WorldWideScience

Sample records for environment climatic criteria

  1. Terrestrial Environment (Climatic) Criteria Guidelines for use in Aerospace Vehicle Development. 2008 Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the terrestrial environment that are specifically applicable in the development of design requirements/specifications for NASA aerospace vehicles, payloads, and associated ground support equipment. The primary geographic areas encompassed are the John F. Kennedy Space Center, FL; Vandenberg AFB, CA; Edwards AFB, CA; Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans, LA; John C. Stennis Space Center, MS; Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX; George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; and the White Sands Missile Range, NM. This document presents the latest available information on the terrestrial environment applicable to the design and operations of aerospace vehicles and supersedes information presented in NASA-HDBK-1001 and TM X-64589, TM X-64757, TM-78118, TM-82473, and TM-4511. Information is included on winds, atmospheric thermodynamic models, radiation, humidity, precipitation, severe weather, sea state, lightning, atmospheric chemistry, seismic criteria, and a model to predict atmospheric dispersion of aerospace engine exhaust cloud rise and growth. In addition, a section has been included to provide information on the general distribution of natural environmental extremes in the conterminous United States, and world-wide, that may be needed to specify design criteria in the transportation of space vehicle subsystems and components. A section on atmospheric attenuation has been added since measurements by sensors on certain Earth orbital experiment missions are influenced by the Earth s atmosphere. There is also a section on mission analysis, prelaunch monitoring, and flight evaluation as related to the terrestrial environment inputs. The information in these guidelines is recommended for use in the development of aerospace vehicle and related equipment design and associated operational criteria, unless otherwise stated in contract work specifications. The terrestrial environmental data in these guidelines are

  2. Climate change, environment and development

    OpenAIRE

    Okereke, Chukwumerije; Massaquoi, Abu-Bakar S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, a quintessential environmental problem, is generally recognised as the most important development challenge in the 21st century (IPCC, 2014). In addition to acknowledging its many significant direct consequences, climate change is increasingly used to frame discussions on other important global challenges, such as health, energy and food security. This chapter provides understanding of the intricate and complex relationship between climate change, environment and development.

  3. Climate Leadership Awards Application Process, Eligibility, and Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about evaluation criteria and access applications for the 2018 Climate Leadership Awards, which publicly recognizes individuals and organizations for their outstanding leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Climate change consequences for the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës, M.B.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists warn us about climate change and its effects on the outdoor environment. These effects can have significant consequences for the indoor environment, also in the Netherlands. Climate changes will affect different aspects of the indoor environment as well as the stakeholders of that indoor

  5. Preparing for climate change impacts in Norway's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Lisoe, K.; Aandahl, G.; Eriksen, S.; Alfsen, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Norwegian climate policy and of the practical implications of preparing Norway for climate change, with special emphasis on the challenges confronting the built environment. Although the Norwegian government has been relatively proactive in instituting measures aimed at halting global climate change, less attention has been paid to the challenge of adapting to climate change. The global climate system is likely to undergo changes, regardless of the implementation of abatement policies under the Kyoto Protocol or other regimes. The full range of impacts resulting from these changes is still uncertain; however, it is becoming increasingly clear that adaptation to climate change is necessary and inevitable within several sectors. The potential impacts of climate change in the built environment are now being addressed. Both the functionality of the existing built environment and the design of future buildings are likely to be altered by climate change impacts, and the expected implications of these new conditions are now investigated. However, measures aimed at adjustments within individual sectors, such as altering the criteria and codes of practice for the design and construction of buildings, constitute only a partial adaptation to climate change. In order to adapt effectively, larger societal and intersectoral adjustments are necessary. (author)

  6. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.

  7. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  8. Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Climate Change: Science, Health and the Environment Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH, Director of CDC's National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, discusses the science of climate change, the potential for shifts in the natural world to affect our wellbeing, and the challenges of emerging issues in environmental health.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  9. Institutional and pedagogical criteria for productive open source learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ryberg, Thomas; Semey, Ian Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present some institutional and pedagogical criteria for making an informed decision in relation to identifying and choosing a productive open source learning environment. We argue that three concepts (implementation, maintainability and further development) are important when...... considering the sustainability and cost efficiency of an open source system, and we outline a set of key points for evaluating an open source software in terms of cost of system adoption. Furthermore we identify a range of pedagogical concepts and criteria to emphasize the importance of considering...... the relation between the local pedagogical practice and the pedagogical design of the open source learning environment. This we illustrate through an analysis of an open source system and our own pedagogical practice at Aalborg University, Denmark (POPP)....

  10. Decision criteria under uncertainty and the climate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretteville, Camilla

    1999-11-01

    This working paper examines some of the decision criteria suggested by theories on decision making under uncertainty. This is done by applying the criteria to the problem of global warming. It is shown that even if there was a benevolent planner who is both supranational and supra generational and even if he had a well defined inter generational welfare function, there are still remaining problems. The question asked is: If there were a benevolent planner, would he know the best climate policy for the world today. The main discussion abstracts from all other complications and focuses on the lack of certainty regarding impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and the effectiveness of policy. A very simplified example of a game against nature is constructed. It has two possible policy choices. One can either try to prevent global warming, or one can choose to do nothing. The future state of the world is uncertain and the chosen policy might affect the outcome in each state. The framing of the example is such that one should expect a policy of action to be preferred rather than a no-action policy, however this is not always the case. It is shown that the preferred policy choice is very much dependent on the choice of decision criterion, the magnitude of costs and of the framing. 3 tabs., 23 refs

  11. Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Schistosomiasis, And Nigerian Environment And Climate Change. ... There are two types of human schistosomiasis in Nigeria: urinary schistosomiasis caused by infection of S. haematobium and intestinal schistosomiasis caused by the infection of S. mansoni. Different species of freshwater snail which breed in ...

  12. Acclimation of growing pigs to climatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.M.F.

    1987-01-01

    In intensive pig production the climatic environment has an important impact on productivity and health of the animals. Since factors as draught and fluctuating temperatures are known to influence the incidence and severity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infections in

  13. Polar Environment and Climate. The Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinal, D.; Lipiatou, E.

    2007-01-01

    This publication summarises the presentations and discussions held during the title symposium. It includes session reports by chairs and short papers from attendees who were also invited to contribute. The report follows the structure of this multidisciplinary symposium: General session on the International Polar Year (IPY); Past, present and future climate; Human and wildlife health; Natural and socioeconomics impacts of climate change and finally, Public outreach, education and policy makers. The publication illustrates the importance and diversity of European research in the Polar Regions. It also identifies gaps in our current understanding of these particularly complex and vulnerable environments and the related research needs

  14. Climate of the Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John E

    2008-03-01

    The climate of the Arctic marine environment is characterized by strong seasonality in the incoming solar radiation and by tremendous spatial variations arising from a variety of surface types, including open ocean, sea ice, large islands, and proximity to major landmasses. Interannual and decadal-scale variations are prominent features of Arctic climate, complicating the distinction between natural and anthropogenically driven variations. Nevertheless, climate models consistently indicate that the Arctic is the most climatically sensitive region of the Northern Hemisphere, especially near the sea ice margins. The Arctic marine environment has shown changes over the past several decades, and these changes are part of a broader global warming that exceeds the range of natural variability over the past 1000 years. Record minima of sea ice coverage during the past few summers and increased melt from Greenland have important implications for the hydrographic regime of the Arctic marine environment. The recent changes in the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation, pressure), sea ice, and ocean appear to be a coordinated response to systematic variations of the large-scale atmospheric circulation, superimposed on a general warming that is likely associated with increasing greenhouse gases. The changes have been sufficiently large in some sectors (e.g., the Bering/Chukchi Seas) that consequences for marine ecosystems appear to be underway. Global climate models indicate an additional warming of several degrees Celsius in much of the Arctic marine environment by 2050. However, the warming is seasonal (largest in autumn and winter), spatially variable, and closely associated with further retreat of sea ice. Additional changes predicted for 2050 are a general decrease of sea level pressure (largest in the Bering sector) and an increase of precipitation. While predictions of changes in storminess cannot be made with confidence, the predicted reduction of sea ice cover will

  15. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Naomi E.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  16. Calculation of climate factors as an additional criteria to determine agriculturally less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša POGAČAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate factors that are proposed to determine agriculturally less favoured areas (LFA in Slovenia were analyzed for the period 1981–2010. Following the instructions of European Commission prepared by Joint Research Centre (JRC 30-years averages of low air temperatures criteria (the vegetation period duration and sums of effective air temperatures and aridity criteria (aridity index AI have to be calculated. Calculations were additionally done using Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO method, which is slightly different when determining temperature thresholds. Only hilly areas are below the LFA low air temperatures threshold with the lowest located meteorological station in Rateče. According to aridity criteria no area in Slovenia is below the threshold, so meteorological water balance was also examined. Average water balance in the period 1981–2010 was in most of locations lower than in the period 1971–2000. Climate change impacts are already expressed as trend presence in time series of studied variables, so it is recommended to calculate trends and take them into account or to perform regular iterations of calculations.

  17. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Resilience in Urban Environments provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.

  18. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  19. Trees in Urban and City Environments: a review of the selection criteria with particular reference to nature conservation in New Zealand Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Late David Given

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this research was to review the general criteria for selection of trees for urban environments and city environments. The reason for this research was to assess the extent to which criteria for tree selection can contribute to nature conservation in cities. We conducted an extensive review of the literature, looking for publications about the selection criteria. In particular, we looked for any previous published reviews of the criteria. With reference to the criteria used in New Zealand, we undertook an unstructured review of the practices adopted in most cities. A review of the literature revealed many publications about different criteria but only one publication in which there was a general review of the criteria used for selecting trees for urban environments. By way of contrast, lists of tree species deemed to be suitable (or unsuitable for urban planting are widely available, and some include information about selection criteria, but often with little background explanation. Worldwide, commonly used criteria included commercial availability of species, compatibility with urban environments, landscape design, low maintenance, avoidance of nuisance factors and historical practice. The most common criteria are concerned with the concept of choosing species compatible with local climate and soils. Anecdotal evidence suggests that more and more cities are using a mix of criteria including those that may contribute to conservation and restoration of native biota. We suggest that there should be greater use of ecological, genetic and biogeographical criteria to meet the needs of nature conservation in New Zealand cities.

  20. Criteria For Specifikation Of The Indoor Environment Of Active House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldbjerg, Peter; Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Duer, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Active House Alliance has been formed by companies and organisations in the building design, components and construction industry to with the intention to improve the quality of the built environment through a balanced focus on indoor environment, energy and environment – and where the aspects...... of human health and wellbeing will be specifically considered. This paper presents the first version of the Active House specification for indoor environment for residential buildings (where specifications for energy and environment also exist). It is based on the EN 15251 philosophy, and with specific...... requirements to daylight, thermal environment, IAQ and acoustics. Requirements have been tightened compared to EN 15251, and will necessitate performance simulations....

  1. Climate Change, Indoor Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  2. Institutional factors as criteria for business environment identification

    OpenAIRE

    Klovienė, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of business environment in the context of performance measurement. Performance measurement is useful for an organization when it fits into the external and internal environment of the organization. The first requirement is to identify the business environment in order to analyze performance measurement. Institutional theory identifies internal and external environmental factors as institutional factors, according to which the behaviour of an organization coul...

  3. Multi-criteria analysis to support decision-making process in the event of radiological emergency in tropical climate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose F.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Silva, Diogo N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Multi-criteria Analysis has been widely used in the most diverse areas of the knowledge such as Economy, Transport, Industry, Production, among others. The Multi-criteria Analysis aims to support the decision process, based on the comparison of alternatives, leading to the recommendation of optimized actions in support to decision makers. One of the permanent concerns in the international scenario is the study of the nuclear/radiological consequences of accidents and other events that lead to the contamination of the environment and the exposure of members of the public as a consequence of this contamination. The Multi-criteria Analysis Method is already being used for similar applications in some European countries but it is necessary that the criteria are established taking in account economic, social and climatic aspects that can affect the selection of protective measures applicable to specific regions, and the selection of the different weights to be associated to the different criteria that are to be applied to different social-politic environments. The present work describes the development, already in advanced phase, of a Multi-criteria tool to support the decision making process for the implementation of protective measures to protect the public in situations of radiological accidents, with the degree of flexibility to be easily adapted to the different social, political and climatic regions of Brazil, through the comparison of different options considering a diversity of aspects, such as the efficiency of the measure in the reducing public exposure, the radiation doses that would be received by the workers, the characteristics of the generated wastes, the difficulty of implementation of the measures, as well as the operational costs related to the implementation of the measures. The aim of such analysis is to supply an optimized guidance, under the point of view of radiological protection, adequate for different types of environments that

  4. Criteria for the Development of Complex Teaching-Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtenhagen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Relates aspects of the didactic tradition, especially the German didactic tradition, to the theory and practice of instructional design. Focuses on processes that are necessary to the modeling of reality and describes the design and development of a virtual enterprise as a complex teaching-learning environment in a German business school.…

  5. Protection of the natural environment - philosophy and criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear operations give rise to small releases of radionuclides to the environment either under controlled conditions (immediate releases) or uncontrolled from waste repositories in the near or far future (delayed releases). The radiation doses to man from the discharges can be estimated using radioecological and dispersion modelling methods. The system for limiting exposure of individual members of the public is currently based on the recommendation by the ICRP. Their risk philosophy, which stems from the fact that the probability of cancer resulting from radiation will be linear with dose, has hitherto gained broad acceptances for setting authorised dose-limits for man. A discussion has recently emerged on the protection of the natural environment from harmful radiation effects. In this case there is concern for the viability of the population rather than the individuals. As our understanding of important mechanisms regarding the protection of the environment is limited it seems appropriate to adopt a precautionary approach. In matters where little is known about the risks the precautionary principle has a major role to play. Concomitantly, the best available technology (BAT), as stated in the precautionary principle, could be employed to minimise discharges of radionuclides. The development of a regulatory frame-work requires that an objective is set and that standards and indicators are derived in a multi-tiered approach. By applying the precautionary principle for environmental radiation protection the safety margins have to increase. However improving knowledge may in due time lead to more rational decision-making

  6. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The populations, infrastructure and ecology of cities are at risk from the impacts of climate change which affect urban ventilation and cooling, urban drainage and flood risk and water resources. Built areas exert considerable influence over their local climate and environment, and urban populations are already facing a ...

  7. Sustainable development criteria for Built Environment projects in South Africa (CSIR)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on work undertaken for the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD) developing a set of sustainable development criteria for built environment projects requiring environmental impact assessments. (Gibberd...

  8. Asian Urban Environment and Climate Change: Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Julian; Wu, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    The Asian Network on Climate Science and Technology (www.ancst.org), in collaboration with Tsinghua University, held a conference on environmental and climate science, air pollution, urban planning and transportation in July 2015, with over 40 Asian experts participating and presentation. This was followed by a meeting with local government and community experts on the practical conclusions of the conference. Of the papers presented at the conference a selection are included in this special issue of Journal of Environmental Science, which also reflects the conclusions of the Paris Climate meeting in Dec 2015, when the major nations of the world agreed about the compelling need to reduce the upward trend of adverse impacts associated with global climate change. Now is the time for urban areas to work out the serious consequences for their populations, but also how they should work together to take action to reduce global warming to benefit their own communities and also the whole planet! Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Criteria for selecting a CO2/climate change region of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.; Easterling, W.; Rosenberg, N.; Malone, T.; Edmonds, J.; Scott, M.; Stoke, G.

    1989-01-01

    This effort has three near-term goals: (1) to develop robust methods of analysis including the analysis of uncertainty; (2) to develop information systems to support CO 2 /climate change analysis; and (3) to develop channels of communication among researchers and between researchers and parties potentially affected by CO 2 /climate change. Initially, the program will focus on a single region of the United States, employ a historical analog climate, and analyze the interactions of all of the resources resident within that region as they might evolve under current conditions and under evolving CO 2 /climate change over the next 50 years. Five elements of the program will address the issues of: Analysis, Information Systems, Uncertainty, Knowledge Transfer, and Coordination. This paper will give special attention to the analytical framework and in particular to the criteria for selecting a region for study. 19 refs., 2 figs

  10. A multi-criteria evaluation method for climate change mitigation policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konidari, Popi; Mavrakis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multi-criteria analysis method for the quantitative evaluation of climate change mitigation policy instruments. The method consists of: (i) a set of criteria supported by sub-criteria, all of which describe the complex framework under which these instruments are selected by policy makers and implemented, (ii) an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) process for defining weight coefficients for criteria and sub-criteria according to the preferences of three stakeholders groups and (iii) a Multi-Attribute Theory (MAUT)/Simple Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART) process for assigning grades to each instrument that is evaluated for its performance under a specific sub-criterion. Arguments for the selected combination of these standard methods and definitions for criteria/sub-criteria are quoted. Consistency and robustness tests are performed. The functionality of the proposed method is tested by assessing the aggregate performances of the EU emission trading scheme at Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. Conclusions are discussed

  11. Enhancing ethical climates in nursing work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Janet; Rodney, Patricia; Pauly, Bernadette; Fulton, Thomas Reilly; Stevenson, Lynn; Newton, Lorelei; Makaroff, Kara Schick

    2009-03-01

    In the current era of providing health care under pressure, considerable strain has been placed on nurses workplaces. Underneath the economic and organizational challenges prevalent in health-care delivery today are important values that shape the ethical climate in workplaces and affect the well-being of nurses, managers, patients and families. In this article, the authors report on the outcomes of Leadership for Ethical Policy and Practice, a three-year participatory action research study involving nurses, managers and other health-care team members in organizations throughout British Columbia. By using an ethics lens to look at problems, participants brought ethical concerns out into the open and were able to gain new insights and identify strategies for action to improve the ethical climate. Nurse leader support was essential for initiating and sustaining projects at six practice sites.

  12. Climate change adaptation of the built environment – an examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    phenomena. This is why the term 'environmental changes' might be more accurate than climate change. ‘Environmental changes’ suggests that climate changes ought to be understood as extensive environmental changes, with an impact on the built environment. Following this, it is no longer sufficient only...... to assess for example a building, and anthropogenic impacts on the environment, also the impact of the environment on installations, and on the human activities must be included in the analysis and assessments. Based on observations and investigations into climate change adaptation in DK and abroad......In a Danish context, climate changes are primarily manifested in an interaction between modified wind and precipitation patterns, increasing temperature and a rising sea level. The individual factors often act together and are reinforced in interaction with already known natural and cultural...

  13. Antarctic climate change and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive, up-to-date account of how the physical and biological : environment of the Antarctic continent and Southern Ocean has changed from Deep Time until : the present day. It also considers how the Antarctic environmen...

  14. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  15. Prioritization of water management under climate change and urbanization using multi-criteria decision making methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the transformed effectiveness of alternatives for watershed management caused by climate change and urbanization and prioritizes five options using multi-criteria decision making techniques. The climate change scenarios (A1B and A2 were obtained by using a statistical downscaling model (SDSM, and the urbanization scenario by surveying the existing urban planning. The flow and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD concentration duration curves were derived, and the numbers of days required to satisfy the environmental flow requirement and the target BOD concentration were counted using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF model. In addition, five feasible alternatives were prioritized by using multi-criteria decision making techniques, based on the driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR framework and cost component. Finally, a sensitivity analysis approach for MCDM methods was conducted to reduce the uncertainty of weights. The result indicates that the most sensitive decision criterion is cost, followed by criteria response, driving force, impact, state and pressure in that order. As it is certain that the importance of cost component is over 0.127, construction of a small wastewater treatment plant will be the most preferred alternative in this application.

  16. Human activities and climate and environment changes: an inevitable relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Aretha

    2009-01-01

    The human interference in the environment and the consequent climate change is today a consensus. The climate change can be local, regional and global. The global climate change is mainly caused by the greenhouse gases, and consequently the climate change intervenes in the environment. The interference cycle emerges in several forms and results in several consequences. However, the Global Warming has certainly the most import global impact. The main cause of the increase in the temperature (Greenhouse Effect) is the intensive use of the fossil fuels. Thus, to minimize the climatic changes actions are necessary to reduce, to substitute and to use with more efficient the fossil fuels. Looking at the past, the old agriculturists may have released greenhouse gases since thousand years ago, thus, modifying slowly but in significant form the earth climate much before the Industrial Age. If this theory is confirmed, its consequences would be decisive for the man history in the planet. For example, in parts of the North America and Europe the current temperatures could be even four Celsius degrees smaller. This change in temperature is enough to hinder agricultural used of these regions and consequently to diminish the human development. The main focus of this work is to perform a retrospective in some of civilizations who collapse due to environmental problems and make a historical description of the human activities (agriculture and livestock) since the primordium of the man up to the Industrial Age, aiming at the man interference on the natural dynamics of the global climate and the environment. This work will show through data comparisons and inferences that the gases emissions from these activities had a significant magnitude comparatively by the emissions after the Industrial Age. It is also demonstrated that the climate and environment interference was inevitable because the human evolution was caused by these activities. Another important point of this work is to

  17. Review: The impact of changing human environment and climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of human-induced climate change through industrialization with the consequent depletion of the ozone layer of the environment is now observed to compromise the sustainability of human development as it threatens the ecological support system on which life depends in addition to encouraging the emergence ...

  18. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The Academic Training is postponed.

  19. Justice in Urban Climate Change Adaptation: Criteria and Application to Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hughes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities around the world are increasingly developing plans to adapt to the consequences of climate change. These plans will have important consequences for urban populations because they are likely to reshape and reconfigure urban infrastructures, services, and decision making processes. It is critical that these adaptation plans are developed in a way that is just. Criteria was developed that can be used to assess justice in adaptation so that the processes, priorities, and impacts address the needs of the most vulnerable urban populations. Further, mechanisms are outlined that have been proposed as responsible for producing urban injustice. The justice criteria are applied to the case of adaptation planning in Delhi and the extent to which poor and informal populations are included and affected by this planning. The analysis shows that adaptation planning in Delhi does not meet the justice criteria in part because of a lack of capacity and the political economy of poverty in the city. The criteria for justice and mechanisms of injustice offer an important step toward developing a greater understanding of not only whether city-level adaptation planning is just, but also why it is or is not.

  20. Climate change impacts on the disposal environment: a climate analogue approach - 59274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Mallants, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) aims to develop a surface disposal facility for L/ILW in Dessel (North-East of Belgium). The objective of this study is to provide estimates for the next few millennia of both infiltration through the planned earth cover and groundwater recharge in the vicinity of the Dessel site. Available predictions of future temperature and precipitation often extend until AD 2100 only (e.g. IPCC). To circumvent this data limitation, we use existing records of climatic analogue stations deemed representative of future climates in Belgium. The following climate states are considered: DO (maritime temperate, present-day climate in Dessel), Cs/Cr (subtropical with dry summers/no rainfall seasonality), EO (cold without permafrost) and FT (cold with permafrost). Climate data is then used in 1-D modelling of the soil-plant-atmosphere system to quantify infiltration through the earth cover and recharge to groundwater for a sequence of probable future climate states. Using criteria including altitude, distance to moisture source, and atmospheric circulation system, several analogue stations were selected for each climate state Cs/Cr and EO/FT. They provided time series (30 years) of meteorological observations that allowed calculating potential evapotranspiration and water balance components for soils overlying the repository

  1. The Climate-G testbed: towards a large scale data sharing environment for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, G.; Fiore, S.; Denvil, S.; Petitdidier, M.; Fox, P.; Schwichtenberg, H.; Blower, J.; Barbera, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Climate-G testbed provides an experimental large scale data environment for climate change addressing challenging data and metadata management issues. The main scope of Climate-G is to allow scientists to carry out geographical and cross-institutional climate data discovery, access, visualization and sharing. Climate-G is a multidisciplinary collaboration involving both climate and computer scientists and it currently involves several partners such as: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), Fraunhofer Institut für Algorithmen und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen (SCAI), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), University of Reading, University of Catania and University of Salento. To perform distributed metadata search and discovery, we adopted a CMCC metadata solution (which provides a high level of scalability, transparency, fault tolerance and autonomy) leveraging both on P2P and grid technologies (GRelC Data Access and Integration Service). Moreover, data are available through OPeNDAP/THREDDS services, Live Access Server as well as the OGC compliant Web Map Service and they can be downloaded, visualized, accessed into the proposed environment through the Climate-G Data Distribution Centre (DDC), the web gateway to the Climate-G digital library. The DDC is a data-grid portal allowing users to easily, securely and transparently perform search/discovery, metadata management, data access, data visualization, etc. Godiva2 (integrated into the DDC) displays 2D maps (and animations) and also exports maps for display on the Google Earth virtual globe. Presently, Climate-G publishes (through the DDC) about 2TB of data related to the ENSEMBLES project (also including distributed replicas of data) as well as to the IPCC AR4. The main results of the proposed work are: wide data access/sharing environment for climate change; P2P/grid metadata approach; production-level Climate-G DDC; high quality tools for

  2. Flexible Environments for Grand-Challenge Simulation in Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrehumbert, R.; Tobis, M.; Lin, J.; Dieterich, C.; Caballero, R.

    2004-12-01

    Current climate models are monolithic codes, generally in Fortran, aimed at high-performance simulation of the modern climate. Though they adequately serve their designated purpose, they present major barriers to application in other problems. Tailoring them to paleoclimate of planetary simulations, for instance, takes months of work. Theoretical studies, where one may want to remove selected processes or break feedback loops, are similarly hindered. Further, current climate models are of little value in education, since the implementation of textbook concepts and equations in the code is obscured by technical detail. The Climate Systems Center at the University of Chicago seeks to overcome these limitations by bringing modern object-oriented design into the business of climate modeling. Our ultimate goal is to produce an end-to-end modeling environment capable of configuring anything from a simple single-column radiative-convective model to a full 3-D coupled climate model using a uniform, flexible interface. Technically, the modeling environment is implemented as a Python-based software component toolkit: key number-crunching procedures are implemented as discrete, compiled-language components 'glued' together and co-ordinated by Python, combining the high performance of compiled languages and the flexibility and extensibility of Python. We are incrementally working towards this final objective following a series of distinct, complementary lines. We will present an overview of these activities, including PyOM, a Python-based finite-difference ocean model allowing run-time selection of different Arakawa grids and physical parameterizations; CliMT, an atmospheric modeling toolkit providing a library of 'legacy' radiative, convective and dynamical modules which can be knitted into dynamical models, and PyCCSM, a version of NCAR's Community Climate System Model in which the coupler and run-control architecture are re-implemented in Python, augmenting its flexibility

  3. Cropping Systems and Climate Change in Humid Subtropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixchel M. Hernandez-Ochoa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the future, climate change will challenge food security by threatening crop production. Humid subtropical regions play an important role in global food security, with crop rotations often including wheat (winter crop and soybean and maize (summer crops. Over the last 30 years, the humid subtropics in the Northern Hemisphere have experienced a stronger warming trend than in the Southern Hemisphere, and the trend is projected to continue throughout the mid- and end of century. Past rainfall trends range, from increases up to 4% per decade in Southeast China to −3% decadal decline in East Australia; a similar trend is projected in the future. Climate change impact studies suggest that by the middle and end of the century, wheat yields may not change, or they will increase up to 17%. Soybean yields will increase between 3% and 41%, while maize yields will increase by 30% or decline by −40%. These wide-ranging climate change impacts are partly due to the region-specific projections, but also due to different global climate models, climate change scenarios, single-model uncertainties, and cropping system assumptions, making it difficult to make conclusions from these impact studies and develop adaptation strategies. Additionally, most of the crop models used in these studies do not include major common stresses in this environment, such as heat, frost, excess water, pests, and diseases. Standard protocols and impact assessments across the humid subtropical regions are needed to understand climate change impacts and prepare for adaptation strategies.

  4. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  5. Development of fuzzy multi-criteria approach to prioritize locations of treated wastewater use considering climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Sung; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a robust prioritization framework to identify the priorities of treated wastewater (TWW) use locations with consideration of various uncertainties inherent in the climate change scenarios and the decision-making process. First, a fuzzy concept was applied because future forecast precipitation and their hydrological impact analysis results displayed significant variances when considering various climate change scenarios and long periods (e.g., 2010-2099). Second, various multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques including weighted sum method (WSM), Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and fuzzy TOPSIS were introduced to robust prioritization because different MCDM methods use different decision philosophies. Third, decision making method under complete uncertainty (DMCU) including maximin, maximax, minimax regret, Hurwicz, and equal likelihood were used to find robust final rankings. This framework is then applied to a Korean urban watershed. As a result, different rankings were obviously appeared between fuzzy TOPSIS and non-fuzzy MCDMs (e.g., WSM and TOPSIS) because the inter-annual variability in effectiveness was considered only with fuzzy TOPSIS. Then, robust prioritizations were derived based on 18 rankings from nine decadal periods of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. For more robust rankings, five DMCU approaches using the rankings from fuzzy TOPSIS were derived. This framework combining fuzzy TOPSIS with DMCU approaches can be rendered less controversial among stakeholders under complete uncertainty of changing environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  7. Linkages between the Urban Environment and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2003-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025 60% of the world s population will live in cities (UNFP, 1999). Though urban areas are local in scale, human activity in urban environments has impacts at local, to global scale by changing atmospheric composition; impacting components of the water cycle; and modifying the carbon cycle 2nd ecosystems. For example, urban dwellers are undoubtedly familiar with "high" ozone pollution days, flash flooding in city streets, or heat stress on summer days. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s weather, oceans, and land work together and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. This paper highlights some of the major and current issues involving interactions between urban environments and the Earth's climate system. It also captures some of the most current thinking and findings of the authors and key experts in the field.

  8. To What Extent Do Biology Textbooks Contribute to Scientific Literacy? Criteria for Analysing Science-Technology-Society-Environment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Florbela M.; Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Our article proposes a set of six criteria for analysing science-technology-society-environment (STSE) issues in regular textbooks as to how they are expected to contribute to students' scientific literacy. We chose genetics and gene technology as fields prolific in STSE issues. We derived our criteria (including 26 sub-criteria) from a literature…

  9. Integrating climate change criteria in reforestation projects using a hybrid decision-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Gonzalez-Utrillas, Nuria; Canto-Perello, Julian; Martin-Utrillas, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The selection of appropriate species in a reforestation project has always been a complex decision-making problem in which, due mostly to government policies and other stakeholders, not only economic criteria but also other environmental issues interact. Climate change has not usually been taken into account in traditional reforestation decision-making strategies and management procedures. Moreover, there is a lack of agreement on the percentage of each one of the species in reforestation planning, which is usually calculated in a discretionary way. In this context, an effective multicriteria technique has been developed in order to improve the process of selecting species for reforestation in the Mediterranean region of Spain. A hybrid Delphi-AHP methodology is proposed, which includes a consistency analysis in order to reduce random choices. As a result, this technique provides an optimal percentage distribution of the appropriate species to be used in reforestation planning. The highest values of the weight given for each subcriteria corresponded to FR (fire forest response) and PR (pests and diseases risk), because of the increasing importance of the impact of climate change in the forest. However, CB (conservation of biodiversitiy) was in the third position in line with the aim of reforestation. Therefore, the most suitable species were Quercus faginea (19.75%) and Quercus ilex (19.35%), which offer a good balance between all the factors affecting the success and viability of reforestation.

  10. Climate change, living environment and ways of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervelae, M.; Wilenius, M.

    1994-01-01

    The research project 'Climate Change, Living Environment and Way of Life' is focused on the social concepts of risks and of proposed policies related to global environmental problems as seen by representatives of various social groups. Drawing on the social-scientific methodology and applying its concept apparatus, the research project focuses on two central problems in the field of contemporary environmental research. Firstly, with the way in which environmental problems influence people's values and attitudes. Secondly, with the question of how people seek to act and to show solidarity towards new generations by means of environmental policies or by protecting nature within the framework of their private ways of life

  11. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16 November from 11:00 to 12:00 - TH Auditorium, bldg. 4 Climate change and challenges for the environment by C. Schlüchter / Institut für Geologie, Univ. Bern, CH Climate change as seen by a geologist Glaciers are an integrated part of the high altitudes and the high latitudes of our planet. They are sensitive to temperature and moisture changes and adjust their mass balances accordingly. By doing so they interact with their substratum, the geological basement and they produce characteristic imprints of their presence, their variability and their disappearance. In glacial geology and paleoglaciology such imprints of former glaciers are carefully recorded, mapped and, hopefully, dated in order to obtain amplitude and periodicity records of their changes - as forced by changing climate, as we believe. In the upcoming lectures three aspects will be discussed: the last glaciation in the Swiss Alps. A reconstruction is shown based on fieldwor...

  12. CRITERIA OF LANGUAGE AND PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT SELECTION FOR USE IN THE CAPACITY OF EDUCATIONAL AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro H. Shevchuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of educational aids is to a large degree treated to be determinative in provision with its efficiency. The languages and programming environments are stated in the article as those that belong to educational aids. The criteria and backgrounds of their selection for educational purpose at the lessons of programming at comprehensive school are treated in the article. The examples of principle characteristics comparison of Pascal and C# are also cited. The article points at the necessity of further analysis of programming languages sampling for use as educational aids in teaching programming.

  13. Enabling Efficient Climate Science Workflows in High Performance Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, H.; Byna, S.; Wehner, M. F.; Gu, J.; O'Brien, T. A.; Loring, B.; Stone, D. A.; Collins, W.; Prabhat, M.; Liu, Y.; Johnson, J. N.; Paciorek, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A typical climate science workflow often involves a combination of acquisition of data, modeling, simulation, analysis, visualization, publishing, and storage of results. Each of these tasks provide a myriad of challenges when running on a high performance computing environment such as Hopper or Edison at NERSC. Hurdles such as data transfer and management, job scheduling, parallel analysis routines, and publication require a lot of forethought and planning to ensure that proper quality control mechanisms are in place. These steps require effectively utilizing a combination of well tested and newly developed functionality to move data, perform analysis, apply statistical routines, and finally, serve results and tools to the greater scientific community. As part of the CAlibrated and Systematic Characterization, Attribution and Detection of Extremes (CASCADE) project we highlight a stack of tools our team utilizes and has developed to ensure that large scale simulation and analysis work are commonplace and provide operations that assist in everything from generation/procurement of data (HTAR/Globus) to automating publication of results to portals like the Earth Systems Grid Federation (ESGF), all while executing everything in between in a scalable environment in a task parallel way (MPI). We highlight the use and benefit of these tools by showing several climate science analysis use cases they have been applied to.

