich surfaces. Three POSS derivatives with different pendant groups were chosen. The POSS derivatives had a range of miscibilities

  4. Ten years of investigation on radioactive contamination of the marine environment. Incorporation, by marine algae and animals, of hydrogen-3 and other radionuclides present in effluents of nuclear or industrial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Colard, J.; Koch, G.; Kirchmann, R.; Strack, S.; Luettke, A.; Carraro, G.

    1981-01-01

    Several marine plants and animals were investigated for their capability of incorporating the main radionuclides present in selected effluents. Accumulation factors are reported for 3 H, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 131 I 226 Ra and 124 Sb. Marine algae, which are involved in food chains leading to man, show the highest accumulation factors. The stable element composition of the alga Acetabularia was determined by gamma-activation analysis. The preferential accumulation of particular radionuclides by marine organisms suggests that they may have a significant role in the turnover rate of elements in the marine environment. (author)

  5. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  6. Investigation of tritium in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior, cycling and distribution of tritium in an aquatic ecosystem was studied in the field and in the laboratory from 1969 through 1971. Field studies were conducted in the Hudson River Estuary, encompassing a 30 mile region centered about the Indian Point Nuclear Plant. Samples of water, bottom sediment, rooted emergent aquatic plants, fish, and precipitation were collected over a year and a half period from more than 15 locations. Specialized equipment and systems were built to combust and freeze-dry aquatic media to remove and recover the loose water and convert the bound tritium into an aqueous form. An electrolysis system was set up to enrich the tritium concentrations in the aqueous samples to improve the analytical sensitivity. Liquid scintillation techniques were refined to measure the tritium activity in the samples. Over 300 samples were analyzed during the course of the study

  7. Investigating the Environment: Investigating Resource Acquisition and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jack

    This unit provides the student with a simulated experience in the development of decision making skills. The acquisition of petroleum resources in a hypothetical republic provides the basic scenario around which the simulation develops. Students are supplied with specific information about petroleum geology, finances, and drilling. With this…

  8. Investigation of radioactive contaminations of the environment in the surroundings of the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk in the years 1977-1980. Badanie zanieczyszczen promieniotworczych srodowiska w otoczeniu Instytutu Badan Jadrowych w Swierku w latach 1977-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensko, J; Stpiczynska, Z; Hryczuk, O; Kowalska, A

    1983-01-01

    The results of measurements of the contamination level of the environment in the surroundings of the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk and in surroundings of the repository of radioactive wastes at Rozan including the possible paths of migration of the radionuclides in the years 1977-1980 have been presented. The investigations proved that the radioactive fall-out from nuclear weapon tests was the main source of contamination. In the period of investigation the quantities of the radionuclides discharged into the sanitary sewage system did not exceed the weekly limit of 2590 MBq (70mCi). They had no influence on the level of the radioactive contaminations of the Vistula river water. Sporadically observed, the increased level of the radioactive contamination of the draining system water at Swierk exceeded at most 3 times the permissible concentration of /sup 90/Sr for drinking water 2.6 Bq dm/sup -3/. The radioactive contamination of the water, soil, grass and rye investigated around the Centre have been shown in the same level as for the reference points being out of the range of the influence of the Institute.

  9. Encapsulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, Tom M.; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  10. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  11. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  12. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing on ...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  13. Cooperative research with the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology. Estimation and investigation of estimation method on property change accompanied with excavation. Intermediate report in 1994 and 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PRNFDC) and the Institute of Resources and Environment Technology (IRET) of Agency of Industrial Science and Technology conducted a cooperative research on a testing study based on in-door fundamental examination on Acoustic emission (AE) original position measuring tester to catch property change due to micro elastic wave formed with generation and propagation of rock deformation and fracture and AE measurement and specific resistance tomography under 3 years plan from 1989 fiscal year. In 1994 fiscal year, survey on the specific resistance tomography for pre-research on tunnel excavation effect test and experiment on the specific resistance measurement at in-door scale for fundamental study of estimation method were conducted. And, in 1995 fiscal year, by laying a main point of the experiment at in-door scale, the estimation and investigation on the excavation effect estimation method on a base of the past study results on the fundamental experiment results were conducted. In this paper, these experiment results conducted at IRET and PRNFDC in 1994 and 1995 fiscal years were reported. (G.K.)

  14. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  15. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  16. Heuristic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Giunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the identification of a paradigm which fixes the basic concepts and the type of logical relationships between them, whereby direct, govern and evaluate choises on new technologies. The contribution is based on the assumption that the complexity of knowledge is correlated with the complexity of the learning environment. From the existence of this correlation will descend a series of consequences that contribute to the definition of a theoretical construct in which the logical categories of learning become the guiding criteria on which to design learning environments and, consequently, also the indicators on by which to evaluate its effectiveness.

  17. Report on achievements of commissioned studies on research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1994. 2. Main issue (Part 6 for investigative research of a simulated environment presenting technology); 1994 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen. Mogi kankyo teiji gijutsu chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements of researches on the 'conceptual design of a simulated environment presenting device'. Based on the basic reasons for requiring the simulated environment presenting device, and based on the current investigations on environmental conditions demanded on this device and experimental facilities in the studies of human sense measuring technologies, the paper presents how the simulated environment presenting device should be used in this project. It also describes the 'investigative research on parameters and methods to evaluate artificial environments' having been performed to establish the research ideas of the experimental studies using the simulated environment presenting device. As a result of the discussions, the most preferable pattern evaluated is a satellite-type simulated environment facility that presents sound, warm heat, and visual environment, when considerations are given to the first term study as to its progress and budgetary scale. In order to further expand the research, the findings obtained from the result of the basic sense measurements may be verified into a comprehensive survey, and conceptual plans may be established on mobile facilities to arrange data that cover a wide area, and on a composite environment facility that can simulate the actual space to serve for the promotion programs for the future projects. (NEDO)

  18. African Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...

  19. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  20. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  1. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  2. Investigating the application of motion accelerometers as a sleep monitoring technique and the clinical burden of the intensive care environment on sleep quality: study protocol for a prospective observational study in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Lori J; Currie, Marian J; Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Litton, Edward; Wibrow, Bradley; Lopez, Violeta; Haren, Frank Van

    2018-01-21

    prehospital discharge survey regarding patients' perception of sleep quality and disturbing factors using the Little Sleep Questionnaire will be undertaken. Associations between sleep disturbance, noise and light levels, and the frequency of clinical interactions will also be investigated. Sound and luminance levels will be recorded at 1 s epochs via Extech SDL600 and SDL400 monitoring devices. Clinical interactions will be logged via the electronic patient record system Metavision which documents patient monitoring and clinical care. The relevant institutions have approved the study protocol and consent procedures. The findings of the study will contribute to the understanding of sleep disturbance, and the ability to implement sleep monitoring methods within ICUs. Understanding the contribution of a clinical environment on sleep disturbance may provide insight into the need to address clinical environmental issues that may positively influence patient outcomes, and could dispel notions that the environment is a primary factor in sleep disturbance. The research findings will be disseminated via presentations at national and international conferences, proceedings and published articles in peer-reviewed journals. ACTRN12615000945527; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handin, J.

    1980-01-01

    Our task is to design mined-repository systems that will adequately secure high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 yr and that will be mechanically stable for 50 to 100-yr periods of retrievability during which mistakes could be corrected and a valuable source of energy could be reclaimed, should national policy on the reprocessing of spent fuel ever change. The only credible path for the escape of radionuclides from the repository to the biosphere is through ground-water, and in hard rock, bulk permeability is largely governed by natural and artificial fracture systems. Catastrophic failure of an excavation in hard rock is likely to occur at the weakest links - the discontinuities in the rock mass that is perturbed first by mining and then by radiogenic heating. The laboratory can contribute precise measurements of the pertinent thermomechanical, hydrological and chemical properties and improve our understanding of the fundamental processes through careful experiments under well controlled conditions that simulate the prototype environment. Thus laboratory investigations are necessary, but they are not sufficient, for conventional sample sizes are small relative to natural defects like joints - i.e., the rock mass is not a continuum - and test durations are short compared to those that predictive modeling must take into account. Laboratory investigators can contribute substantially more useful data if they are provided facilities for testing large specimens(say one cubic meter) and for creep testing of all candidate host rocks. Even so, extrapolations of laboratory data to the field in neither space nor time are valid without the firm theoretical foundations yet to be built. Meanwhile in-situ measurements of structure-sensitive physical properties and access to direct observations of rock-mass character will be absolutely necessary

  4. LHCb Dockerized Build Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemencic, M.; Belin, M.; Closier, J.; Couturier, B.

    2017-10-01

    Used as lightweight virtual machines or as enhanced chroot environments, Linux containers, and in particular the Docker abstraction over them, are more and more popular in the virtualization communities. The LHCb Core Software team decided to investigate how to use Docker containers to provide stable and reliable build environments for the different supported platforms, including the obsolete ones which cannot be installed on modern hardware, to be used in integration builds, releases and by any developer. We present here the techniques and procedures set up to define and maintain the Docker images and how these images can be used to develop on modern Linux distributions for platforms otherwise not accessible.