  14. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Irrigated Agriculture Suitability to Achieve Food Security in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Aldababseh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at assessing land suitability for large-scale agriculture using multiple spatial datasets which include climate conditions, water potential, soil capabilities, topography and land management. The study case is in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, in the UAE. The aridity of climate in the region requires accounting for non-renewable sources like desalination and treated sewage effluent (TSE for an accurate and realistic assessment of irrigated agriculture suitability. All datasets were systematically aggregated using an analytical hierarchical process (AHP in a GIS model. A hierarchal structure is built and pairwise comparisons matrices are used to calculate weights of the criteria. All spatial processes were integrated to model land suitability and different types of crops are considered in the analysis. Results show that jojoba and sorghum show the best capabilities to survive under the current conditions, followed by date palm, fruits and forage. Vegetables and cereals proved to be the least preferable options. Introducing desalinated water and TSE enhanced land suitability for irrigated agriculture. These findings have positive implications for national planning, the decision-making process of land alteration for agricultural use and addressing sustainable land management and food security issues.

  15. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Hongoh

    Full Text Available Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization

  16. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Gosselin, Pierre; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Campagna, Céline; Samoura, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization exercises relating to

  17. Academic Training: Climate change and challenges for the environment / POSTPONED!!!

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22 June 20, 21, 22 June, from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Climate change and challenges for the environment C. SCHLUECHTER / Univ. Bern, CH The seminar is postponed. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt.

  18. Towards a sustainable Asia. Environment and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This series of books are the output of the research project called ''Sustainable Development in Asia (SDA)'', which was initiated by the Association of Academies of Sciences in Asia (AASA). They are comprised of one synthesis report, which entitled ''Towards a Sustainable Asia: Green Transition and Innovation'', and four thematic reports on natural resources, energy, the environment and climate change, and culture from particular perspectives of agriculture. They aim to: (1) investigate common sustainability issues faced by all Asian countries, including population increase, poverty alleviation, pollution control, ecological restoration, as well as regional problems, such as water shortage in West and Central Asia, energy security in Northeast Asia, development model and transformation in East Asia; (2) analyze and summarize of best practices towards sustainable development in Asia; (3) bring forward suggestions and policy options for promoting green transition, system innovation and sustainable development of Asia. With best practice guidelines for a sustainable Asia, this series of reports, for the first time systematically address the common challenges and regional problems in regard to Asia's natural resources use, pollution reduction and climate protection, sustainable energy development, and innovations for environment-friendly and culture-compatible agriculture. They will provide handy and useful information to researchers, government policy makers and the general public who have concerns about Asia's sustainable development. AASA is a scientific and technological organization in Asia, established in 2000, comprising of 26 member academies all over Asia. Its vision is to provide a forum for the discussion of all issues relevant to science and technology development and its application on national level within Asia. (orig.)

  19. Effect of climatic change on surface environments in the typical region of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The town of Agura,a typical region in Horqin Sandy Land,was selected as the study area in this paper.Using 12 remote sensing images and climatic data from the past 20 years,the effects of climate change on surface environments were analyzed.The impact indices of climatic factors,along with their corresponding ranks,were used to characterize the responses of different types of surface environments to climate change.Results show that in the past 20 years,the surface environments of the study area have been deteriorating.Furthermore,there is a positive relationship between the changes in surface environments and those in climatic factors.Various climatic factors influence surface environments in different ways and at different levels.The most sensitive factor is relative humidity,followed by precipitation and evaporation.Overall,moisture is the key factor that affects the changes in surface environments of arid and semi-arid areas.

  20. Determination of water environment standards based on water quality criteria in China: Limitations and feasibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tieyu; Zhou, Yunqiao; Bi, Cencen; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Giesy, John P

    2017-07-01

    There is a need to formulate water environment standards (WESs) from the current water quality criteria (WQC) in China. To this end, we briefly summarize typical mechanisms applied in several countries with longer histories of developing WESs, and three limitations to formulating WESs in China were identified. After analyzing the feasibility factors including economic development, scientific support capability and environmental policies, we realized that China is still not ready for a complete change from its current nation-wide unified WES system to a local-standard-based system. Thus, we proposed a framework for transformation from WQC to WESs in China. The framework consists of three parts, including responsibilities, processes and policies. The responsibilities include research authorization, development of guidelines, and collection of information, at both national and local levels; the processes include four steps and an impact factor system to establish water quality standards; and the policies include seven specific proposals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  2. Development of the virtual research environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of global climate change impacts on the regional environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander; Fazliev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Description and the first results of the Russian Science Foundation project "Virtual computational information environment for analysis, evaluation and prediction of the impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of a selected region" is presented. The project is aimed at development of an Internet-accessible computation and information environment providing unskilled in numerical modelling and software design specialists, decision-makers and stakeholders with reliable and easy-used tools for in-depth statistical analysis of climatic characteristics, and instruments for detailed analysis, assessment and prediction of impacts of global climate change on the environment and climate of the targeted region. In the framework of the project, approaches of "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets will be developed on the technical platform of the Russian leading institution involved in research of climate change and its consequences. Anticipated results will create a pathway for development and deployment of thematic international virtual research laboratory focused on interdisciplinary environmental studies. VRE under development will comprise best features and functionality of earlier developed information and computing system CLIMATE (http://climate.scert.ru/), which is widely used in Northern Eurasia environment studies. The Project includes several major directions of research listed below. 1. Preparation of geo-referenced data sets, describing the dynamics of the current and possible future climate and environmental changes in detail. 2. Improvement of methods of analysis of climate change. 3. Enhancing the functionality of the VRE prototype in order to create a convenient and reliable tool for the study of regional social, economic and political consequences of climate change. 4. Using the output of the first three tasks, compilation of the VRE prototype, its validation, preparation of applicable detailed description of

  3. Visual Climate Knowledge Discovery within a Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Magnus; Kiertscher, Simon; Lang, Ulrich; Nocke, Thomas; Wahnes, Jens; Winkelmann, Volker

    2013-04-01

    The C3Grid-INAD project aims to provide a common grid infrastructure for the climate science community to improve access to climate related data and domain workflows via the Internet. To make sense of the heterogeneous, often large-sized or even dynamically generated and modified files originating from C3Grid, a highly flexible and user-friendly analysis software is needed to run on different high-performance computing nodes within the grid environment, when requested by a user. Because visual analysis tools directly address human visual perception and therefore are being considered to be highly intuitive, two distinct visualization workflows have been integrated in C3Grid-INAD, targeting different application backgrounds. First, a GrADS-based workflow enables the ad-hoc visualization of selected datasets in respect to data source, temporal and spatial extent, as well as variables of interest. Being low in resource demands, this workflow allows for users to gain fast insights through basic spatial visualization. For more advanced visual analysis purposes, a second workflow enables the user to start a visualization session via Virtual Network Computing (VNC) and VirtualGL to access high-performance computing nodes on which a wide variety of different visual analysis tools are provided. These are made available using the easy-to-use software system SimEnvVis. Considering metadata as well as user preferences and analysis goals, SimEnvVis evaluates the attached tools and launches the selected visual analysis tool by providing a dynamically parameterized template. This approach facilitates the selection of the most suitable tools, and at the same time eases the process of familiarization with them. Because of a higher demand for computational resources, SimEnvVis-sessions are restricted to a smaller set of users at a time. This architecture enables climate scientists not only to remotely access, but also to visually analyze highly heterogeneous data originating from C3

  4. Review on Climate Control Chamber studies in studying plant environment interaction under climate change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Geethalakshmi, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, K.; Lakshmanan, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical brief summarizes some of the studies conducted on rice using a climate control chamber and outlines the studies that will be undertaken in the Climate Control Chamber facility that has been established at the Agro Climate Research Center at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. In recent years a numbers of technologies have been developed to study the impact of climate change on agricultural systems. Crop response to climate change could be studied by using a climate ...

  5. Improved climate risk simulations for rice in arid environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepijn A J van Oort

    Full Text Available We integrated recent research on cardinal temperatures for phenology and early leaf growth, spikelet formation, early morning flowering, transpirational cooling, and heat- and cold-induced sterility into an existing to crop growth model ORYZA2000. We compared for an arid environment observed potential yields with yields simulated with default ORYZA2000, with modified subversions of ORYZA2000 and with ORYZA_S, a model developed for the region of interest in the 1990s. Rice variety 'IR64' was sown monthly 15-times in a row in two locations in Senegal. The Senegal River Valley is located in the Sahel, near the Sahara desert with extreme temperatures during day and night. The existing subroutines underestimated cold stress and overestimated heat stress. Forcing the model to use observed spikelet number and phenology and replacing the existing heat and cold subroutines improved accuracy of yield simulation from EF = -0.32 to EF =0.70 (EF is modelling efficiency. The main causes of improved accuracy were that the new model subversions take into account transpirational cooling (which is high in arid environments and early morning flowering for heat sterility, and minimum rather than average temperature for cold sterility. Simulations were less accurate when also spikelet number and phenology were simulated. Model efficiency was 0.14 with new heat and cold routines and improved to 0.48 when using new cardinal temperatures for phenology and early leaf growth. The new adapted subversion of ORYZA2000 offers a powerful analytic tool for climate change impact assessment and cropping calendar optimisation in arid regions.

  6. Summary of climatic input for waste management site suitability criteria and state of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    Because groundwater movement can have important effects on buried nuclear wastes, hydrologists need to know if future climatic changes will influence the accuracy of groundwater flow calculations. Groundwater recharge (and therefore groundwater flow) depends on surface water balance. (Surface water balance equals precipitation less losses to evaporation, runoff, and storage.) To develop input data for modeling future climatic effects, we have made the following simplifying assumptions: (1) Climate (and therefore water balance) will behave in the future very much as it has in the past. (2) Groundwater recharge responds linearly to precipitation. (3) Future long-term climatic changes can be classified into groups or regimes that are similar to those of the past. Our current research is aimed at providing input data to the Waste Management Program's site suitability task. 16 figures, 1 table

  7. Climate Change and Societal Response: Livelihoods, Communities, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change may be considered a natural disaster evolving in slow motion on a global scale. Increasing storm intensities, shifting rainfall patterns, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and other manifold alterations are being experienced around the world. Climate has never been constant in any location, but human-induced changes associated…

  8. Multi-criteria evaluation of CMIP5 GCMs for climate change impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts on global hydrological cycle along with food-water-energy nexus. Currently, there are many climate models used in predicting important climatic variables. Though there have been advances in the field, there are still many problems to be resolved related to reliability, uncertainty, and computing needs, among many others. In the present work, we have analyzed performance of 20 different global climate models (GCMs) from Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) dataset over the Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest USA. We demonstrate a statistical multicriteria approach, using univariate and multivariate techniques, for selecting suitable GCMs to be used for climate change impact analysis in the region. Univariate methods includes mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, relative change (variability), Mann-Kendall test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test); whereas multivariate methods used were principal component analysis (PCA), singular value decomposition (SVD), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and cluster analysis. The analysis is performed on raw GCM data, i.e., before bias correction, for precipitation and temperature climatic variables for all the 20 models to capture the reliability and nature of the particular model at regional scale. The analysis is based on spatially averaged datasets of GCMs and observation for the period of 1970 to 2000. Ranking is provided to each of the GCMs based on the performance evaluated against gridded observational data on various temporal scales (daily, monthly, and seasonal). Results have provided insight into each of the methods and various statistical properties addressed by them employed in ranking GCMs. Further; evaluation was also performed for raw GCM simulations against different sets of gridded observational dataset in the area.

  9. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    global climate change and the urgent need for energy efficient infrastructure and .... may be the use of floodplain maps to steer development away from flood prone ..... Hayhoe K, Wake C, Huntington T, Luo L, Schwartz M, Sheffield J,. Wood E ...

  10. Climate change, adaptation and the environment in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for integrated approaches, such as the building of environmental management into climate change responses, addressing the total impact of livelihood stresses in social vulnerability perspectives, and ensuring that overall adaptation policies adequately address social justice...

  11. A Work Environment Climate Assessment of an Army Acquisition Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doelling, Michael C; Kalapacs, Jenni J

    2005-01-01

    .... The goal of this Joint Applied Project was to identify organizational climate characteristics of the Army Acquisition Center to provide supervisors with data on the extent to which employees perceive...

  12. Population dynamics under increasing environmental variability: implications of climate change for ecological network design criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, J.; Schippers, P.; Cormont, A.; Sterk, M.; Vos, C.C.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that climate change causes an increase in variation in conditions for plant and animal populations. This increase in variation, e.g. amplified inter-annual variability in temperature and rainfall has population dynamical consequences because it raises the variation in vital

  13. Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Global climate change is rife with uncertainties. Yet, we can expect to resolve much of this uncertainty in the next 100 years or so. Therefore, current actions should reflect the value of flexibility. Nevertheless, most models of climate change, particularly game-theoretic models, abstract from uncertainty. A model of the impacts of uncertainty and learning in a non-cooperative game shows that the level of correlation of damages across countries is crucial for determining optimal policy

  14. European research on Climat change impact on human health and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pogonysheva I. A.; Kuznetsova V. P.; Pogonyshev D. A.; Lunyak I. I.

    2018-01-01

    European countries have accumulated a considerable body of research that proves both direct and indirect influence of climate change on human health. The article analyses “Protecting health in an environment challenged by climate change: European Regional Framework for Action”. The article gives a detailed analysis of the work of European Office of World Health Organisation and The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe related to climate change.

  15. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shord, A.L.

    1979-09-01

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices

  16. Intertemporal evaluation criteria for climate change policy: the basic ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Wolfgang; Schymura, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of long-term effects of climate change in cost-benefit analysis has a long tradition in environmental economics. Since the publication of the Stern Review in 2006 the debate about the "appropriate" discounting of future welfare and utility levels was revived and the most renowned scholars of the profession participated in this debate. But it seems that some contributions dealing with the Stern Review and the Review itself mixed up normative and positive issues to defend the own...

  17. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-01-01

    Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

  18. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR: CRITERIA, PRIORITIZING AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Upaya mitigasi di sektor pertanian menjadi sangat penting karena sektor ini berkontribusi terhadap munculnya emisi gas rumah kaca (GRK, namun demikian kajian terhadap kebutuhan teknologi untuk mitigasi belum dilakukan. Kajian difokuskan pada seleksi teknologi, kendala dan peluang untuk mengatasi masalah. Seleksi teknologi didasarkan pada criteria dan opsi teknologi yang diperlukan. Data dan informasi dikumpulkan dari berbagai lembaga baik badan, pusat dan lembaga-lembaga terkait lainnya serta melalui lokakarya yang melibatkan para pemangku kepentingan. Seleksi teknologi untuk mitigasi mempertimbangkan criteria umum yang meliputi pengurangan emisi GRK dari tanaman dan ternak, konservasi sumberdaya, untuk keberlanjutan keanekaragaman hayati, mengangkat isu energi hijau, keberlanjutan keamanan pangan, dan mengangkat isu energi alternatif; dan spesifik criteria yang meliputi memprioritaskan teknologi lokal untuk mitigasi, keberlanjutan plasma nutfah spesifik lokasi, memprioritaskan teknologi yang murah untuk petani miskin, introduksi varietas tanaman yang rendah emisi, mengganti sebagian pupuk kimia dengan pupuk organik, serta mengurangi emisi gas metana (CH4. Kriteria tersebut diskor kedalam 4 kelas, yaitu nilai tinggi/relevansi tinggi/sangat berdampak (skor 5, nilai sedang/relevan/berdampak sedang (skor: 3; nilai rendah/kurang relevan/kurang berdampak (skor: 1; dan tidak relevan/tidak berdampak (skor: 0. Hasil kjian menunjukkan bahwa prioritas teknologi yang dibutuhkan untuk mitigasi: (a untuk lahan sawah: varietas tanaman dengan emisi rendah, pemupukan yang tepat, tanpa olah tanah/olah tanah minimum, dan irigasi berselang, (b untuk tanaman tahunan: teknologi tebang baker yang tepat dan biofuel, (c untuk peternakan: teknologi pengomposan dan biogas, dan (d untuk lahan gambut: menghindari tebang bakar, menghindari drainasi yang berlebihan dan menjaga kelembaban tanah.   Mitigation action in agriculture sector is crucial since it contributes to

  19. Sugarcane ethanol: contributions to climate change mitigation and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, P.J.P.; Vooren, van de J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a challenge facing human life. It will change mobility and asks for new energy solutions. Bioenergy has gained increased attention as an alternative to fossil fuels. Energy based on renewable sources may offer part of the solution. Bio ethanol based on sugar cane offers advantages

  20. Climatic Change and the Future of the Human Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyakov, Vladimir M.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates the latest glaciological and oceanological data and demonstrates a strict correlation between global changes of temperature and gas composition of the atmosphere over the last climatic cycle. Concludes that global warming may not create an environmental crisis but will alter drastically the life people lead. (MJP)

  1. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Dynamic Educational e-Content Selection Using Multiple Criteria in Web-Based Personalized Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Sampson, Demetrios

    This paper focuses on the way a multi-criteria decision making methodology is applied in the case of agent-based selection of offered learning objects. The problem of selection is modeled as a decision making one, with the decision variables being the learner model and the learning objects' educational description. In this way, selection of…

  3. Climate change, marine environments, and the US Endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Erin E; Rowland, Melanie J; Lowery, Ruth Ann; Griffis, Roger B; McClure, Michelle M

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to be a top driver of global biodiversity loss in the 21st century. It poses new challenges to conserving and managing imperiled species, particularly in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The use of climate-related science in statutorily driven species management, such as under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), is in its early stages. This article provides an overview of ESA processes, with emphasis on the mandate to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to manage listed marine, estuarine, and anadromous species. Although the ESA is specific to the United States, its requirements are broadly relevant to conservation planning. Under the ESA, species, subspecies, and "distinct population segments" may be listed as either endangered or threatened, and taking of most listed species (harassing, harming, pursuing, wounding, killing, or capturing) is prohibited unless specifically authorized via a case-by-case permit process. Government agencies, in addition to avoiding take, must ensure that actions they fund, authorize, or conduct are not likely to jeopardize a listed species' continued existence or adversely affect designated critical habitat. Decisions for which climate change is likely to be a key factor include: determining whether a species should be listed under the ESA, designating critical habitat areas, developing species recovery plans, and predicting whether effects of proposed human activities will be compatible with ESA-listed species' survival and recovery. Scientific analyses that underlie these critical conservation decisions include risk assessment, long-term recovery planning, defining environmental baselines, predicting distribution, and defining appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Although specific guidance is still evolving, it is clear that the unprecedented changes in global ecosystems brought about by climate change necessitate new information and approaches to conservation of imperiled species. El

  4. France's Climate Plan. Implementation of the Grenelle Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report discusses the greenhouse gas emission reduction objectives by 2020 set by the French government within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' and also in compliance with France's commitments within international agreements and conferences, and indicates the share of each sector for these reductions (housing and office building, industry, energy, transports). This report first recalls the conclusions of the IPCC, indicates the observed evolutions and tendencies in the case of France, and describes the expected impacts of climate change. It gives an overview of the French climate policy and presents the methodology adopted to update the Climate Plan (scenarios, global assessment, assessment of the impact of some specific measures, cost assessment). Then, it describes French emission evolutions (globally and per sector) according to two scenarios by 2020. Global and transverse policies and measures are discussed, as well as those per sector (housing and office building, transport, industry, agriculture and forests, energy, wastes, public authorities and local communities, information and education). A global method of assessment of scenarios is presented, and an assessment of policies and measures is reported. A sensitivity study of the impact of the present crisis on France's emissions is also reported. The Kyoto protocol mechanism is described as well as the adaptation process

  5. Incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ex ante evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions. Development of a Multi Criteria Analysis weighting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafakos, S.; Zevgolis, D.; Oikonomou, V.

    2008-03-01

    Evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions is a complex issue which has not been addressed systematically. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) evaluation processes have been applied widely to different policy and decision cases as they have the ability to cope with high complexity, by structuring and analyzing the policy problem in a transparent and systematic way. Criteria weights elicitation techniques are developed within the framework of MCDA to integrate stakeholders' preferential information in the decision making and evaluation process. There are variant methods to determine criteria weights which can be used in various ways for different policy evaluation purposes. During decision making, policy makers and relevant stakeholders implicitly or explicitly express their relative importance between the evaluation criteria by assigning weighting factors to them. More particular, climate change policy problems lack a simple, transparent and structured way to incorporate stakeholders' views and values. In order to incorporate stakeholders' weighting preferences into an ex ante evaluation of climate change and energy policy instruments interaction, an integrative constructive weighting methodology has been developed. This paper presents the main characteristics of evaluation of energy and climate policy interactions, the reasoning behind the development of the weighting tool, its main theoretical and functional characteristics and the results of its application to obtain and incorporate stakeholders' preferences on energy and climate change policy evaluation criteria. The weighting method that has been elaborated and applied to derive stakeholders' preferences for criteria weights is a combination of pair wise comparisons and ratio importance weighting methods. Initially introduces the stakeholders to the evaluation process through a warming up holistic approach for ranking the criteria and then requires them to express their ratio relative importance

  6. Describing the Climate of Student Organizations: The Student Organization Environment Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roger B., Jr.; Bledsoe, Tyrone; Goldstein, Adam R.; Wisbey, Martha E.; Street, James L.; Brown, Steven R.; Goyen, Kenneth D.; Rounds, Linda E.

    1997-01-01

    Using M. R. Weisbord's model of organizational diagnosis, researchers developed the Student Organization Environment Scales to measure students' perceptions of the psychosocial environment or climate of college student organizations. Development of the instrument is described and estimates of its reliability and validity are reported. Describes…

  7. New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yaxing; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Kwok, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    The choice of proper wind comfort criterion is considered to be crucial to reliable assessment of pedestrian level wind comfort. This paper aims to propose a wind comfort criterion that can be applied to Hong Kong, in which the wind comfort is seriously deteriorated by the moderated airflow, part...... represent the weak wind condition and provide suitable assessments of the wind comfort in Hong Kong. Moreover, the findings in this study provide scientific basis for future policy-making and the proposed criteria can also help city planners to improve the pedestrian level wind comfort....

  8. Improved climate risk simulations for rice in arid environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Vries, de M.; Yoshida, H.; Saito, K.

    2015-01-01

    We integrated recent research on cardinal temperatures for phenology and early leaf growth, spikelet formation, early morning flowering, transpirational cooling, and heat- and cold-induced sterility into an existing to crop growth model ORYZA2000. We compared for an arid environment observed

  9. Disability-Friendly University Environments: Conducting a Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; Brown, Steven E.; Roberts, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes a supportive environment for all students with disabilities in postsecondary settings? After more than ten years of collecting data focused on the provision of educational supports to students with disabilities in postsecondary education, the authors have discovered numerous intervening variables that contribute to a supportive…

  10. Interactions of forests, climate, water resources, and humans in a changing environment: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Catalina Segura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial...

  11. Multi-criteria Group Decision Making Approach for Teacher Recruitment in Higher Education under Simplified Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision, and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets. Neutrosophic set, a generalization of fuzzy sets is characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity-membership function and an indeterminacy-membership function. These functions are real standard or non-standard subsets of ] 0-, 1+[ .There is no restriction on the sum of the functions, so the sum lies between ]0-, 3+[. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information, when compared to a fuzzy set. The purpose of this study is to develop a neutrosophic multi-criteria group decision-making model based on hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for teacher recruitment in higher education. Eight criteria obtained from expert opinions are considered for recruitment process. The criteria are namely academic performance index, teaching aptitude, subject knowledge, research experience, leadership quality, personality, management capacity, and personal values. In this paper we use the score and accuracy functions and the hybrid score-accuracy functions of single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs and ranking method for SVNNs. Then, multi-criteria group decision-making method with unknown weights for attributes and incompletely known weights for decision makers is used based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions under single valued neutrosophic environments. We use weight model for attributes based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions to derive the weights of decision makers and attributes from the decision matrices represented by the form of SVNNs to decrease the effect of some unreasonable evaluations. Moreover, we use the overall evaluation formulae of the weighted hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for each alternative to rank the alternatives and recruit the most desirable teachers. Finally, an educational problem for teacher selection is

  12. An Application of Multi-Criteria Shortest Path to a Customizable Hex-Map Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    47 Appendix A. Shortest Path Code ( VBA ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Appendix B. Quad Chart...efficient shortest path algorithm into the modeling environment, namely Excel VBA . While various algorithms offer the potential for more efficiency in...graphical interface is extremely intuitive and easily accessible to a user with no prior knowledge of the system. Since the Metz model is based on the

  13. A review of lot streaming in a flow shop environment with makespan criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gómez-Gasquet

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reviews current literature and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of the topic of lot streaming in a flow-shop. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review to capture, classify and summarize the main body of knowledge on lot streaming in a flow-shop with makespan criteria and, translate this into a form that is readily accessible to researchers and practitioners in the more mainstream production scheduling community. Findings and Originality/value: The existing knowledge base is somewhat fragmented. This is a relatively unexplored topic within mainstream operations management research and one which could provide rich opportunities for further exploration. Originality/value: This paper sets out to review current literature, from an advanced production scheduling perspective, and contributes a set of findings that capture the current state-of-the-art of this topic.

  14. Evaluating and prioritizing technologies for adaptation to climate change. A hands on guidance to multi criteria analysis (MCA) and the identification and assessment of related criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    The objective of this guidance is to guide consultants, decision makers and technical experts on how to facilitate discussions for prioritizing adaptation technologies, and to support the stakeholders in identifying appropriate criteria for this analysis.......The objective of this guidance is to guide consultants, decision makers and technical experts on how to facilitate discussions for prioritizing adaptation technologies, and to support the stakeholders in identifying appropriate criteria for this analysis....

  15. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  16. ECDS - a Swedish Research Infrastructure for the Open Sharing of Environment and Climate Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environment Climate Data Sweden (ECDS is a new Swedish research infrastructure, furthering the reuse of scientific data in the domains of environment and climate. ECDS consists of a technical infrastructure and a service organization, supporting the management, exchange, and re-use of scientific data. The technical components of ECDS include a portal and an underlying data catalogue with information on datasets. The datasets are described using a metadata profile compliant with international standards. The datasets accessible through ECDS can be hosted by universities, institutes, or research groups or at the new Swedish federated data storage facility Swestore of the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC.

  17. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  18. Climate Change and Integrodifference Equations in a Stochastic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhours, Juliette; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impacts population distributions, forcing some species to migrate poleward if they are to survive and keep up with the suitable habitat that is shifting with the temperature isoclines. Previous studies have analysed whether populations have the capacity to keep up with shifting temperature isoclines, and have mathematically determined the combination of growth and dispersal that is needed to achieve this. However, the rate of isocline movement can be highly variable, with much uncertainty associated with yearly shifts. The same is true for population growth rates. Growth rates can be variable and uncertain, even within suitable habitats for growth. In this paper, we reanalyse the question of population persistence in the context of the uncertainty and variability in isocline shifts and rates of growth. Specifically, we employ a stochastic integrodifference equation model on a patch of suitable habitat that shifts poleward at a random rate. We derive a metric describing the asymptotic growth rate of the linearised operator of the stochastic model. This metric yields a threshold criterion for population persistence. We demonstrate that the variability in the yearly shift and in the growth rate has a significant negative effect on the persistence in the sense that it decreases the threshold criterion for population persistence. Mathematically, we show how the persistence metric can be connected to the principal eigenvalue problem for a related integral operator, at least for the case where isocline shifting speed is deterministic. Analysis of dynamics for the case where the dispersal kernel is Gaussian leads to the existence of a critical shifting speed, above which the population will go extinct, and below which the population will persist. This leads to clear bounds on rate of environmental change if the population is to persist. Finally, we illustrate our different results for butterfly population using numerical simulations and demonstrate how

  19. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT USING THE MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH – CASE OF BALKAN’S TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Obradović

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of their own financial resources, attracting the foreign direct investment (FDI isthe main prerequisite for transitional economies in order to increase production and employment, sothat they can ensure the long term sustainable economic growth. In addition, the foreign directinvestment is an important instrument for the economy restructuring, based on market principles.However, achieving this goal is not simple at all. In order to attract foreign investors, it is necessaryto create a favorable business environment in transition countries, which requires a number ofeconomic, institutional, political and other reforms. The aim of this paper is to point out the mainfactors attracting foreign direct investment and, by using the multi-criteria approach, to rank theBalkan’s transition economies depending on the preferences of investors taking into account certaincomponents of the business environment.

  20. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized.

  1. Environment and Climate - the Past Half Century and the Next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theys, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    As the 21. Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) approaches (to be held in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015), there have in recent months been increasing debates on global warming and ways of stemming its further advance at the planetary level. Yet previous COPs have shown how difficult it was to arrive at concerted international regulation in this area, even if environmental issues have come, within a few decades, to occupy an important place on the political agenda. However, as Jacques Theys shows here in the specific case of France, though we have actually come a long way in terms of concern for ecological issues within national policy, the road to an ecological and energy transition that matches the challenges to come still seems a long one. With more than 40 years of experience in the intricacies of government environmental policy behind him, Jacques Theys assesses how well environmental issues have been integrated into the political agenda over the past half century. In that assessment, he identifies several waves of development which, though they may have brought notable advances, neglected to remedy a number of failings. Among these latter, we may highlight the 'isolation' of the environmental problem (as a sectorial rather than a general issue), 'excess of technocracy' in dealing with it, lack of attention to the social dimension of environmental challenges (which has probably limited the mobilization of opinion) and a cautiously passive stance that has meant simply reacting to problems rather than anticipating them. These lessons and the perceived difficulty of reconciling the timescales of nature, society, the economy and politics give a good indication of the magnitude of the problems to be faced in the next half-century where the political management of environmental questions is concerned. It will no longer do to be 'always fighting the last war

  2. Expected environments and climates in the northwestern USA in the next million years (the WISAP Climate Submodel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Probabilities of future climate-related stresses in northwestern USA in the coming million years were estimated as a contribution to a conceptual simulation model for release-scenario analysis of a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. The estimates are based upon the reconstructed history of past climates and environments. The assumption is made that the shifts in climate experienced in the past will be repeated in the future, principally unaffected by man's technology. We focused on the extremes and on the time interval of the first 100,000 years. We expect that the potentially most serious climate-related stresses will consist of the effects of future alpine glaciers and of the failures of ice-dammed lakes on the ground-water regime and on the geologic structure of the repository's confinement. Probability of ice advances will increase significantly some 3000 to 5000 years from now. Major catastrophic floods caused by the failed ice dams are only marginally probable over the next 50 millennia but are highly probable thereafter. Annual air surface temperatures in the Columbia Plateau will drop in the future by up to approx. 10 to 15 0 C and rise at other times by up to approx. 5 0 C. Annual precipitation is estimated to change by a factor of 0.5 to about 3.0

  3. A Governing Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Mazmanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing an approach to governing adaptation to climate change is severely hampered by the dictatorship of the present when the needs of future generations are inadequately represented in current policy making. We posit this problem as a function of the attributes of adaptation policy making, including deep uncertainty and nonstationarity, where past observations are not reliable predictors of future outcomes. Our research links organizational decision-making attributes with adaptation decision making and identifies cases in which adaptation actions cause spillovers, free riding, and distributional impacts. We develop a governing framework for adaptation that we believe will enable policy, planning, and major long-term development decisions to be made appropriately at all levels of government in the face of the deep uncertainty and nonstationarity caused by climate change. Our framework requires that approval of projects with an expected life span of 30 years or more in the built environment include minimum building standards that integrate forecasted climate change impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC intermediate scenario. The intermediate IPCC scenario must be downscaled to include local or regional temperature, water availability, sea level rise, susceptibility to forest fires, and human habitation impacts to minimize climate-change risks to the built environment. The minimum standard is systematically updated every six years to facilitate learning by formal and informal organizations. As a minimum standard, the governance framework allows jurisdictions to take stronger actions to increase their climate resilience and thus maintain system flexibility.

  4. Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Debnam, Katrina J; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-09-01

    School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model. Drawing upon 2 consecutive waves of data from over 25,000 high school students (46% minority), a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined the fit of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Climate Survey with the USDOE model. The results indicated adequate model fit with the theorized 3-factor model of school climate, which included 13 subdomains: safety (perceived safety, bullying and aggression, and drug use); engagement (connection to teachers, student connectedness, academic engagement, school connectedness, equity, and parent engagement); environment (rules and consequences, physical comfort, and support, disorder). We also found consistent measurement invariance with regard to student sex, grade level, and ethnicity. School-level interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.04 to .10 for the scales. Findings supported the USDOE 3-factor model of school climate and suggest measurement invariance and high internal consistency of the 3 scales and 13 subdomains. These results suggest the 56-item measure may be a potentially efficient, yet comprehensive measure of school climate. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  5. Biodiversity in intertidal rock pools: informing engineering criteria for artificial habitat enhancement in the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Louise B; Schofield, Meredith; White, Freya J; Skov, Martin W; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    Coastal defence structures are proliferating to counter rising and stormier seas. With increasing concern about the ecological value of built environments, efforts are being made to create novel habitat to increase biodiversity. Rock pools are infrequent on artificial structures. We compared biodiversity patterns between rock pools and emergent rock and assessed the role of pool depth and substratum incline in determining patterns of biodiversity. Rock pools were more taxon rich than emergent substrata. Patterns varied with depth and incline with algal groups being more positively associated with shallow than deeper habitats. Substratum incline had little influence on colonising epibiota, with the exception of canopy algae in deeper habitats where vertical surfaces supported greater taxon richness than horizontal surfaces. The creation of artificial rock pools in built environments will have a positive effect on biodiversity. Building pools of varying depths and inclines and shore heights will provide a range of habitats, increase environmental heterogeneity, therefore creating more possible ecological niches, promoting local biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizational culture, climate and person-environment fit: Relationships with employment outcomes for mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Although the effects of organizational culture, climate and person-environment fit have been widely studied in the general population, little research exists in this area regarding consumers of mental health services. This research focuses on organizational culture, climate and person-environment fit and their relationship to employment outcomes for mental health consumers. It also examines specific components of organizational culture which are both desired and perceived by mental health consumers. Thirty-six (N=36) consumers were recruited into one of two groups: individuals who were employed at the time of the study and those who had recently left their jobs. Instruments used were the Workplace Climate Questionnaire (WCQ) and the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP). Significant differences were found between groups along the dimensions of organizational culture/climate and person-environment fit. Although few differences were found between groups with regards to desired workplace characteristics, many differences in perceived characteristics were found. The findings point to the importance of assessing the organizational culture/climate and its congruence with individuals' value systems as part of the work integration process.

  7. Climate Change and Regulation in International and Regional Level, Especially the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnoki Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief insight into the history of climate change, with a scope on the international and legal aspects of ever-changing regulations. The regional level is in the article is The European Union, as the only regional economic integration organization under the Kyoto Protocol. It deals with the United Nation’s international agreements like UNFCCC its Kyoto’s Protocol and the Post-Kyoto era. It also analyses the EU’s system in the climate change law with correspondence the international rules. Comparison between international and regional legislation in the climate change is used as a tool of analysis. Finally an insight is given into a special field in the climate change, the build environment, reflecting on the related United Nation’s recommendation and the EU’s regulation.

  8. Mapping of Danish Law Related to Companies' Impact on Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Østergaard, Kim; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    for Danish law related to environment and climate change and CSR in a general sense, sources of law and jurisdiction specific issues, types of companies, shareholding structure etc. (section 1); the purpose of the company, duties and competence of the company organs, and corporate governance issues (section......This overview of Danish law related to companies’ conduct and impact on environment and climate change has been undertaken under the ‘Sustainable Companies’ project hosted at the Department of Private Law at the University of Oslo. The ‘mapping’ of national law – including in particular company law....... Environmental law has been seen under the project as essentially related to climate change. Some other issues related to sustainable development and company conduct have been addressed as well, in particular in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In the current paper, this particularly applies...

  9. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  10. Feasibility of cuphea as a new oilseed crop to climate and soil environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea, a new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0), may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objective of this stu...

  11. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  12. Dousing our inflammatory environment(s): is personal carbon trading an option for reducing obesity--and climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, G

    2008-09-01

    Obesity and climate change are two problems currently challenging humanity. Although apparently unrelated, an epidemiological approach to both shows a similar environmental aetiology, based in modern human lifestyles and their driving economic forces. One way of analysing this is through inflammation (defined as '. . . a disturbance of function following insult or injury') of both the internal (biological) and external (ecological) environments. Chronic, low-grade, systemic inflammation has recently been shown to accompany obesity, as well as a range of biological pathologies associated with obesity (diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, etc.). This is influenced by the body's inability to soak up excess glucose as a result of insulin resistance. In a broader sense, inflammation is a metaphor for ecological 'pathologies', manifest particularly in unnatural disturbances like climate change, ocean acidity, rising temperatures and species extinction, associated with the inability of the world's environmental 'sinks' to soak up carbon dioxide ('carbon resistance'?). The use of such a metaphorical analysis opens the possibilities for dealing with two interdisciplinary problems simultaneously. Strategies for managing climate change, including personal carbon trading, could provide a 'stealth intervention' for reducing population levels of obesity by increasing personal energy expenditure and decreasing energy-dense food intake, as well as reducing the carbon emissions causing climate change.

  13. A wind turbine evaluation model under a multi-criteria decision making environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Amy H.I.; Hung, Meng-Chan; Kang, He-Yau; Pearn, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper proposes an evaluation model to select suitable turbines in a wind farm. ► Interpretive structural modeling is used to know the relationship among factors. ► Fuzzy analytic network process is used to calculate the priorities of turbines. ► The results can be references for selecting the most appropriate wind turbines. - Abstract: Due to the impacts of fossil and nuclear energy on the security, economics, and environment in the world, the demand of alternative energy resources is expanding consistently and tremendously in recent years. Wind energy production, with its safe and environmental characteristics, has become the fastest growing renewable energy source in the world. The construction of new wind farms and the installation of new wind turbines are important processes in order to provide a long-term energy production. In this research, a comprehensive evaluation model, which incorporates interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and fuzzy analytic network process (FANP), is constructed to select suitable turbines when developing a wind farm. A case study is carried out in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of several potential types of wind turbines, and experts in a wind farm are invited to contribute their expertise in determining the importance of the factors of the wind turbine evaluation and in rating the performance of the turbines with respect to each factor. The most suitable turbines for installation can finally be generated after the calculations. The results can be references for decision makers in selecting the most appropriate wind turbines.

  14. Staying cool: preadaptation to temperate climates required for colonising tropical alpine-like environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Gehrke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant species tend to retain their ancestral ecology, responding to temporal, geographic and climatic changes by tracking suitable habitats rather than adapting to novel conditions. Nevertheless, transitions into different environments or biomes still seem to be common. Especially intriguing are the tropical alpine-like areas found on only the highest mountainous regions surrounded by tropical environments. Tropical mountains are hotspots of biodiversity, often with striking degrees of endemism at higher elevations. On these mountains, steep environmental gradients and high habitat heterogeneity within small spaces coincide with astounding species diversity of great conservation value. The analysis presented here shows that the importance of in situ speciation in tropical alpine-like areas has been underestimated. Additionally and contrary to widely held opinion, the impact of dispersal from other regions with alpine-like environments is relatively minor compared to that of immigration from other biomes with a temperate (but not alpine-like climate. This suggests that establishment in tropical alpine-like regions is favoured by preadaptation to a temperate, especially aseasonal, freezing regime such as the cool temperate climate regions in the Tropics. Furthermore, emigration out of an alpine-like environment is generally rare, suggesting that alpine-like environments – at least tropical ones – are species sinks.

  15. Nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Alves, Daniela Fernanda; da Silva, Dirceu; de Brito Guirardello, Edinêis

    2017-01-01

    To assess correlations between the characteristics of the nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate. The nursing practice environment is critical to the well-being of professionals and to patient safety, as highlighted by national and international studies; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding this theme in paediatric units. A cross-sectional study, in two paediatric hospitals in Brazil, was conducted from December 2013 to February 2014. For data collection, we used the Nursing Work Index - Revised, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form 2006 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and for analysis Spearman's correlation coefficient and structural equation modelling were used. Two hundred and sixty-seven professional nurses participated in the study. Autonomy, control over the work environment and the relationship between nursing and medical staff are factors associated with job outcomes and safety climate and can be considered their predictors. Professional nurses with greater autonomy, good working relationships and control over their work environment have lower levels of emotional exhaustion, higher job satisfaction, less intention of leaving the job and the safety climate is positive. Initiatives to improve the professional practice environment can improve the safety of paediatric patients and the well-being of professional nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. THE QUALITY OF AIR IN HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS CLIMATIZED AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Staciarini Anders

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatized environment is defined as the environment where temperature and humidity are controlled.We have made a review of literature, from 1990 to 2001, through data base MEDLINE, LILACS and Ministry ofHealth – Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the air quality in climatized environment and the last as a riskfactor for hospital infection – HI. Twenty-three articles where analyzed and gathered by the focused theme;patterns and principles for maintaining the air quality; air quality and isolation of microorganism; air quality andoccurrence of infection. The standard of quality quotes: ventilation, maintenance and cleanness of climatizationsystems. Aspergillus, Legionella, Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Nocardia, among others where found in airconditioned devices and the first three ones being responsable for booms of HI.

  17. Generic framework for meso-scale assessment of climate change hazards in coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl

    2013-01-01

    coastal environments worldwide through a specially designed coastal classification system containing 113 generic coastal types. The framework provides information on the degree to which key climate change hazards are inherent in a particular coastal environment, and covers the hazards of ecosystem......This paper presents a generic framework for assessing inherent climate change hazards in coastal environments through a combined coastal classification and hazard evaluation system. The framework is developed to be used at scales relevant for regional and national planning and aims to cover all...... and computing requirements, allowing for application in developing country settings. It is presented as a graphical tool—the Coastal Hazard Wheel—to ease its application for planning purposes....

  18. Climate change: Its possible impact on the environment and the people of northern regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed overview is presented of the possible impacts of climate change on the Arctic environment, ecosystems, and human activities. The extent of global climate change is examined through the use of historical and paleoclimatologic records of temperature and stratospheric ozone. The effects of precipitation distribution and airborne particulates on climate change are also outlined. Changes in the Arctic are then examined, with an explanation of why global change in the Arctic is likely to be exaggerated. Likely scenarios of Arctic climate change involve milder winter temperatures, wetter and cloudier summers, more stormy weather and snowfall, greater variability in regional weather patterns, and dramatic changes in the extent of sea ice. Biological responses of wetland, northern forest, tundra, Arctic desert, below-ground, and marine ecosystems are assessed. Features of northern and Arctic ecosystems that may be particularly vulnerable to climate change are noted. Finally, the impacts of climate change on traditional activities and lifestyles, resource management and harvesting, agriculture, forestry, mining and fossil-fuel development, offshore operations, and human infrastructures are summarized. 5 figs

  19. Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    As an integral part of the National Climate Assessment (NCA), technical assessment reports for 13 regions in the U.S. that describe the scientific rationale to support climate change impacts within the purview of these regions, and provide adaptation or mitigation measures in response to these impacts. These technical assessments focus on climate change impacts on sectors that are important environmental, biophysical, and social and economic aspects of sustainability within the U.S.: Climate change science, Ecosystems and biodiversity, Water resources, Human health, Energy supply and use, Water/energy/land use, Transportation, Urban/infrastructure/vulnerability, Agriculture, Impacts of climate change on tribal/indigenous and native lands and resources, Forestry, Land use/land cover change, Rural communities development, and Impacts on biogeochemical cycles, with implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. There is a critical and timely need for the development of mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change by the policy and decision making communities, to insure resiliency and sustainability of the built environment in the future.

  20. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA...... methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capacities at process, species and ecosystem level. In the presentation we argue that the global warming impacts...

  1. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  2. The influence of recent climate change on tree height growth differs with species and spatial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaoud, Yassine; Chen, Han Y H

    2011-02-16

    Tree growth has been reported to increase in response to recent global climate change in controlled and semi-controlled experiments, but few studies have reported response of tree growth to increased temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in natural environments. This study addresses how recent global climate change has affected height growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill B.S.) in their natural environments. We sampled 145 stands dominated by aspen and 82 dominated by spruce over the entire range of their distributions in British Columbia, Canada. These stands were established naturally after fire between the 19th and 20th centuries. Height growth was quantified as total heights of sampled dominant and co-dominant trees at breast-height age of 50 years. We assessed the relationships between 50-year height growth and environmental factors at both spatial and temporal scales. We also tested whether the tree growth associated with global climate change differed with spatial environment (latitude, longitude and elevation). As expected, height growth of both species was positively related to temperature variables at the regional scale and with soil moisture and nutrient availability at the local scale. While height growth of trembling aspen was not significantly related to any of the temporal variables we examined, that of black spruce increased significantly with stand establishment date, the anomaly of the average maximum summer temperature between May-August, and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, but not with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Furthermore, the increase of spruce height growth associated with recent climate change was higher in the western than in eastern part of British Columbia. This study demonstrates that the response of height growth to recent climate change, i.e., increasing temperature and atmospheric CO₂ concentration, did not only differ with tree species, but

  3. Potential Climate Change Impacts on the Built Environment in the United States and Implications for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D.

    2012-12-01

    The built environment consists of components that have been made by humans at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. The impacts of climate change on the built environment, therefore, may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, there may be feedback mechanisms wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Besides having a host of such interactions, the impacts of climate change on urban areas will likely have thresholds, below which effects are incidental or of mild consequence, but beyond which the effects quickly become major. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. Moreover, urban areas may be affected by changes in daily and seasonal high or low temperatures or precipitation, which may have a much more prolonged impact than the direct effect of these events. Thus, the cumulative impacts of multiple events may be more severe than those of any single event. Primary hazards include sea level rise and coastal storms, heat waves, intense precipitation, drought, extreme wind events, urban heat islands, and secondary air pollutants, and cold air events including frozen precipitation. Indicators need to be developed to provide a consistent, objective, and transparent overview of major variations in climate impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation activities. Overall, indicators of climate change on the built environment

  4. A study of nurses' ethical climate perceptions: Compromising in an uncompromising environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Anne; Woods, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Acting ethically, in accordance with professional and personal moral values, lies at the heart of nursing practice. However, contextual factors, or obstacles within the work environment, can constrain nurses in their ethical practice - hence the importance of the workplace ethical climate. Interest in nurse workplace ethical climates has snowballed in recent years because the ethical climate has emerged as a key variable in the experience of nurse moral distress. Significantly, this study appears to be the first of its kind carried out in New Zealand. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe how registered nurses working on a medical ward in a New Zealand hospital perceive their workplace ethical climate. This was a small, qualitative descriptive study. Seven registered nurses were interviewed in two focus group meetings. An inductive method of thematic data analysis was used for this research. Ethics approval for this study was granted by the New Zealand Ministry of Health's Central Regional Health and Disability Ethics Committee on 14 June 2012. The themes identified in the data centred on three dominant elements that - together - shaped the prevailing ethical climate: staffing levels, patient throughput and the attitude of some managers towards nursing staff. While findings from this study regarding staffing levels and the power dynamics between nurses and managers support those from other ethical climate studies, of note is the impact of patient throughput on local nurses' ethical practice. This issue has not been singled out as having a detrimental influence on ethical climates elsewhere. Moral distress is inevitable in an ethical climate where the organisation's main priorities are perceived by nursing staff to be budget and patient throughput, rather than patient safety and care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Climate Change Adopted Building Envelope as A Protector of Human Health in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna

    2017-10-01

    Recently, an expanded understanding of building performance acknowledges that all forces acting on buildings (climate, energies, information, and human agents) are not static and fixed, but rather mutable and transient. With the use of parametric and multi-criteria optimization digital tools, buildings’ envelopes can be designed to respond to various requirements. This paper explores the possibilities of architectural design to benefit human conditions, which encompasses mental well-being, environmental quality of life during the Climate Change era. The first part of the paper defines the main factors (such as: lack of green nature and sunlight, noise and pollution) which are influencing the formation of psychological disorder in big cities. The negative impact of these factors is constantly increasing in the time of Climate Change progressing. The second part presents results of the research program undertaken at West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin by author. The program goes on to attempt to solve the problem through architectural design. This study highlights a social problem, such as mental well-being, resulting from urbanization or effects of the climate change, and serves as a useful background for further research on the possibilities of redefining sustainable and human friendly design.

  6. Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Bleeker, A.; Galloway, J.; Seitzinger, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have doubled levels of reactive nitrogen in circulation, largely as a result of fertilizer application and fossil fuel burning. This massive alteration of the nitrogen cycle affects climate, food security, energy security, human health and ecosystem services. Our estimates show that nitrogen currently leads to a net-cooling effect on climate with very high uncertainty. The many complex warming and cooling interactions between nitrogen and climate need to be better assessed, taking also into account the other effects of nitrogen on human health, environment and ecosystem services. Through improved nitrogen management substantial reductions in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations could be generated, also allowing for other co-benefits, including improving human health and improved provision of ecosystem services, for example clean air and water, and biodiversity.

  7. EU-China Cooperation In the Field of Energy, Environment and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro De Matteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the energy market and the intrinsic worldwide scope of environmental threats, such as climate change, are two elements that have pushed the world towards shared approaches to global governance via bilateral institutions and international regimes. This article, with the aid of an institutionalist approach, presents the current status of the EU-China relationship, which is characterised by high institutionalisation, and it underlines how their bilateral cooperation has progressively focused on energy and climate change-related issues. In particular, the article sheds some light on the linkages between energy, environment and climate change and how these have created the basis for the upgrade of the EU-China bilateral relationship to its current level. To do so, it underlines some of the tools, the main frameworks and some of the key outcomes of their bilateral cooperation in these fields.

  8. Adaptation measures for climate change and the urban heat island in Japan's built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change scenarios are discussed for Japan with clear implications drawn for the built environment in terms of increased temperatures of 4-5 o C, rising sea levels and subterranean water tables. Research on the impacts and adaptation measures for global warming in Japan is reviewed. One of the most significant impacts of climate change in Japan will exacerbate the existing heat island phenomenon in cities by absorbing increased solar radiation. This will lead to further increases in temperatures in an urban microclimate with negative implications for energy and water consumption, human health and discomfort, and local ecosystems. The current urban heat island phenomenon and its impacts are described. The relationships between climate change and urban heat island impacts are discussed. Potential adaptation measures to those impacts are also discussed and proposed. (author)

  9. Impact of radioactivity on the environment: problems, state of current knowledge and approaches for identification of radioprotection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently a revitalized concern about the potential impact of ionizing radiation on the environment that calls for the construction of a system ensuring an adequate radioprotection of the non-human biota and their associated biotopes. This paper first sets the context of the problem both, with respect to the general philosophy of environmental protection as a whole, but also with respect to the consideration of the environment achieved so far in the purpose of human radioprotection. The current accumulated knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation to biota (fauna and flora) is then briefly reviewed, encompassing effects at individual and community/ecosystem level, situations of acute and chronic exposure to high and low doses, finally leading to the identification of the most critical gaps in scientific knowledge: effects of mixed low dose rates in chronic exposure to communities and ecosystems. The most significant current international efforts towards the identification of environmental radioprotection criteria and standards are finally presented along with some relevant national examples. (author)

  10. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruth; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should be pursued.

  11. Multi-criteria decision analysis tools for prioritising emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases associated with climate change in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cox

    Full Text Available Global climate change is known to result in the emergence or re-emergence of some infectious diseases. Reliable methods to identify the infectious diseases of humans and animals and that are most likely to be influenced by climate are therefore required. Since different priorities will affect the decision to address a particular pathogen threat, decision makers need a standardised method of prioritisation. Ranking methods and Multi-Criteria Decision approaches provide such a standardised method and were employed here to design two different pathogen prioritisation tools. The opinion of 64 experts was elicited to assess the importance of 40 criteria that could be used to prioritise emerging infectious diseases of humans and animals in Canada. A weight was calculated for each criterion according to the expert opinion. Attributes were defined for each criterion as a transparent and repeatable method of measurement. Two different Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis tools were tested, both of which used an additive aggregation approach. These were an Excel spreadsheet tool and a tool developed in software 'M-MACBETH'. The tools were trialed on nine 'test' pathogens. Two different methods of criteria weighting were compared, one using fixed weighting values, the other using probability distributions to account for uncertainty and variation in expert opinion. The ranking of the nine pathogens varied according to the weighting method that was used. In both tools, using both weighting methods, the diseases that tended to rank the highest were West Nile virus, Giardiasis and Chagas, while Coccidioidomycosis tended to rank the lowest. Both tools are a simple and user friendly approach to prioritising pathogens according to climate change by including explicit scoring of 40 criteria and incorporating weighting methods based on expert opinion. They provide a dynamic interactive method that can help to identify pathogens for which a full risk assessment should

  12. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eAnthelme

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is a large consensus that plant–plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation–climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1 the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2 alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant–plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and

  13. Facilitation among plants in alpine environments in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelme, Fabien; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large consensus that plant-plant interactions are a crucial component of the response of plant communities to the effects of climate change, available data remain scarce, particularly in alpine systems. This represents an important obstacle to making consistent predictions about the future of plant communities. Here, we review current knowledge on the effects of climate change on facilitation among alpine plant communities and propose directions for future research. In established alpine communities, while warming seemingly generates a net facilitation release, earlier snowmelt may increase facilitation. Some nurse plants are able to buffer microenvironmental changes in the long term and may ensure the persistence of other alpine plants through local migration events. For communities migrating to higher elevations, facilitation should play an important role in their reorganization because of the harsher environmental conditions. In particular, the absence of efficient nurse plants might slow down upward migration, possibly generating chains of extinction. Facilitation-climate change relationships are expected to shift along latitudinal gradients because (1) the magnitude of warming is predicted to vary along these gradients, and (2) alpine environments are significantly different at low vs. high latitudes. Data on these expected patterns are preliminary and thus need to be tested with further studies on facilitation among plants in alpine environments that have thus far not been considered. From a methodological standpoint, future studies will benefit from the spatial representation of the microclimatic environment of plants to predict their response to climate change. Moreover, the acquisition of long-term data on the dynamics of plant-plant interactions, either through permanent plots or chronosequences of glacial recession, may represent powerful approaches to clarify the relationship between plant interactions and climate change.

  14. Plio-Pleistocene climate change and geographic heterogeneity in plant diversity-environment relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenning, J.-C.; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have induced geographic heterogeneity in plant species richness-environment relationships in Europe due to greater in situ species survival and speciation rates in southern Europe. We formulate distinct hypotheses on how Plio-Pleistocene climate change may have...... affected richness-topographic heterogeneity and richness-water-energy availability relationships, causing steeper relationships in southern Europe. We investigated these hypotheses using data from Atlas Florae Europaeae on the distribution of 3069 species and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Our...... analyses showed that plant species richness generally increased with topographic heterogeneity (ln-transformed altitudinal range) and actual evapotranspiration (AET). We also found evidence for strong geographic heterogeneity in the species richness-environment relationship, with a greater increase...

  15. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-13

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks.This article is part of the theme issue 'Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Assessing climate change risks to the natural environment to facilitate cross-sectoral adaptation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Iain

    2018-06-01

    Climate change policy requires prioritization of adaptation actions across many diverse issues. The policy agenda for the natural environment includes not only biodiversity, soils and water, but also associated human benefits through agriculture, forestry, water resources, hazard alleviation, climate regulation and amenity value. To address this broad agenda, the use of comparative risk assessment is investigated with reference to statutory requirements of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment. Risk prioritization was defined by current adaptation progress relative to risk magnitude and implementation lead times. Use of an ecosystem approach provided insights into risk interactions, but challenges remain in quantifying ecosystem services. For all risks, indirect effects and potential systemic risks were identified from land-use change, responding to both climate and socio-economic drivers, and causing increased competition for land and water resources. Adaptation strategies enhancing natural ecosystem resilience can buffer risks and sustain ecosystem services but require improved cross-sectoral coordination and recognition of dynamic change. To facilitate this, risk assessments need to be reflexive and explicitly assess decision outcomes contingent on their riskiness and adaptability, including required levels of human intervention, influence of uncertainty and ethical dimensions. More national-scale information is also required on adaptation occurring in practice and its efficacy in moderating risks. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  17. Environment and globalization: equity and precautionary principles in the climate negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Interviews and articles are dealing with the relationship between international trade and environment (WTO and agreements on the environment), the equity dimension in the negotiations on climate, the relationship between greenhouse effect and nuclear (a balance of precautions), the place of sustainable development in international discussions (the role of authorities created by the Rio conference), the French plan against the greenhouse effect, the weakness of the French policy on greenhouse gases, the joint application, the African example, the place of forestry projects in Kyoto mechanisms, the evolution from the joint North-South application to the self-development mechanism

  18. Bivalve aquaculture-environment interactions in the context of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Guyondet, Thomas; Comeau, Luc A; Tremblay, Réjean

    2016-12-01

    Coastal embayments are at risk of impacts by climate change drivers such as ocean warming, sea level rise and alteration in precipitation regimes. The response of the ecosystem to these drivers is highly dependent on their magnitude of change, but also on physical characteristics such as bay morphology and river discharge, which play key roles in water residence time and hence estuarine functioning. These considerations are especially relevant for bivalve aquaculture sites, where the cultured biomass can alter ecosystem dynamics. The combination of climate change, physical and aquaculture drivers can result in synergistic/antagonistic and nonlinear processes. A spatially explicit model was constructed to explore effects of the physical environment (bay geomorphic type, freshwater inputs), climate change drivers (sea level, temperature, precipitation) and aquaculture (bivalve species, stock) on ecosystem functioning. A factorial design led to 336 scenarios (48 hydrodynamic × 7 management). Model outcomes suggest that the physical environment controls estuarine functioning given its influence on primary productivity (bottom-up control dominated by riverine nutrients) and horizontal advection with the open ocean (dominated by bay geomorphic type). The intensity of bivalve aquaculture ultimately determines the bivalve-phytoplankton trophic interaction, which can range from a bottom-up control triggered by ammonia excretion to a top-down control via feeding. Results also suggest that temperature is the strongest climate change driver due to its influence on the metabolism of poikilothermic organisms (e.g. zooplankton and bivalves), which ultimately causes a concomitant increase of top-down pressure on phytoplankton. Given the different thermal tolerance of cultured species, temperature is also critical to sort winners from losers, benefiting Crassostrea virginica over Mytilus edulis under the specific conditions tested in this numerical exercise. In general, it is

  19. A Comparison of the Water Environment Policy of Europe and South Korea in Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change not only increases the atmospheric temperature, but also changes the precipitation conditions and patterns, which can lead to an increase in the frequency of occurrence of natural disasters, such as flooding and drought. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC has reported fluctuations in the precipitation levels for each country from 1900 to 2005, based on global climate change, suggesting that environmental changes due to climate change manifest very differently based on the region. According to the results of studies that have been carried out recently, changes in the precipitation patterns based on climate change result in changes in the water environment, including alterations to the vegetation, land use, and river flow, while considerably influencing the rate of development of groundwater as well. In this study, the 3Is, which are the important variables of Ideas, Institutions, and Interests that are universal to the international field of political science, were used to comparatively analyze the water environment policies of South Korea and Europe. The first variable, Ideas, examined the influence of awareness on establishing the water environment policy in response to climate change. In particular, differences in the conceptual awareness of the water environment with regard to hyporheic zones were studied. The second variable, Institutions, examined the differences in the water environment policy within the national administration in response to climate change. The South Korean administration’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport and the Ministry of Environment were used in a case study. Finally, the results drawn from the third variable, i.e., Interests, for South Korea appear to differ from those of Europe, in terms of water environment policy. In this study, the water environment policy of South Korea was analyzed and compared to that of Europe in order to identify problems in South Korea

  20. Analysis agriculture's impact in a system of lakes on a karst environment with tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea Olea, Selene; Escolero Fuentes, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    This paper has as main object to analyze the impact of agriculture in the water quality of the "Lagos de Montebello" area; which is located in the Southeast of Mexico. This area is prominent by its tropical climate and a karstic environment. The issue arises in a lake system affected by pollution in the later years, which has turned its former clear water into a highly sedimented muddy water in the topographically lower terrains while no polluted on the higher ones; therefore it is intended to determine if the rise in agricultural activity in the lower terrains has induced this phenomenon. The impact of agriculture has been historically studied in temperate climates with karstic environments; nevertheless it has not been very well studied in tropical climates; which are the reason of this proposal to perform a study to analyze the impact of the intensive agriculture running in the area. To develop this project we studied the area regarding to the types of crops that has being established in the zone, being mostly tomato, corn, and bean; and the fertilizers and pesticides applied to them. A groundwater monitoring plan was designed with a variety of phases such as: piezometers building, measurement of groundwater levels, measurement of field parameters, with a two months intervals (Ph, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids), and water samplings for laboratory analysis (major ions, nutrients, total organic carbon, pesticides) at twice a year, once during rainy season and then on drought. The rates of pollution agents infiltration depends on the type of soil retention and volume of water. The materials found in the soil by the piezometers are clay, silt, sand and variations between them. We determined that the geochemical qualities of the groundwater vary from calcic bicarbonate to calcic sulfated. The results reached with this monitoring provides a preliminary diagnosis on the possible causes and other implications that intensive agriculture in a

  1. Physical environment design criteria for the new control room in the ENEA TRIGA-RC1 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, M.; Di Giulio, A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallelly to the plant modifications, many changes of the instrumentation in the Control Room (CR) were necessary in order to deal with the various aged components and the completion and integration needs turning out from the experience in reactor running. In the room, besides the control activity of the RC1 plant, continuous training and updating activities are currently performed which are intended for the operators working in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. The design of the physical environment of the new CR - carried out in a more general research project between ENEA and Politecnico di Milano - was based on the following fundamental criteria: - to ensure conditions fit for the performance of the suspervision, diagnosis and control tasks the operators are entrusted with; - to set up a model of control room for the more complex power plants. First of all a detailed analysis of the environmental conditions relating to microclimate, lighting and noise was accomplished. Afterwards, the goals to be attained were defined as well as the technical means necessary for providing the operators with comfortable working conditions

  2. Geomorphic features as indicators of climatic fluctuations in a periglacial environment, northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, R; Lindh, L [Lund Univ. (SE). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1990-01-01

    Goemorphic responses to climatic fluctuations in the periglacial mountain environment of northern Sweden, especially the Abisko mountains, are discussed. Although the frequency and magnitude of rapid mass movements are related to climatic conditions, the depositional patterns of the processes and the variable availability of source material complicate their use as climatic indicators. Possibly, debris flows and slushflows were frequent during the Little Ice Age, according to lichenometric dating of old deposits. Field observations suggest a fairly high frequency also during the last few decades. Boulder pavements, moraine-like ridges and glacial striae in front of major snowfields indicate these were previously larger and in some cases active as small glaciers perhaps in the cold beginning of the 1900's. During the warm 1920-30's snowpatches and glaciers, as well as permafrost mounds were affected by a general degeneration. Climatic inferences made from the mentioned features are still very crude. Tentatively, it is suggested that they are presently beginning to respond to the cooling trend affecting northern Scandinavia since about 1940. The anticipated impact of a greenhouse warming of the atmosphere has thus so far not been noticeable in this high latitude area. (authors).

  3. Coastal Climate Change Education, Mitigation, and Adaptation in the Natural and Built Environments: Progress of the Coastal Areas Climate Change Education Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Herman, B.; Vernaza-Hernández, V.; Ryan, J. G.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Area Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership, funded by the National Science Foundation, seeks to develop new ways to educate citizens about global climate change. The core themes are sea level rise and impacts of climate change in the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea. CACCE focuses on helping partners, educators, students, and the general public gain a fundamental and working understanding of the interrelation among the natural environment, built environment, and social aspects in the context of climate change in coastal regions. To this end, CACCE's objectives reported here include: 1) defining the current state of awareness, perceptions, and literacy about the impacts of climate change; and 2) testing a model of transdisciplinary research and learning as a means of training a new generation of climate professionals. Objective one is met in part by CACCE survey efforts that reveal Florida and Puerto Rico secondary science teachers hold many non-scientific views about climate change and climate change science and provide inadequate instruction about climate change. Associated with objective two are five Multiple Outcome Interdisciplinary Research and Learning (MOIRL) pilot projects underway in schools in Florida and Puerto Rico. In the CACCE Partnership the stakeholders include: students (K-16 and graduate); teachers and education researchers; informal science educators; scientists and engineers; business and industry; policy makers; and community members. CACCE combines interdisciplinary research with action research and community-based participatory research in a way that is best described as "transdisciplinary". Learning occurs in all spheres of interactions among stakeholders as they engage in scientific, educational, community and business activities through their legitimate peripheral participation in research communities of practice. We will describe the process of seeking and building partnerships, and call for a dialogue

  4. Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed

  5. The Meaning of Social Climate of Learning Environments: Some Reasons Why We Do Not Care Enough about It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Mara W.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments, presents evidence for its effects and importance in special-needs and inclusive education, presents differences existing between settings and discusses the…

  6. Organizational climate survey: management model tool on continuous improvement promotion in Finantial Institutional Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Amancio da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizational climate survey has been an important tool in the corporate world, the way in which the institutions can assess and ascertain through the results, the degree of satisfaction of its employees and look through plan of action, achieve better results in both performance and production. Through an empirical research, exploratory qualitative research, with collection of secondary data, it was found that the implementation of the organizational climate survey, "Speak Frankly" from Itaú Unibanco, it could analyze data and make a plan of effective action aiming at continuous improvement in the organizational environment, serving as personnel management model. The results were favorable in the period from year 2012 to 2014 with an increase of the degree of satisfaction in four 4% and maintained excellent adherence to answer questions reaching 90% the number of employees.

  7. Prediction of climate impacts on pesticide leaching to the aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Hans Joergen; Rosenbom, A.; van der Keur, P.; Kjaer, J.; Sonnenborg, T. [GEUS Danmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Olesen, J.E. [Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark); Nistrup Joergensen, L. [Aarhus Unv., Slagelse (Denmark); Boessing Christensen, O. [Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-10-01

    The report evaluates direct (precipitation, actual evapotranspiration and temperature) and indirect (crop rotations, crop management, and pesticide use) climatic change effects on pesticide-leaching to groundwater and the aquatic environment by use of MACRO and MIKE SHE model. The analysis is based on five model pesticides: low-dose herbicides, ordinary herbicides, strongly sorbing herbicides, fungicides and insecticides, and selected farm types (arable and dairy) for the variable saturated sandy soil (Jyndevad) and loamy soil (Faardrup). The evaluation has the aim at describing the implications of future climatic factors on pesticide leaching to groundwater as realistic as possible, based on realistic doses and parameters from MACRO setups from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme. (Author)

  8. Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-André; Parks, Sean A; Moritz, Max A; Miller, Carol

    2017-08-01

    Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, United States, México-NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100). We estimated the projected pace at which climatic conditions may redistribute across NAM (i.e., climate velocity), and identified future nearest climate analogs to quantify patterns of climate relocation within, among, and outside protected areas. Also, we interpret climatic relocation patterns in terms of associated land-cover types. Our analysis suggests that the conservation capacity of the NAM protection network is likely to be severely compromised by a changing climate. The majority of protected areas (~80%) might be exposed to high rates of climate displacement that could promote important shifts in species abundance or distribution. A small fraction of protected areas (climates that represent analogs of conditions currently characterizing almost a fifth of the protected areas across NAM. However, the majority of nearest climatic analogs for protected areas are in nonprotected locations. Therefore, unprotected landscapes could pose additional threats, beyond climate forcing itself, as sensitive biota may have to migrate farther than what is prescribed by the climate velocity to reach a protected area destination. To mitigate future threats to the conservation capacity of the NAM protected area network, conservation plans will need to capitalize on opportunities provided by the existing availability of natural land-cover types outside the current network of NAM

  9. Modeling and Analysis Compute Environments, Utilizing Virtualization Technology in the Climate and Earth Systems Science domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, A.; Nemani, R. R.; Wang, W.; Votava, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2010-12-01

    Given the increasing complexity of climate modeling and analysis tools, it is often difficult and expensive to build or recreate an exact replica of the software compute environment used in past experiments. With the recent development of new technologies for hardware virtualization, an opportunity exists to create full modeling, analysis and compute environments that are “archiveable”, transferable and may be easily shared amongst a scientific community or presented to a bureaucratic body if the need arises. By encapsulating and entire modeling and analysis environment in a virtual machine image, others may quickly gain access to the fully built system used in past experiments, potentially easing the task and reducing the costs of reproducing and verify past results produced by other researchers. Moreover, these virtual machine images may be used as a pedagogical tool for others that are interested in performing an academic exercise but don't yet possess the broad expertise required. We built two virtual machine images, one with the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and one with Weather Research Forecast Model (WRF), then ran several small experiments to assess the feasibility, performance overheads costs, reusability, and transferability. We present a list of the pros and cons as well as lessoned learned from utilizing virtualization technology in the climate and earth systems modeling domain.