  5. Fetal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinare, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The intrauterine environment has a strong influence on pregnancy outcome. The placenta and the umbilical cord together form the main supply line of the fetus. Amniotic fluid also serves important functions. These three main components decide whether there will be an uneventful pregnancy and the successful birth of a healthy baby. An insult to the intrauterine environment has an impact on the programming of the fetus, which can become evident in later life, mainly in the form of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and certain learning disabilities. The past two decades have witnessed major contributions from researchers in this field, who have included ultrasonologists, epidemiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Besides being responsible for these delayed postnatal effects, abnormalities of the placenta, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid also have associations with structural and chromosomal disorders. Population and race also influence pregnancy outcomes to some extent in certain situations. USG is the most sensitive imaging tool currently available for evaluation of these factors and can offer considerable information in this area. This article aims at reviewing the USG-related developments in this area and the anatomy, physiology, and various pathologies of the placenta, umbilical cord, and the amniotic fluid

  6. Children's Environment in ECEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anette Boye; Laursen, Hanne; Jørgensen, Hanne Hede

    2017-01-01

    such as play and artwork when they asked to describe the best child environmental practice. Children’s perspectives on their environment still are to be investigated. The study offers knowledge regarding children as active participants in a Nordic ECE culture with educated staff and a long tradition......Danish Legislation prescribes that children’s environment in Early Childhood Education (ECE) is evaluated and enhanced as an integrated part of curriculum work. Children’s perspectives must be included in the efforts. During the last 10 years, pedagogues have endeavoured to include children...... in evaluations of physical, psychological and aesthetic environmental dimensions of education. The present study aims to elucidate how professionals and children co-operate in order to develop children’s environments and study the impact of children’s perspectives on pedagogy and children’s processes of ‘bildung...

  7. Agent Supported Serious Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidou, Theodouli; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Miliou, Christina; Sourvinou, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and applies a novel concept for an AI enhanced serious game collaborative environment as a supplementary learning tool in tertiary education. It is based on previous research that investigated pedagogical agents for a serious game in the OpenSim environment. The proposed AI features to support the serious game are the…

  8. Qubits in a random environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhalwaya, I; Fannes, M; Petruccione, F

    2007-01-01

    Decoherence phenomena in a small quantum system coupled to a complex environment can be modelled with random matrices. We propose a simple deterministic model in the limit of a high dimensional environment. The model is investigated numerically and some analytically addressable questions are singled out

  9. The farrier's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Lotta; Pinzke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The horse industry in Sweden has rapidly expanded in recent years. This increasing number of horses implies a greater need for more farriers. Shoeing a horse is hard physical work, and includes awkward work postures and repetitive movements. It is well known that hard physical work increases the risk of injuries and musculoskeletal problems. The risk is especially high for musculoskeletal disorders when certain movements are constantly repeated. Heavy or repeated unilateral loads lead to considerable stress on the muscles, which can lead to rupture and fatigue that can cause long term problems. A case study showed that farriers worked 75% of their work time with their backs in bent positions (often more than 70 degrees). Farriers are also exposed to risk factors in their physical environment like dust, noise and poor lighting. Risk of kicks and bites, eye injuries and burns are other factors that make their work environment hazardous. There are only a few studies available that have documented the farriers' working environment and these are not of recent date. A US study from 1984 described kicks and bites from horses, metal splinters in the eyes, heat exhaustion and problematic postures to be perceived as the greatest risks in their work. The back, knees and wrists were the most exposed body regions. There is a need for more current and in-depth studies investigating the farriers' working conditions in order to gain more knowledge of their health and work environment. The aim of the present study is to investigate the physical health and work environment of farriers. The investigation will use questionnaires, work load measurements and workplace analysis. The results will serve as a base for improvements concerning the design of the workplace, equipment, tools and aids as well as supplying recommendations about physical exercise and the correct work technique, etc. The results are planned to be incorporated in the education of farriers.

  10. Collaborations in Open Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis researches automated services for professionals aiming at starting collaborative learning projects in open learning environments, such as MOOCs. It investigates the theoretical backgrounds of team formation for collaborative learning. Based on the outcomes, a model is developed

  11. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  12. Optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for different environment with genotype by environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dairy cattle breeding organizations tend to sell semen to breeders operating in different environments and genotype × environment interaction may play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate optimization of dairy cattle breeding programs for 2 environments with genotype × environment

  13. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) I. 20 years of investigations of hydrological dynamics; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) I. 20 anos de investigaciones hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Solar, M.; Poyatos, R.; Rubio, C.; Muzylo, A.; Martinez-Carreras, N.; Delgado, J.; Regues, D.; Catari, G.; Nord, G.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Investigations started 20 years ago in the Vallcebre research basins with the objectives of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. The Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km{sup 2}) are located in a Mediterranean mountain area of the Pyrenean ranges (1300 m.a.s.l., North Eastern Spain) Average annual precipitations 862{+-} 260 mm and potential evapotranspiration is 823{+-}26mm. Climate is highly seasonal leading to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations to periods with water deficit in summer, and eventually in winter. Hydrological investigations in the basins are related to rainfall interception, evapotranspiration, soil moisture spatio-temporal dynamics, runoff response and runoff processes, suspended sediment dynamics and model application both at the plot and basin scales. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. The modern research environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval......Information Technology, research environment, structured documents, networked information retrieval...

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Instructors' Use of Active-Learning Strategies and Students' Conceptual Understanding and Affective Changes in Introductory Biology: A Comparison of Two Active-Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lacy M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T; DeChenne-Peters, Sue Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In response to calls for reform in undergraduate biology education, we conducted research examining how varying active-learning strategies impacted students' conceptual understanding, attitudes, and motivation in two sections of a large-lecture introductory cell and molecular biology course. Using a quasi-experimental design, we collected quantitative data to compare participants' conceptual understanding, attitudes, and motivation in the biological sciences across two contexts that employed different active-learning strategies and that were facilitated by unique instructors. Students participated in either graphic organizer/worksheet activities or clicker-based case studies. After controlling for demographic and presemester affective differences, we found that students in both active-learning environments displayed similar and significant learning gains. In terms of attitudinal and motivational data, significant differences were observed for two attitudinal measures. Specifically, those students who had participated in graphic organizer/worksheet activities demonstrated more expert-like attitudes related to their enjoyment of biology and ability to make real-world connections. However, all motivational and most attitudinal data were not significantly different between the students in the two learning environments. These data reinforce the notion that active learning is associated with conceptual change and suggests that more research is needed to examine the differential effects of varying active-learning strategies on students' attitudes and motivation in the domain. © 2017 L. M. Cleveland et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  17. The environments of Markarian galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenty, J.W.; Simpson, C.; Mclean, B.

    1990-01-01

    The extensively studied Markarian sample of 1500 ultraviolet excess galaxies contains many Seyfert, starburst, and peculiar galaxies. Using the 20 minute V plates obtained for the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope Guide Star Catalog, the authors investigated the morphologies of the Markarian galaxies and the environments in which they are located. The relationship between the types of nuclear activity and the morphologies and environments of the Markarian galaxies is discussed. The authors conclude that the type of nuclear activity present in the galaxies of the Markarian sample is not dependent on either the morphology or the local environment of the galaxy. This is not to imply that nuclear activity per se is not influenced by the environment in which the nucleus is located. Rather the type of nuclear activity (at least in the Markarian population) does not appear to be determined by the environment

  18. Military Space Mission Design and Analysis in a Multi-Body Environment: An Investigation of High-Altitude Orbits as Alternative Transfer Paths, Parking Orbits for Reconstitution, and Unconventional Mission Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    resulting in more debris [6]. This domino effect is known as Kessler’s syndrome [6]. This overpopulation of space may eventually force space users out of...effective solutions with potential real- world applications. 1.6 Previous Contributions Various other researchers have implemented methods from DST to the...However, these maps may be more applicable to the analysis of real world trajectories. 5.6 Limitations of the Current Investigation The current

  19. Investigations on a global environment improving technology utilizing biological functions. 2. Structuring a ligno-bioprocess; Seibutsu kino wo riyoshita chikyu kankyo kaizen gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2. Riguno bio process no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions were given to reserve global environments on reducing dependence on fossil resources and more effectively utilizing wood resources. Economically utilizable amount of wastes from lumbering factories reaches about five million tons annually. Discussions were made on a ligno-bioprocess that uses these wastes. The current quantitative production efficiency of cellulase by means of bacterial breeding is very high. A problem is production of ligninolytic enzymes, to which application of the recombinant DNA method is indispensable. Combination of steam explosion with biological decomposition or the organosolv process is an effective method for lignin decomposition. Decomposition of cellulose by using the ultra critical water method is worth noticing. With respect to hemicellulose utilization, production of cellulose derivatives, biodegradable polymers and oligosaccharides would be conceivable by means of esterification and etherification. Vanillinic acid, adhesives, resins and lignin-based polymer materials could be manufactured from lignin. Material cost for these products accounts for about 35% of the product price, thus making the lignochemicals promising commercial products. 301 refs., 71 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    Pursuing sustainable co-development of economy and environment has been established as a basic national policy by the present Chinese government. However, studies regarding actual outcomes of the co-development policy at the whole Chinese scale are still limited. Detecting China's economic growth and changes of environmental quality will not only contribute to evaluation of outcomes of the co-development policy but more importantly is an opportunity to examine the suitability of the IPAT model and improve our understanding of human-environment interactions. The core of the IPAT theory is an equation where I=PxAxT that models human impact on the environment as a function of changes to population (P), affluence ( A), and technology (T). The IPAT theory emphasizes that economic growth will inevitably produce negative impacts on the environment. Thus, if China's environmental quality declined while economic growth occurred, then the IPAT theory will be substantiated. Otherwise, the suitability of the IPAT theory will be called into question and its tenets must be reconsidered. In this dissertation research I selected gross domestic product (GDP) and net primary production (NPP) as indicators to evaluate production of social and ecological systems respectively. The main study objectives are (1) to develop a methodology to facilitate integration of the two indicators derived from demographic data sources and satellite imagery at different geographic scales, (2) to jointly explore changing patterns of China's economic and ecological production (i.e., spatially and temporally coincident patterns of change in GDP and NPP) across different spatial scales, (3) to analyze whether economic growth has produced negative impacts on ecosystem production and whether the impacts correlate to the economic growth, and finally (4) to discuss whether the IPAT theory is suitable for explaining the joint changes of GDP and NPP in China or if it is in need of modification. To fulfill the