  10. Short-Term Behavior of Slag Concretes Exposed to a Real In Situ Mediterranean Climate Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, José Marcos; Sánchez, Isidro; Cabeza, Marta; Climent, Miguel Ángel

    2017-08-08

    At present, one of the most suitable ways to get a more sustainable cement industry is to reduce the CO₂ emissions generated during cement production. In order to reach that goal, the use of ground granulated blast-furnace slag as clinker replacement is becoming increasingly popular. Although the effects of this addition in the properties of cementitious materials are influenced by their hardening conditions, there are not too many experimental studies in which slag concretes have been exposed to real in situ environments. Then, the main objective of this research is to study the short-term effects of exposure to real Mediterranean climate environment of an urban site, where the action of airborne chlorides from sea water and the presence of CO₂ are combined, in the microstructure and service properties of a commercial slag cement concrete, compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The microstructure was studied with mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effective porosity, capillary suction coefficient, chloride migration coefficient, carbonation front depth, and compressive strength were also analyzed. Considering the results obtained, slag concretes exposed to a real in situ Mediterranean climate environment show good service properties in the short-term (180 days), in comparison with OPC.

  11. Impact of anthropogenic climate change and human activities on environment and ecosystem services in arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shereif H; Gan, Thian Y

    2018-08-15

    The implications of anthropogenic climate change, human activities and land use change (LUC) on the environment and ecosystem services in the coastal regions of Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Earth observations data was used to drive land use categories between 1970 and 2014. Next, a Markov-CA model was developed to characterize the dynamic of LUC between 2014 and 2100 and their impacts on regions' climate and environment. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to temperature, precipitation and greenhouse gases data to investigate the presence of anthropogenic climate change. Lastly, climate models were used to project future climate change between 2014 and 2100. The analysis of LUC revealed that between 1970 and 2014, built up areas experienced the greatest growth during the study period, leading to a significant monotonic trend. Urban areas increased by 2349.61km 2 between 1970 and 2014, an average increase of >53.4km 2 /yr. The projected LUC between 2014 and 2100 indicate a continued increase in urban areas and irrigated cropland. Human alteration of land use from natural vegetation and forests to other uses after 1970, resulted in a loss, degradation, and fragmentation, all of which usually have devastating effects on the biodiversity of the region. Resulting in a statistically significant change point in temperature anomaly after 1968 with a warming trend of 0.24°C/decade and a downward trend in precipitation anomaly of 12.2mm/decade. Total greenhouse gas emissions including all anthropogenic sources showed a statistically significant positive trend of 78,090Kt/decade after 1991. This is reflected in the future projection of temperature anomaly between 1900 and 2100 with a future warming trend of 0.19°C/decade. In conclusion, human activities, industrial revelation, deforestation, land use transformation and increase in greenhouse gases had significant implications on the environment and ecosystem services of the study area

  12. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriero, Giulia; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Clarke, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    the information from European forest research/monitoring networks; the development of a new concept of forest sites for research and monitoring (Supersites); the identification of the main knowledge gaps; and the definition of priorities for forest adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment...... pollution dynamics into prospects for forest research and monitoring, with focus on the carbon, ozone, nitrogen and water budgets. The aim of this paper is to summarize scientific activities and achievements of MAFor: the creation of a meta-database for highlighting the available data and integrating...

  13. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Malin E.; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine

    2012-01-01

    of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002–2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock...... at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply...

  14. Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Forbes, Valery E.

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man Moshøj, C.M, M.C.Forchhammer and V.E. Forbes Temporal and spatial variations in wildlife population fluctuations in Greenland; The effect of climate, environment and man...... and mammals display distinct population fluctuations of varying temporal and spatial scale. In Greenland, historical records, archaeological findings and oral accounts passed on from Inuit elders all document that the presence of wildlife species and their population sizes have undergone pronounced....... The results of this study will model future predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate variables and human hunting pressure....

  15. System Dynamics based Dengue modeling environment to simulate evolution of Dengue infection under different climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, R.; Khan, R.; Usmani, M.; Colwell, R. R.; Jutla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Vector borne infectious diseases such as Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya remain a public health threat. An estimate of the World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that about 2.5 billion people, representing ca. 40% of human population,are at increased risk of dengue; with more than 100 million infection cases every year. Vector-borne infections cannot be eradicated since disease causing pathogens survive in the environment. Over the last few decades dengue infection has been reported in more than 100 countries and is expanding geographically. Female Ae. Aegypti mosquito, the daytime active and a major vector for dengue virus, is associated with urban population density and regional climatic processes. However, mathematical quantification of relationships on abundance of vectors and climatic processes remain a challenge, particularly in regions where such data are not routinely collected. Here, using system dynamics based feedback mechanism, an algorithm integrating knowledge from entomological, meteorological and epidemiological processes is developed that has potential to provide ensemble simulations on risk of occurrence of dengue infection in human population. Using dataset from satellite remote sensing, the algorithm was calibrated and validated using actual dengue case data of Iquitos, Peru. We will show results on model capabilities in capturing initiation and peak in the observed time series. In addition, results from several simulation scenarios under different climatic conditions will be discussed.

  16. Multi-criteria objective based climate change impact assessment for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Water resources systems with reservoirs are expected to be sensitive to climate change. Assessment studies that analyze the impact of climate change on the performance of reservoirs can be divided in two groups: (1) Studies that simulate the operation under projected inflows with the current set of operational rules. Due to non adapted operational rules the future performance of these reservoirs can be underestimated and the impact overestimated. (2) Studies that optimize the operational rules for best adaption of the system to the projected conditions before the assessment of the impact. The latter allows for estimating more realistically future performance and adaption strategies based on new operation rules are available if required. Multi-purpose reservoirs serve various, often conflicting functions. If all functions cannot be served simultaneously at a maximum level, an effective compromise between multiple objectives of the reservoir operation has to be provided. Yet under climate change the historically preferenced compromise may no longer be the most suitable compromise in the future. Therefore a multi-objective based climate change impact assessment approach for multi-purpose multi-reservoir systems is proposed in the study. Projected inflows are provided in a first step using a physically based rainfall-runoff model. In a second step, a time series model is applied to generate long-term inflow time series. Finally, the long-term inflow series are used as driving variables for a simulation-based multi-objective optimization of the reservoir system in order to derive optimal operation rules. As a result, the adapted Pareto-optimal set of diverse best compromise solutions can be presented to the decision maker in order to assist him in assessing climate change adaption measures with respect to the future performance of the multi-purpose reservoir system. The approach is tested on a multi-purpose multi-reservoir system in a mountainous catchment in Germany. A

  17. Development of virtual research environment for regional climatic and ecological studies and continuous education support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Lykosov, Vasily; Krupchatnikov, Vladimir; Bogomolov, Vasily; Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander; Shulgina, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Volumes of environmental data archives are growing immensely due to recent models, high performance computers and sensors development. It makes impossible their comprehensive analysis in conventional manner on workplace using in house computing facilities, data storage and processing software at hands. One of possible answers to this challenge is creation of virtual research environment (VRE), which should provide a researcher with an integrated access to huge data resources, tools and services across disciplines and user communities and enable researchers to process structured and qualitative data in virtual workspaces. VRE should integrate data, network and computing resources providing interdisciplinary climatic research community with opportunity to get profound understanding of ongoing and possible future climatic changes and their consequences. Presented are first steps and plans for development of VRE prototype element aimed at regional climatic and ecological monitoring and modeling as well as at continuous education and training support. Recently developed experimental software and hardware platform aimed at integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced data "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/, Gordov et al., 2013; Shulgina et al., 2013; Okladnikov et al., 2013) is used as a VRE element prototype and approach test bench. VRE under development will integrate on the base of geoportal distributed thematic data storage, processing and analysis systems and set of models of complex climatic and environmental processes run on supercomputers. VRE specific tools are aimed at high resolution rendering on-going climatic processes occurring in Northern Eurasia and reliable and found prognoses of their dynamics for selected sets of future mankind activity scenaria. Currently the VRE element is accessible via developed geoportal at the same link (http://climate.scert.ru/) and integrates the WRF and «Planet Simulator» models, basic reanalysis and instrumental

  18. A review on factors for maximizing solar fraction under wet climate environment in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Rafeeu, Yaaseen [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    Solar energy is the most promising source of clean, renewable energy and it has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world's energy problems. However, the problem, is how best to harness this vast amount of solar energy. Nevertheless, even if highly efficient Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) could be made cheaply, there would be considerable change in solar power. This technology is expected to be more efficient and to achieve a manufacturing cost of less than $1/W near future. This paper reviews and elaborates the methodology utilized to design and fabricate the solar dish concentrator and outlines the parameters that can be used to increase the efficiency of solar fraction in parabolic dish concentrator under wet climate environment in Malaysia. The study finally provides ideas to the continually increasing ability of these technologies to concentrate and harness solar energy for electricity production and thus eliminate the growing concern over climate change and how it will hurt the region's environment, human health and economy. (author)

  19. A review on factors for maximizing solar fraction under wet climate environment in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab; Rafeeu, Yaaseen

    2010-01-01

    Solar energy is the most promising source of clean, renewable energy and it has the greatest potential of any power source to solve the world's energy problems. However, the problem, is how best to harness this vast amount of solar energy. Nevertheless, even if highly efficient Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) could be made cheaply, there would be considerable change in solar power. This technology is expected to be more efficient and to achieve a manufacturing cost of less than $1/W near future. This paper reviews and elaborates the methodology utilized to design and fabricate the solar dish concentrator and outlines the parameters that can be used to increase the efficiency of solar fraction in parabolic dish concentrator under wet climate environment in Malaysia. The study finally provides ideas to the continually increasing ability of these technologies to concentrate and harness solar energy for electricity production and thus eliminate the growing concern over climate change and how it will hurt the region's environment, human health and economy. (author)

  20. The effects of radionuclides in the atmosphere on weather, climate and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de.

    1992-10-01

    A literature study on the effects of the released radionuclides in the atmosphere on weather, climate and environment are reported. In this report a science outlook of these effects is presented. The emissions generated by the electricity are the central issue. For the global effects the released krypton-85 (half-life time 10,78 years) which are caused by reprocessing factories would take an important role, but for local effects the releasing of short-living isotopes as xenon-133 and xenon-135 produced by nuclear reactors and radon-222 produced by mining activities must be taken into account. The production, emission and distribution of these related important isotopes are discussed, just like air-electric circuits (global), the chemistry of the atmosphere (local) and the consequences of it for the weather, climate and environment on earth. Radionuclides could affect on the development of the thunderstorm, rainfall, cloud formation, air dampness, acid- and aerosol formations and also indirect, for example, for the greenhouse effect and acid rainfall. (author). 133 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs

  1. Distributed Research Center for Analysis of Regional Climatic Changes and Their Impacts on Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Okladnikov, I.; Gordov, E. P.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Titov, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Presented is a collaborative project carrying out by joint team of researchers from the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia and Earth Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire, USA. Its main objective is development of a hardware and software prototype of Distributed Research Center (DRC) for monitoring and projecting of regional climatic and and their impacts on the environment over the Northern extratropical areas. In the framework of the project new approaches to "cloud" processing and analysis of large geospatial datasets (big geospatial data) are being developed. It will be deployed on technical platforms of both institutions and applied in research of climate change and its consequences. Datasets available at NCEI and IMCES include multidimensional arrays of climatic, environmental, demographic, and socio-economic characteristics. The project is aimed at solving several major research and engineering tasks: 1) structure analysis of huge heterogeneous climate and environmental geospatial datasets used in the project, their preprocessing and unification; 2) development of a new distributed storage and processing model based on a "shared nothing" paradigm; 3) development of a dedicated database of metadata describing geospatial datasets used in the project; 4) development of a dedicated geoportal and a high-end graphical frontend providing intuitive user interface, internet-accessible online tools for analysis of geospatial data and web services for interoperability with other geoprocessing software packages. DRC will operate as a single access point to distributed archives of spatial data and online tools for their processing. Flexible modular computational engine running verified data processing routines will provide solid results of geospatial data analysis. "Cloud" data analysis and visualization approach will guarantee access to the DRC online tools and data from all over the world. Additionally, exporting of data

  2. Data Mashups: Linking Human Health and Wellbeing with Weather, Climate and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L. E.; Sarran, C.; Golding, B.; Haines, A.; Kessel, A.; Djennad, M.; Hajat, S.; Nichols, G.; Gordon Brown, H.; Depledge, M.

    2016-12-01

    A large part of the global disease burden can be linked to environmental factors, underpinned by unhealthy behaviours. Research into these linkages suffers from lack of common tools and databases for investigations across many different scientific disciplines to explore these complex associations. The MEDMI (Medical and Environmental Data-a Mash-up Infrastructure) Partnership brings together leading organisations and researchers in climate, weather, environment, and human health. We have created a proof-of-concept central data and analysis system with the UK Met Office and Public Health England data as the internet-based MEDMI Platform (www.data-mashup.org.uk) to serve as a common resource for researchers to link and analyse complex meteorological, environmental and epidemiological data in the UK. The Platform is hosted on its own dedicated server, with secure internet and in-person access with appropriate safeguards for ethical, copyright, security, preservation, and data sharing issues. Via the Platform, there is a demonstration Browser Application with access to user-selected subsets of the data for: a) analyses using time series (e.g. mortality/environmental variables), and b) data visualizations (e.g. infectious diseases/environmental variables). One demonstration project is linking climate change, harmful algal blooms and oceanographic modelling building on the hydrodynamic-biogeochemical coupled models; in situ and satellite observations as well as UK HAB data and hospital episode statistics data are being used for model verification and future forecasting. The MEDMI Project provides a demonstration of the potential, barriers and challenges, of these "data mashups" of environment and health data. Although there remain many challenges to creating and sustaining such a shared resource, these activities and resources are essential to truly explore the complex interactions between climate and other environmental change and health at the local and global scale.

  3. Proceedings of the workshop cum nineteenth national symposium on environment: climate change and its impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Saradhi, I.V.; Sahu, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is now recognized as the major environmental problem facing the mankind. The impacts are being felt in the form of melting ice caps in the Polar Regions and increased variability in temperature, rainfall and storms in virtually all regions. In addition to global impacts pollution in India can also be attributed to rapid industrialization, energy production, urbanization and increase in the number of motorized vehicles. Similarly, untreated water from urban settlements and industrial activities, run off from agricultural lands carrying chemicals are primarily responsible for the deterioration of water quality and contamination of lakes, rivers and groundwater aquifers. Other environmental issues such as loss of biodiversity, land degradation and hazardous waste disposal are also a cause of concern. The continuous deterioration of environment is the result of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption processes. Actions to mitigate climate change are only possible with strong policies and technology development and appropriate pollution control measures need to be adopted to mitigate the pollutants in order to achieve a clean environment. Control of air pollution should include promotion of cleaner technologies, strengthening emission standards and monitoring systems. Water pollution control should include technological intervention to enhance effective treatment of wastewater. The discussions of the symposium covered the topics like: Climate change and mitigation strategies, air, water and soil pollution, monitoring and modeling of pollutants and their transport, aerosol characterization and health effects, environmental radioactivity including NORM, speciation studies of toxic pollutants, remote sensing - GIS studies, ecology, environmental awareness and education, bioremediation, waste management and other related areas. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. To the micro-climatic condition influence upon the environment pollution during exploitation of being oxidized mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, T.K.; Al'mukhambetova, Sh.K.; Bajramov, I.M.

    1998-01-01

    Conducted researches showed dependence of environment pollution rate under exploration of being oxidized mineral deposits from number of meteorological futures of season changes. Zones of gases spreading in atmosphere from sources of pollution in dependence from micro-climatic conditions are estimated. Results can be used during preventive measures projecting for environment in deposits districts. (author)

  5. Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Malin E; Chriél, Mariann; Norström, Madelaine; Hofshagen, Merete

    2012-11-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. A recent report states that between 50% and 80% of the human campylobacteriosis cases could be attributed to broiler as a reservoir. The current study was conducted to investigate associations between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Norwegian broiler flocks and factors related to the climate and the farm environment. Data from 18,488 broiler flocks from 623 different farms during 2002-2007 were included in the study. A logistic regression analysis was conducted where Campylobacter spp. status of a broiler flock at the time of slaughter was defined as the dependent variable and farm was modelled as a random effect. The following factors were found to increase the probability for a broiler flock to test positive for Campylobacter spp.: daily mean temperature above 6°C during the rearing period, private water supply, presence of other livestock farms within a distance of 2 km, presence of other broiler farms within a distance of 4 km with flocks positive for Campylobacter spp. within 30 days prior to slaughter, heavy rainfall 11-30 days prior to slaughter, region and year. Daily mean temperature below 0°C reduced the probability. The study emphasises the importance of the farm environment and the climate for the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks. The farm environment is probably a part of the Campylobacter spp. pathway into and between broiler flocks where farmyard run-off and humans or flies entering the houses might constitute vehicles transporting the organism. Fly activity is temperature-driven and flies might be a part of the explanation of the increased risk for Campylobacter spp. related to increased temperature demonstrated in the study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-Fire Recovery of Eco-Hydrologic Behavior Given Historic and Projected Climate Variability in California Mediterranean Type Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, L. P.; Tague, C. L.; Hope, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Mediterranean type environments (MTEs) of California are characterized by a distinct wet and dry season and high variability in inter-annual climate. Water limitation in MTEs makes eco-hydrological processes highly sensitive to both climate variability and frequent fire disturbance. This research modeled post-fire eco- hydrologic behavior under historical and moderate and extreme scenarios of future climate in a semi-arid chaparral dominated southern California MTE. We used a physically-based, spatially-distributed, eco- hydrological model (RHESSys - Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System), to capture linkages between water and vegetation response to the combined effects of fire and historic and future climate variability. We found post-fire eco-hydrologic behavior to be strongly influenced by the episodic nature of MTE climate, which intensifies under projected climate change. Higher rates of post-fire net primary productivity were found under moderate climate change, while more extreme climate change produced water stressed conditions which were less favorable for vegetation productivity. Precipitation variability in the historic record follows the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and these inter-annual climate characteristics intensify under climate change. Inter-annual variation in streamflow follows these precipitation patterns. Post-fire streamflow and carbon cycling trajectories are strongly dependent on climate characteristics during the first 5 years following fire, and historic intra-climate variability during this period tends to overwhelm longer term trends and variation that might be attributable to climate change. Results have implications for water resource availability, vegetation type conversion from shrubs to grassland, and changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  7. Whose environment?: the end of nature, climate change and the process of post-politicization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how the elevation of the environmental question, in particular the problem of climate change, to a global and consensually established public concern is both a marker of and constituent force in the production of de-politicization. The paper has four parts. First, I problematize the question of Nature and the environment. Second, the case of climate change policy is presented as cause célèbre of de-politicization. The third part relates this argument to the views of political theorists who argue that the political constitution of western democracies is increasingly marked by the consolidation of post-political and post-democratic arrangements. Fourth, I discuss the climate change consensus in light of the post-political thesis. I conclude that the matter of the environment and climate change in particular, needs to be displaced onto the terrain of the properly political.Este artigo explora como a eminência da questão ambiental, particularmente da problemática das mudanças climáticas, para uma preocupação pública global e consensualmente vigente é ao mesmo tempo um marco e uma força constituinte na produção da despolitização. Este artigo tem quatro partes. Primeiro, eu problematizo a questão da natureza e do meio ambiente. Segundo, o caso das políticas de mudanças climáticas é apresentado como cause célèbre da despolitização. A terceira parte relaciona este argumento com as visões de teóricos políticos que argumentam que a constituição política das democracias ocidentais é, cada vez mais, marcada pela consolidação de arranjos pós-politicos e pós-democráticos. Na quarta parte eu discuto o consenso das mudanças climáticas à luz da tese pós-política. Eu concluo que a questão do meio ambiente e, particularmente, das mudanças climáticas precisam ser deslocadas para o terreno do propriamente político.

  8. Providing more informative projections of climate change impact on plant distribution in a mountain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, C.; Engler, R.; Pearman, P.; Vittoz, P.; Guisan, A.

    2007-12-01

    Due to their conic shape and the reduction of area with increasing elevation, mountain ecosystems were early identified as potentially very sensitive to global warming. Moreover, mountain systems may experience unprecedented rates of warming during the next century, two or three times higher than that records of the 20th century. In this context, species distribution models (SDM) have become important tools for rapid assessment of the impact of accelerated land use and climate change on the distribution plant species. In this study, we developed and tested new predictor variables for species distribution models (SDM), specific to current and future geographic projections of plant species in a mountain system, using the Western Swiss Alps as model region. Since meso- and micro-topography are relevant to explain geographic patterns of plant species in mountain environments, we assessed the effect of scale on predictor variables and geographic projections of SDM. We also developed a methodological framework of space-for-time evaluation to test the robustness of SDM when projected in a future changing climate. Finally, we used a cellular automaton to run dynamic simulations of plant migration under climate change in a mountain landscape, including realistic distance of seed dispersal. Results of future projections for the 21st century were also discussed in perspective of vegetation changes monitored during the 20th century. Overall, we showed in this study that, based on the most severe A1 climate change scenario and realistic dispersal simulations of plant dispersal, species extinctions in the Western Swiss Alps could affect nearly one third (28.5%) of the 284 species modeled by 2100. With the less severe B1 scenario, only 4.6% of species are predicted to become extinct. However, even with B1, 54% (153 species) may still loose more than 80% of their initial surface. Results of monitoring of past vegetation changes suggested that plant species can react quickly to the

  9. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  10. Potential impacts of climate change on the built environment: ASHRAE climate zones, building codes and national energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    Statement of the Problem: ASHRAE releases updates to 90.1 “Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings” every three years resulting in a 3.7%-17.3% increase in energy efficiency for buildings with each release. This is adopted by or informs building codes in nations across the globe, is the National Standard for the US, and individual states elect which release year of the standard they will enforce. These codes are built upon Standard 169 “Climatic Data for Building Design Standards,” the latest 2017 release of which defines climate zones based on 8, 118 weather stations throughout the world and data from the past 8-25 years. This data may not be indicative of the weather that new buildings built today, will see during their upcoming 30-120 year lifespan. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Using more modern, high-resolution datasets from climate satellites, IPCC climate models (PCM and HadGCM), high performance computing resources (Titan) and new capabilities for clustering and optimization the authors briefly analyzed different methods for redefining climate zones. Using bottom-up analysis of multiple meteorological variables which were the subject matter, experts selected as being important to energy consumption, rather than the heating/cooling degree days currently used. Findings: We analyzed the accuracy of redefined climate zones, compared to current climate zones and how the climate zones moved under different climate change scenarios, and quantified the accuracy of these methods on a local level, at a national scale for the US. Conclusion & Significance: There is likely to be a significant annual, national energy and cost (billions USD) savings that could be realized by adjusting climate zones to take into account anticipated trends or scenarios in regional weather patterns.

  11. The decision making criteria on radiation protection of population in the cases of an accidental plutonium dispersion into environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, M.N.; Titov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Intervention criteria for radiation protection of general public in the case of accidental plutonium release have been elaborated on the basis of experimental radiobiological studies of affects of incorporated plutonium and of long duration medical observation for nuclear workers in Russia and the requirements of the national Radiation Safety Standards. Generic and operational levels for decision-making are given for early and late phases following the accident. Criteria for decision making are established in terms of upper and lower generic and operational levels (UL/LL). Criteria for urgent evacuation in the early stage directed on preventing of serious deterministic effects are defined as projected absorbed dose rate for lung 2x10 -2 Gy/day (UL) and 3x10 -3 Gy/day (LL). The UL corresponds to intake of 300 kBq of 239 Pu and mortal consequences during the first year after the accident as a result of acute interstitial pneumonite. The LL corresponds to intake of 40 kBq of 239 Pu and the threshold of serious radiological effects (disablement as a result of pneumosclerosis) and high level of stochastic effects - cancer of lung. Other basic countermeasures are intended on to be directed mitigation of long term radiological consequences. That is why criteria for them are defined in terms of protected equivalent dose for lungs or avertable effective dose. Criteria for sheltering and individual protection of respiratory tract correspond to committed equivalent dose due to intake during two days 200 mSv (UL) and 20 mSv (LL). Temporary relocation (1-2 years) is recommended if averted monthly effective dose is 30 mSv (UL) and 10 mSv (LL). Permanent relocation is justified if averted life-time effective dose is 1000 mSv (UL) and 200 mSv (LL). Operational levels in terms of density of soil contamination by plutonium are calculated for practical application of the dose criteria. (author)

  12. Criteria of choice in the planning of a solar radiation lamp arrangement, in climatic chambers for plant physiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materassi, A.; Fasano, G.; Vincenzi, M. De

    2006-01-01

    This technical note is an integration of the previous study: Climatic chambers for plant physiology: a new project concept. This note gives details regarding the planning of the lamp arrangement and demonstrates how mixing, in appropriate quantities, the radiative range of various types of lamps can give apparently contrasting results: to maximize radiation in maximum absorption range of chlorophylls and carotenoids; to minimize heat emission in the climatic chamber. With nine daylight fluorescent tubes, four sunlight metallic halide spotlights and nine red-blue fluorescent tubes, for a total of 562 W mE-2 (electric), mounted on the ceiling of a 2 m high chamber with a 4 square m surface area, on the chamber floor about 130 W mE-2 total solar radiation equivalent was obtained. This means a power emitted, in the bands of chlorophylls and carotenoids absorption, from a total solar radiation (black body of 5,500 K) of about 130 W mE-2. This radiation is sufficient to grow a large number of plant species. In the lamp arrangement there are seven other light fixtures, for fluorescent tubes, defined as auxiliary because tubes can be inserted which either integrate active radiation on the photoreceptors or produce particular spectral ranges. In the above cited work, fluorescent tubes producing in the ultraviolet B range were mounted in these auxiliary fixtures. Less thermal energy emitted in the climatic chamber means that it is possible to use a less powerful conditioning system and, thus, have lower costs of set-up and management. The efficiency of the lighting system is demonstrated by the fact that during 15 days of experimentation on 18-month-old, potted poplar plants (Populus alba), symptoms of insufficient light were not detected [it

  13. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    The objective of this PhD thesis was to arrange for an integrated building design with respect to thermal comfort, daylighting and energy use, applicable for office buildings in Nordic climate. In order to achieve this, it is suggested that modelling of mean radiant temperature (MRT) should...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards...

  14. Changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.

    2017-11-01

    Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.

  15. Overview of IMAGE 2.0. An integrated model of climate change and the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Battjes, C.; Van den Born, G.J.; Bouwman, A.F.; De Haan, B.J.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Klepper, O.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Krol, M.; Leemans, R.; Van Minnen, J.G.; Olivier, J.G.J.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Toet, A.M.C.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A.; Van der Woerd, H.J.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model, designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system. In this paper the focus is on the scientific aspects of the model, while another paper in this volume emphasizes its political aspects. The objectives of IMAGE 2.0 are to investigate linkages and feedbacks in the global system, and to evaluate consequences of climate policies. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100, with a spatial scale ranging from grid (0.5x0.5 latitude-longitude) to world political regions, depending on the sub-model. A total of 13 sub-models make up IMAGE 2.0, and they are organized into three fully linked sub-systems: Energy-Industry, Terrestrial Environment, and Atmosphere-Ocean. The fully linked model has been tested against data from 1970 to 1990, and after calibration it can reproduce the following observed trends: regional energy consumption and energy-related emissions, terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide and emissions of greenhouse gases, concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and transformation of land cover. The model can also simulate current zonal average surface and vertical temperatures. 1 fig., 10 refs

  16. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  17. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    Media representations are an important part of the dynamics of contemporary socio-ecological systems. The media agenda influences and interacts with the public and the policy agenda and all of these are connected to the changes of the state of the environment. Partly as a result of media debate, some issues are considered serious environmental problems, some risks are amplified while others are attenuated, and some proposals for remedies are highlighted and others downplayed. Research on environmental media coverage has focused predominantly on the English-speaking industrialised countries. This thesis presents an analysis of Finnish environmental coverage, focusing on representations of climate change and eutrophication from 1990- 2010. The main source of material is Helsingin Sanomat (HS), the most widely-read newspaper in Finland. The analysis adopts the perspective of contextual constructivism and the agenda-setting function of the mass media. Selected models describing the evolution of environmental coverage are applied within an interdisciplinary emphasis. The results show that the amount of newspaper content on eutrophication and climate change has generally increased, although both debates have been characterised by intense fluctuations. The volume of the coverage on climate change has been higher than that of eutrophication, especially since 2006. Eutrophication was highlighted most during the late 1990s while the peaks of climate coverage occurred between 2007 and 2009. Two key factors have shaped the coverage of eutrophication. First, the coverage is shaped by ecological factors, especially by the algal occurrences that are largely dependent on weather conditions. Second, the national algal monitoring and communication system run by environmental authorities has provided the media with easy-to-use data on the algal situation during the summertime. The peaks of climate coverage have been caused by an accumulation of several contributing factors. The two

  18. Indoor climate, psychosocial work environment and symptoms in open-plan offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, J; Allermann, L; Kristensen, T S

    2006-01-01

    To study the indoor climate, the psychosocial work environment and occupants' symptoms in offices a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was made in 11 naturally and 11 mechanically ventilated office buildings. Nine of the buildings had mainly cellular offices; five of the buildings had mainly open...... irritation, skin irritation, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and psychosocial factors. Occupants in open-plan offices are more likely to perceive thermal discomfort, poor air quality and noise and they more frequently complain about CNS and mucous membrane symptoms than occupants in multi......-person and cellular offices. The association between psychosocial factors and office size was weak. Open-plan offices may not be suited for all job types. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Open-plan offices may be a risk factor for adverse environmental perceptions and symptoms....

  19. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  20. Calculations for government policies for the environment, climate and nature. Outline with respect to the Halsema resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruitwagen, S.; Daniels, B.

    2011-09-01

    The policy amendments announced by the Dutch cabinet with regard to environment and climate do not all point in the same direction. The cabinet gives strong impetus to renewable energy as a result of which the share of renewable energy increases from 9 to 12%. However, the cabinet will reduce the budget for water quality management and is thus taking an advance on uncertain and not yet realized efficiency gains. Given that not all cabinet plans are concrete, it is unclear if the cabinet will be able to adhere to the European agreements in the field of environment, climate and nature. [nl

  1. Climate Change Anticipation on Supporting Capacity of Fishing Environment in the Coastal Area of Tanjungmas Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Indah Kurniasih Wahyu; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is no longer a debate about its existence but already a problem shared between communities, between agencies, between countries even global for handling serious because so many aspects of life and the environment is affected, especially for communities in coastal environments This climate change is a threat to the Earth, because it can affect all aspects of life and will damage the balance of life of Earth Climate change happens slowly in a fairly long period of time and it is a change that is hard to avoid. These Phenomena will give effect to the various facets of life. Semarang as areas located to Java and bordering the Java Sea are at high risk exposed to the impacts of climate change Also not a few residents of the city of Semarang who settled in the northern part of the city of Semarang and also have a livelihood as farmers/peasants and fishermen Many industrial centers or attractions that are prone to impacted by climate change. Thus, the anticipation of climate change on resources support neighborhood of fishermen in the coastal area of Tanjungmas Semarang interesting for further review. This study aims to find out more the influence of climate change on the environment of fishing identify potential danger due to the impacts of climate change on coastal areas of Tanjungmas Semarang The research was conducted through surveys, interviews and field observation without a list of questions to obtain primary and secondary data As for the analysis undertaken, namely the analysis of climate change on the coastal environment, the analysis of productivity of fishermen as well as the analysis of the likelihood of disaster risk at the coast due to climate change. From the results of the study the occurrence of sea rise as one of the indicators of climate change in the coastal City of Semarang to reach 0.8 mm/year and average soil degradation that ranged between 5 - 12 cm/year cause most coastal communities as well as the social life of the agricultural

  2. Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  3. Thermal physiology of native cool-climate, and non-native warm-climate Pumpkinseed sunfish raised in a common environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Anna C; Burness, Gary; Fox, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary evolution of thermal physiology has the potential to help limit the physiological stress associated with rapidly changing thermal environments; however it is unclear if wild populations can respond quickly enough for such changes to be effective. We used native Canadian Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) sunfish, and non-native Pumpkinseed introduced into the milder climate of Spain ~100 years ago, to assess genetic differences in thermal physiology in response to the warmer non-native climate. We compared temperature performance reaction norms of two Canadian and two Spanish Pumpkinseed populations born and raised within a common environment. We found that Canadian Pumpkinseed had higher routine metabolic rates when measured at seasonally high temperatures (15°C in winter, 30°C in summer), and that Spanish Pumpkinseed had higher critical thermal maxima when acclimated to 30°C in the summer. Growth rates were not significantly different among populations, however Canadian Pumpkinseed tended to have faster growth at the warmest temperatures measured (32°C). The observed differences in physiology among Canadian and Spanish populations at the warmest acclimation temperatures are consistent with the introduced populations being better suited to the warmer non-native climate than native populations. The observed differences could be the result of either founder effects, genetic drift, and/or contemporary adaptive evolution in the warmer non-native climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Snow sublimation in mountain environments and its sensitivity to forest disturbance and climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, Graham A.; Clow, David W.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.; Knowles, John F.; Penn, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Snow sublimation is an important component of the snow mass balance, but the spatial and temporal variability of this process is not well understood in mountain environments. This study combines a process‐based snow model (SnowModel) with eddy covariance (EC) measurements to investigate (1) the spatio‐temporal variability of simulated snow sublimation with respect to station observations, (2) the contribution of snow sublimation to the ablation of the snowpack, and (3) the sensitivity and response of snow sublimation to bark beetle‐induced forest mortality and climate warming across the north‐central Colorado Rocky Mountains. EC‐based observations of snow sublimation compared well with simulated snow sublimation at stations dominated by surface and canopy sublimation, but blowing snow sublimation in alpine areas was not well captured by the EC instrumentation. Water balance calculations provided an important validation of simulated sublimation at the watershed scale. Simulated snow sublimation across the study area was equivalent to 28% of winter precipitation on average, and the highest relative snow sublimation fluxes occurred during the lowest snow years. Snow sublimation from forested areas accounted for the majority of sublimation fluxes, highlighting the importance of canopy and sub‐canopy surface sublimation in this region. Simulations incorporating the effects of tree mortality due to bark‐beetle disturbance resulted in a 4% reduction in snow sublimation from forested areas. Snow sublimation rates corresponding to climate warming simulations remained unchanged or slightly increased, but total sublimation losses decreased by up to 6% because of a reduction in snow covered area and duration.

  5. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts.

  6. Environment and globalization: equity and precautionary principles in the climate negotiation; Environnement et mondialisation. Principes d'equite et de precaution dans la negociation climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Interviews and articles are dealing with the relationship between international trade and environment (WTO and agreements on the environment), the equity dimension in the negotiations on climate, the relationship between greenhouse effect and nuclear (a balance of precautions), the place of sustainable development in international discussions (the role of authorities created by the Rio conference), the French plan against the greenhouse effect, the weakness of the French policy on greenhouse gases, the joint application, the African example, the place of forestry projects in Kyoto mechanisms, the evolution from the joint North-South application to the self-development mechanism

  7. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  8. Goals and Values in School: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social Climate of Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allodi, Mara Westling

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…

  9. Cuphea growth, yield, and oil characteristics as influenced by climate and soil environments across the Upper Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea is a potential new oilseed crop rich in medium-chain fatty acids (C8:0 to C14:0) that may serve as a renewable, biodegradable source of oil for lubricants, motor oil, and aircraft fuel. Impacts of climate and soil environment on cuphea growth and development are not well understood. The objec...

  10. Climate Risk Assessment: Technical Guidance Manual for DoD Installations and Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    United States Geological Service VBA Visual Basic for Applications (programming language) VIC The Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model...specialists with good understanding of the specific system being investigated. Available climate information products can be accessed to provide...BOX 3 – CLIMATE INFORMATION PRODUCTS There are a number of tools available that provide easy access to a range of climate information products. For

  11. Climate change in the Netherlands : Challenges for a safe and attractive urban environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Döpp, S.P.; Bosch, P.R.; Deelen, C.L. van

    2009-01-01

    Climate change in cities has so far been underexposed in Dutch research on climate change adaptation. High population density and high economic values make Dutch urban areas nevertheless vulnerable to climate change. Even with stringent mitigation policies Dutch cities will be subject to warmer

  12. Developments of Thermal Environment Techniques of Animal Housing in Hot Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    It is a challenge to create the satisfied indoor climate of farm animal housing in hot climate conditions by ventilation design and control. Facing to the global warming tendency, the challenge become event great. To overcome this challenge, an optimal indoor climate control system should be able...

  13. Systematization of climate data in the virtual research environment on the basis of ontology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipova, K. A.; Bart, A. A.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Titov, A. G.

    2017-11-01

    The first version of a primitive OWL-ontology of collections climate and meteorological data of Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS is presented. The ontology is a component of expert and decision support systems intended for quick search for climate and meteorological data required for solution of a certain class of applied problems.

  14. Climate change, human communities, and forests in rural, urban, and wildland-urban interface environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Linda A. Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Human concerns about the effects of climate change on forests are related to the values that forests provide to human populations, that is, to the effects on ecosystem services derived from forests. Service values include the consumption of timber products, the regulation of climate and water quality, and aesthetic and spiritual values. Effects of climate change on...

  15. Integrated resource planning and the environment: A guide to the use of multi-criteria decision methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Meier, P. [IDEA, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report is intended as a guide to the use of multi-criteria decision-making methods (MCDM) for incorporating environmental factors in electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Application of MCDM is emerging as an alternative and complementary method to explicit economic valuation for weighting environmental effects. We provide a step-by-step guide to the elements that are common to all MCDM applications. The report discusses how environmental attributes should be selected and defined; how options should be selected (and how risk and uncertainty should be accounted for); how environmental impacts should be quantified (with particular attention to the problems of location); how screening should be conducted; the construction and analysis of trade-off curves; dominance analysis, which seeks to identify clearly superior options, and reject clearly inferior options; scaling of impacts, in which we translate social, economic and environmental impacts into value functions; the determination of weights, with particular emphasis on ensuring that the weights reflect the trade-offs that decision-makers are actually willing to make; the amalgamation of attributes into overall plan rankings; and the resolution of differences among methods, and between individuals. There are many MCDM methods available for accomplishing these steps. They can differ in their appropriateness, ease of use, validity, and results. This report also includes an extensive review of past applications, in which we use the step-by-step guide to examine how these applications satisfied the criteria of appropriateness, ease of use, and validity. Case material is drawn from a wide field of utility applications, ranging from project-level environmental impact statements to capacity bidding programs, and from the results of two case studies conducted as part of this research.

  16. Impact of Climate Change on Irrigation Demand and Crop Growth in a Mediterranean Environment of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Haraguchi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A simulation study was carried out to describe effects of climate change on cropgrowth and irrigation water demand for a wheat-maize cropping sequence in aMediterranean environment of Turkey. Climate change scenarios were projected using dataof the three general circulation models—GCMs (CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI—for theperiod of 1990 to 2100 and one regional climate model—RCM—for the period of 2070 to2079. Potential impacts of climate change based on GCMs data were estimated for the A2scenario in the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES. The forcing data for theboundary condition of the RCM were given by the MRI model. Daily CGCM2 and RCMdata were used for computations of water balance and crop development. Predictionsderived from the models about changes in irrigation and crop growth in this study coveredthe period of 2070 to 2079 relative to the baseline period of 1994 to 2003. The effects ofclimate change on water demand and on wheat and maize yields were predicted using thedetailed crop growth subroutine of the SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant model. Precipitation was projected to decrease by about 163, 163 and 105 mm during the periodof 1990 to 2100 under the A2 scenario of the CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models,respectively. The CGCM2, ECHAM4 and MRI models projected a temperature rise of 4.3,5.3 and 3.1 oC, respectively by 2100. An increase in temperature may result in a higherevaporative demand of the atmosphere. However, actual evapotranspiration (ETa fromwheat cropland under a doubling CO2 concentration for the period of 2070 to 2079 wasSensors 2007, 7 2298 predicted to decrease by about 28 and 8% relative to the baseline period based on the CGCM2 and RCM data, respectively. According to these models, irrigation demand by wheat would be higher for the same period due to a decrease in precipitation. Both ETa and irrigation water for maize cropland were projected to decrease by 24 and 15

  17. Public perception of climate change and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esther O Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 James O Bamidele,2 Olusola O Odu,2, Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,3 Olugbenga L Abodurin,3 Wasiu O Adebimpe,1 Edward A Oladele,4 Adeleye A Adeomi,3 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Ebenezer O Ojofeitimi31Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Faculty of Clinical Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria; 4SIDHAS Project, Family Health International, Abuja, NigeriaBackground: Climate change (CC has received extensive media attention recently, and it is currently on the international public health agenda. A study of knowledge and attitudes to climate change, most especially from rural Nigerian communities, is important for developing adaptation strategies. This is a study of public perceptions of CC and its impact on health and environment in rural southwestern Nigeria.Methods: This was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study of 1,019 rural respondents using a multistage sampling method. The research instrument used was a pretested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. χ2, Cramér's V, and Kendall's τ-c statistics were employed in addition to fitting the data to a logistic regression model to explore associations found significant on bivariate analysis.Results: Mean age of respondents was 36.9 (±12.4 years. About 911 (89.4% of respondents opined that there has been a change in climate in the last 10 years. Supernatural reasons were prominent among respondent-reported causes of CC. Identified risky behavior contributing to CC included smoking (10.7%, bush burning (33.4%, and tree felling (41.0%. Poor knowledge of causes but good knowledge of effects of CC were found in this study. About two-thirds of

  18. Agricultural nutrient loadings to the freshwater environment: the role of climate change and socioeconomic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Ringler, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Human activities, in particular agricultural production, interfere with natural cycles of nutrient elements, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), leading to growing concerns about water quality degradation related to excessive nutrient loadings. Increases in agricultural production in response to population growth and wealth generation further increase risks associated with nutrient pollution. This paper presents results from projections of nutrient exports from global agricultural crop and pasture systems to the water environment generated using a process-based modeling approach. Brazil, China, India and the United States account for more than half of estimated global N and P loadings in the base year. Each country boasts large agriculture centers where high calculated loading values are found. Rapid growth in global agricultural nutrient loadings is projected. Growth of agricultural pollution loading is fastest in the group of low-income developing countries and loading growth rates also vary substantially with climate change scenario. Counter measures need to be taken to address the environmental risks associated with the projected rapid increase of agricultural nutrient loadings.

  19. Avoiding the Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Built Environment: The Importance of the Building’s Energy Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Coch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following years of research and design in architecture under bio-climatic, sustainable and passive-energy concepts, today’s buildings are often well designed and constructed, responding to determined climate conditions and the user’s requirements for comfort and, in some cases, they are integrated into the urban environment. However, the lifetime of a building can be over 100 years and the climate is changing rapidly. This work investigates the impact of climate change future (2040 and 2070 on the energy consumption of residential buildings recently constructed, under three possible scenarios. The scenarios are created considering a low, medium or strong effect of global warming. Two types of buildings, with comparable consumption results of today, are investigated in three different cities around the world with a multi-zone type 56 of Trnsys simulation tool. At the end of the work, the concepts of energy robustness and global thermal effusivity of buildings are discussed as important strategies to reduce the possible impact of climate change on the built environment. The use of simulation tools to estimate the sensitivity of buildings is also analyzed, taking into consideration the recent goals of applying uncertainty and sensitivity analysis to building performance simulation science.

  20. Links between the built environment, climate and population health: interdisciplinary environmental change research in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Sclar, Elliott D; Kinney, Patrick L; Knowlton, Kim; Crauderueff, Robert; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region. These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policy-oriented research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to address these

  1. Physical and chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi from swine reared in climate-controlled and uncontrolled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Juliana Lolli Malagoli; Berton, Mariana Piatto; de Cassia Dourado, Rita; Giampietro-Ganeco, Aline; de Souza, Rodrigo Alves; Ferrari, Fábio Borba; de Souza, Pedro Alves; Borba, Hirasilva

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of the longissimus dorsi muscle by comparing the quality of meat from pigs reared in a controlled and in an uncontrolled environment, the latter provided with a shallow pool. Twenty castrated male pigs of the Topigs line were randomly allotted to two treatments: a controlled environment, with constant temperature (22 °C) and relative humidity (70%); and an uncontrolled environment in a conventional shed for rearing pigs equipped with a shallow pool, where pigs were subject to climatic variations. Meat from pigs kept in the controlled environment showed a greater capacity to retain intracellular water, higher tenderness, and lower cholesterol levels than meat from pigs reared in the uncontrolled environment, but displayed higher lipid oxidation and a lower concentration of DHA. Treatments had no effect on color, pH, chemical composition, or fatty acid profile (except DHA concentration). Rearing pigs in sheds equipped with a shallow pool minimizes the effects of environmental heat on meat quality, allowing the production of high-quality meat in warm climate regions without expensive investments. Animals reared in an uncontrolled environment equipped with a shallow pool are able to produce meat with characteristics within the quality standards and with similar quality to that of meat from animals raised in controlled environment.

  2. Climate Change Impact on the Southeastern Europe Security Environment and the Increasing Role of the Bulgarian Army as the World Warms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE INCREASING ROLE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AS THE WORLD WARMS...DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change ...14. ABSTRACT Climate change impacts on the security environment are real and have the potential to create unprecedented levels of risk through

  3. Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: the role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommasi, Desiree; Stock, Charles A.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2017-01-01

    and industry operations, as well as new research avenues in fisheries science. LMRs respond to climate variability via changes in physiology and behavior. For species and systems where climate-fisheries links are well established, forecasted LMR responses can lead to anticipatory and more effective decisions......Recent developments in global dynamical climate prediction systems have allowed for skillful predictions of climate variables relevant to living marine resources (LMRs) at a scale useful to understanding and managing LMRs. Such predictions present opportunities for improved LMR management......, benefitting both managers and stakeholders. Here, we provide an overview of climate prediction systems and advances in seasonal to decadal prediction of marine-resource relevant environmental variables. We then describe a range of climate-sensitive LMR decisions that can be taken at lead-times of months...

  4. Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

    2012-12-01

    What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives

  5. Climate change impacts on coastal and pelagic environments in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Chust, G; Borja, Á; Caballero, A; Irigoien, X; Sáenz, J; Moncho, R; Marcos, M; Liria, P; Hidalgo, J; Valle, M; Valencia, V

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The impacts of global climate change on the Basque coast and the pelagic systems within the southeastern Bay of Biscay are reviewed. Climate projections under greenhouse gas emission scenarios indicate that this area will experience changes in climate throughout the 21st century, including warming of surface air (especially heat wave episodes), intensification of extreme daily rainfall (10%), warming of the upper 100 m of the ocean layer (1.5 to 2.05°C), and sea level ...

  6. MUUX-E, a framework of criteria for evaluating the usability, user experience and educational features of m-learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia-Ann Harpur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students use mobile phones, equipped for Internet access. Mobile technologies can offer effective, satisfying and accessible m-learning experiences. A contribution has been made to knowledge on evaluating m-learning environments and to mobile human-computer interaction (MHCI, with the innovative synthesis of the MUUX-E Framework, which fills a gap in the domain of m-learning. MUUX-E is a single comprehensive, multi-faceted instrument for evaluating m-learning environments, emphasising usability and user experience in mobile educational contexts. It was developed by extensive literature studies on each aspect, and has five categories, 31 criteria and numerous sub-criteria. Using a design-based research paradigm, MUUX-E was applied iteratively to evaluate and enhance successive versions of m-LR, a mobile application created for a Software Engineering module. Participants were students and expert evaluators. MUUX-E served well to identify problems and strengths. The students were more positive than the experts regarding the benefits of m-LR, yet insightfully reported more system problems.

  7. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Soil and Aquatic Environment: An Overview of Principles and Criteria of Fundamental Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Dixit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in excess release of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc etc. into natural resources like the soil and aquatic environments. Prolonged exposure and higher accumulation of such heavy metals can have deleterious health effects on human life and aquatic biota. The role of microorganisms and plants in biotransformation of heavy metals into nontoxic forms is well-documented, and understanding the molecular mechanism of metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications for bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites. In view of this, the present review investigates the abilities of microorganisms and plants in terms of tolerance and degradation of heavy metals. Also, advances in bioremediation technologies and strategies to explore these immense and valuable biological resources for bioremediation are discussed. An assessment of the current status of technology deployment and suggestions for future bioremediation research has also been included. Finally, there is a discussion of the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in microbes, with special reference to the genomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes involved in tolerance and detoxification.

  8. CRITERIA OF THE AVIATION NOISE ASSESSMENT FOR AERODROME ENVIRONS ZONING OF THE AIRPORTS AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES JUSTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Kartyshev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems in the sphere of an adverse ecological effect assessment of aerodrome environs aviation noise are analyzed. It is noted, that there is no modern standard and methodical base for such assessment. It is shown that when planning the build- ing, and also when developing noise-protective actions for residential areas in the zones of aviation noise increased level im- pact it’s most effectively to carry out acoustic zoning of areas near airports borders and flight routes. The system of transport sources noise rationing in Russia doesn't consider the established practice of its application. The aircraft of noisy types were actively taken out of service and aviation noise impact near the airports decreased, but the problem of noise protection, de- mands control when planning land use. Noise measurements in residential areas, near houses and inside, showed the excess of maximum allowed level values to 25-35 dBA (on equivalent value and to 25-40 dBA (on the maximum value.As a consequence of the European states policy in the sphere of aviation noise management and of aerodrome en- virons zoning noise levels at the airports of Europe and their surroundings were stabilized and the sizes of noise contours were reduced. For different countries there was made the analysis of legislative bases of the implementation of the re-striction requirement for residential areas and the possibility of using the territory under noise impact. For rationing theaerodrome environs noise of the airports it’s offered to take a sound equivalent level in which admissible values are ranged on three zones for the main standard criterion. The authors present acoustic measurements results in houses near the airport Vnukovo on condition of using standard two-chamber trimmable and folding windows with the ventilating valve. It is shown that the popular window designs can't provide inside noise reduction at night to the standard L Amax level = 45 dBA from the aviation source

  9. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J. Moerlein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  10. Effectiveness of climate policy in the built environment. Application of policy theory in the evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosen, S.; Harmelink, M.; Blok, K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to climate policy in the sectors households and services in the Netherlands the annual emission of CO2 has been reduced by 2-6 million tons in 7 years. Without the climate policy the CO2 emission in these sectors would have been 7% higher [nl

  11. Strong climate coupling of terrestrial and marine environments in the Miocene of northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, T.H.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Munsterman, D.K.; Kloosterboer-van Hoeve, M.L.; Buckles, L.K.; Pancost, R.D.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    A palynological and organic geochemical record from a shallow marine paleoenvironmental setting in SE Netherlands documents the coupled marine and terrestrial climate evolution from the late Burdigalian (∼ 17 Ma) through the early Zanclean (∼ 4.5 Ma). Proxy climate records show several coeval

  12. Climate Change and International Competition: the US Army in the Arctic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    climate change and its potential environmental and socio -economic impacts .”4 Three working groups provide...additional energy commodities and commercial ventures, including oil and gas exploration, mineral extraction, commercial shipping, tourism , and fishing...scientific data on the impact , nature, and rate of climate change and the resulting environmental and geopolitical consequences. The IPCC’s principal

  13. Experiential-Based Climate Change Education: Fostering Students' Knowledge and Motivation towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Mohd Ali Khan, Nur Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important environmental issues affecting our society today and we need to educate the citizens about the impact on human lives. An attempt was made to integrate experiential-based climate change education into the teaching and learning of secondary school Biology lessons on the topic of "Endangered…

  14. The evolution of Chinese policies and governance structures on environment, energy and climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsang, S.; Kolk, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although a successor to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has not materialised yet, the 2009 Copenhagen meeting underlined the importance of China in international debates on climate and energy. This is not only based on China’s current climate emissions, but also on its expected energy use and economic

  15. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  16. Historical and political development of the UN’s main conferences on the climate and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pessini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This reflection aims to analyze the historical and political evolution of the major UN world conferences on climate and the environment. Aware that human action has compromised the future continuity of life on the planet, the United Nations has promoted the debate to rethink humankind’s relationship with nature, and with the idea of development and sustainability. The itinerary for this reflection begins with the Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, Eco-92, and goes on to consider Rio + 20, the Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012, before finally coming to the Climate Conference (COP 21 held in Paris in December 2015, known as the Paris Agreement. It aims to evaluate the impasses, breakthroughs and historical and political perspectives of these documents aimed at preventing human “achievements” and “progress” from compromising life on Earth as a whole.

  17. Managing living marine resources in a dynamic environment: The role of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Desiree; Stock, Charles A.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Methot, Rick; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Eveson, J. Paige; Holsman, Kirstin; Miller, Timothy J.; Gaichas, Sarah; Gehlen, Marion; Pershing, Andrew; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Msadek, Rym; Delworth, Tom; Eakin, C. Mark; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Séférian, Roland; Spillman, Claire M.; Hartog, Jason R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Samhouri, Jameal F.; Muhling, Barbara; Asch, Rebecca G.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Saba, Vincent S.; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Gaitan, Carlos F.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Alexander, Michael A.; Xue, Yan; Pegion, Kathleen V.; Lynch, Patrick; Payne, Mark R.; Kristiansen, Trond; Lehodey, Patrick; Werner, Francisco E.

    2017-03-01

    Recent developments in global dynamical climate prediction systems have allowed for skillful predictions of climate variables relevant to living marine resources (LMRs) at a scale useful to understanding and managing LMRs. Such predictions present opportunities for improved LMR management and industry operations, as well as new research avenues in fisheries science. LMRs respond to climate variability via changes in physiology and behavior. For species and systems where climate-fisheries links are well established, forecasted LMR responses can lead to anticipatory and more effective decisions, benefitting both managers and stakeholders. Here, we provide an overview of climate prediction systems and advances in seasonal to decadal prediction of marine-resource relevant environmental variables. We then describe a range of climate-sensitive LMR decisions that can be taken at lead-times of months to decades, before highlighting a range of pioneering case studies using climate predictions to inform LMR decisions. The success of these case studies suggests that many additional applications are possible. Progress, however, is limited by observational and modeling challenges. Priority developments include strengthening of the mechanistic linkages between climate and marine resource responses, development of LMR models able to explicitly represent such responses, integration of climate driven LMR dynamics in the multi-driver context within which marine resources exist, and improved prediction of ecosystem-relevant variables at the fine regional scales at which most marine resource decisions are made. While there are fundamental limits to predictability, continued advances in these areas have considerable potential to make LMR managers and industry decision more resilient to climate variability and help sustain valuable resources. Concerted dialog between scientists, LMR managers and industry is essential to realizing this potential.

  18. How will climate change affect spatial planning in agricultural and natural environments? Examples from three Dutch case study regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom-Zandstra, Margaretha; Schaap, Ben; Paulissen, Maurice; Agricola, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will place increasing pressure on the functioning of agricultural and natural areas in the Netherlands. Strategies to adapt these areas to stress are likely to require changes in landscape structure and management. In densely populated countries such as the Netherlands, the increased pressure of climate change on agricultural and natural areas will inevitably lead, through the necessity of spatial adaptation measures, to spatial conflicts between the sectors of agriculture and nature. An integrated approach to climate change adaptation may therefore be beneficial in limiting such sectoral conflicts. We explored the conflicting and synergistic properties of different climate adaptation strategies for agricultural and natural environments in the Netherlands. To estimate the feasibility and effectiveness of the strategies, we focussed on three case study regions with contrasting landscape structural, natural and agricultural characteristics. For each region, we estimated the expected climate-related threats and associated trade-offs for arable farming and natural areas for 2040. We describe a number of spatial and integrated adaptation strategies to mitigate these threats. Formulating adaptation strategies requires consultation of different stakeholders and deliberation between different interests. We discuss some trade-offs involved in this decision-making.

  19. Climate and atmosphere simulator for experiments on ecological systems in changing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Bruno; Jouanneau, Isabelle; Simonnet, Benoit; Rabin, Christian; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Delpierre, Nicolas; Clobert, Jean; Abbadie, Luc; Ferrière, Régis; Le Galliard, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Grand challenges in global change research and environmental science raise the need for replicated experiments on ecosystems subjected to controlled changes in multiple environmental factors. We designed and developed the Ecolab as a variable climate and atmosphere simulator for multifactor experimentation on natural or artificial ecosystems. The Ecolab integrates atmosphere conditioning technology optimized for accuracy and reliability. The centerpiece is a highly contained, 13-m(3) chamber to host communities of aquatic and terrestrial species and control climate (temperature, humidity, rainfall, irradiance) and atmosphere conditions (O2 and CO2 concentrations). Temperature in the atmosphere and in the water or soil column can be controlled independently of each other. All climatic and atmospheric variables can be programmed to follow dynamical trajectories and simulate gradual as well as step changes. We demonstrate the Ecolab's capacity to simulate a broad range of atmospheric and climatic conditions, their diurnal and seasonal variations, and to support the growth of a model terrestrial plant in two contrasting climate scenarios. The adaptability of the Ecolab design makes it possible to study interactions between variable climate-atmosphere factors and biotic disturbances. Developed as an open-access, multichamber platform, this equipment is available to the international scientific community for exploring interactions and feedbacks between ecological and climate systems.

  20. Biogeosystem technique as the way to certainty of soil, hydrosphere, environment and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zarmaev, Ali; Startsev, Viktor; Chernenko, Vladimir; Dikaev, Zaurbek; Sushkova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    processed soil of 150% higher compared to initial. Save of fresh water by intrasoil irrigation up to 20 times. Biological return of matter and high biological productivity of soil by environmentally safe intrasoil waste recycling. On the base of BGT* are opened the opportunities for: controlled, stable, safe, biologically effective soil, environment and landscape; improved equilibriums in soil, environment and landscape; reduced water consumption; improved waste management; reduced flux of nutrients to water systems; carbon transformation into the soil to the state of elements of plant nutrition; reducing degradation of biological matter to the state of greenhouse gases; increasing biologi al consumption of carbon dioxide by photosynthesis in terrestrial system; prolongation of the phase of carbon in terrestrial biological system for greenhouse gases sequestration; extension of the active area of biosphere on terrestrial part of the Earth; high rate oxidation of methane and hydrogen sulfide by oxygen, which is ionized in photosynthesis, and thus is biologically active; high biological product output of biosphere. The higher biomass on the Earth, the more ecologically safe food, raw material and biofuel can be produced, better conditions for technologies of Noosphere. Uncertainty of soil, hydrosphere, environment and climate will be reduced by the BGT* methods. Are available BGT* robotic systems of low cost and minimal consumption of energy and material.

  1. Latest Achievements on Climate Change and Forest Interactions in a Polluted Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carriero, G.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Clarke, N.; Matteucci, G.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Mikkelsen, J. D.; Fischer, R.; Cudlín, Pavel; Serengil, Y.; Boscaleri, F.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Feng, Z.; Paoletti, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2014), s. 197-207 ISSN 2163-0429 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : air pollution * climate change * forests * supersites * COST * FP0903 Action Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. A Copenhagen Prognosis: towards a safe climate future. A Synthesis of the Science of Climate Change, Environment and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    This report presents a concise diagnosis of the state of the biosphere and observed trends and offers a treatment plan that is consistent with a 2 deg C warming threshold, equity and economic development. Among it's key conclusions are that: - Emerging scientific results suggest that greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions targets currently being tabled are not consistent with the expressed political will to protect humanity against high risks of devastating climate impacts and significant risks of self-amplifying global warming. - Based on the available carbon budget, and if we are to have a good (75 per cent) chance for warming to stay below 2 deg C, global GHG emissions would almost certainly need to decline extremely rapidly after 2015, and reach essentially zero by mid-century. - There is no evidence suggesting it is impossible to rise to this challenge. To the contrary, the growing body of analytical work examining such scenarios at the global and regional level suggest it is not only technically feasible but also economically affordable, even profitable

  3. Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Ge; Segura, Catalina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the special issue “Interactions of Forests, Climate, Water Resources, and Humans in a Changing Environment” is to present case studies on the influences of natural and human disturbances on forest water resources under a changing climate. Studies in this collection of six papers cover a wide range of geographic regions from Australia to Nigeria with spatial research scale spanning from a tree leaf, to a segment of forest road, and large basins with mixed land uses. T...

  4. Effects of climate change on long-term population growth of pronghorn in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Harris, Grant; Turnbull, Trey T.

    2015-01-01

    Climate often drives ungulate population dynamics, and as climates change, some areas may become unsuitable for species persistence. Unraveling the relationships between climate and population dynamics, and projecting them across time, advances ecological understanding that informs and steers sustainable conservation for species. Using pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) as an ecological model, we used a Bayesian approach to analyze long-term population, precipitation, and temperature data from 18 populations in the southwestern United States. We determined which long-term (12 and 24 months) or short-term (gestation trimester and lactation period) climatic conditions best predicted annual rate of population growth (λ). We used these predictions to project population trends through 2090. Projections incorporated downscaled climatic data matched to pronghorn range for each population, given a high and a lower atmospheric CO2 concentration scenario. Since the 1990s, 15 of the pronghorn populations declined in abundance. Sixteen populations demonstrated a significant relationship between precipitation and λ, and in 13 of these, temperature was also significant. Precipitation predictors of λ were highly seasonal, with lactation being the most important period, followed by early and late gestation. The influence of temperature on λ was less seasonal than precipitation, and lacked a clear temporal pattern. The climatic projections indicated that all of these pronghorn populations would experience increased temperatures, while the direction and magnitude of precipitation had high population-specific variation. Models predicted that nine populations would be extirpated or approaching extirpation by 2090. Results were consistent across both atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios, indicating robustness of trends irrespective of climatic severity. In the southwestern United States, the climate underpinning pronghorn populations is shifting, making conditions increasingly

  5. Climate change may affect fish through an interaction of parental and juvenile environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Changes to tropical sea surface temperature and plankton communities are expected to occur over the next 100 years due to climate change. There is a limited understanding of how these environmental changes are likely to impact coral reef fishes, especially in terms of population replenishment through the quality of progeny produced. The present study investigated the effect that elevated sea water temperature and changes to food availability may have on the production of offspring by the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Pomacentridae), as well as the performance of progeny in environments of varying food availability. An orthogonal design of three water temperatures and two food availabilities (high and low ration) was used, with water temperatures being the current-day average for the collection location (28.5 °C), +1.5 °C (30.0 °C) and +3.0 °C (31.5 °C), representing likely temperatures by 2100. Generally, an increase in the water temperature for adults resulted in a reduction in the size, weight and amount of yolk possessed by newly hatched offspring. Offspring whose parents were maintained under elevated temperature (30.0 °C high ration) had lower survival than offspring produced by parents at the current-day temperature (28.5 °C high ration) at 15 days post-hatching, but only when juveniles were reared under conditions of low food availability. In contrast, by 30 days post-hatching, the growth and condition of these offspring produced by parents held under elevated temperature (30.0 °C high ration) were the best of all treatment groups in all levels of juvenile food availability. This result illustrates the potential for initial parental effects to be modified by compensatory growth early in life (within 1 month) and that parental effects are not necessarily long lasting. These findings suggest that the performance of juvenile reef fish in future ocean conditions may not only depend on initial parental effects, but the interaction between their

  6. On the Climate Variability and Energy Demands for Indoor Human Comfort Levels in Tropical Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, R.; Ortiz, L. E.; González, J. E.; Ramírez-Beltran, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to identify how climate variability influences human comfort levels in tropical urban environments. San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA) of the island of Puerto Rico was chosen as a reference point. A new human discomfort index (HDI) based on environmental enthalpy is defined. This index is expanded to determine the energy required to maintain indoor human comfort levels and was compared to Total Electricity consumption for the Island of Puerto Rico. Regression analysis shows that both Temperature and HDI are good indictor to predict total electrical energy consumption. Results showed that over the past 35 years the average enthalpy have increased and have mostly been above thresholds for human comfort for SJMA. The weather stations data further shows a clear indication of urbanization biases ramping up the index considered. From the trend analysis local scale (weather station) data shows a decreasing rate of maximum cooling at -11.41 kW-h/years, and minimum is increasing at 10.64 kW-h/years. To compare human comfort levels under extreme heat wave events conditions, an event of 2014 in the San Juan area was identified. The analysis for this extreme heat event is complemented by data from the National Center for environmental Prediction (NCEP) at 250km spatial resolution, North American Re-Analysis (NARR) at 32 km spatial resolution, by simulations of the Weather Forecasting System (WRF) at a resolution of 2 km, and by weather station data for San Juan. WRF simulation's results showed an improvement for both temperature and relative humidity from the input NCEP data. It also shows that difference in Energy per Capita (EPC) in urban area during a heat wave event can increase to 16% over a non-urban area. Sensitivity analysis was done by modifying the urban land cover to the most common rural references of evergreen broadleaf forest and cropland to investigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect on HDI. UHI is seen to be maximum during

  7. Decadal analysis of impact of future climate on wheat production in dry Mediterranean environment: A case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prakash N; Telleria, Roberto; Al Khatib, Amal N; Allouzi, Siham F

    2018-01-01

    Different aspects of climate change, such as increased temperature, changed rainfall and higher atmospheric CO 2 concentration, all have different effects on crop yields. Process-based crop models are the most widely used tools for estimating future crop yield responses to climate change. We applied APSIM crop simulation model in a dry Mediterranean climate with Jordan as sentinel site to assess impact of climate change on wheat production at decadal level considering two climate change scenarios of representative concentration pathways (RCP) viz., RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Impact of climatic variables alone was negative on grain yield but this adverse effect was negated when elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations were also considered in the simulations. Crop cycle of wheat was reduced by a fortnight for RCP4.5 scenario and by a month for RCP8.5 scenario at the approach of end of the century. On an average, a grain yield increase of 5 to 11% in near future i.e., 2010s-2030s decades, 12 to 16% in mid future i.e., 2040s-2060s decades and 9 to 16% in end of century period can be expected for moderate climate change scenario (RCP4.5) and 6 to 15% in near future, 13 to 19% in mid future and 7 to 20% increase in end of century period for a drastic climate change scenario (RCP8.5) based on different soils. Positive impact of elevated CO 2 is more pronounced in soils with lower water holding capacity with moderate increase in temperatures. Elevated CO 2 had greater positive effect on transpiration use efficiency (TUE) than negative effect of elevated mean temperatures. The change in TUE was in near perfect direct relationship with elevated CO 2 levels (R 2 >0.99) and every 100-ppm atmospheric CO 2 increase resulted in TUE increase by 2kgha -1 mm -1 . Thereby, in this environment yield gains are expected in future and farmers can benefit from growing wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Climate, Environment and Man on Variations in Wildlife Population Fluctuations in Greenland Over 200 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    The Effect of Climate, Environment and Man on Variations in Wildlife Population Fluctuations in Greenland Over 200 Years Moshøj, Charlotte The underlying factors of species fluctuating population dynamics has been the dominant focus of attention in population ecology throughout much of this century...... passed on from Inuit elders all document that the presence of wildlife species and their population sizes have undergone pronounced fluctuations throughout recordable historical time. The most detailed accounts are found for the species that were harvested or had economical value. While several recent...... data, environmental factors and temporal variations in social and demographic parameters in the existing society. The results of this study model future predictions of wildlife populations under changing climate variables and human hunting pressure. View Presentation....