  1. Investigation of Relationship between Level of Awareness around Health, Safety and Environment Management System and Its Effects on Safety Climate and Risk Perception by Employees in an Iran Oil Refinery, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Special attention of and oil, gas and petrochemical large corporation in the world to the HSE management system is due to its importance in the designing and development of products, services and processes by considering its health, safety and environment requirements. Staff's perception of the existing job risks has a significant impact on their safe behavior at work. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between safety climate and staff's perception of risk with an awareness level among employees of the HSE management system in an oil refinery in Kermanshah. The study population was employees in one of the oil refineries in Iran. After designing and questionnaire psychometric assessment of staff knowledge of HSE management system (Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 and its validity was assessed by certified professionals, Loughborough safety climate questionnaire and Flin risk perception questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS V22 software. Results showed that the relationship between safety climate and awareness level of the HSE management system; also the relationship between safety climate and perception of risk was also getting significant. However, the relationship between perception of risk and awareness level of the HSE management system was not significant. The results of this study showed a moderate awareness of HSE Management System in refinery workers. In this regard, appropriate and proper management policy should be committed to improving the situation. The results of this study is a profile the situation of safety climate in the refinery, which can be used as an indicator for the development of preventive policies and evaluate the performance of the organization's safety and the results of the safety improvement organization.

  2. Event Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korosec, D.

    2000-01-01

    The events in the nuclear industry are investigated from the license point of view and from the regulatory side too. It is well known the importance of the event investigation. One of the main goals of such investigation is to prevent the circumstances leading to the event and the consequences of the event. The protection of the nuclear workers against nuclear hazard, and the protection of general public against dangerous effects of an event could be achieved by systematic approach to the event investigation. Both, the nuclear safety regulatory body and the licensee shall ensure that operational significant events are investigated in a systematic and technically sound manner to gather information pertaining to the probable causes of the event. One of the results should be appropriate feedback regarding the lessons of the experience to the regulatory body, nuclear industry and general public. In the present paper a general description of systematic approach to the event investigation is presented. The systematic approach to the event investigation works best where cooperation is present among the different divisions of the nuclear facility or regulatory body. By involving management and supervisors the safety office can usually improve their efforts in the whole process. The end result shall be a program which serves to prevent events and reduce the time and efforts solving the root cause which initiated each event. Selection of the proper method for the investigation and an adequate review of the findings and conclusions lead to the higher level of the overall nuclear safety. (author)

  3. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...... formalisms, and inheriting all the main features of the Meta-Environment....

  4. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  5. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theingi Nwe; Khin Maung Saing

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  6. Report on the surveys in fiscal 1999 on the long term energy technology strategy investigations. Investigations on foundations to establish industrial technology strategies (Structuring of emphasizing strategies and the circulation type economic society harmonizing with environment); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (jutenka senryaku (kankyo to chowashita junkangata keizai shakai no kochiku))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper is a survey report for fiscal 1999 on structuring of the circulation type economic society harmonizing with environment. In order for Japan in the 21st century to solve various problems while maintaining sustainable development of the industries and economy, structuring the industrial technology strategies is indispensable. In order to establish targets to structure the circulation type society harmonizing with environment, small targets were broken down and specific technological examples were extracted as seen from categories based on flows of goods and the policy aspects. Then, from the viewpoints of extrication from wastes, reduction of risks caused by harmful substances, and growth under suppression of the global warming, case studies were performed on policy aspects toward the year 2010. Based on these studies, images of the emphasizing strategies were prepared, that are built on three pillars of 'R', the reduction, reuse and recycling. Specific technological examples were extracted comprehensively and specifically from research and development themes in research institutions inside and outside Japan to prepare a fundamental material for establishing the small targets. Furthermore, the examples were classified from the aspects of the three Rs. Areas of technological development seeds and areas with fewer seeds were made clear successfully. (NEDO)

  7. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  8. Investigations in fiscal 2000 on feasibility of environment friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey on environment friendly coal utilization system in India; 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa hokokusho. Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Taking the area of the clean coal technology (CCT) effective for energy conservation and environment preservation as the object, a feasibility survey has been performed on executing a model project in India. About 70% of the total power generation capacity in India depends upon coals existing in abundance inside the country. Since the local coals are high in ash, low in sulfur, and low in calorie, the environmental problem related to thermal power plants is the disposition of fly ash. The Central Electricity Authority of India expects solving this problem by CCT introduction. It also expects increase in combustion efficiency by using ultra-critical boilers. The Indian cement industry often uses in-house electric power generation facilities because of high electric power cost, wherein the produced coal ash is used as a cement raw material. The matter of the strongest interest is the introduction of a high-efficiency combustion system that depends on low-grade coals. Among the CCTs, strong interest was shown in the fluidized bed cement kiln and the circulating fluidized bed boiler. The iron and steel industry has expectations toward effective coal washing technologies and coke manufacturing technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Nanomaterials in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  10. Communication in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Herold, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radios were investigated for use in hazardous environments where protective breathing equipment such as plastic suits and respirators interfere with communication. A radio system, manufactured by Communications-Applied technology (C-AT), was identified that was designed specifically for hazardous environment communications. This equipment had been used successfully by the US Army and NASA for several years. C-AT equipment was evaluated in plantwide applications at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) using temporary frequencies obtained by the Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR). Radios performed well in all applications, which included a tritium facility, high-level caves, a nuclear reactor building, tank farm, and a canyon building interior. Permanent frequencies were obtained by DOE-SR for two complete six-man C-AT systems at SRP. Because of the relatively short range of these systems, replicates will cover all applications of this type of equipment plantwide. Twelve radio systems are currently being used successfully in plantwide applications

  11. Investigating Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to provide an opportunity for investigating drama by a series of units, each of which examines an aspect of drama or theater. The 20 units discuss such topics as the definition of drama, dialogue in a poem by W. H. Auden, various aspects of the stage, improvisation, the visual impact of plays, "The Death of Grass" by…

  12. International environment, enterprise environment and energy environment giving different look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Shunsuke

    1987-04-01

    0he international environment, enterprise environment and energy environment surrounding Japan are changing their looks. In such situation, what Japan should do for the development of the world was discussed. Internationally, in the Western Pacific economical block including Japan and Asian NICs, Japan promotes the international exchange of materials, capital, technology, information and people, and creates various international public properties. Enterprisers should have global mind, and cope with the internationalization, technical innovation and information orientation which are in progress at present through international exchange, interindustrial exchange, industry-university-government exchange and so on. In the aspect of energy environment, Japan carries out the technical development of energy conservation, energy, creation and the exploration of energy resources, in this way, contributes to the stabilization of energy in the world. (3 figs, 1 tab)

  13. Performative Urban Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The chapter explores how temporary architectural structures can become media for bottom-up approaches to urban development. Urban interactions in the city developed from the sidewalks were seen as locally bounded neighbourhoods. However, with the advent of contemporary network technologies....... In investigating architectural media-constructions the paper draws on the notion of ‘Capsular Civilization'. Arguing that architectural capsules in the cities' in-between spaces may become the media and places of meaningful interaction by establishing a feedback loop guided by social interaction. Architecture thus......-organizing, communicative environments for an organized complexity between flows of local interactions and network behaviour. The chapter applies the concepts on the case of the Pavilion Project, NoRA, built for the 10th International Architecture Biennale in Venice for the network of Food College Denmark....

  14. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  15. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  16. Smile: Student Modification in Learning Environments. Establishing Congruence between Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Allan; Millwater, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated whether classroom psychosocial environment, as perceived by student teachers, could be improved to their preferred level. Students completed the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory, discussed interventions, then completed it again. Significant deficiencies surfaced in the learning environment early in the…

  17. Suppressing decoherence by preparing the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; MacKenzie, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To protect a quantum system from decoherence due to interaction with its environment, we investigate the existence of initial states of the environment allowing for decoherence-free evolution of the system. For a class of models in which a two-state system and a dynamical environment interact through a Hamiltonian restricted to be a tensor product, we prove that such states exist if and only if the interaction and self-evolution Hamiltonians of the environment share an eigenstate. If decoherence by state preparation is not possible, we show that initial states minimizing decoherence result from a delicate compromise between the environment and interaction dynamics

  18. Clinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    Zbylski, LaRossa, Cullington: A Simple Method of Rapid Assessment of Malar Depression . Annals of Plastic Surgery, Aug 79. Urology Service Fauver, H.E...J.R.: ST Depression Suggesting Subendocardial Ischemia in Neonates with PDA. Presented: Eighth Annual Army Association of Cardiok yy tt,eting, Tacoma...79/100 Investigation of the Tumor Reduction Effect of Combined Sodium-L-Ascorbate and 5FU Chemotherapy in Transplanted B16 Melanoma of Mice. (O

  19. Non-classical Correlations and Quantum Coherence in Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Wei, Mei-Song; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; He, Qi-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We investigate non-classical correlations (entanglement and quantum discord) and quantum coherence for an open two-qubit system each independently coupled to a bosonic environment and a spin environment, respectively. The modulating effects of spin environment and bosonic environment are respectively explored. A relation among the quantum coherence, quantum discord and classical correlation is found during the sudden transition phenomenon. We also compare the case of mixed environments with that of the same environments, showing that the dynamics is dramatically changed.