  9. Climate change impact on microclimate of work environment related to occupational health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Capone, Pasquale; Freda, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global emergency that influences human health and occupational safety. Global warming characterized by an increase in temperature of the ambience and humidity affects human health directly impairing body thermoregulation with serious consequences: dehydration, fatigue, heat stroke and even death. Several studies have demonstrated negative effects of climate change on working populations in a wide variety of workplaces with particular regard to outdoor and uncooled indoor workplaces. Most vulnerable workers are outdoor workers in tropical and subtropical countries usually involved in heavy labor during hot seasons. Many of the consequences therefore, regarding working people are possible, even without health symptoms by reducing work productivity. The scope of this review is to investigate effects of climate change on workers both in relation to health and work productivity. This study has been realized by analyzing recent international literature. In order to reduce negative effects of climate change on working populations it is essential to implement preventive measures with a multidisciplinary strategy limiting health risks and improving work productivity.

  10. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  11. Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Galloway, J.N.; Seitzinger, S.; Bleeker, A.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have doubled levels of reactive nitrogen in circulation, largely as a result of fertilizer application and fossil fuel burning. This massive alteration of the nitrogen cycle affects climate, food security, energy security, human health and ecosystem services. Our estimates show that nitrogen

  12. Comparative Multi-Criteria Assessment of Climate Policies and Sustainable Development Strategies in Cameroon: Towards a GIS Decision-Support Tool for the Design of an Optimal REDD+ Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Gwanyebit Kehbila

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+. To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1 host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps; (2 host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making; and (3 host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers, thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for “policy and REDD+ safeguard

  13. Pan Eurasian EXperiment (PEEX) - towards a new multinational environment and climate research effort in Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Lappalainen, Hanna; Sipilä, Mikko; Sorvari, Sanna; Alekseychik, Pavel; Paramonov, Mikhail; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Zilitinkevich, Sergej

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forests are a substantial source of greenhouse gases, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and natural aerosols, the critical atmospheric components related to climate change processes. A large fraction of boreal forests of the world is situated in Siberian region. Representative measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations, BVOC emissions and aerosols production from Siberian are of special importance when estimating global budgets of climate change relevant factors. The scope of a new concept of the Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is to set up a process for planning of a large-scale, long-term, coordinated observations and modeling experiment in the Pan Eurasian region, especially to cover ground base, airborne and satellite observations together with global and regional models to find out different forcing and feedback mechanisms in the changing climate. University of Helsinki together with Finnish Meteorological institute are organizing the Pan-Eurasian Experiment and to gather all the European and Russian key players in the field of climate and Earth system science to plan the future research activities in the Pan-Eurasian region. In the European scale PEEX is part of the JPI Climate Fast Track Activity 1.3. "Changing cryosphere in the climate system - from observations to climate modeling". PEEX research topics are closely related the NordForsk's Top Research Initiative CRAICC - Cryosphere - atmosphere interaction in the changing Arctic climate. PEEX is also a central part of the ongoing the Finnish Cultural Foundation - Earth System modeling Working Group activity (2012-2013). PEEX scientific aims and future actions to develop Pan Eurasian research infrastructure can be linked to several EC and ESA funded activities aiming to develop next generation research infrastructures and data products: EU-FP7-ACTRIS-I3-project (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project 2011-2015); ICOS a research

  14. Introducing short term flexibility in the EU ETS to assure its long-term credibility: a multi-criteria analysis of policy options. Climate Report no. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Zuheir; Alberola, Emilie; Berghmans, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    It is now well established that the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) needs to be reformed. After more than 18 months of discussions, the EU Commission disclosed, in its communication published in January 2014 on 'A policy framework for climate and energy in the period from 2020 to 2030', its legislative proposal of a market stability reserve (MSR) in the EU ETS. This measure, that should be implemented from the next compliance period (2021-2028) onwards, would reduce the surplus of allowances growing since 2008 and improve the ETS's resilience to external shocks by automatically adjusting the supply of allowances to be auctioned. The operation of this MSR would be determined by predefined rules that, once agreed on, leave no discretion to either the Commission or Member States. The choice of the EU Commission to introduce a reserve in the EU ETS is very innovative even if other emissions trading schemes have already introduced a reserve in their design. Initial discussions began in March and April 2014 in the European Parliament and Council and the question of whether the MSR really improves the functioning of the EU ETS in the long term is still being debated. What other structural mechanism would be better suited in improving the long-term effectiveness of the EU ETS? To help in the decision making process, this report presents a multi-criteria analysis. Without prejudging their political support, five policy options have been evaluated that would introduce some flexibility in the EU ETS and potentially ensure its long-term credibility: an auction reserve price, permit supply rules that target a certain corridor of surplus (market stability reserve), permit supply rules that target economic activity, permit supply rules that target overlap with other energy policies and a rolling emissions cap. The assessment of these five policy options was based on a criteria tree and on the EU ETS experts' panel's votes that expressed

  15. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  16. Kyoto Protocol: Debate on environment and development in the discussions on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez S, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    The climatic behavior of the planet and its consequences has favored debates about the models of development of the countries responsible for the accelerated deterioration of the atmosphere and of the natural phenomena by these recurrent days. Nevertheless, countries as United States, after signing commitments as the Convention on Climatic Change, refuse to acquire the obligations of the Kyoto Protocol, from fear of undergoing deterioration in their economies. In this setting, where the nation responsible for the emission of approximately 36% of the turned out effect greenhouse gases result of the human action in the planet does not commit itself to adopt restrictive policies to make its models of production but friendly with the nature although these measures begin to be imposed to other nations as determining factors in the international commercial negotiations, seems to be that the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol for developing countries as Colombia is not absolutely beneficial

  17. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  18. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  19. Climate Change Implications to the Global Security Environment, U.S. Interests, and Future Naval Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    Central and South America . Reactive HA/DR, on the other hand is a crisis response operation which employs naval expeditionary capabilities to meet...have a wide spectrum of adverse effects on global health, particularly in developing nations. Increased rates and extended ranges of malaria, dengue ...scope of our response when the time comes. " Vice Admiral Richard Truly, Director, Department of Energy National Renewable En ~rgy Lab22 Climate Change

  20. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Dollard, Maureen; Bakker, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Using the job demands-resources framework, we hypothesized that PSC as an upstream organizational resource influenced largely by senior management, would precede the work context (i.e., job demand...

  1. IPH Submission to Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government Climate Change Response Bill 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the Clmate Change Bill is to provide for the adoption of a national policy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; to support this through the making of mitigation and adaptation action plans; and to make provision for emission reduction targets to support the objective of transition to a low carbon, climate resilient and environmentally sustainable economy.The remit of the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) is to promote cooperation for public health between...

  2. Population, Environment, and Climate in the Albertine Rift: Understanding Local Impacts of Regional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Diem, J.; Palace, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is of critical concern for conservation and to develop appropriate policies and responses, it is important not only to anticipate the nature of changes, but also how they are perceived, interpreted and adapted to by local people. The Albertine Rift in East Africa is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots due to dense settlement, extreme poverty, and land conversion. We synthesize ongoing NSF-CNH research, where Ugandan park landscapes are examined to understand the impacts of climate change on livelihoods. Kibale National Park, the main study site, exemplifies the challenges facing many parks because of its isolation within a densely populated agricultural landscape. Three separate household surveys (n=251, 130, 100) reveal that the most perceived benefits provided by Kibale were ecosystem services and farmers cite rainfall as one of the park's most important benefits, but are also concerned with variable precipitation. Analysis of 30+ years of daily rainfall station data shows total rainfall has not changed significantly, but timing and transitions of seasons and intra-seasonal distribution are highly variable, which may contribute to changes in farming schedules and threaten food security. Further, the contrast between land use/cover change over 25 years around the park and the stability of forest within the park underscores the need to understand this landscape for future sustainability planning and the inevitable population growth outside its boundaries. Understanding climate change impacts and feedbacks to and from socio-ecological systems are important to address the dual challenge of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation.

  3. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  4. Signal to noise : listening for democracy and environment in climate change discourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, L. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This paper discussed the importance of active involvement by civic society in achieving long term greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets to stabilize atmospheric GHG gas concentrations. On the basis of the attempted GHG reductions by Annex I nations in the first reporting period under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), climate change policy was generally a failure. Few developed nations managed to return annual emissions to anywhere near 1990 levels. This paper focused on the failures in national climate change policy in the United States and Australia in reducing GHG emissions. The author stated that the cause of these failures was not due to communication inadequacies between governments and the general public. National policy formulation processes have been characterized by minimal community input and low discourse over the ethical and practical implications of ecological justice. It was emphasized that civic society should be engaged in longer-term policy formulations to effectively overcome the limitations currently imposed by liberal-democratic nation states and ecological modernisation policy approaches. It was cautioned that until civic society is involved, progress will be bound by the contradictions of seeking to create ecologically-minded communities through governance that fails to explain the relationships between social behaviour and global ecology. 45 refs.

  5. Urban local climate zone mapping and apply in urban environment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zhang, Yunwei; Zhang, Jili

    2018-02-01

    The city’s local climate zone (LCZ) was considered to be a powerful tool for urban climate mapping. But for cities in different countries and regions, the LCZ division methods and results were different, thus targeted researches should be performed. In the current work, a LCZ mapping method was proposed, which is convenient in operation and city planning oriented. In this proposed method, the local climate zoning types were adjusted firstly, according to the characteristics of Chinese city, that more tall buildings and high density. Then the classification method proposed by WUDAPT based on remote sensing data was performed on Xi’an city, as an example, for LCZ mapping. Combined with the city road network, a reasonable expression of the dividing results was provided, to adapt to the characteristics in city planning that land parcels are usually recognized as the basic unit. The proposed method was validated against the actual land use and construction data that surveyed in Xi’an, with results indicating the feasibility of the proposed method for urban LCZ mapping in China.

  6. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    Full Text Available Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  7. PRIME: research project on radioecological sensitivity indicators and on multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial area. Scientific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Successive studies conducted on the management of nuclear post-accidental circumstances have shown that it must be based on an anticipated characterisation of the radiological vulnerability of the environment, using an overall approach and according ta a strategy that takes inhabitants and their living conditions into account. The PRIME project has investigated and implemented a pilot method for characterising contaminated areas and usable by risk managers dealing with industrial accidents - notably involving radioactive substances - in relationship with a panel of stakeholders: experts, decision-makers and local elected officials, citizens. The method is based on Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA). It aims at modelling the different and sometimes contradicting opinions and at ranking the radio-ecological and socio-economical sensitivity factors of a region towards radioactive pollution, in the order of assisting decision making, These factors are defined by the environmental and anthropic parameters that may aggravate or limit the consequences of radioactive pollution. As the PRIME project was a partnership between scientific laboratories, representatives of public institutions and of civil society, it led to explore innovative forms of cooperation and to develop a tool combining MCA and GIS mapping. (authors)

  8. The capacity to adapt?: communities in a changing climate, environment, and economy on the northern Andaman coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Bennett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and productivity of marine ecosystems, habitats, and fisheries are deteriorating on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Because of their high dependence on natural resources and proximity to the ocean, coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to climate-induced changes in the marine environment. These communities must also adapt to the impacts of management interventions and conservation initiatives, including marine protected areas, which have livelihood implications. Further, communities on the Andaman coast are also experiencing a range of new economic opportunities associated in particular with tourism and agriculture. These complex and ongoing changes require integrated assessment of, and deliberate planning to increase, the adaptive capacity of communities so that they may respond to: (1 environmental degradation and fisheries declines through effective management interventions or conservation initiatives, (2 new economic opportunities to reduce dependence on fisheries, and (3 the increasing impacts of climate change. Our results are from a mixed methods study, which used surveys and interviews to examine multiple dimensions of the adaptive capacity of seven island communities near marine protected areas on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Results show that communities had low adaptive capacity with respect to environmental degradation and fisheries declines, and to management and conservation interventions, as well as uneven levels of adaptive capacity to economic opportunities. Though communities and households were experiencing the impacts of climate change, especially storm events, changing seasons and weather patterns, and erosion, they were reacting to these changes with limited knowledge of climate change per se. We recommend interventions, in the form of policies, programs, and actions, at multiple scales for increasing the adaptive capacity of Thailand's coastal communities to change. The analytical and methodological

  9. The seasonal influence of climate and environment on yellow fever transmission across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Arran; Jean, Kévin; Perea, William; Yactayo, Sergio; Biey, Joseph; Van Kerkhove, Maria; Ferguson, Neil; Garske, Tini

    2018-03-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a vector-borne flavivirus endemic to Africa and Latin America. Ninety per cent of the global burden occurs in Africa where it is primarily transmitted by Aedes spp, with Aedes aegypti the main vector for urban yellow fever (YF). Mosquito life cycle and viral replication in the mosquito are heavily dependent on climate, particularly temperature and rainfall. We aimed to assess whether seasonal variations in climatic factors are associated with the seasonality of YF reports. We constructed a temperature suitability index for YFV transmission, capturing the temperature dependence of mosquito behaviour and viral replication within the mosquito. We then fitted a series of multilevel logistic regression models to a dataset of YF reports across Africa, considering location and seasonality of occurrence for seasonal models, against the temperature suitability index, rainfall and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) as covariates alongside further demographic indicators. Model fit was assessed by the Area Under the Curve (AUC), and models were ranked by Akaike's Information Criterion which was used to weight model outputs to create combined model predictions. The seasonal model accurately captured both the geographic and temporal heterogeneities in YF transmission (AUC = 0.81), and did not perform significantly worse than the annual model which only captured the geographic distribution. The interaction between temperature suitability and rainfall accounted for much of the occurrence of YF, which offers a statistical explanation for the spatio-temporal variability in transmission. The description of seasonality offers an explanation for heterogeneities in the West-East YF burden across Africa. Annual climatic variables may indicate a transmission suitability not always reflected in seasonal interactions. This finding, in conjunction with forecasted data, could highlight areas of increased transmission and provide insights into the occurrence of

  10. Problems of Recreational Industry in European Russia: Changes in Infrastructure, Environment, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, M.; Lyaskovskiy, S. I.

    2011-12-01

    Forest and forest-steppe zones of European Russia have a great potential for recreation, including its active form, tourism. Soft peaceful landscapes and moderate summer climate provide pleasant conditions for family vacations. Numerous lakes and rivers provide places for swimming, boating, and fishing. These pleasant environmental conditions are complemented with abundant recreational choices such as historical places, old cities, towns, and monasteries filled with museums that deliver detailed information about the millennium-long Russian history. There are the vibrant cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg; cities along the Volga River; and the oldest cities in northwestern Russia, Novgorod and Pskov provide numerous options for cultural and entertaining programs for the most demanding travelers. The country has a broad range of private tour operators that cater to national and international travelers. Still there are problems which should be taken into account by travelers who chose to spend their precious vacation time in Russia. Infrastructure problems include a deficit of three-star hotels that are the mainstream of contemporary tourist business. Their number is growing exponentially in the past decade and at present remains insufficient, but the capacity building is progressing favorably. Climatic and environmental changes became a new and unexpected factor affecting the tourist industry in European Russia. Stable and strongly sustainable climate has been interrupted by extreme events that may cause additional discomfort for some people. Tour operators and hotel hosts both need to invest more to confront incremental weather (first of all investments in air conditioning are needed) and/or have substitute travel variants that are of equivalent quality. One of the unresolved issues remains the air quality problem in Moscow due to intense traffic and the possibility of peat fires in the neighboring Shatura region southeast of the city. This increases risks that must

  11. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Ramos , M.; Ferrise , R.; Rodríguez , A.; Lorite , I.J.; Bindi , M.; Carter , T.R.; Fronzek , S.; Palosuo , T.; Pirttioja , N.; Baranowski , P.; Buis , Samuel; Cammarano , D.; Chen , Y.; Dumont , B.; Ewert , F.

    2017-01-01

    This work was financially supported by the Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology (INIA, MACSUR01-UPM), the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (D.M. 24064/7303/15) through FACCE MACSUR − Modelling European Agriculture with Climate Change for Food Security, a FACCE JPI knowledge hub; MULCLIVAR, from the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO, CGL2012-38923-C02-02); the Academy ...

  12. Energy and environment in the 21st century : minimizing climate change.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Energy demand and economic output are coupled. Both are expected to vastly increase in this century, driven primarily by the economic and population growth of the developing world. If the present reliance on carbon-based fuels as primary energy sources continues, average global temperatures are projected to rise between 3° C and 6° C. Limiting climate change will require reduction in greenhouse gas emissions far beyond the Kyoto commitments. Time scales and options, including nuclear, will be reviewed.

  13. Fatigue in seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry: effects of safety climate, psychosocial work environment and shift arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.

  14. Climate change science and the development of environment/energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabo, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    For the past decade climate research in the US has focused on long-term-understanding of earth systems rather than addressing the more immediate information needs of decision makers, such as information on impacts and solutions. During the Bush Administration, the primary objective was to determine if there was a problem, with little emphasis on developing information on what to do about the issue. The Clinton Administration is trying to refocus research to assist more effectively in decision making. This reevaluation is part of the post-Cold War shift toward funding federal research based more explicitly on the relevancy to societal needs. The Joint Climate Project to Address Decision Makers' Uncertainties was sponsored by EPRI, DOE, DOI, EPA, USDA, and USFS to assess what information is most relevant for decision making and how research could address those needs. The results of this stakeholders' needs assessment are being used to help reorient the federal program. Decision makers' priorities include greater emphasis on impacts and responses. More work is required in the ecological and social sciences to provide information for policy making. Researchers periodically need to provide interim information and policy-relevant assessments while continuing to improve long-term scientific understanding

  15. Deployment of coal briquettes and improved stoves: possibly an option for both environment and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guorui Zhi; Conghu Peng; Yingjun Chen; Dongyan Liu; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    The use of coal briquettes and improved stoves by Chinese households has been encouraged by the government as a means of reducing air pollution and health impacts. In this study we have shown that these two improvements also relate to climate change. Our experimental measurements indicate that, if all coal were burned as briquettes in improved stoves, particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) could be annually reduced by 63 {+-} 12%, 61 {+-} 10%, and 98 {+-} 1.7%, respectively. Also, the ratio of BC to OC (BC/OC) could be reduced by about 97%, from 0.49 to 0.016, which would make the primary emissions of household coal combustion more optically scattering. Therefore, it is suggested that the government consider the possibility of: (i) phasing out direct burning of bituminous raw-coal-chunks in households; (ii) phasing out simple stoves in households; and, (iii) financially supporting the research, production, and popularization of improved stoves and efficient coal briquettes. These actions may have considerable environmental benefits by reducing emissions and mitigating some of the impacts of household coal burning on the climate. International cooperation is required both technologically and financially to accelerate the emission reduction in the world. 50 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Analysis of hydrologic variation under climate change environment in southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chau; Chen, Yu-Chin; Chen, Wen-Fu

    2014-05-01

    Impact and adaptation is an important issue in response to climate change. We need to know the affections of climate change on hydrologic characteristics before estimating the impacts and making adaptation strategies of concerned area. The wet and dry seasons of southern Taiwan are significant. In addition, the amount of average annual rainfall is about 2,100mm in southern Taiwan. Most of rainfalls happen in wet season and are caused by cyclones (typhoons) or thunderstorms in wet season. It implies that both quantity and intensity of rainfall are large in wet season, while they are small in dry season. Corresponding to the phenomena, the possibility of flood in wet season and draught in dry season is high. This means significant hydrologic variations may cause disasters. The purpose of this study is to analyze hydrologic variation due to recent climate changes in southern Taiwan, and provide decision makers some information to understand possible impacts and make adaptation strategies. Before typhoon Morakot hit Taiwan, southern Taiwan was suffering from aridity. As usual, people were expecting the rainfall accompanied with typhoons will resolve the drought in this area. However, it fell down huge amount of water within a short period of time and the rain became a big disaster in this area. The rainfall is an over 200-year event, a record breaker. The data used in this research is based on the records of Taiwan Central Weather Bureau at Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Hengchun station, respectively. The trends of temperature, amount of rainfall, and number of rainy days are examined. Both Mann-Kendall trend test and linear regression method are chosen as the means to do trend examination.The results show that annual mean temperatures at Chiayi, Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Hengchun have raised 0.5~0.9°C during past decades under the impact of global warming. The amount of annual rainfall does not appear statistically significant trend. However, the number of annual rainy

  17. Appraisal of the Visual Environment in an Industrial Factory: a Case Study in Subtropical Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Pham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiological and psychological benefits of daylighting for office occupants have been well explored. Current research usually focuses on visual comfort in office buildings. However, there is limited knowledge about daylight quality in industrial work environments. In Australia, most industrial buildings are built from standard factory structures that employ daylight from skylights and large door openings, with little consideration to daylighting design strategies and visual comfort. In bright sky conditions as those present in Australia, large openings can become a source of visual discomfort. It is important to understand how workers perceive the luminous environment in this type of work setting. This research explored the perception of daylighting in an industrial work environment. Qualitative measures (questionnaires, interviews, and observational mapping and quantitative measures (physical data were collected over a four week period to examine the type of visual comfort perceived by industrial workers. The results suggests that the desirability to have windows and to have access to a view were important features in this work setting. Access for task lighting and reports of uneven daylighting were indicative to the varying levels of illuminance under intermediate sky conditions. This was reflected in the daylight glare index results and comparisons to the background luminance and glare source luminance, indicating that adaptation may be the cause of responses to daylighting being uneven. The results suggests a need for further research into the quality of the luminous environment in industrial work settings.

  18. The intersection of climate/environment, food, nutrition and health: crisis and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiten, Daniel J; Aimone, Ashley M

    2017-04-01

    Climate/environmental change (C-E-C) is affecting human health and quality of life. Significant attention has been given to the impact of C-E-C on food supply, and food as a vehicle for exposure. However, C-E-C has been superimposed on prevalent malnutrition, infectious and non-communicable diseases. We discuss why nutrition is not synonymous with food and must be viewed as a biological variable that affects and is affected by both C-E-C as well as the current global health challenges. The nexus of C-E-C, food, nutrition and health must be considered in the development of safe and efficacious interventions. A case is presented for how the convergence of C-E-C, food/nutrition and health, presents an opportunity for more integrated approaches to achieve global health goals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Facies and depositional environments for the coquinas of the Morro do Chaves Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, defined by taphonomic and compositional criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Tavares

    Full Text Available Lacustrine carbonate rocks form important hydrocarbon accumulations along the Brazilian continental margin, some of which are contained in oil fields in which coquinas are one of the main reservoirs (viz. Campos Basin. The complexity and heterogeneity of these deposits make them a challenge in terms of reservoir description. For the necessary classification and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the coquinas, it is essential to evaluate many aspects including biological (such as carbonate productivity, sedimentological (energy regime in the depositional environment, transport of bioclasts, terrigenous supply, taphonomic (fragmentation of shells, abrasion and diagenetic processes. The facies analysis applied in this study is considered a more appropriate classification approach to understand these coquinas, since it is more flexible and comprehensive than the existing classifications for carbonate rocks. The material investigated here consists of rock samples of the coquinas from the Atol Quarry of the Morro do Chaves Formation (Barremian/Aptian, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin. These rocks that crop out in the Atol quarry complex can be considered as a case study for similar coquinas reservoirs found in the Brazilian continental margin basins. Six sedimentary facies were described, using the main taphonomic (fragmentation of shells and compositional (presence of micrite and siliciclastic matrix features as a diagnostic criteria. Two carbonate facies, two mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies and two siliciclastic facies (mudstones were identified. From the facies succession, combined with a review of the literature on the subject, the following depositional paleoenvironments were defined: high-energy lake platform, lacustrine delta in a high-energy lake platform and lake-centre. In this paper, a new facies model for the studied coquinas succession is proposed.

  20. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  1. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  2. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  3. Solar radiation in forested urban environments with dry climate. Case: Metropolitan Area of Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Edith Arboit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the solar potential of urban residential environments which, by their morphology, and the impact of urban trees, present values of irradiance very different from full solar collection. Morphological variables of urban settings and urban trees, a very distinctive feature of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area (MMA, have a fundamental impact on the feasibility of implementing strategies for solar energy utilization in urban environments. The results achieved will contribute to modify and gradually update urban and building legislation to implement higher levels of energy efficiency and minimum environmental impacts.This work proposes to study the potential of solar collection in urban environments, analyzing eleven urban configurations selected according to their building and urban morphological characteristics.Methodologically, we have monitored the global solar irradiance on vertical plane on northern facades, completely sunny and partly sunny, affected by solid masking and arboreal masking. Results obtained so far indicate that solar masking is critical for vertical surfaces, with a reduction of the available solar energy between 2% and 66% in the winter season. However, these drawbacks caused by urban trees are compensated by benefits in the warm season: controlling the intensity of the urban heat island, absorption of pollutants, cooling and humidifying the air through evapotranspiration, reducing thermal loads of buildings, occupancy of public open spaces, and an invaluable contribution to the urban aesthetic.

  4. Students' perceptions of the physical education class environment for boys and girls and the perceived motivational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A

    1998-09-01

    Greek students (N = 310) responded to surveys concerning their perceptions of the physical education class environment. Based on factor and reliability analyses, 14 scale scores were computed. Two depicted perceptions of teacher-initiated mastery orientation and teacher-initiated performance orientation. Six scale scores reflected the teacher's negative behavior toward boy's, focus on boys' learning, encouragement toward boys, autonomy given to boys, adjustment of the lesson for boys, and motivation of boys. Six identical scale scores were calculated assessing the physical education class climate for girls. The perception of a teacher who behaves differently toward boys and girls was negatively related to the perception of a teacher who tried to help all students to improve. It is suggested that a mastery orientation increases students' motivation and maintains equality in physical education.

  5. Livestock and Ecosystem Services: An Exploratory Approach to Assess Agri-Environment-Climate Payments of RDP in Trentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra La Notte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of an appropriate justification for Agri-Environment-Climate (AEC payments is a crucial issue in the new Rural Development Programme (RDP. Given the environmental importance of grasslands in Trentino (Italy, the Management Authority in charge of the RDP decided to integrate an approach based on Ecosystem Services (ES into the calculation of AEC payments. The paper presents the methodology used for this approach as well as the preliminary results. The first step entails building a probabilistic model for the ES, named Sustainable Fodder Production. Model outputs are then integrated with the accounting results based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN database (2009–2012 with the aim of calculating the additional costs and income waived due to the environmental commitments deriving from the sustainable management of permanent grassland in livestock farming. Sustainability measures imply more extensive management practices that maintain meadows in a healthy state.

  6. Palynology in coal systems analysis-The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Palynology can be effectively used in coal systems analysis to understand the nature of ancient coal-forming peat mires. Pollen and spores preserved in coal effectively reveal the floristic composition of mires, which differed substantially through geologic time, and contribute to determination of depositional environment and paleo- climate. Such applications are most effective when integrated with paleobotanical and coal-petrographic data. Examples of previous studies of Miocene, Carboniferous, and Paleogene coal beds illustrate the methods and results. Palynological age determinations and correlations of deposits are also important in coal systems analysis to establish stratigraphic setting. Application to studies of coalbed methane generation shows potential because certain kinds of pollen are associated with gas-prone lithotypes. ??2005 Geological Society of America.

  7. Rating of environmental criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, K; Krasser, G

    1980-01-01

    After a general theoretical discussion on the question of rating within a framework of cost-benefit studies, first trials as to the quantification and standardisation of twelve selected environmental criteria by means of an indicator system are worked out and compiled. The selection includes the criteria exhaust gas, dust, micro climate, water pollution, water regime, land requirement, vibrations, traffic noise, landscape scene, urban scene, effect of separation and safety risks. An insight is given of the rating practice using an evaluation of the available literature, of a household interview and of an interview of experts. The interviewing of 156 experts as to their rating conception of ten criteria in the second round has provided contributions to the general problem of the evaluation estimate based on multi criteria analysis as well as differentiation of the twelve or ten environmental criteria. The following criteria ratings given by the experts and which are averaged and smoothed are: traffic noise 20,0% +- 8,5; air pollution 15,0% +- 7,0; safety risk 13,0% +- 7,0; soil and water pollution 8,5% +- 5,0; landscape scene 8,0% +- 4,5; urban scene 8,0% +- 4,5; water regime 6,5% +- 3,5 and vibrations 4,5% +- 2,5.

  8. ASSESSING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE STABILITY OF SMALL TIDAL INLETS: Part 2- DATA RICH ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Trang Minh; Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Thatcher, Marcus; Mahanama, Sarith; Wang, Zheng Bing; Dissanayake, Pushpa Kumara; Hemer, Mark; Luijendijk, Arjen; Bamunawala, Janaka; Roelvink, Dano; Walstra, Dirkjan

    2018-01-01

    Climate change (CC) is likely to affect the thousands of bar-built or barrier estuaries (here referred to as Small tidal inlets - STIs) around the world. Any such CC impacts on the stability of STIs, which governs the dynamics of STIs as well as that of the inlet-adjacent coastline, can result in significant socio-economic consequences due to the heavy human utilisation of these systems and their surrounds. This article demonstrates the application of a process based snap-shot modelling approach, using the coastal morphodynamic model Delft3D , to 3 case study sites representing the 3 main STI types; Permanently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 1), Permanently open, alongshore migrating inlets (Type 2) and Seasonally/Intermittently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 3). The 3 case study sites (Negombo lagoon - Type 1, Kalutara lagoon - Type 2, and Maha Oya river - Type 3) are all located along the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. After successful hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model validation at the 3 case study sites, CC impact assessment are undertaken for a high end greenhouse gas emission scenario. Future CC modified wave and riverflow conditions are derived from a regional scale application of spectral wave models (WaveWatch III and SWAN) and catchment scale applications of a hydrologic model (CLSM) respectively, both of which are forced with IPCC Global Climate Model output dynamically downscaled to ~ 50 km resolution over the study area with the stretched grid Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model CCAM. Results show that while all 3 case study STIs will experience significant CC driven variations in their level of stability, none of them will change Type by the year 2100. Specifically, the level of stability of the Type 1 inlet will decrease from 'Good' to 'Fair to poor' by 2100, while the level of (locational) stability of the Type 2 inlet will also decrease with a doubling of the annual migration distance. Conversely, the stability of the Type 3 inlet

  9. Climate Variability and Industrial-Suburban Heat Environment in a Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina A. Giorgio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomenon prevalently concerns industrialized countries. It consists of a significant increase in temperatures, especially in industrialized and urbanized areas, in particular, during extreme warm periods like summer. This paper explores the climate variability of temperatures in two stations located in Matera city (Southern Italy, evaluating the increase in temperatures from 1988 to 2015. Moreover, the Corine Land Covers (1990–2000–2006–2012 were used in order to investigate the effect of land use on temperatures. The results obtained confirm the prevalence of UHI phenomena for industrialized areas, highlighting the proposal that the spreading of settlements may further drive these effects on the microclimate. In particular, the presence of industrial structures, even in rural areas, shows a clear increase in summer maximum temperatures. This does not occur in the period before 2000, probably due to the absence of the industrial settlement. On the contrary, from 2000 to 2015, changes are not relevant, but the maximum temperatures have always been higher than in the suburban area (station localized in green zone during daylight hours.

  10. Applications of 14C - AMS on Archaeology, Climate, Environment, Geology, Oceanography and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Macario, K. D.; Anjos, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we describe several experiments on 14 C-AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) related to historical, ecological and environmental questions. We discuss the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. The unexpected result pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in seaweed tissue show differences in the isotopic signature of the water sources. The present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. We performed experiments on climate at the Amazon region. At remote lakes of the Amazon region, the Hg accumulation rate archived in sediment cores is a powerful tool for the interpretation of the paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the region. Different sedimentation regimes are observed from ∼41500 yr. BP to the present. The understanding of sea-level fluctuations are fundamental for human occupation of littoral areas and hydrocarbon industry on offshore exploration. We performed radiocarbon dating of foraminifera shell samples, collected in upper slope of Campos Basin, in Southern Brazil. The mean accumulation ratio for the whole column is 6.17 cm/1000 years. Fluctuations in this mean values indicate that the ocean bottom dynamics has some variation during the period. (Author)

  11. The impact on climate and environment change – renewable energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena GURGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the people have an idea of what renewable energy sources are and what they can offer us. The majority of people are also very aware of the impact that non-renewable energy is having on the environment. The adage reduce, reuse, recycle is commonly recited today by adults and children alike. We have started to see an increase in the reduction of waste and consumption of energy and the recycling and reuse of products we use. It is time to see an increase, however, in the use of renewable energy.

  12. Adaptation response surfaces for managing wheat under perturbed climate and CO2 in a Mediterranean environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Ferrise, Roberto; Rodríguez, A

    2018-01-01

    type were analysed by constructing response surfaces, which we termed, in accordance with their specific purpose, adaptation response surfaces (ARSs). These were created to assess the effect of adaptations through a range of plausible P, T and [CO2] perturbations. The results indicated that impacts....... However, a single sI was sufficient to develop a high adaptation potential, including options mainly based on spring wheat, current cycle duration and early sowing date. Depending on local environment (e.g. soil type), many of these adaptations can maintain current yield levels under moderate changes in T...

  13. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    used to investigate the effects of the various solar generation scenarios given emissions projections that account for changing regulatory environment, economic and population growth, and technological change. The results will help to quantify the potential air quality benefits of promotion of solar electricity generation in regions containing high penetration of coal-fired power generation. Note current national solar incentives that are based only on solar generation capacity. Further investigation of changes to regional climate due to emission reductions of aerosols and relevant precursors will provide insight into the environmental effects that may occur if solar power generation becomes widespread.

  14. CIELO-A GIS integrated model for climatic and water balance simulation in islands environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, E. B.; Pereira, L. S.