  20. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  1. Investigating the Role of Minecraft in Educational Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Noelene

    2016-01-01

    This research paper identifies the way in which Minecraft Edu can be used to contribute to the teaching and learning of secondary students via a multiple case research study. Minecraft Edu is recognised as a gamification tool that enables its users to create and evaluate project-based learning activities within a classroom context. Learning…

  2. Investigating the food environment in Hatfield and Hillcrest, Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lubisi, Sibusiso X

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available or hours of work), information (eg: knowing what to eat and where to buy) and economical (ie: poverty). Currently, there are no clear measures to define a food desert or a neighbourhood that lacks access to healthy foods, and there are many complications...

  3. Investigating food environments in selected areas of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available of planning and the structures are made of plastics, zinc material and hardboards. The second study was conducted in Pretoria Gardens, an old, formal, low to medium-income suburb situated in north-central Tshwane. The physical barriers impeding access...

  4. Ethical Investigation of Social Responsibility Activities towards the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ELCİL, Şifa

    2018-01-01

    Inaddition to the quality product and service provision, strategic management andstrategic communication approach, it has become a necessity for theinstitutions to form social reputation of the institutions with socialresponsibility approach and to maintain them in accordance with a certainunderstanding. The purpose of social responsibility activities in relation tothe public is to create a responsibility awareness and positive attitude in thesociety and to direct attitude and behavior change...

  5. An Investigation of Transformational Leadership in a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Robert K.

    2011-01-01

    With the advancement of technology, the changing landscape of education has brought about challenging issues that necessitate a clearer understanding of the leadership role of an online instructor. In this exploratory study, it was found that business administration students (n=107) from a Southern California community college expect their online…

  6. Hydro Geo-Electrical Investigation in Gombe Town and Environs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sandy clay and sandstone constitute the aquifer zones with resistivity range of 28 ohm-m to 84 ohm-m for clay, 240 ohm-m to 501 ohm-m for sandstone, 967 ohm-m to 1008 ohm-m for sandy clay. Others are 2069 ohm-m to 9607 ohm-m for the calcareous and the laterite units and 17456 0hm-m for the compacted sands.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR POND PERFORMANCE IN KARABUK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAYMAK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy, one of the alternative energy sources, can be economically and cheaply and efficiently collected with solar ponds. In this study, varying concentrations of sodium carbonate dilution in the solar pond in terms of heat storage performance has been examined. Experiment apparatus has been located Zonguldak Karaelmas University Karabük Technical Education Faculty. Five experiments with different density levels have been done and the changes in the temperature and density have been presented graphically within the solar pond. The experiments show that the temperature difference between the bottom and top level of solar pond is max. 21 °C and the highest temperature in lower convective zone (LCZ has been measured as 49 °C.

  8. 670 investigating changes in coastal environment using internet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    the basis of this background, access to geospatial data through internet technology has become ... refer to different things in the strictest sense. .... maps, previous literature, and ground survey .... across a broad range of industries and.

  9. Crosshole investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Pihl, J.

    1987-09-01

    The analysis of the radar and seismic data has given a consistent description of the fracture zones at the Crosshole site in agreement with geological and other geophysical observations made in the boreholes. The hydraulic investigations within the Crosshole project have yielded substantial progress in assessing the hydrogeology of fractured granitic rocks. The crosshole hydraulic testing concentrated on measuring the distribution of hydraulic properties within the extensive fractured zones identified by geophysics. A new analysis involving the 'dimension' of the flow test has been developed to analyse the results of the crosshole sinusoidal testing. The combined analysis of the geophysical and the hydraulic data set has shown that groundwater flow is concentrated within a few major features which have been identified by the geophysical methods. (orig./DG)

  10. Trends in Virtualized User Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Barrett

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtualized environments can make forensics investigation more difficult. Technological advances in virtualization tools essentially make removable media a PC that can be carried around in a pocket or around a neck. Running operating systems and applications this way leaves very little trace on the host system. This paper will explore all the newest methods for virtualized environments and the implications they have on the world of forensics. It will begin by describing and differentiating between software and hardware virtualization. It will then move on to explain the various methods used for server and desktop virtualization. Next, it will explain how virtualization affects the basic forensic process. Finally, it will describe the common methods to find virtualization artifacts and identify virtual activities that affect the examination process of certain virtualized user environments.

  11. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  12. Molds in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Molds in the Environment What are molds? What are some of the ... molds found? Molds are found in virtually every environment and can be detected, both indoors and outdoors, ...

  13. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  14. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  15. Home Environment of Selected Filipino Gifted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawilen, Greg Tabios

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the home environment of selected Filipino gifted individuals. It aims to answer two research questions: (1) what is the giftedness profile of the selected Filipino gifted?; (2) what types of home environments do Filipino gifted have? This study uses qualitative methods, specifically narrative research strategy, to provide a…

  16. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  17. Hacking the hospital environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne Bank; Thomsen, Stine Legarth

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. METHODS: We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon...

  18. The PSIM environment architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Reyneri, C.; van den Berg, R.J.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract. This chapter describes the architecture of the PSIM environment. It briefly presents the PSIM objectives and the role the PSIM environment plays in meeting these objectives. It then states the role and place of each of technological components of the environment: the ontology, the

  19. Computing environment logbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourn, Gordon C; Bouchard, Ann M

    2012-09-18

    A computing environment logbook logs events occurring within a computing environment. The events are displayed as a history of past events within the logbook of the computing environment. The logbook provides search functionality to search through the history of past events to find one or more selected past events, and further, enables an undo of the one or more selected past events.

  20. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incident investigation. 68.81 Section 68.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly investigate and analyze the incident. (d) A report shall be...

  1. Quasars in galaxy cluster environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of radio loud quasars is found to be strongly dependent upon their galaxy cluster environment. Previous studies have shown that bright quasars are found in rich clusters, while high luminosity quasars are found only in poorer environments. The analysis of low luminosity radio quiet quasars indicate that they are never found in rich environments, suggesting that they are a physically different class of objects. Properties of the quasar environment are investigated to determine constraints on the physical mechanisms of quasar formation and evolution. The optical cluster morphology indicates that the cluster cores have smaller radii and higher galaxy densities than are typical for low redshift clusters of similar richness. Radio morphologies may indicate that the formation of a dense intra-cluster medium is associated with the quasars' fading at these epochs. Galaxy colors appear to be normal, but there may be a tendency for clusters associated with high luminosity quasars to contain a higher fraction of gas-rich galaxies than those associated with low luminosity quasars. Multislit spectroscopic observations of galaxies associated with high luminosity quasars indicate that quasars are preferentially located in regions of low relative velocity dispersion, either in rich clusters of abnormally low dispersion, or in poor groups which are dynamically normal. This suggests that galaxy-galaxy interactions may play a role in quasar formation and sustenanace. Virialization of rich clusters and the subsequent increase in galaxy velocities may therefore be responsible for the fading of quasars in rich environments

  2. Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Dual Axis Controller for Extreme Environments (DACEE) addresses a critical need of NASA's future exploration plans to investigate extreme environments within our...

  3. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  4. Fermi UNIX trademark environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of UNIX at Fermilab involves multiple platforms and multiple vendors. Additionally, a single user may have to use more than one platform. This heterogeneity and multiplicity makes it necessary to define a Fermilab environment for UNIX so that as much as possible the systems ''look and feel'' the same. We describe our environment, including both the commercial products and the local tools used to support it. Other products designed for the UNIX environment are also described. 19 refs

  5. The marketing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The tourism marketing environment consists of internal and external forces which could impact the organisations’ performance. To be successful, companies must adapt to ongoing trends and developments in their macro and micro environments. When organisations scan their marketing environment they will be in a position to deal with any possible threats from the market and to capitalise on any available opportunities. Therefore, this chapter explains the external environmental factors, including;...

  6. Environment, safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzianovich, L.Ch.; Fardeau, J.C.; Darras, M.

    2000-01-01

    Environment, safety and health were the three topics discussed by the WOC 8 working group of the worldwide gas congress. Environment protection has become a major preoccupation and constraint for natural gas industry at the dawn of the new millennium. It is closely linked with the safety of installation and with the health of workmen who exploit or use natural gas energy: methane emissions, health and safety in gas industry, environment management and evaluation. (J.S.)

  7. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives and the proceedings are presented of the conference ''Energy and the environment'' held in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, on 9-10 June, 1987. A total of 31 papers were presented; 4 papers were centred on nuclear power: an assessment of the impact of ionizing radiation from power generation on the health of the population and on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the nuclear power plant complex in the Jaslovske Bohunice locality on the environment; an assessment of the impact of the Vychodni Cechy (Eastern Bohemia) plant on the environment; and a paper on the ecological optimization of the landscape during the development of the uranium industry. (J.B.)

  8. Parliamentarians and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, D.

    2004-01-01

    The data presented in this report come from an inquiry carried out by Sofres between March 5 and April 23, 2003, with a sample of 200 parliamentarians (122 deputies and 78 senators) who explained their attitude with respect to the question of environment. The questionnaire comprises 5 main dimensions dealing with: the relative importance of the environment stake, the attitudes with respect to past, present and future environment policies, the attitude with respect to specific stakes (energy, wastes), the attitude with respect to some problems of conservation of the natural heritage, and the attitude with respect to the participation of the public to some environment-related decisions. (J.S.)

  9. Virtual interface environment workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  10. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  11. Mining the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J.; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area. PMID:25506128

  12. Mining the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Krishnan, Narayanan

    2014-12-01

    Individuals spend a majority of their time in their home or workplace and for many, these places are our sanctuaries. As society and technology advance there is a growing interest in improving the intelligence of the environments in which we live and work. By filling home environments with sensors and collecting data during daily routines, researchers can gain insights on human daily behavior and the impact of behavior on the residents and their environments. In this article we provide an overview of the data mining opportunities and challenges that smart environments provide for researchers and offer some suggestions for future work in this area.

  13. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  14. Environment stakes and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquoy, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This document devoted to the environment discusses on the following topics: the environmental policies, the threats for the environment (climatic change, water management and risks), the deforestation, the sustainable development of cities, the safety first principle, the energy challenge, the international cooperation, the North-South relations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Precision in harsh environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances,

  16. Designing Creative Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing creative learning environments involves not only facilitating student creativity, but also modeling creative pedagogical practice. In this paper we explore the implementation of a framework for designing creative learning environments using mobile social media as a catalyst for redefining both lecturer pedagogical practice, as well as redesigning the curriculum around student generated m-portfolios.

  17. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  18. Environment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarone, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere

  19. Physics in Screening Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certik, Ondrej

    In the current study, we investigated atoms in screening environments like plasmas. It is common practice to extract physical data, such as temperature and electron densities, from plasma experiments. We present results that address inherent computational difficulties that arise when the screening approach is extended to include the interaction between the atomic electrons. We show that there may arise an ambiguity in the interpretation of physical properties, such as temperature and charge density, from experimental data due to the opposing effects of electron-nucleus screening and electron-electron screening. The focus of the work, however, is on the resolution of inherent computational challenges that appear in the computation of two-particle matrix elements. Those enter already at the Hartree-Fock level. Furthermore, as examples of post Hartree-Fock calculations, we show second-order Green's function results and many body perturbation theory results of second order. A self-contained derivation of all necessary equations has been included. The accuracy of the implementation of the method is established by comparing standard unscreened results for various atoms and molecules against literature for Hartree-Fock as well as Green's function and many body perturbation theory. The main results of the thesis are presented in the chapter called Screened Results, where the behavior of several atomic systems depending on electron-electron and electron-nucleus Debye screening was studied. The computer code that we have developed has been made available for anybody to use. Finally, we present and discuss results obtained for screened interactions. We also examine thoroughly the computational details of the calculations and particular implementations of the method.

  20. Environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paavola, Jouni; Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews socio-economic research on the environment and sustainability. The chapter first explores core aspects of socio-economics, examines how socio-economics has related to the agenda of research on the environment, and assesses how socio-economic research on the environment became...... institutionalized. We consider that the environment has not been high on the agenda of the socio-economic research community but that there is a substantial amount of socio-economic research on the environment in the ecological economics and other research communities. The chapter then examines the research...... on institutional sources of environmental problems on monetary valuation and environmental decision-making as two areas where socio-economics has had a particularly strong influence. The chapter concludes that the acknowledgement in these areas of research of ecological and social embeddedness has given rise...

  1. Perennial Environment Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plas, Frederic

    2014-07-01

    The Perennial Environment Observatory [Observatoire Perenne de l'Environnement - OPE] is a unique approach and infrastructure developed and implemented by ANDRA, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, as part of its overall project of deep geological disposal for radioactive waste. Its current mission is to assess the initial state of the rural (forest, pasture, open-field and aquatic) environment, prior to repository construction. This will be followed in 2017 (pending construction authorizations) and for a period exceeding a century, by monitoring of any impact the repository may have on the environment. In addition to serving its own industrial purpose of environmental monitoring, ANDRA also opens the OPE approach, infrastructure and acquired knowledge (database...) to the scientific community to support further research on long term evolution of the environment subjected to natural and anthropogenic stresses, and to contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between the various compartments of the environment

  2. Characterizing stellar and exoplanetary environments

    CERN Document Server

    Khodachenko, Maxim

    2015-01-01

    In this book an international group of specialists discusses studies of exoplanets subjected to extreme stellar radiation and plasma conditions. It is shown that such studies will help us to understand how terrestrial planets and their atmospheres, including the early Venus, Earth and Mars, evolved during the host star’s active early phase. The book presents an analysis of findings from Hubble Space Telescope observations of transiting exoplanets, as well as applications of advanced numerical models for characterizing the upper atmosphere structure and stellar environments of exoplanets. The authors also address detections of atoms and molecules in the atmosphere of “hot Jupiters” by NASA’s Spitzer telescope. The observational and theoretical investigations and discoveries presented are both timely and important in the context of the next generation of space telescopes. 
 The book is divided into four main parts, grouping chapters on exoplanet host star radiation and plasma environments, exoplanet u...

  3. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  4. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  5. DCE. Future IHEP's computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Guorui; Liu Xiaoling

    1995-01-01

    IHEP'S computing environment consists of several different computing environments established on IHEP computer networks. In which, the BES environment supported HEP computing is the main part of IHEP computing environment. Combining with the procedure of improvement and extension of BES environment, the authors describe development of computing environments in outline as viewed from high energy physics (HEP) environment establishment. The direction of developing to distributed computing of the IHEP computing environment based on the developing trend of present distributed computing is presented

  6. Global environment and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    The environment problems on global scale have been highlighted in addition to the local problems due to the rapid increase of population, the increase of energy demand and so on. The global environment summit was held in Brazil. Now, global environment problems are the problems for mankind, and their importance seems to increase toward 21st century. In such circumstances, cogeneration can reduce carbon dioxide emission in addition to energy conservation, therefore, attention has been paid as the countermeasure for global environment. The background of global environment problems is explained. As to the effectiveness of cogeneration for global environment, the suitability of city gas to environment, energy conservation, the reduction of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides emission are discussed. As for the state of spread of cogeneration, as of March, 1992, those of 2250 MW in terms of power generation capacity have been installed in Japan. It is forecast that cogeneration will increase hereafter. As the future systems of cogeneration, city and industry energy center conception, industrial repowering, multiple house cogeneration and fuel cells are described. (K.I.)

  7. Virtual interface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  8. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    2003-01-01

    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  9. Work environment quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman; Busck, Ole Gunni; Lind, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how employee participation influences the quality of the work environment and workers’ well-being at 11 Danish workplaces from within six different industries. Both direct participation and representative forms of participation at the workplace level were studied. Statistical...... as well as qualitative comparative analyses reveal that work environment quality and high levels of participation go hand in hand. Within a typology of participation models the highest level of participation, including strong elements of collective participation, and also the best work environment...

  10. ENVIRONMENTS and EOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Schnetzer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    are needed to facilitate large-scale analyses. Therefore, we developed ENVIRONMENTS, a fast dictionary-based tagger capable of identifying Environment Ontology (ENVO) terms in text. We evaluate the accuracy of the tagger on a new manually curated corpus of 600 Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) species pages. We use...... the tagger to associate taxa with environments by tagging EOL text content monthly, and integrate the results into the EOL to disseminate them to a broad audience of users. Availability and implementation: The software and the corpus are available under the open-source BSD and the CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0 licenses...

  11. A palliative environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2015-01-01

    The findings show a tension between clinical and technical sensory impressions and more aesthetic ones in the hospital environment. Aesthetic elements in an environment dominated by many clinical impressions proved important for the patients’ positive thoughts and feelings. Aesthetic sensory...... impressions caused a sense of homeliness and familiarity in the hospital environment that was perceived by the patients as carrying a positive meaning. Clinical impressions, on the other hand, were generally associated with unfamiliarity and insecurity and were experienced as creating a negative mood....

  12. Environment and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horii, Ryo; Ikefuji, Masako

    . In a less developed country, this link, which we call “limits to growth,” emerges as the “poverty-environment trap,” which explains the persistent international inequality both in terms of income and environment. This link also threatens the sustainability of the world’s economic growth, particularly when...... the emission of greenhouse gases raises the risk of natural disasters. Stronger environmental policies are required to overcome this link. While there is a trade-off between the environment and growth in the short run, we show that an appropriate policy can improve both in the long run....