    2003-04-01

    The model CIELO (acronym for "Clima Insular à Escala Local") is a physically based model that simulates the climatic variables in an island using data from a single synoptic reference meteorological station. The reference station "knows" its position in the orographic and dynamic regime context. The domain of computation is a GIS raster grid parameterised with a digital elevation model (DEM). The grid is oriented following the direction of the air masses circulation through a specific algorithm named rotational terrain model (RTM). The model consists of two main sub-models. One, relative to the advective component simulation, assumes the Foehn effect to reproduce the dynamic and thermodynamic processes occurring when an air mass moves through the island orographic obstacle. This makes possible to simulate the air temperature, air humidity, cloudiness and precipitation as influenced by the orography along the air displacement. The second concerns the radiative component as affected by the clouds of orographic origin and by the shadow produced by the relief. The initial state parameters are computed starting from the reference meteorological station across the DEM transept until the sea level at the windward side. Then, starting from the sea level, the model computes the local scale meteorological parameters according to the direction of the air displacement, which is adjusted with the RTM. The air pressure, temperature and humidity are directly calculated for each cell in the computational grid, while several algorithms are used to compute the cloudiness, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation. The model presented in this paper has been calibrated and validated using data from some meteorological stations and a larger number of rainfall stations located at various elevations in the Azores Islands.

  15. Sac-D Aquarius a Satellite for Ocean, Climate and Environment. One Year of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrusio, S.; Lagerloef, G.; Rabolli, M.; LeVine, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SAC-D/Aquarius satellite was launched in June 10, 2011. It's a joint mission between Argentina (through CONAE) and US (NASA). This satellite is a true Observatory with a suite of sensors for Earth Observation, its weight is 1400 kg, sun-synchronous orbit at 657 km (6 pm ascendant node), revisit of seven days. Other space agencies have contributed with instruments and support (facilities and ground segment), as CNES, CSI, ASI and AEB/INPE. The primary objective is to monitor global variations in ocean surface salinity (SSS) in order to improve the knowledge about ocean circulation, water cycle and climate. The SSS is performed with Aquarius instrument (NASA). Other oceanic and atmospheric parameters are measured with a MWR, from CONAE, in K and Ka band, as wind speed, rain rate, sea ice, water vapour and liquid water in clouds. The thermal camera (NIRST) estimates sea surface temperature and detect high temperature events (fires and volcanic eruptions). The High Sensitivity Camera (HSC) generates night images (very useful for fishery activity monitoring in the sea, studying of electrical storms, polar auroras and urban application). The DCS (Data Collection System, from CONAE) can receive meteorological and environmental data from ground platforms and distribute among users. The TDP (Technological Demonstration Package, from CONAE) measures different parameters of satellite position and velocity. Other two important instruments are ROSA (from Italy) and CARMEN 1 (from France). The first is an atmospheric sounder, it allows elaborating atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and humidity, and the second has detectors for studies of space debris and the effects of radiation on electronic devices. This work provides a review of the first year of data, including the status of calibration and validation, other finding and at the same time we want to present the progress in the active educational and outreach program including the information of SAC-D Aquarius

  16. Assessing the role of climate and resource management on groundwater dependent ecosystem changes in arid environments with the Landsat archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Justin; McGwire, Kenneth C.; Morton, Charles; Snyder, Keirith A.; Peterson, Sarah; Erickson, Tyler; Niswonger, Richard G.; Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Smith, Guy; Allen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) rely on near-surface groundwater. These systems are receiving more attention with rising air temperature, prolonged drought, and where groundwater pumping captures natural groundwater discharge for anthropogenic use. Phreatophyte shrublands, meadows, and riparian areas are GDEs that provide critical habitat for many sensitive species, especially in arid and semi-arid environments. While GDEs are vital for ecosystem services and function, their long-term (i.e. ~ 30 years) spatial and temporal variability is poorly understood with respect to local and regional scale climate, groundwater, and rangeland management. In this work, we compute time series of NDVI derived from sensors of the Landsat TM, ETM +, and OLI lineage for assessing GDEs in a variety of land and water management contexts. Changes in vegetation vigor based on climate, groundwater availability, and land management in arid landscapes are detectable with Landsat. However, the effective quantification of these ecosystem changes can be undermined if changes in spectral bandwidths between different Landsat sensors introduce biases in derived vegetation indices, and if climate, and land and water management histories are not well understood. The objective of this work is to 1) use the Landsat 8 under-fly dataset to quantify differences in spectral reflectance and NDVI between Landsat 7 ETM + and Landsat 8 OLI for a range of vegetation communities in arid and semiarid regions of the southwestern United States, and 2) demonstrate the value of 30-year historical vegetation index and climate datasets for assessing GDEs. Specific study areas were chosen to represent a range of GDEs and environmental conditions important for three scenarios: baseline monitoring of vegetation and climate, riparian restoration, and groundwater level changes. Google's Earth Engine cloud computing and environmental monitoring platform is used to rapidly access and analyze the Landsat archive

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC POLICY IN CREATING BUSINESS CLIMATE, BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FACILITIES TOWARDS BUSINESS EMPOWERMENT ON SMALL MEDIUM CRAFT ENTERPRISES IN AMBON INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Papilaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing and explaining whether there was the influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities towards empowerment on small and medium enterprises as well as whether there is synchronously influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities for business empowerment on small and medium scale enterprises through a survey in the city of Ambon. The results show, that there is a positive and significant effect of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate to empower small and medium enterprises. There is a positive and significant effect on the business environment toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive and significant effect of providing support facilities toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, and there is a positive and significant simultaneously effect in business climate, business environment and support facilities for business towards the empowerment of small business in Ambon city. Empowerment programs are conducted to maintain a conducive business climate, including: 1. the innovation promotion, 2. enhancing human resources through training development; 3. providing financial support, 4. giving support to the marketing strategy, 5. opening the business partnership. While the supporting facilities granted to small and medium enterprises including: 1. giving the fishing boat for the Fishermen, 2. providing the workshop (machine shop service facilities to small crafts business Enterprises, 3. establish vendors for small enterprises, 4. provide the area for street vendors, 5. provide tents for merchants culinary who work at night. Providing the assistance to encourage the business climate and create conducive business environment.

  18. Applications of 14C-AMS on archaeology, climate, environment, geology, oceanography and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is

  19. A Regional Earth System Model of the Northeast Corridor: Analyzing 21st Century Climate and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Duchin, F.; Melillo, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Gonzalez, J.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Rosenzweig, B.; Yang, P.; Lengyel, F.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast region (NE) exhibits many of the changes taking place across the Nation's landscapes and watersheds, yet also provides a unique lens through which to assess options for managing large-scale natural resource systems. We report here on a regional NSF-funded Earth System Modeling (EaSM) project, which has assembled an interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy engagement. The team is simultaneously studying the evolution of regional human-environment systems and seeking to improve the translation of research findings to the planning community. We hypothesize that there are regionally-significant consequences of human decisions on environmental systems of the NE, expressed through the action of both natural and engineered human systems that dictate the region's biogeophysical state, ecosystem services, energy and economic output. Our central goal is: To build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) that improves understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. We are using scenario experiments to test our hypothesis and to make forecasts about the future. We see the proposed research as a major step forward in developing a capacity to diagnose and understand the state of large, interacting human-natural systems. Major foci include: the application of meso-scale atmospheric physics models to drive terrestrial-aquatic ecosystem models; a linked ecosystem services accounting tool; geospatial modeling of anthropogenic GHG emissions and biotic source/sinks at improved space/time resolutions; and meso-economic input-output model to evaluate the impacts of ecosystem services constraints on subregional economies. The presentation will report on recent progress across three strategic planning fronts, which are important to

  20. Increasing the value of climate finance in an uncertain environment: Diaspora financial resources as a source of climate finance for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may create and increase world inequality and social conflicts. Moreover, regardless of the various developments in science and technology, there are still uncertainties regarding the precise extent and consequences of climate change. Additionally, financial resources to support climate change mitigation, adaptation and capacity building programmes in Africa may be considered to be far from satisfactory in terms of their size, source and distribution. Global policymakers are therefore keen to discover how climate finance resources can be mobilised from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels to complement public sources. To address this knowledge gap, this paper undertook an analysis of project reports, policy reviews, policy briefs, and academic literature reviews on the barriers and opportunities for private investments in climate change programmes. The paper highlights that Sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to mobilise over US $100 billion annually from its diaspora population, and these funds can be channelled towards climate change investments and programmes or leveraged with other conventional climate finance modalities. This paper therefore provides insights into the measures that can be undertaken in order to enable Africa’s diaspora to become important financiers of climate change programmes.

  1. Teaching Children's Rights and Climate Change with the Support of Act for Climate Web-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotzos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an effort to integrate the issues of climate change and children's rights into the Greek primary school curriculum through the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The curriculum Act for Climate was developed through the lens of children's rights and with the support of a web-based learning environment…

  2. Pressures on the marine environment and the changing climate of ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Andrew P

    2012-12-13

    The oceans are under pressure from human activities. Following 250 years of industrial activity, effects are being seen at the cellular through to regional and global scales. The change in atmospheric CO(2) from 280 ppm in pre-industrial times to 392 ppm in 2011 has contributed to the warming of the upper 700 m of the ocean by approximately 0.1°C between 1961 and 2003, to changes in sea water chemistry, which include a pH decrease of approximately 0.1, and to significant decreases in the sea water oxygen content. In parallel with these changes, the human population has been introducing an ever-increasing level of nutrients into coastal waters, which leads to eutrophication, and by 2008 had resulted in 245,000 km(2) of severely oxygen-depleted waters throughout the world. These changes are set to continue for the foreseeable future, with atmospheric CO(2) predicted to reach 430 ppm by 2030 and 750 ppm by 2100. The cycling of biogeochemical elements has proved sensitive to each of these effects, and it is proposed that synergy between stressors may compound this further. The challenge, within the next few decades, for the marine science community, is to elucidate the scope and extent that biological processes can adapt or acclimatize to a changing chemical and physical marine environment.

  3. Influencia del entorno familiar en la mujer en etapa climatérica Influence of family environment in climateric woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraimis García Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: a pesar del importante papel que tiene la familia, existen pocos reportes relativos a la probable influencia del climaterio sobre el entorno familiar, así como del funcionamiento familiar sobre la intensidad del síndrome climatérico. Objetivo: describir el funcionamiento familiar e identificar su influencia sobre las manifestaciones clínicas del climaterio. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal que incluyó mujeres con residencia permanente en el consultorio # 4 del policlínico "Rampa", con edades entre 40 y 59 años, y con familias no monoparentales. Mediante interrogatorio se identificó la presencia de afecciones crónicas y sus factores de riesgo, así y la intensidad del síndrome climatérico. Se identificó, además, el cumplimiento de las funciones básicas de las familias, la dinámica de sus relaciones internas y la percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Se empleó la frecuencia y el promedio, y la prueba T Students (valor de p> 0,05 para establecer diferencias entre grupos. Resultados: el grupo estuvo constituido por mujeres con piel blanca, trabajadoras, en etapa de perimenopausia, con síndrome climatérico de intensidad muy leve y leve. El entorno familiar fue no funcional (con riesgo + disfuncional en el 77 % de las familias, con independencia de la etapa del climaterio de la mujer y de la intensidad del síndrome climatérico. La incapacidad para cumplir el rol económico fue referida por 38 % de las mujeres. Conclusiones: la pérdida del rol económico fue el factor de mayor impacto negativo en el funcionamiento familiar. No se constató que la posmenopausia influyera en el funcionamiento familiar.Introduction: despite the significant role of family, there are not much reports relative to the likely influence of climateric on the family environment, as well as the family functioning on the intensity of climateric syndrome. Objective: to describe the above mentioned functioning and to identify its

  4. Does better for the environment mean less tasty? Offering more climate-friendly meals is good for the environment and customer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Food consumption comprises a significant portion of the total environmental impact of households. One way to reduce this impact may be to offer consumers more climate-friendly meal choices, such as when eating out. However, the environmental benefits of such an intervention will depend on not only consumers' liking of the climate-friendlier meals, but also on the perceived environmental impact. We therefore investigated the relationship between the global warming potential (GWP) of and consumers' liking of meals in two field studies in the same restaurant. Visitors to the restaurant were asked to rate the taste of the meal they had just consumed. These taste ratings were then related to the meals' GWP and number of purchases. In the second study, an intervention was tested consisting of a climate-friendly choice label and information posters. Contrary to expectations, it was found in both studies that the GWP of the meals was unrelated to the taste or the number of purchases. Offering more climate-friendly meals did not change consumer satisfaction. As expected, the introduction of the climate-friendly choice label increased the number of climate-friendly meal purchases. Therefore, offering more climate-friendly meals with a climate-friendly choice label can affect consumers' meal choices, but not their preferences or satisfaction, which is beneficial for the climate, consumers and gastronomic establishments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of climate change on agriculture and environment in the semi-arid tropic - with Senegal as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Some of the likely effects of the climate changes, projected by IPCC, on agriculture and environment in Senegal have been described. If rainfall does indeed increase, as suggested by the IPCC WG1 report, reversal of negative trends in vegetation productivity, associated with the droughts of the last decades on the 20 th Century, will be expected to occur. Present tendencies towards encroachment of crop cultivation on rangelands will be reinforced. These effects are likely to be economically beneficial to Senegal, yet their importance will be determined by the extent to which other factors will counteract them. With respect to crop and rangeland productivity nutrient-limitations will become increasingly important if not avoided by increased application of mineral fertilizers which is presently uneconomical. If rainfall does not increase significantly, the probable higher temperatures will tend to decrease crop and rangeland productivity, due to an increase in evapotranspirations rates. Also, the competition for water resources is likely to be intensified, especially the water resources of the Senegal River which are shared by four countries. The greater international focus on climate issues also affects Senegal by putting an economic value on carbon storage and avoidance of emissions of greenhouse gases. Current trends of expanding agriculture into rangelands and woodland areas imply a reduction in the storage of carbon in vegetation and soils. The use of fire as a natural resource management practice may have significant impacts on emissions, and may therefore be affected by emission policies. The challenge for Senegal will be to develop policies and preparedness in order to adapt to the changes that are likely to come. Presently, government policies are only to a very limited extent taking the projected change into consideration. (LN)

  6. Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array (MESA): a mesh sensor network for climate change research in remote mountainous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. W.; Neal, D.; Frome, D.; Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P. E.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z. A.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Developing sensor networks robust enough to perform unattended in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks that lack anthropogenic influence. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. The MESA (Mountainous Ecosystem Sensor Array) project has faced these challenges and developed a wireless mesh sensor network across a 660 m topoclimatic gradient in a wilderness area in central Idaho. This sensor array uses advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies to provide near real-time synchronized data covering a suite of biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The 76 sensors in the network monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, and leaf wetness at synchronized time intervals ranging from two minutes to two hours and spatial scales from a few meters to two kilometers. We present our novel methods of placing sensors and network nodes above, below, and throughout the forest canopy without using meteorological towers. In addition, we explain our decision to use different forms of power (wind and solar) and the equipment we use to control and integrate power harvesting. Further, we describe our use of the network to sense and quantify its own power use. Using examples of environmental data from the project, we discuss how these data may be used to increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on ecosystem processes in mountainous environments. MESA sensor locations across a 700 m topoclimatic gradient at the University of Idaho Taylor Wilderness Research Station.

  7. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of the impact of climatic conditions on the photovoltaic modules performance in the desert environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouraiou, Ahmed; Hamouda, Messaoud; Chaker, Abdelkader; Mostefaoui, Mohammed; Lachtar, Salah; Sadok, Mohammed; Boutasseta, Nadir; Othmani, Mourad; Issam, Attoui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling and simulation of PV Module based on one and two diode model. • Power loss due to partial shading and dust accumulation were investigated. • Effect of variation of irradiation and temperature on PV performance parameters was examined. • Performance degradation of PV modules was evaluated using I–V and P–V curves. • Mean annual maximum power degradation rate due to delamination and discoloration equal to 1.89%/year. - Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of climatic conditions on the performance of photovoltaic modules installed in the desert region in south of Algeria. Firstly, the performance of ISOFOTON 100 module under daily weather conditions is evaluated. Next, the effects of partial shading and accumulation of sand dust for a period of two months on power loss and the current–voltage characteristics of photovoltaic modules are examined. Finally, the visual inspection of the degradation of the UDTS 50 modules such as discoloration of encapsulant and delamination show the influence of high temperature and the other climatic factors in the Saharan environment after a long time exposure of more than 10 years observed in the field at the Unit of Research in Renewable energy URERMS Adrar. The performance degradation is also assessed using (I–V and P–V) curves normalized at STC condition compared with the nominal STC data given by the manufacturer. The experimental results show that the performance parameters such as maximum output current (I_m_a_x), maximum output voltage (V_m_a_x), maximum power output (P_m_a_x), open-circuit voltage (V_o_c), short-circuit current (I_s_c) and fill factor (FF) of UDTS 50 modules are degraded after these years of exposition.

  9. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes

  10. Late holocene ice core records of climate and environment from the Tropical Andes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available DONNÉES CLIMATIQUES ET ENVIRONNEMENTALES DÉDUITES DES CAROTTES DE GLACE DES ANDES TROPICALES (PÉROU À L’HOLOCÈNE RÉCENT. On compare l’histoire du climat et de l’environnement reconstituée à partir des carottes extraites de la calotte de glace de Quelccaya (13º56’S, 70º50’O, 5 670 m et de la “Garganta” du Huascarán (9°06’S, 77°36’O, 6 048 m s.n.m. Les paramètres analysés sont le rapport isotopique de l’oxygène ( 18O considéré comme un indicateur des températures, les poussières non solubles et (pour le Huascarán seulement la concentration en nitrates (NO3-, qui est un indicateur des fluctuations de la végétation dans la forêt amazonienne. Les profils du  18O et du NO3- au Huascarán pour les derniers 3 000 ans montrent qu’il y a eu une baisse générale des températures accompagnée par une diminution de l’activité biologique dans le bassin amazonien, avec des valeurs minimales atteintes pendant le Petit Age de Glace, de 200 à 500 ans BP. Il y a eu après une augmentation rapide du  18O, qui a atteint les valeurs d’il y a 3 000 ans BP. Ce réchauffement rapide a dominé les deux derniers siècles sur les deux sites. Les niveaux de NO3- au Huascarán ont aussi augmenté pendant cette période, bien que moins rapidement. L’évidence d’un léger enrichissement isotopique (réchauffement existe entre 1 150 y 900 ans BP, qui pourrait être mis en relation avec “l’Optimum Médiéval”. Le niveau des poussières, constant depuis 3 000 ans, a été interrompu par un événement de fortes concentrations de poussières entre 2 000 y 1 800 ans BP (0-200 A.D. centré sur les années 1 900 BP (100 A.D.. Des pics de moindre importance sont observés de 1 400 à 1 600 ans BP (400 a 600 A.D. et entre 1300 et 1030 BP (entre 700 et 960 A.D.. L’analyse des poussières associées à cet épisode révèle un matériau déposé par les vents de même composition que celui qui affleure en Cordill

  11. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment int...

  12. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods In December, 2010, a consortium of EPA, Centers for Disease Control, and state and local health officials convened in Austin, Texas for a “participatory modeling workshop” on climate change effects on human health and health-environment interactions. ...

  13. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  14. Antibiotic resistant Pseudomonas spp. in the aquatic environment: A prevalence study under tropical and temperate climate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Köhler, Thilo; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; van Delden, Christian; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mpiana, Pius T; Ibelings, Bastiaan W; Poté, John

    2017-05-15

    by evaluating the aquatic ecosystems sediments from tropical and temperate climate conditions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistance in aquatic ecosystems sediments receiving untreated/treated wastewater and how these contemporary sources of contamination, contribute to the spread of microbial resistance in the aquatic environment. This research presents also useful tools to evaluate sediment quality in the receiving river/reservoir systems which can be applied to similar environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Efficient Workflow Environment to Support the Collaborative Development of Actionable Climate Information Using the NCAR Climate Risk Management Engine (CRMe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, C. M.; Vigh, J. L.; Lee, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Society's growing needs for robust and relevant climate information have fostered an explosion in tools and frameworks for processing climate projections. Many top-down workflows might be employed to generate sets of pre-computed data and plots, frequently served in a "loading-dock style" through a metadata-enabled search and discovery engine. Despite these increasing resources, the diverse needs of applications-driven projects often result in data processing workflow requirements that cannot be fully satisfied using past approaches. In parallel to the data processing challenges, the provision of climate information to users in a form that is also usable represents a formidable challenge of its own. Finally, many users do not have the time nor the desire to synthesize and distill massive volumes of climate information to find the relevant information for their particular application. All of these considerations call for new approaches to developing actionable climate information. CRMe seeks to bridge the gap between the diversity and richness of bottom-up needs of practitioners, with discrete, structured top-down workflows typically implemented for rapid delivery. Additionally, CRMe has implemented web-based data services capable of providing focused climate information in usable form for a given location, or as spatially aggregated information for entire regions or countries following the needs of users and sectors. Making climate data actionable also involves summarizing and presenting it in concise and approachable ways. CRMe is developing the concept of dashboards, co-developed with the users, to condense the key information into a quick summary of the most relevant, curated climate data for a given discipline, application, or location, while still enabling users to efficiently conduct deeper discovery into rich datasets on an as-needed basis.

  16. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. An open-source textbook for teaching climate-related risk analysis using the R computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, P. J.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions lead to increased surface air temperatures and sea level rise. In turn, sea level rise increases the risks of flooding for people living near the world's coastlines. Our own research on assessing sea level rise-related risks emphasizes both Earth science and statistics. At the same time, the free, open-source computing environment R is growing in popularity among statisticians and scientists due to its flexibility and graphics capabilities, as well as its large library of existing functions. We have developed a set of laboratory exercises that introduce students to the Earth science and statistical concepts needed for assessing the risks presented by climate change, particularly sea-level rise. These exercises will be published as a free, open-source textbook on the Web. Each exercise begins with a description of the Earth science and/or statistical concepts that the exercise teaches, with references to key journal articles where appropriate. Next, students are asked to examine in detail a piece of existing R code, and the exercise text provides a clear explanation of how the code works. Finally, students are asked to modify the existing code to produce a well-defined outcome. We discuss our experiences in developing the exercises over two separate semesters at Penn State, plus using R Markdown to interweave explanatory text with sample code and figures in the textbook.

  18. NCSE's 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Ellen [National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) held its 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change, on January 27-29, 2015, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Crystal City, VA. The National Conference: Energy and Climate Change developed and advanced partnerships that focused on transitioning the world to a new “low carbon” and “climate resilient” energy system. It emphasized advancing research and technology, putting ideas into action, and moving forward on policy and practice. More than 900 participants from the scientific research, policy and governance, business and civil society, and education communities attended. The Conference was organized around four themes: (1) a new energy system (including energy infrastructure, technologies and efficiencies, changes in distribution of energy sources, and low carbon transportation); (2) energy, climate and sustainable development; (3) financing and markets; and (4) achieving progress (including ideas for the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The program featured six keynote presentations, six plenary sessions, 41 symposia and 20 workshops. Conference participants were involved in the 20 workshops, each on a specific energy and climate-related issue. The workshops were designed as interactive sessions, with each workshop generating 10-12 recommendations on the topic. The recommendations were prepared in the final conference report, were disseminated nationally, and continue to be available for public use. The conference also featured an exhibition and poster sessions. The National Conference on Energy and Climate Change addressed a wide range of issues specific to the U.S. Department of Energy’s programs; involved DOE’s scientists and program managers in sessions and workshops; and reached out to a broad array of DOE stakeholders.

  19. Structural change and climate protection. How does climate policy change economics and working environment; Strukturwandel und Klimaschutz. Wie Klimapolitik Wirtschaft und Arbeitswelt veraendert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazejczak, Juergen [DIW Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Energie, Verkehr, Umwelt; Edler, Dietmar [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Innovation, Industrie und Dienstleistungen

    2011-07-01

    In order to curb the climatic change, the greenhouse gases in industrialized countries have to be reduced dramatically by the middle of this century. This strengthens the economic structural change. The contribution under consideration discusses the knowledge of the climate policy-induced structural transformation of economy and labor market in Germany. The actual state of information is limited. It is possible to identify sectors that either are burdened particularly by costs of avoidance or benefit from additional demand. Due to a variety of complex interdependencies employment effects only are tapped with great uncertainty. The additionally induced inter-sectoral structural change in employment lags behind the intra-sectoral adjustment demands. The requirements in qualification will increase more. Completely new skills are required. Necessarily additional qualifications often can be acquired by training. The correlations of forced climatic change policy with other aspects of job quality have not been studied systematically.

  20. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  1. Comparing Enchytraeus albidus populations from contrasting climatic environments suggest a link between cold tolerance and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Anamarija; Holmstrup, Martin; Simčič, Tatjana; Debeljak, Barabara; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-06-06

    Basal metabolic activity and freezing of body fluids create reactive oxygen species (ROS) in freeze-tolerant organisms. These sources of ROS can have an additive negative effect via oxidative stress. In cells, antioxidant systems are responsible for removing ROS in order to avoid damage due to oxidative stress. Relatively little is known about the importance of metabolic rate for the survival of freezing, despite a good understanding of several cold tolerance related physiological mechanisms. We hypothesized that low basal metabolism would be selected for in freeze-tolerant organisms where winter survival is important for fitness for two reasons. First, avoidance of the additive effect of ROS production from metabolism and freezing, and second, as an energy-saving mechanism under extended periods of freezing where the animal is metabolically active, but unable to feed. We used the terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus albidus, which is widely distributed from Spain to the high Arctic and compared eight populations originating across a broad geographical and climatic gradient after they had been cold acclimated at 5 °C in a common garden experiment. Cold tolerance (lower lethal temperature: LT50) and the potential metabolic activity (PMA, an estimator of the maximal enzymatic potential of the mitochondrial respiration chain) of eight populations were positively correlated amongst each other and correlated negatively with latitude and positively with average yearly temperature and the average temperature of the coldest month. These results indicate that low PMA in cold tolerant populations is important for survival in extremely cold environments. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Contrasting effects of climate change in continental vs. oceanic environments on population persistence and microevolution of Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piou, Cyril; Prévost, Etienne

    2013-03-01

    Facing climate change (CC), species are prone to multiple modifications in their environment that can lead to extinction, migration or adaptation. Identifying the role and interplay of different potential stressors becomes a key question. Anadromous fishes will be exposed to both river and oceanic habitat changes. For Atlantic salmon, the river water temperature, river flow and oceanic growth conditions appear as three main stressing factors. They could act on population dynamics or as selective forces on life-history pathways. Using an individual-based demo-genetic model, we assessed the effects of these factors (1) to compare risks of extinction resulting from CC in river and ocean, and (2) to assess CC effects on life-history pathways including the evolution of underlying genetic control of phenotypic plasticity. We focused on Atlantic salmon populations from Southern Europe for a time horizon of three decades. We showed that CC in river alone should not lead to extinction of Southern European salmon populations. In contrast, the reduced oceanic growth appeared as a significant threat for population persistence. An increase in river flow amplitude increased the risk of local extinction in synergy with the oceanic effects, but river temperature rise reduced this risk. In terms of life-history modifications, the reduced oceanic growth increased the age of return of individuals through plastic and genetic responses. The river temperature rise increased the proportion of sexually mature parr, but the genetic evolution of the maturation threshold lowered the maturation rate of male parr. This was identified as a case of environmentally driven plastic response that masked an underlying evolutionary response of plasticity going in the opposite direction. We concluded that to counteract oceanic effects, river flow management represented the sole potential force to reduce the extinction probability of Atlantic salmon populations in Southern Europe, although this might

  3. Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation-mitigation dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopytko, Natalie; Perkins, John

    2011-01-01

    Many policy-makers view nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. Efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change, however, interact with existing and new nuclear power plants, and these installations must contend with dilemmas between adaptation and mitigation. This paper develops five criteria to assess the adaptation-mitigation dilemma on two major points: (1) the ability of nuclear power to adapt to climate change and (2) the potential for nuclear power operation to hinder climate change adaptation. Sea level rise models for nine coastal sites in the United States, a review of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents, and reports from France's nuclear regulatory agency provided insights into issues that have arisen from sea level rise, shoreline erosion, coastal storms, floods, and heat waves. Applying the criteria to inland and coastal nuclear power plants reveals several weaknesses. Safety stands out as the primary concern at coastal locations, while inland locations encounter greater problems with interrupted operation. Adapting nuclear power to climate change entails either increased expenses for construction and operation or incurs significant costs to the environment and public health and welfare. Mere absence of greenhouse gas emissions is not sufficient to assess nuclear power as a mitigation for climate change. - Research Highlights: → The adaptation-mitigation criteria reveal nuclear power's vulnerabilities. → Climate change adaptation could become too costly at many sites. → Nuclear power operation jeopardizes climate change adaptation. → Extreme climate events pose a safety challenge.

  4. Developing a model for effects of climate change on human health and health-environment interactions: Heat stress in Austin, Texas - Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and well-being are and will be affected by climate change, both directly through changes in extreme weather events and indirectly through weather-induced changes in human and natural systems. Populations are vulnerable to these changes in varying degrees, depending ...

  5. Climate variability and human impact on the environment in South America during the last 2000 years: synthesis and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flantua, S.G.A.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Vuillle, M.; Behling, H.; Carson, J.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Hoyos, I.; Ledru, M.P.; Montoya, E.; Mayle, F.; Maldonado, A.; Rull, V.; Tonello, M.S.; Whiyney, B.S.; González-Arango, C.

    2015-01-01

    An improved understanding of present-day climate variability and change relies on high-quality data sets from the past two millennia. Global efforts to reconstruct regional climate modes are in the process of validating and integrating paleo-proxies. For South America, however, the full potential of

  6. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Herke, Max G; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  7. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herke, Max G.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children’s life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes). Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children’s life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction. PMID:29420540

  8. Educators and the quality of their work environment: an analysis of the organisational climate in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalent organisational climate in primary schools in the North West Province was determined in order to formulate management strategies to increase the organisational climate. For this purpose, a quantitative research method, founded in post-positivistic points of departure, was applied. In the process, the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire - Rutgers Elementary (OCDQ-RE was applied in order to determine the behaviour of principals and school educators. The investigation indicated that the behaviour of the principals and that of the educators contributed only to an average degree to the establishment of a more effective organisational climate in the primary schools investigated. Furthermore the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that certain items in the original climate questionnaire, which were grouped in the directive behaviour of the principal, were viewed by the respondents in South Africa as supportive but, in some instances, also as restrictive.

  9. Perceived class climate and school-aged children's life satisfaction: The role of the learning environment in classrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rathmann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the impact of class-level class climate on school-aged children's life satisfaction. Data was derived from the German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS using sixth grade school-aged children (n = 4,764, 483 classes. Class climate includes indicators of teachers' care and monitoring, demands, interaction, autonomy, as well as school-aged children's attitudes towards schoolwork at the class- and individual-level. Results showed that individual perceived class climate in terms of teachers' care and monitoring and autonomy was positively related to life satisfaction, whereas school-related demands were related to lower life satisfaction. Besides teachers' care and monitoring at class-level, indicators of class climate were not associated with school-aged children's life satisfaction, while the individual perceived class climate is more important for life satisfaction.

  10. Creating an enabling environment for investment in climate services: The case of Uruguay’s National Agricultural Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vaughan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly challenged by climate variability and change, many of the world’s governments have turned to climate services as a means to improve decision making and mitigate climate-related risk. While there have been some efforts to evaluate the economic impact of climate services, little is known about the contexts in which investments in climate services have taken place. An understanding of the factors that enable climate service investment is important for the development of climate services at local, national and international levels. This paper addresses this gap by investigating the context in which Uruguay’s Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries invested in and developed its National System of Agriculture Information (SNIA, a national-level climate service for the agriculture sector. Using qualitative research methods, the paper uses key documents and 43 interviews to identify six factors that have shaped the decision to invest in the SNIA: (1 Uruguay’s focus on sustainable agricultural intensification; (2 previous work on climate change adaptation; (3 the modernization of the meteorological service; (4 the country’s open data policy; (5 the government’s decision to focus the SNIA on near-term (e.g., seasonal rather than long-term climate risk; and (6 the participation of key individuals. While the context in which these enablers emerged is unique to Uruguay, it is likely that some factors are generalizable to other countries. Social science research needed to confirm the wider applicability of innovation systems, groundwork, data access and champion is discussed.

  11. The influence of the cultural climate of the training environment on physicians' self-perception of competence and preparedness for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskiet Fred D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In current supervisory practice, the learning environment in which the training of specialist registrars (SpRs takes place is important. Examples of such learning environments are the hospital settings and/or geographical locations where training occurs. Our objective was to investigate whether the cultural climate of different learning environments influences physicians' perceived level of competence and preparedness for practice. Methods An electronic questionnaire was sent to an equal group of paediatricians who had trained in clinical settings located in Europe and the Caribbean. 30 items (Likert scale 1–4 = totally disagree-totally agree were used to measure the level of preparedness of the respondents in 7 physician competencies. Results 42 participants were included for analysis. The distribution of participants in both groups was comparable. The overall perception of preparedness in the Caribbean group was 2.93 (SD = 0.47 and 2.86 (SD = 0.72 in the European group. The European group felt less prepared in the competency as manager 1.81 (SD = 1.06 compared to their Caribbean counterparts 2.72 (SD = 0.66. The difference was significant (p = 0.006. Conclusion The training in the different environments was perceived as adequate and comparable in effect. The learning environment's cultural climate appeared to influence the physician's perception of their competencies and preparedness for clinical practice.