  13. Environment compendium 1999. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy. Next, the environmental quality is described (section D), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section E. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section F. Finally, in section G, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  14. Environment compendium 2001. The environment in figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The detailed information in this compendium forms the basis for the condition of the environment in the Netherlands and for measures to be taken to stabilize or improve the environmental quality. First, an overview is given of the social developments, e.g. economic and volume developments within target sectors (section A), the use of natural resources (section B) and the resulting environmental pressure (section C). The environmental load is described according to the environmental themes and the target groups as formulated and distinguished in the Dutch environmental policy (section D). Next, the environmental quality is described (section E), effected by the continuous emission of materials into the air, surface water, ground water and soil. Also attention is paid to noise pollution and odor pollution, the impacts on the external safety and ionizing radiation of radioactive materials. The final effects on nature and public health are dealt with in section F. The costs of environmental measures to be taken by the Dutch government and businesses to stabilize or improve the environmental quality are dealt with in section G. Finally, in section H, attention is paid to the relation and integration of environment and economy, based on the system of National Accounts (so-called NAMEA). refs

  15. Leisure activities, time and environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to explore the relationships between leisure activities and the environment. Most research on leisure is unrelated to environmental issues, but when this research is “read” through environmental “glasses”, it provides relevant inputs for environmental studies....... The paper thus investigates the leisure literature in order to identify some of the environmentally interesting trends in the development of leisure activities. As leisure is usually conceived in terms of a specific segment of time or in terms of a certain selection of activities, the paper focuses on time...

  16. Environment and World Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    Tourism can create significant impacts on both the social and natural environment; however, many nations have avoided the negative impacts. Consideration of the effects of tourism should be part of national policy toward the tourist industry. (RE)

  17. Learning Networks Distributed Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Harrie; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob; Tattersall, Colin; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Van Bruggen, Jan; Spoelstra, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Learning Networks Distributed Environment is a prototype of an architecture that allows the sharing and modification of learning materials through a number of transport protocols. The prototype implements a p2p protcol using JXTA.

  18. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  19. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  20. Connected vehicle applications : environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation has developed a number of connected vehicle environmental applications, including the Applications for the Environment Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) research program applications and road weather applic...

  1. CERN and the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    New webpages answer common questions about CERN and the environment.   One of the new public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. Do your neighbours ever ask you about CERN’s environmental impact? And about radiation in particular? If so, the answers to those questions can now be found online on a new set of public webpages dedicated to CERN and the environment. These pages, put together by the Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) unit and the groups responsible for CERN's site maintenance, contain a wealth of information on topics linked to the environment, such as biodiversity at CERN, waste management, ionising radiation, and water and electricity consumption. “CERN forms part of the local landscape, with its numerous sites and scientific activities. It’s understandable that people living nearby have questions about the impact of these activities and it’s important that we respond with complete transp...

  2. Environment, epigenetics and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-01

    A conference summary of the third biannual Kenya Africa Conference "Environment, Epigenetics and Reproduction" is provided. A partial special Environmental Epigenetics issue containing a number of papers in Volume 3, Issue 3 and 4 are discussed.

  3. Visualization Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, A.R.; Templet, G.J.; Jortner, J.N.; Friesen, J.A.; Schwegel, J.; Hughes, K.R.

    1999-02-01

    Improvements in the performance and capabilities of computer software and hardware system, combined with advances in Internet technologies, have spurred innovative developments in the area of modeling, simulation and visualization. These developments combine to make it possible to create an environment where engineers can design, prototype, analyze, and visualize components in virtual space, saving the time and expenses incurred during numerous design and prototyping iterations. The Visualization Design Centers located at Sandia National Laboratories are facilities built specifically to promote the ''design by team'' concept. This report focuses on designing, developing and deploying this environment by detailing the design of the facility, software infrastructure and hardware systems that comprise this new visualization design environment and describes case studies that document successful application of this environment.

  4. Environment, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Environment issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract and contents of these issues along with their costs in Austrian Schillings

  5. Transformers For Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Imagine a revolutionary way to remotely control the environment surrounding one or more roving vehicles exploring remote and unexplored areas of the Solar System,...

  6. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  7. Built environment and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasala, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, Allam Appa; Sridhar, G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is influenced by built environment, which is, ‘the environments that are modified by humans, including homes, schools, workplaces, highways, urban sprawls, accessibility to amenities, leisure, and pollution.’ Built environment contributes to diabetes through access to physical activity and through stress, by affecting the sleep cycle. With globalization, there is a possibility that western environmental models may be replicated in developing countries such as India, where the underlying genetic predisposition makes them particularly susceptible to diabetes. Here we review published information on the relationship between built environment and diabetes, so that appropriate modifications can be incorporated to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. PMID:20535308

  8. Assessing Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Testing and Measurement, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Educational environment data derived from classroom settings strongly suggest the positive contribution that climate variables can make in accounting for learning performance. Such measures are not only related to productivity but may constitute criterion variables in and of themselves. (Author)

  9. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  10. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  11. Precision in harsh environments

    OpenAIRE

    French, P.; Krijnen, G.; Roozeboom, F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsystems are increasingly being applied in harsh and/or inaccessible environments, but many markets expect the same level of functionality for long periods of time. Harsh environments cover areas that can be subjected to high temperature, (bio)-chemical and mechanical disturbances, electromagnetic noise, radiation, or high vacuum. In the field of actuators, the devices must maintain stringent accuracy specifications for displacement, force, and response times, among others. These new requ...

  12. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  13. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  14. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  15. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  16. EVALUATION OF MICROBIAL SURVIVAL IN EXTRATERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül BULUÇ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the space environments where microbial terrestrial life could form and evolve in, were evaluted with the base of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, Earthial microbial life formation conditions in the interstellar medium and the other planets are investigated and the survival of microorganisms in the space environments are questioned. As a result, considering the aspects of terrestrial microbial life, we suggest that the space environment and other planets could not be a habitat for Earthial microorganisms.

  17. [Health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2000-07-01

    The impact of the environment (air, water, food pollution) on health is a major concern in contemporary society. Unfortunately, there are relatively few objective epidemiological data on this subject and their accuracy is limited. Risks are often not quantified, whereas in public health the quantitative assessment of the various risks and benefits must provide the bases for a global strategy. Actual risks should be distinguished from putative risks and, when the risks are putative, an effort should be made to ascertain the upper and lower limits of the risk. The validity of a linear no threshold relationship for assessing putative risks should be discussed and, whenever appropriate, other relationships should be considered. Since emotional reactions often pervade environmental issues, which in turn are exploited for political or commercial reasons, it is not surprising that any statement or action may provoke violent debate. It is serious to underestimate the importance of a risk, since appropriate measures may not be put in place. However, it is equally serious to overestimate it because this can provoke unjustified fears, a pervasive unease, and a rejection of certain technologies, even to the point of discrediting science. It can lead therefore to a questioning of progress by instilling fears about any innovation, as well as facilitating the manipulation of public opinion for financial or ideological reasons, and finally to distortions in budget allocations and public health actions. Confronted with this situation, the Academy's role should be threefold. a) Whenever necessary, point out the need for an increase in appropriate fundamental research. When epidemiological data are uncertain, analyse the cause of these uncertainties and advocate appropriate development in statistical methodologies and epidemiological research, which could ascertain the upper limit of the putative risk. The lack of knowledge often results in public anxiety; this reaction should be

  18. An investigation of ADHD and family environment in 8235 school children aged 4~16 years in Northern Shandong%鲁北地区4~16岁学生注意缺陷多动障碍患病情况及其家庭环境调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙殿凤; 衣明纪; 李敏; 李彦丽

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解鲁北地区低龄人群注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的流行情况,并分析其家庭环境特征.方法 应用问卷调查和专科访淡相结合的方法 ,采用自制的注意力及多动问题量表和家庭环境量表-中文版(FES-CV)调查分层随机整群抽样的4~16岁学生8235名,ADHD的诊断依照美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ).家庭环境调查时选择550名与ADHD学生性别、年龄、班级、家庭经济状况相匹配的健康学生为对照组.结果 ①患病率:ADHD总患病率为6.3%(515/8235),其中男性患病率高于女性(8.1%vs 4.4%,P<0.001);6~11岁组患病率高于4~5岁组(7.7%vs 6.1%,P=0.02)和12~16岁(7.7%vs 5.3%,P=0.002);②亚型分布:ADHD-1是4~16岁人群ADHD的主要类型,占56.3%;不同年龄组ADHD亚型分布差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),高年龄组ADHD-1比例增加;4~5岁组不同性别的亚型分布差异有统计学意义(P<0.001),男性以ADHD-HI为主,女性以ADHD-Ⅰ为主,6~11岁组、12~16岁组亚型分布的性别差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);③家庭环境:ADHD组FES-CV量表的亲密度、情感表达、知识性、道德宗教观、组织性分值低于正常组(P<0.001),娱乐性和矛盾性分值高于正常组(P<0.001).结论 6~11岁人群和男性的ADHD患病率较高,年龄和性别对亚型分布有影响,注意力缺陷是ADHD核心症状;ADHD患者的家庭环境差.%Objective To investigate the incidence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their family environment features among school children aged 4~16 years in Northern Shandong. Methods The present research attempts to make a qualitative as well as a quantitative analysis by using questionnaire and interview. Based on the methodology, a total of sample of 8235 children aged 4 ~ 16 years in Northern Shandong area were randomly stratified sampled out as experimental group from three levels of 20 kindergartens and schools in 4

  19. Plastics in the Marine Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-03

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence-albeit limited-of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  20. Plastics in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender

    2017-01-01

    Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

  1. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  2. Decoherence control in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Maniscalco, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate two techniques for controlling decoherence, focusing on the crucial role played by the environmental spectrum. We show how environments with different spectra lead to very different dynamical behaviors. Our study clearly proves that such differences must be taken into account when designing decoherence control schemes. The two techniques we consider are reservoir engineering and quantum Zeno control. We focus on a quantum harmonic oscillator initially prepared in a nonclassical state and derive analytically its non-Markovian dynamics in the presence of different bosonic thermal environments. On the one hand, we show how, by modifying the spectrum of the environment, it is possible to prolong or reduce the life of a Schroedinger cat state. On the other hand, we study the effect of nonselective energy measurements on the degradation of quantumness of initial Fock states. In this latter case, we see that the crossover between quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects, discussed by Maniscalco et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 130402 (2006)], is highly sensitive to the details of the spectrum. In particular, for certain types of spectra, even very small variations of the system frequency may cause a measurement-induced acceleration of decoherence rather than its inhibition.

  3. Geoelectric investigation to delineate groundwater potential and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2School of Environment and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India. 3Groundwater ...... medium acts as a natural filter to percolating fluid and that its ... Atakpo E A 2013 Aquifer vulnerability investigation using.

  4. Whistleblowing Environment in Indonesian Financial Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the whistleblowing environment in Indonesian financial institutions from Indonesian employees’ perspective. Using primary data extracted from questionnaires this study to address two issues: investigate and explore the factor that encourages and discourages Indonesian employees to whistleblower in the Indonesian financial industry; and investigate and explore the Indonesian financial company’s environment that affects whistleblowing activity. Results were consistent with previous research by Martens and Kelleher (2004, Curtis (2006, Hwang, Staley, Chen and Lan (2008, Dandekar (1991 and Worth (2013 in their relative domains. The Indonesian employees and financial institutions are less influenced by confusion culture (guanxi which provides some variations in findings from prior research. Generally in Indonesia Financial Institutions there is a positive sign towards whistleblowing activity, “where” companies create a positive environment to support the activity although more could be done by government to regulate and enforce compliance to encourage trust in protecting employees when whistleblowing.

  5. Quantum communication in noisy environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschauer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate how protocols in quantum communication theory are influenced by noise. Specifically, we take into account noise during the transmission of quantum information and noise during the processing of quantum information. We describe three novel quantum communication protocols which can be accomplished efficiently in a noisy environment: (1) Factorization of Eve: We show that it is possible to disentangle transmitted qubits a posteriori from the quantum channel's degrees of freedom. (2) Cluster state purification: We give multi-partite entanglement purification protocols for a large class of entangled quantum states. (3) Entanglement purification protocols from quantum codes: We describe a constructive method to create bipartite entanglement purification protocols form quantum error correcting codes, and investigate the properties of these protocols, which can be operated in two different modes, which are related to quantum communication and quantum computation protocols, respectively

  6. Predicting Virtual Learning Environment Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penjor, Sonam; Zander, Pär-Ola Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory with regard to the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) at the Royal University of Bhutan (RUB). The focus is on different adoption types and characteristics of users. Rogers’ DOI theory is applied...... to investigate the influence of five predictors (relative advantage, complexity, compatibility, trialability and observability) and their significance in the perception of academic staff at the RUB in relation to the probability of VLE adoption. These predictors are attributes of the VLE that determine the rate...... of adoption by various adopter group memberships (Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, Laggards). Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were deployed to analyse adopter group memberships and predictor significance in VLE adoption and use. The results revealed varying attitudes...

  7. Vitamin G : Green environments - Healthy environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.

    2009-01-01

    The shortest summary of the thesis is in its title “Vitamin G”, where the G stands for the green space around us and Vitamin stands for the possible positive relationship between green space and people’s health. In the first part of this thesis we investigate whether green space in people’s living

  8. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira; Fausto Kothe; Luis Felipe Dias Lopes; Érico Felden Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin) musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009), which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relev...

  9. Enhancing Learning within the 3-D Virtual Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Shafieiyoun; Akbar Moazen Safaei

    2013-01-01

    Today’s using of virtual learning environments becomes more remarkable in education. The potential of virtual learning environments has frequently been related to the expansion of sense of social presence which is obtained from students and educators. This study investigated the effectiveness of social presence within virtual learning environments and analysed the impact of social presence on increasing learning satisfaction within virtual learning environments. Second Life, as an example of ...

  10. Bluetooth helper environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junbiao

    2001-10-01

    Handheld devices are gaining great popularity and becoming a common commodity on the market primarily due to their small sizes and mobile nature. However, these devices are all limited in capabilities, especially in terms of screen display, processing power, storage space and network access. Some of these limitations, such as the small screen sizes, are inherently difficult to improve given the usage model of these devices. In this paper, we propose a framework in which small handheld devices can use their environment, the devices around them, to expand their limited capabilities. Such an environment can be deployed in the office, at home for user convenience or in a public access area as a revenue generating service. A handheld device interacts with the helper environment through several essential steps including device discovery, service query, request transfer and remote control. In order to ensure the proper operation of such an environment, the framework provides essential system components for admission control, resource allocation, task scheduling and device coordination. We refer to such a framework as the device helper environment and discuss its system architecture and usage scenarios in this paper.

  11. PubChem atom environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many

  12. FEMME, a flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; DeClippele, V.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    A new, FORTRAN-based, simulation environment called FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), designed for implementing, solving and analysing mathematical models in ecology is presented. Three separate phases in ecological modelling are distinguished: (1) the model

  13. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bei Yun; Xie Yan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  14. The hovercraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovesey, E J

    1970-06-01

    In just over a decade the hovercraft has progressed from first prototype to a successful commercial form of transport which also has the ability to penetrate many environments hitherto virtually inaccessible to manned vehicles. Comparison with rival short range vehicles such as the helicopter and hydrofoil show that the hovercraft has become one of the most versatile forms of transport available. This versatility and ability to operate in unusual or extreme environments has been accompanied by the problems of control and of protection of the occupants of the hovercraft from the hazards associated with these environments. Several of these problems are discussed, together with their possible solutions. This article is based on a paper given to the Nederlands Vereniging Voor Ergonomie/Ergonomics Research Society joint conference at Noordwijk in Holland, 11-13 June, 1969.

  15. Appropriating the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Jan-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policy has become an important area of European Union (EU) policy making, even though it had not originally been foreseen in the Treaty of Rome. Its emergence in the early 1970s can be understood as a result of a transfer of the novel policy idea of the environment to the European...... of the environment as a political concept emerging in the context of international organizations at the time. Secondly, an analysis of the first Environmental Action Programme of 1973 will be used to show how the EC conceptualized the environment, including the definition of problems and potential remedies. Thirdly...... level. This paper thus inquires into the emergence of a European environmental policy from a diffusion of ideas perspective. Rather than focusing on multi-level policy making it seeks to trace the diffusion of environmental ideas from the level of international organizations to the European Communities...

  16. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine the nature of students’ digital learning environments to understand the interplay of institutional systems and tools that are managed by the students themselves. The paper is based on a study of 128 students’ digital learning environments. The objectives...... used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally...... of the study are 1) to provide an overview of tools for students’ study activities, 2) to identify the most used and most important tools for students and 3) to discover which activities the tools are used for. The empirical study reveals that the students have a varied use of digital media. Some of the most...

  17. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  18. Radiation environment at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, M.A.R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear facilities located at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu State of India include at present nuclear power reactors, a fast breeder reactor, a nuclear research centre and a waste management facility. Active wastes generated at the site are collected, treated and safely disposed. High-level wastes are stored underground in RCC trenches and tile hole and low-level wastes in the from of liquid effluents are discharged into the sea. Off-gases are dispersed through stacks in the atmosphere. Environmental survey laboratory established at the site in 1974 carries out radiation surveillance of the environment, evaluates radiological impacts on environment and public, and assesses radiation exposure of the population. It is observed that even after five years of operation of the nuclear power station, radioactivity and radiation levels in the environment have virtually remained at the pre-operational levels. (M.G.B.). 14 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  20. Radioruthenium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Morita, Shigeki.

    1979-01-01

    A change in the amount of radioruthenium in the environment (due to nuclear tests and drainage from atomic energy plants) and the exposure dose are discussed. The level of 106 Ru in the environment due to radioactive fallout, changes in the level, and the characteristics of these changes are reported. Pollution caused by 106 Ru in drainage from atomic energy plants, especially from the Windscale reprocessing factory in the United Kingdom (which release Ru in the greatest amount), changes in the amount of Ru released and in the levels of environmental pollution, and the movement of Ru in the environment are considered. The intake of Ru into the human body by consumption of food produced in polluted areas and by inspiration of Ru present in the air is estimated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrere, M.

    1978-01-01

    Energy problems will play a fundamental role in the near future and researchers, engineers, economists and ecologists must work together to increase existing non-fossil energy sources and to develop new sources or techniques using less energy without pollution of the environment. Four aspects of future activities in this field are considered. First, energy sources, ie solar, fossil, nuclear, geothermal, and others such as wind energy or wave energy are considered in relation to the environment. Secondly the use of these sources by industry and by transportation, domestic, and agricultural sectors are examined. The problem of energy conservation in all fields is then considered. Finally the overall optimisation is analysed. This is the search for a compromise between the cost of usable energy and that of a degradation function taking into account the effect on the environment. (U.K.)

  2. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous sources of ionizing radiation can lead to human exposure: natural sources, nuclear explosions, nuclear power generation, use of radiation in medical, industrial and research purposes, and radiation emitting consumer products. Before assessing the radiation dose to a population one requires a precise knowledge of the activity of a number of radionuclides. The basis for the assessment of the dose to a population from a release of radioactivity to the environment, the estimation of the potential clinical heath effects due to the dose received and, ultimately, the implementation of countermeasures to protect the population, is the measurement of radioactive contamination in the environment after the release. It is the purpose of this book to present the facts about the presence of radionuclides in the environment, natural and man made. There is no aspect of radioactivity, which has marked the passing century, not mentioned or discussed in this book. refs

  3. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  4. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to develop a controller that allows a robot to traverse an structured environment. The approach we use is to decompose the environment into simple sub-environments that we use as basis for evolving the controller. Specifically, we decompose a narrow corridor environment...... environments and that the order in which the decomposed sub-environments are presented in sequence impacts the performance of the evolutionary algorithm....

  5. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  6. Jupiter Environment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  7. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  8. Energy, Environment and IMCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the important role that the ionic and mixed conducting ceramics (IMCC) type of materials will play in the R&D of energy and environment technologies of the - presumably - near future. IMCC materials based technologies for energy harvesting, conversion...... and storage as well as for monitoring and protection of our environment are exemplified. The strong impact of the international IMCC research on development of devices based on such materials is illustrated, and some recent trends in the scientific exploration of IMCC are highlighted. Important groups...

  9. Environment as datascape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    as configuring carbon-as-dataspace, I argue, allows grasping adequately the contingency and constraints of managing carbon as a particular mate- rial-discursive form of environment. In conclusion I generalise the environmental management office as a space that can be configured to stage, beyond carbon, other......Ecological modernist approaches to climate change are premised upon knowing carbon emissions. I ask how corporate environmental managers know and do carbon, i.e., shape the reality of emissions. I argue that for managers’ practical purposes carbon exists as malleable data. Based on ethnographic...... global environments as well....

  10. Pervasive Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of pervasive communication in learning within industry and education are right now being explored through different R&D projects. This paper outlines the background for and the possible learning potentials in what we describe as pervasive learning environments (PLE). PLE?s differ...... from virtual learning environments (VLE) primarily because in PLE?s the learning content is very much related to the actual context in which the learner finds himself. Two local (Denmark) cases illustrate various aspects of pervasive learning. One is the eBag, a pervasive digital portfolio used...

  11. The environment and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart P F

    2010-11-11

    Psychotic syndromes can be understood as disorders of adaptation to social context. Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity, growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing 'social' brain during sensitive periods. Therefore heritability, as an index of genetic influence, may be of limited explanatory power unless viewed in the context of interaction with social effects. Longitudinal research is needed to uncover gene-environment interplay that determines how expression of vulnerability in the general population may give rise to more severe psychopathology.

  12. Chaos and remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges

  13. America's Children and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  14. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  15. Lead in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, Oliver H.; Pain, Deborah J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  16. The VREST learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, E E; Geelkerken, R H; Sanders, A J B

    2005-01-01

    The VREST learning environment is an integrated architecture to improve the education of health care professionals. It is a combination of a learning, content and assessment management system based on virtual reality. The generic architecture is now being build and tested around the Lichtenstein protocol for hernia inguinalis repair.

  17. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  18. Environment and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Abuodha, N.L.; Abuodha, N.L.; Beigutt, K.S.A.

    1996-01-01

    It contains research papers presented at Kenya Academy of Sciecnes on the theme 'Envoronment and Development' whose objectives are: to highlight levels of achievement and endeavour in scientific research in environment, it's management and related areas, provide a forum debate and exchange of ideas between researchers, policy makers, and the general public on environmental issues and their effect on society, identify gaps in environmental knowledge as a basis for further research. The following titles of the following papers summarizes the details of the presentations; Kenya Eco-systems and global climate change, Integrated Coastal Zone Management related to the Kenyan Coast, Global Climate Change:Implications of the low lying area coastal parts of Kenya, Organochlorine Pesticides:Curse or blessings of the Tropical Environment, Environmental Degradation and Health in Kenya, Urban Environment and City Health Crisis in Kenya: The planning and Resource Allocation Question, Women and Food Security, Food Production and Village based Food Processing Industries of selected plants, Impact of Earthquakes, volcanic Eruptions on the Environment and Human Induced Climate Changes,Myth or reality and The Practice and Principles in Environmental Law for Kenya. this an 'Analytic' record describing research paper presented at the proceedings and published on page 157-168

  19. Designing Virtual Learning Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this working paper is to present a conceptual model for media integrated communication in virtual learning environments. The model for media integrated communication is very simple and identifies the necessary building blocks for virtual place making in a synthesis of methods...

  20. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  1. Propagation environments [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of all factors influencing plant growth in a nursery environment is needed for the successful growth and production of high-quality container plants. Propagation structures modify the atmospheric conditions of temperature, light, and relative humidity. Native plant nurseries are different from typical horticultural nurseries because plants must be...

  2. Environment: Readings for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivany, J. W. George, Ed.

    Twenty-six articles or extracts from scholarly literature and one article written for this collection are contained in this anthology intended for teachers. The articles present the viewpoints of writers in a number of scientific and sociological fields concerning human interactions with their environment. Articles are arranged in the following…

  3. Hanford site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A synopsis is given of the detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford. The following aspects are covered: demography, land use, meteorology, geology, hydrology, and seismology. It is concluded that Hanford is one of the most extensively characterized nuclear sites

  4. Virtual Environments 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains the proceedings of the joint 9th International Immersive Projection Technologies Workshop and the 11th EUROGRAPHICS Virtual Environments Workshop (IPTEGVE). The event was held in Aalborg, Denmark the 6. and 7. October 2005. It was organized at the VR Media Lab, Aalborg University...

  5. [Healthy school environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.

  6. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  7. Electromagnetic Environments Simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnado, G.B.

    1975-11-01

    A multipurpose electromagnetic environments simulator has been designed to provide a capability for performing EMR, EMP, and lightning near stroke testing of systems, subsystems and components in a single facility. This report describes the final facility design and presents the analytical and experimental verification of the design

  8. Multiprocessor programming environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.B.; Fornaro, R.

    1988-12-01

    Programming tools and techniques have been well developed for traditional uniprocessor computer systems. The focus of this research project is on the development of a programming environment for a high speed real time heterogeneous multiprocessor system, with special emphasis on languages and compilers. The new tools and techniques will allow a smooth transition for programmers with experience only on single processor systems.

  9. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 52 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978. The major topics in this volume deal with penetrating radiation measurements, radiation surveys and population exposure, radioactivity in the indoor environment, and technologically enhanced natural radioactivity

  10. Natural radiation environment III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Lowder, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 57 research papers presented at this symposium in April 1978 at Houston, Texas. This symposium provided a common forum for scientists in several disciplines that deal with natural radiation because there is an increasing interest in the environment as it pertains to human health and the competition for scarce energy and material resources

  11. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  12. Working environment committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheller, Vibeke Kristine; Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    In Denmark, a new Working Environment Act was passed in 2010. The assumptions behind the act are that increased flexibility in the organization of OHS work will: 1) enable a more systematic approach, 2) elevate OHS issues to a strategic level within the company, and 3) integrate these concerns...

  13. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  14. Students’ digital learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Dalsgaard, Christian; Davidsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally...

  15. IMPROVING THE SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETERS, JON S.; SCHNEIDER, RAYMOND C.

    GUIDELINES FOR CREATING IMPROVED EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS ARE PRESENTED WITH SUPPLEMENTARY DRAWINGS, DIAGRAMS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS. POLICY DECISIONS ARE RELATED TO--(1) THE SCHOOL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE FUTURE, (2) INDUSTRY'S RULE IN EDUCATION, AND (3) BUILDING PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF--(1) ART…

  16. The Greenfoot Programming Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level education. Greenfoot combines graphical, interactive output with programming in Java, a standard, text-based…

  17. The redefined environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermelin, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Although it seems an audacity to try to redefine the environment, the current interpretation of the concept of natural environment in Colombia makes necessary that task, with the purpose of arriving at the same time to a focus but realist and useful for those who should keep it in mind in the planning and in the taking of decisions. The definition of effective environment for most of the Colombians and diffused by entities like the Inderena it corresponds to a partial vision of the national reality. It is necessary to show to the country that that version is no-alone incomplete but dangerous, just as they have checked it the catastrophes of the last years that caused many kill and lost, fortunately the tendency of the last years on the part of some planners has been the one of conferring to the threats and the mineral resources the importance that it deserve. God willing that tendency be returns the denominator common of the whole studies dedicated to the ordination of the territory, so much urban as rural. This work recaptures and wide concepts that were presented previously by the author in several conferences and publications. The work understands a revision of the evolution of the environment concept in the first place in Colombia. They are made some observations next about the necessity of keeping in mind the geosciences in the use of the natural environment and are it finishes with the way to integrate those in the process of physical planning that it receives the name of environmental planning universally

  18. Clinical learning environment at Shiraz Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh

    2013-01-01

    Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment. © 2013 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Learning Environment at Shiraz Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS. This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment.

  20. Fatigue management considering LWR coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Bae; Jin, Tae eun

    2000-01-01

    Design fatigue curve for structural material in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code do not explicitly address the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life. Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments has been a concern ever since the early 1970's. And, recent fatigue test data indicate a significant decrease in fatigue lives of carbon steels, low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. For these reasons, fatigue of major components has been identified as a technical issue remaining to be resolved for life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. In the present paper, results of recent investigations by many organizations are reviewed to provide technical justification to support the development of utility approach regarding the management of fatigue considering LWR coolant environments for the purpose of life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. (author)