  12. Running climate model on a commercial cloud computing environment: A case study using Community Earth System Model (CESM) on Amazon AWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhong; Huang, Xianglei; Jiao, Chaoyi; Flanner, Mark G.; Raeker, Todd; Palen, Brock

    2017-01-01

    The suites of numerical models used for simulating climate of our planet are usually run on dedicated high-performance computing (HPC) resources. This study investigates an alternative to the usual approach, i.e. carrying out climate model simulations on commercially available cloud computing environment. We test the performance and reliability of running the CESM (Community Earth System Model), a flagship climate model in the United States developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), on Amazon Web Service (AWS) EC2, the cloud computing environment by Amazon.com, Inc. StarCluster is used to create virtual computing cluster on the AWS EC2 for the CESM simulations. The wall-clock time for one year of CESM simulation on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster is comparable to the time spent for the same simulation on a local dedicated high-performance computing cluster with InfiniBand connections. The CESM simulation can be efficiently scaled with the number of CPU cores on the AWS EC2 virtual cluster environment up to 64 cores. For the standard configuration of the CESM at a spatial resolution of 1.9° latitude by 2.5° longitude, increasing the number of cores from 16 to 64 reduces the wall-clock running time by more than 50% and the scaling is nearly linear. Beyond 64 cores, the communication latency starts to outweigh the benefit of distributed computing and the parallel speedup becomes nearly unchanged.

  13. Perceptions of climate change across the Canadian forest sector: The key factors of institutional and geographical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, John R.; Houle, Daniel; Messier, Christian; Gravel, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the perception of key stakeholders within the forest sector is critical to evaluating their readiness to engage in adapting to climate change. Here, we report the results of the most comprehensive survey carried out in the Canadian forestry sector to date regarding perceptions of climate change. A total of 1158 individuals, representing a wide range of stakeholders across the five most important forestry provinces in Canada, were asked about climate change, its impact on forest ecosystems, and the suitability of current forest management for addressing future impacts. Overall, we found that respondents were more concerned about climate change than the general population. More than 90% of respondents agreed with the anthropogenic origins of climate change, and > 50% considered it a direct threat to their welfare. Political view was the main driver of general beliefs about the causes of climate change and its future consequences, while the province of origin proved to be the best predictor of perceived current impacts on forest ecosystems and its associated risks; and type of stakeholder was the main driver of perceived need for adaptation. Industrial stakeholders were the most skeptical about the anthropogenic cause(s) of climate change (18% disagreed with this statement, compared to an average of 8% in the other stakeholders), its impacts on forest ecosystems (28% for industry vs. 10% for other respondents), and the need for new management practices (18% vs. 7%). Although the degree of awareness and the willingness to implement adaptive practices were high even for the most skeptical groups, our study identified priority sectors or areas for action when designing awareness campaigns. We suggest that the design of a strategic framework for implementing climate adaptation within the Canadian forest sector should focus on the relationship between climate change and changes in disturbance regimes, and above all on the economic consequences of these changes

  14. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  15. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate Study of the Learning Environment for Faculty, Staff, and Students at a U.S. Dental School: Foundation for Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Duff, R E; Ramaswamy, V; Ester, T V; Sponseller, S A; Seeley, J A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the culture and climate for diversity and inclusion and the humanistic learning environment for students, faculty, and staff at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry. From July 2014 to June 2015, two committees of 16 faculty members, staff members, and students, in partnership with trained program evaluators, used a participatory program evaluation (PPE) process to conduct the assessment using key informant interviews, surveys, and focus groups. The topics addressed were humanistic environment, learning environment, diversity and inclusion, microaggressions and bullying, and activities and space. All staff members, all faculty members (both full- and part-time), and all students in all four years were invited to participate in the parallel but distinctive versions of the survey from November 10 to 25, 2014. Response rates for each group were as follows: 50% (318/642) for students, 68% (217/320) for staff, and 40% (147/366) for faculty; numbers responding to individual items varied. Among the respondents, the majority (76% faculty, 67% staff, 80% students) agreed that the environment fostered learning and personal growth and that a humanistic environment was important (97% faculty, 95% staff, 94% students). Many reported having experienced/witnessed a micro-aggression or bullying. Many also reported having "ever had" dissatisfaction with the learning environment (44% faculty, 39% staff, 68% students). The students sought better relationships with the faculty; the staff and faculty members sought opportunities for professional development and mentoring. Recommendations included cultural sensitivity training, courses for interpersonal skills, leadership and team-building efforts, addressing microaggressions and bullying, creating opportunities for collaboration, and increasing diversity of faculty, staff, and students. These recommendations were incorporated into the school's strategic plan. In this study, a utilization

  17. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  18. The social environment of schools and adolescent nutrition: associations between the school nutrition climate and adolescents' eating behaviors and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96 randomly selected schools participated. School-level measures were created by aggregating students' reports within schools. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling, accounting for student-level characteristics. There was a positive association between the school nutrition climate and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables. This relationship was statistically significant after controlling for the background characteristics of students. There were no associations between the school nutrition climate and students' junk food consumption or BMI. The school nutrition climate appears to have a positive influence on adolescents' healthy eating behaviors (fruit and vegetable intake), but a limited effect on unhealthy eating behaviors and ultimately body weight. This may reflect the pervasiveness of junk food in the environments of adolescents outside of school and the difficulty in limiting its consumption. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellstedt, Paul M; Zahran, Sammy; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2008-02-01

    Despite the growing scientific consensus about the risks of global warming and climate change, the mass media frequently portray the subject as one of great scientific controversy and debate. And yet previous studies of the mass public's subjective assessments of the risks of global warming and climate change have not sufficiently examined public informedness, public confidence in climate scientists, and the role of personal efficacy in affecting global warming outcomes. By examining the results of a survey on an original and representative sample of Americans, we find that these three forces-informedness, confidence in scientists, and personal efficacy-are related in interesting and unexpected ways, and exert significant influence on risk assessments of global warming and climate change. In particular, more informed respondents both feel less personally responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. We also find that confidence in scientists has unexpected effects: respondents with high confidence in scientists feel less responsible for global warming, and also show less concern for global warming. These results have substantial implications for the interaction between scientists and the public in general, and for the public discussion of global warming and climate change in particular.

  1. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  2. Land-Atmosphere Interactions in Cold Environments (LATICE): The role of Atmosphere - Biosphere - Cryosphere - Hydrosphere interactions in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J. F.; Tallaksen, L. M.; Stordal, F.; Berntsen, T.; Westermann, S.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Etzelmuller, B.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Hamran, S. E.; Lande, T. S.; Bryn, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is impacting the high latitudes more rapidly and significantly than any other region of the Earth because of feedback processes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface. A warmer climate has already led to thawing of permafrost, reducing snow cover and a longer growing season; changes, which in turn influence the atmospheric circulation and the hydrological cycle. Still, many studies rely on one-way coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface, thereby neglecting important interactions and feedbacks. The observation, understanding and prediction of such processes from local to regional and global scales, represent a major scientific challenge that requires multidisciplinary scientific effort. The successful integration of earth observations (remote and in-situ data) and model development requires a harmonized research effort between earth system scientists, modelers and the developers of technologies and sensors. LATICE, which is recognized as a priority research area by the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University of Oslo, aims to advance the knowledge base concerning land atmosphere interactions and their role in controlling climate variability and climate change at high northern latitudes. The consortium consists of an interdisciplinary team of experts from the atmospheric and terrestrial (hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere) research groups, together with key expertise on earth observations and novel sensor technologies. LATICE addresses critical knowledge gaps in the current climate assessment capacity through: Improving parameterizations of processes in earth system models controlling the interactions and feedbacks between the land (snow, ice, permafrost, soil and vegetation) and the atmosphere at high latitudes, including the boreal, alpine and artic zone. Assessing the influence of climate and land cover changes on water and energy fluxes. Integrating remote earth observations with in-situ data and

  3. Scientists and Science Museums: Forging New Collaborations to Interpret the Environment and Engage Public Audiences in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Bartels, D.; Schwartzenberg, S.; Andrews, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Exploratorium engages Americans on issues of climate change, and energy use and production in a distinctive way; using a multilayered approach emphasizing all of the Exploratorium's strengths, not simply exhibitions. Specifically, the institution gives people access to the latest science research and researchers, provides the inquiry skills and basic science needed to make sense of this research, studies perception and cognition and how we come to believe what we believe, and sets up social communities and spaces for people to test their ideas and understandings with others. Using exhibits, the web and other media, visualization technology, building architecture, physical spaces, classes and professional education the Exploratorium achieves this multilayered approach. This powerful combination enhances people's own ability to make sound, evidence-based decisions for themselves, their families, and their communities. In 2013, the Exploratorium will move from its current home in the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco to a waterfront campus with access to the bay and outdoor platforms for instrumentation and observation. This will allow program and exhibit development in the environmental sciences that focuses on natural phenomena and physical and biological systems. Some current and planned Exploratorium projects with an emphasis on global climate change and potential for further development in the new location: 1. An Observatory building, where visitors can investigate Bay waters and climate. 2. Wired Pier, a suite of environmental sensors that will track local conditions over time and connect to larger observing networks regionally and globally 3. NOAA education and climate science partnership, including a scientist-in-residence program for training front-line staff 4. Global Climate Change Research Explorer website enabling visitors to observe current climate data or analyze evidence. 5. The Ice Stories project which trained polar scientists in media

  4. Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  5. Rock outcrops reduce temperature-induced stress for tropical conifer by decoupling regional climate in the semiarid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locosselli, Giuliano Maselli; Cardim, Ricardo Henrique; Ceccantini, Gregório

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to understand the effect of rock outcrops on the growth of Podocarpus lambertii within a microrefuge. Our hypothesis holds that the growth and survival of this species depend on the regional climate decoupling provided by rock outcrops. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the microclimate of (1) surrounding vegetation, (2) rock outcrop corridors, and (3) adjacencies. We assessed population structure by collecting data of specimen stem diameter and height. We also assessed differences between vegetation associated or not with outcrops using satellite imaging. For dendrochronological analyses, we sampled 42 individuals. Tree rings of 31 individuals were dated, and climate-growth relationships were tested. Rock outcrops produce a favorable microclimate by reducing average temperature by 4.9 °C and increasing average air humidity by 12 %. They also reduce the variability of atmospheric temperature by 42 % and air humidity by 20 % supporting a vegetation with higher leaf area index. Within this vegetation, specimen height was strongly constrained by the outcrop height. Although temperature and precipitation modulate this species growth, temperature-induced stress is the key limiting growth factor for this population of P. lambertii. We conclude that this species growth and survival depend on the presence of rock outcrops. These topography elements decouple regional climate in a favorable way for this species growth. However, these benefits are restricted to the areas sheltered by rock outcrops. Although this microrefuge supported P. lambertii growth so far, it is unclear whether this protection would be sufficient to withstand the stress of future climate changes.

  6. Measuring social climate in Norwegian residential youth care : A revision of the community oriented programs environment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Rimehaug, Tormod; Harder, A.T.; Kayed, Nanna; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Social climate is an understudied factor in residential youth care (RYC) institutions. Already in the 1950’s, the World Health Organization stated that “atmosphere” is an important factor in psychiatric treatment, but a very difficult element to measure. Assessing the

  7. Creating the Synergy of Land Use, Transport, Energy and Environment Elements towards Climate Change Co-benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariva Sugandi Permana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use, transport, energy consumption and air quality issues in a city are interconnected and therefore form a nexus. This study attempts to analyze this nexus by identifying the magnitude and quality of the links among the elements. The study was undertaken in Bandung City, Indonesia by analyzing the concen-tricity of land use of the city, computing traffic loads at some primary radial trunk roads towards city center, assessing transport energy and air quality in the study area. Analysis on the present linearity of the nexus was also conducted by acquiring relevant secondary data as well as information from the separate study by the first authors in the same city. A quantitative analysis was undertaken to corroborate the rela-tionships among linear connections of the elements. The result exhibits that the interconnections among elements in the nexus do exist. It also shows that the interconnection of the nexus i.e. land use, transport, energy consumption and air quality is linear and it requires a synergistic efforts to enhance the strategies towards climate change co-benefits. By looking at the nexus as a policy arena, the study proposes prospec-tive policy directions that could lead to synergize co-benefits of climate change and accordingly contribute to climate change adaptation of the city and the reduction of climate change impacts.

  8. Classroom Emotional Climate as a Moderator of Anxious Solitary Children's Longitudinal Risk for Peer Exclusion: A Child x Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…

  9. Carbon stable isotope-climate association in tree rings of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogino, Stella M; Bravo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Carbon isotope ratios, recorded as "1"3C/"1"2C variations in tree rings of woody species, are the result of physiological changes related to environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the association among carbon thirteen variability (δ"1"3C), climate variables and tree-ring growth of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris in central Spain. Pulverized woody material from the period 1975-1999 from four trees for each pine species was analyzed. To detect common patterns in δ"1"3C within each species and between δ"1"3C and growth indices, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. δ"1"3C of trees and the residual tree-ring chronologies were used at the PCA. Multilevel mixed linear models were applied between intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) and climate variables. Our results show an inverse significant correlation between δ"1"3C and tree-ring growth of both species. Winter and spring air moisture was negatively correlated with iWUE of Pinus pinaster. July maximum temperature was positively correlated with iWUE of Pinus sylvestris. As δ"1"3C is significantly related to climate and growth and it may be recommended as a valuable tool for tree growth dynamic analysis to withstand increasingly stressful climate conditions

  10. Effects of Institutional Climate and Culture on the Perceptions of the Working Environments of Public Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have found that, although community colleges continue to remain gendered organizations, their climates and cultures are perceived to be more open to women than are their college and university peers. Community colleges may in fact still have the male orientation of the higher education system despite their efforts to be…

  11. Rural response to climate change in poor countries: Ethics, policies and scientific support systems in their agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sustaning Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change is a two-part text bringing together the latest research in soil science and climatology and the ethical, political and social issues surrounding the stewardship of this vital resource. Chapters include scientific studies on microbial

  12. Climate-smart crop production in semi-arid areas through increased knowledge of varieties, environment and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungweni, C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    In large regions of sub-Saharan Africa, semi-arid conditions are likely to increase with climate change, yet these regions are becoming more important to feed production zones due to increasing population pressure. A production system in the semi-arid south eastern Zimbabwe was studied to assess

  13. Climate and environments during Marine Isotope Stage 11 in the central Iberian Peninsula: the herpetofaunal assemblage from the Acheulean site of Áridos-1, Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Santonja, Manuel; Pérez-González, Alfredo; Panera, Joaquin; Rubio-Jara, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The interglacial episodes of the Quaternary Period are currently the focus of a great deal of attention within the scientific community, primarily because they can help us to understand how the climate of the current interglacial may have evolved without human intervention and to assess the impact of these climate changes on ecological systems. In the central Iberian Peninsula, the archaeological site of Áridos-1 (Arganda, Madrid), with numeric dates of 379.7 ± 45 ka obtained by AAR for the upper part of the sedimentological unit of Arganda I, in combination with the evolved state of the small mammals, has been chronologically attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11. Given the diversified faunal assemblages delivered by the 1976 excavations, Áridos-1 is probably one of the best terrestrial candidates for an understanding of the climatic and environmental conditions that prevailed in central Spain during the MIS 11 interglacial. In consequence, the fossil amphibians and squamate reptiles stored in the collections of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Madrid have been newly described and quantified in order to apply the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods for estimating quantitative data. The Mediterranean climate is shown to have been warmer and wetter than today in central Spain during MIS 11, with the mean annual temperature 1.7 °C higher and mean annual precipitation 223.9 mm higher than at present. The monthly climatic reconstruction shows differences in the distribution of precipitation over the course of the year, with more abundant precipitation during the winter months, at the beginning of spring and at the end of fall (from October to March) and less precipitation than today during the summer months and at the end of spring (from May to August), suggesting stronger rainfall seasonality between winter and summer than currently occurs. Such climate reconstruction is consistent with other European MIS 11 paleoclimatic records. The

  14. Climate changes, environment and infection: facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezirtzoglou, Christos; Dekas, Konstantinos; Charvalos, Ekatherina

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is a current global concern and, despite continuing controversy about the extent and importance of causes and of its effects, it seems likely that it will affect the incidence and prevalence of both residual and imported infections in Europe. Climate affects mainly the range of infectious diseases, whereas weather affects the timing and intensity of outbreaks. Climate change scenarios include a change distribution of infectious diseases with warming and changes in outbreaks associated with weather extremes. The largest health impact from climate change for Europe doesn't come from vector borne infectious diseases. This does not mean that these types of health impacts will not arise in Europe. The ranges of several vector-borne diseases or their vectors are already changing in altitude due to warming. In addition, more intense weather events create conditions conductive to outbreaks of infectious diseases: Heavy rains leave insect breeding sites, drive rodents from burrows, and contaminate clean water systems. The incidence of mosquito-borne parasitic and viral diseases, are among those diseases most sensitive to climate. Climate change affect disease transmission by shifting the vector's geographic range and by shortening the pathogen incubation period. climate-related increases in temperature in sea surface and level would lead to higher incidence of waterborne infectious and toxin-related illnesses, such as cholera and seafood intoxication. Climate changes all around the world with impact in Europe are demonstrated by the fact that recent cases of cholera have been imported to Europe from Kenya, where spreading epidemic has been linked to the El Niño phenomenon, originated from the Pacific Ocean. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from aberrant climate changes could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. Human susceptibility to infections might be further compounded by alterations in the human immune system caused by

  15. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...... conditions were further characterised by limited sea ice probably related to a mild and relatively windy winter climate. After 3.2 ka BP lower fine-grained sedimentation rates, but a larger input from sea-ice rafted or aeolian coarse material prevailed. This can be related to colder atmospheric conditions...

  16. A regional perspective on the environment-climate change-migration nexus: Governance and policy responses to environmental refugees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available migration policies on reducing pressures to migrate, managing authorised movements, and controlling irregular flows. Regional impact of climate change 6Geography of research 7Project purpose and aims • This project focuses on the regional, national and sub... on environmental refugees to strengthen national disaster response plans for floods and droughts in the case study areas identified. 3. To develop local adaptive management strategies for environmental refugees in the case study areas identified. 8Project scales...

  17. Ranking the stars. The Netherlands compared with other European member states with regard to environment, nature and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiskerke, W.; Wit, R.

    2011-10-01

    This report offers an overview of the current position of the Netherlands in comparison to other European countries with regard to the following indicators: International environmental performance index; Air quality; Soil quality; Water quality; Nature; Renewable energy; Climate. The comparison with other EU countries does not aim to monitor the progress in policy, but focuses on the actually measured and/or scientifically established environmental pollution and quality of nature. [nl

  18. Modeling groundwater quality in an arid agricultural environment in the face of an uncertain climate: the case of Mewat District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. C.; Ward, A. S.; Muste, M.

    2014-12-01

    The salinization of groundwater resources is a widespread problem in arid agricultural environments. In Mewat District (Haryana, India), groundwater salinity has rendered much of the accessible supply unfit for human consumption or agriculture. Historically, this closed basin retained fresh pockets of water at the foothills of the Aravalli Hills, where monsoonal precipitation runoff from the mountains was recharged through infiltration or facilitated by man-made structures. To date, an increasing number of pumps supply the region with fresh water for consumption and agriculture leading to shrinking the freshwater zone at an accelerated pace. The potential for increased human consumption corroborated with the effects of climate change bring uncertainty about the future of water security for the Mewat communities, most of them critically bound to the existence of local water. This study addresses the sustainability of the freshwater supply under a range of land interventions and climate scenarios, using a 2-D groundwater flow and transport model. Our results quantify potential futures for this arid, groundwater-dependent location, using numerical groundwater modeling to quantify interactions between human water use, infrastructure, and climate. Outcomes of this modeling study will inform an NGO active in the area on sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  19. Evaluation of air quality in environmental impact assessments. Evaluation criteria and standards with a view to effective precautionary care of the environment; Die Bewertung der Luftqualitaet bei Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungen. Bewertungsmassstaebe und Standards zur Konkretisierung einer wirksamen Umweltvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehling, W.; Peters, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since the beginning of the debate surrounding the environmental impact statement in Germany, opinion is divided over what yardsticks should be applied in assessing a scheme`s environmental impact, and what consequences they involve for the environment. This book is a comprehensive compilation of air quality standards by substances and objects of protection containing a definition of the term ``active precautionary care of the environment`` as mentioned in section 1 of the act on environmental impact statements (UVPG). The reasons that the book is important for day-to-day work with environmental impact statements lie, for one thing, in its technical relevance and, for the other, in the fact that the proposed assessment criteria are legally unobjectionable. The book stakes out the legal boundaries, points out differentiated criteria for the definition of standards, selects relevant substances, explains the procedure in defining standards and the evaluation grid used, demonstrates how the standards are applied, and contains a tabulated summary. Part two of the book deals with the investigated compounds and groups of compounds. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit der UVP-Debatte in Deutschland ist strittig, welcher Massstab bei der Beurteilung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit einer Massnahme anzulegen ist und wie deren Umweltauswirkungen zu bewerten sind. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt eine umfassende stoff- und schutzgutorientierte Zusammenstellung von Luftqualitaetsstandards und eine Interpretation des Begriffes ``wirksame Umweltvorsorge`` nach Para. 1 UVPG vor. Die Bedeutung der Arbeit fuer die UVP-Praxis liegt neben der fachwissenschaftlichen Relevanz vor allem auch in der juristischen Absicherung der vorgeschlagenen Bewertungsmassstaebe. (orig./HP)

  20. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary

  1. The biosphere at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg - a description based on literature concerning climate, physical geography, ecology, land use and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [NaturRaadet, (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    The current safety analysis, SR 97, compares three sites in Sweden. This report compares the biosphere for the three areas, Aespoe, Finnsjoen and Gideaa, which have been studied to describe the conditions at three hypothetical sites, Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. Data from these sites will be used in analysis and to make realistic models of the biosphere development. The report is based on a literature study considering climate, physical geography, vegetation, ecology, land use, environment and population. Data from each site is presented separately and is compared for present conditions and from a future perspective. The locations of the sites along the south-north gradient influences the climate, temperature, vegetation period and precipitation. Aberg has a more humid climate with a longer vegetation period, a higher mean temperature, a higher diversity and a faster turn-over time than Beberg and Ceberg. There is also a difference in land use, where Beberg has the greatest potential for agriculture, because of the soil types and topography. Abergs location in the archipelago makes it very exposed to shore level displacement, compared to Beberg and Ceberg with a higher elevation. The highest population density is found in Aberg, but Beberg has the highest potential for increase. Simplified models made from present and future biosphere conditions, show that the sites have different prerequisite concerning biosphere factors. The parameters that may affect the ecosystem and the biosphere over time are more likely to change in Aberg due to position above sea level, climate, sea level displacement and land use. Biosphere changes are however in a long time perspective hard to predict. The models used in this report are a suggestion on how to evaluate biological data in a more thorough study. 99 refs, 14 figs, 31 tabs

  2. The biosphere at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg - a description based on literature concerning climate, physical geography, ecology, land use and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R.

    1998-12-01

    The current safety analysis, SR 97, compares three sites in Sweden. This report compares the biosphere for the three areas, Aespoe, Finnsjoen and Gideaa, which have been studied to describe the conditions at three hypothetical sites, Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. Data from these sites will be used in analysis and to make realistic models of the biosphere development. The report is based on a literature study considering climate, physical geography, vegetation, ecology, land use, environment and population. Data from each site is presented separately and is compared for present conditions and from a future perspective. The locations of the sites along the south-north gradient influences the climate, temperature, vegetation period and precipitation. Aberg has a more humid climate with a longer vegetation period, a higher mean temperature, a higher diversity and a faster turn-over time than Beberg and Ceberg. There is also a difference in land use, where Beberg has the greatest potential for agriculture, because of the soil types and topography. Abergs location in the archipelago makes it very exposed to shore level displacement, compared to Beberg and Ceberg with a higher elevation. The highest population density is found in Aberg, but Beberg has the highest potential for increase. Simplified models made from present and future biosphere conditions, show that the sites have different prerequisite concerning biosphere factors. The parameters that may affect the ecosystem and the biosphere over time are more likely to change in Aberg due to position above sea level, climate, sea level displacement and land use. Biosphere changes are however in a long time perspective hard to predict. The models used in this report are a suggestion on how to evaluate biological data in a more thorough study

  3. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  4. Impact of climate change and human activity on the eco-environment. An analysis of the Xisha Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the fundamentals of assessing the vulnerability of coral islands, as well as environmental management and resource exploitation. Using seabird subfossils, such as bones, guano, eggshells etc., which have been well preserved on the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, the author identifies the influences of climate change and human activity on seabird populations and diets. Understanding the past is of great importance for predicting the future, and seabird subfossils provide valuable information, which can be used to study changes in seabird ecology, paleoceanography and palaeoclimate. Furthermore, this study proposes examining the biogeochemical cycling of some elements present in the geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.

  5. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked...... to large-scale North Atlantic ocean and climate variability. AMS 14C-dating of benthic foraminifera indicates that the sediment core covers the last 4400 years and may include the termination of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). The late HTM (4.4-3.2 ka BP) is characterized by high accumulation rates...

  6. Impact of climate change and human activity on the eco-environment. An analysis of the Xisha Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liqiang [Heifei Univ. of Technology (China). School of Resources and Environmental Engineering

    2015-06-01

    This study describes the fundamentals of assessing the vulnerability of coral islands, as well as environmental management and resource exploitation. Using seabird subfossils, such as bones, guano, eggshells etc., which have been well preserved on the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, the author identifies the influences of climate change and human activity on seabird populations and diets. Understanding the past is of great importance for predicting the future, and seabird subfossils provide valuable information, which can be used to study changes in seabird ecology, paleoceanography and palaeoclimate. Furthermore, this study proposes examining the biogeochemical cycling of some elements present in the geosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere.

  7. THE VARIABILITY OF RAINFALL REGIME, INDUCED BY CLIMATE CHANGES, IN DOLJ COUNTY AND IT IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIREA ADRIAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is now widely recognized as an actual fact: temperatures are rising, rainfall patterns are changing, glaciers and snow melts, and average global sea level rises. We expect these changes to continue and extreme weather conditions that lead to risks like floods and droughts to become more frequent and increase their intensity. Drought and phenomena associated with it, namely aridization (lowering excessive groundwater level and desertification (reduced area of ground covered by vegetation and a considerable depletion and soil erosion represents, after pollution, the second largest problem facing humanity, currently affecting all regions of the globe. In Dolj County, the area between Calafat-Poiana Mare-Sadova-Bechet- Dăbuleni and the Danube, covering about 104 600 hectares, represents the most typical aspect of semi-arid zone with accents of aridity and even desertification in Romania, the phenomenon being favored by the presence of sandy soils. In Dolj County, there may be seen an important manifestation of climate change on the rainfall regime: increasing linear trend especially in the northern part of the county compared to the extreme south of the country, where atmospheric circulation interaction with local relief conditions,often causes diminishing rainfall.

  8. A spatial socio-ecosystem approach to analyse human-environment interactions on climate change adaptation for water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Mojtahed, Vahid

    2017-04-01

    Global climate and socio-economic drivers determine the future patterns of the allocation and the trade of resources and commodities in all markets. The agricultural sector is an emblematic case in which natural (e.g. climate), social (e.g. demography) and economic (e.g. the market) drivers of change interact, determining the evolution of social and ecological systems (or simply socio-ecosystems; SES) over time. In order to analyse the dynamics and possible future evolutions of SES, the combination of local complex systems and global drivers and trends require the development of multiscale approaches. At global level, climatic general circulation models (CGM) and computable general equilibrium or partial equilibrium models have been used for many years to explore the effects of global trends and generate future climate and socio-economic scenarios. Al local level, the inherent complexity of SESs and their spatial and temporal variabilities require different modelling approaches of physical/environmental sub-systems (e.g. field scale crop modelling, GIS-based models, etc.) and of human agency decision makers (e.g. agent based models). Global and local models have different assumption, limitations, constrains, etc., but in some cases integration is possible and several attempts are in progress to couple different models within the so-called Integrated Assessment Models. This work explores an innovative proposal to integrate the global and local approaches, where agent-based models (ABM) are used to simulate spatial (i.e. grid-based) and temporal dynamics of land and water resource use spatial and temporal dynamics, under the effect of global drivers. We focus in particular on how global change may affect land-use allocation at the local to regional level, under the influence of limited natural resources, land and water in particular. We specifically explore how constrains and competition for natural resources may induce non-linearities and discontinuities in socio

  9. Climate change effects on environment (marine, atmospheric and terrestrial) and human perception in an Italian Region (Marche) and the nearby northern Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiotti, F.; Krzelj, M.; Marincioni, F.; Russo, A.

    2012-04-01

    An integrated analysis of recent climate change, including atmosphere, sea and land, as well as some of the impacts on society, has been conducted on the Marche Region in central Italy and the northern portion of the Adriatic Sea. The Marche Region is one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy, located at a latitude approximately 43° North, with a total surface area of 9,366 km2 and 1,565,000 residents. The northern Adriatic Sea is the northernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea, and it has peculiar relevance for several aspects (environment, tourism, fisheries, economy). The collected environmental data included meteorological stations (daily maximum and minimum air temperature, daily precipitation), oceanographic stations (sea temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient salts concentration, chlorophyll) and river flows, over the last 50 years. The collected social data include 800 questionnaires and interviews carried out on selected samples of residents, decision-makers and emergency managers. These questionnaires and interviews aimed at highlighting the perception of climate change risks. The trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation data detailed an overall temperature increase in all seasons and rainfall decreases in Winter, Spring and Summer with Autumn increases, influencing river flow changes. Marine data showed a relevant warming of the water column in the period after 1990 in comparison with the previous period, particularly in the cold season. Surface salinity increased in Spring and Summer and strongly decreased in Autumn and Winter (according with the precipitation and river flow changes). These last mentioned changes, combined with anthropogenic effects, also influenced the marine ecosystems, with changes of nutrient salts, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen. Changes in nutrient discharge from rivers influenced the average marine chlorophyll concentration reduction and the consequent average reduction of warm season hypoxic

  10. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.; Chandler, M. A.; Genio, A. D. Del; Fujii, Y.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Sohl, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Clune, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower to more rapid than modern Earth’s, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn’s moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.

  11. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.; Chandler, M. A.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Sohl, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower to more rapid than modern Earth's, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn's moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.

  12. Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) 1.0: A General Circulation Model for Simulating the Climates of Rocky Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, M. J.; Aleinov, I.; Amundsen, David S.; Chandler, M. A.; Genio, A. D. Del; Fujii, Y.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N. Y.; Sohl, L.; Tsigaridis, K. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Clune, T. L. [Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Resolving Orbital and Climate Keys of Earth and Extraterrestrial Environments with Dynamics (ROCKE-3D) is a three-dimensional General Circulation Model (GCM) developed at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies for the modeling of atmospheres of solar system and exoplanetary terrestrial planets. Its parent model, known as ModelE2, is used to simulate modern Earth and near-term paleo-Earth climates. ROCKE-3D is an ongoing effort to expand the capabilities of ModelE2 to handle a broader range of atmospheric conditions, including higher and lower atmospheric pressures, more diverse chemistries and compositions, larger and smaller planet radii and gravity, different rotation rates (from slower to more rapid than modern Earth’s, including synchronous rotation), diverse ocean and land distributions and topographies, and potential basic biosphere functions. The first aim of ROCKE-3D is to model planetary atmospheres on terrestrial worlds within the solar system such as paleo-Earth, modern and paleo-Mars, paleo-Venus, and Saturn’s moon Titan. By validating the model for a broad range of temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric constituents, we can then further expand its capabilities to those exoplanetary rocky worlds that have been discovered in the past, as well as those to be discovered in the future. We also discuss the current and near-future capabilities of ROCKE-3D as a community model for studying planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres.

  13. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Sung, Wen-Pei; Chang, Hung-Chang; Chi, Yi-Rou

    2013-01-01

    A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1) measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2) implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people's environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3) constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV), two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C) indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1 ~ 0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement. PMID:24311976

  14. Applying Outdoor Environment to Develop Health, Comfort, and Energy Saving in the Office in Hot-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human life demand set to emerge in the future is the achievement of sustainability by maintaining a comfortable indoor environment without excessive reliance on energy-consuming air conditioners. The major research processes in this study are: (1 measuring indoor air quality and thermal comfort to evaluate the comfort of an indoor environment; (2 implementing questionnaire survey analysis to explore people’s environmental self-perceptions and conducting a meta-analysis of the measurement results for air quality and physical aspects; and (3 constructing an indoor monitoring and management system. The experimental and analysis results of this research reveal that most of the office occupants preferred a cooler environment with a lower temperature. Additionally, because the summers in Taiwan are humid and hot, the occupants of an indoor space tend to feel uncomfortable because of the high humidity and poor indoor air quality. Therefore, Variable Air Volume (VAV, two air intakes, and exhaust plant are installed to improve indoor environment. After improvement, a lower temperature (approximately 21.2–23.9°C indirectly reduces humidity, thereby making the occupants comfortable. Increasing air velocity to 0.1~0.15 m/s, the carbon dioxide concentrations decrease below the requirement of the WHO. Ninety-five percent of the workers corresponded to the standard comfort zone after this improvement.

  15. Long-term perceptions of outdoor thermal environments in an elementary school in a hot-humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wen-Mei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Tan, Ning-Xin; Liu, Mu-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on thermal comfort in school environments have focused more on indoor thermal environments than outdoor ones, thus providing a limited understanding of occupants' long-term thermal perceptions. Taiwan is located in a subtropical region, where it can be stiflingly hot outside in summer. This highlights the need to ensure proper thermal comfort on campus. In the present study, thermal environment parameters were measured and collected in several outdoor spaces of an elementary school in southern Taiwan. In addition, a questionnaire was used to explore occupants' long-term thermal perceptions of these spaces. During summer months, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) of these outdoor spaces in over 60% of the daytime in summer between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. was higher than 38 °C PET, indicating high heat stress. The results of occupants' long-term perceptions of the thermal comfort of these spaces suggested that dissatisfaction with thermal comfort was associated more with solar radiation than with wind speed. Finally, this study simulated a campus environment where more trees are planted and compared the thermal comfort indices before and after the simulation. The results indicated that this solution contributed to a decrease in the PET of these environments, thereby alleviating high heat stress. This study can inform the improvement of microclimates and thermal comfort during campus layout planning. Planting trees judiciously across a campus increases outdoor shades and creates outdoor spaces that are more comfortable and adaptable to hot weather conditions, thereby ensuring frequent use of these spaces.

  16. Venus: The Atmosphere, Climate, Surface, Interior and Near-Space Environment of an Earth-Like Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Fredric W.; Svedhem, Håkan; Head, James W.

    2018-02-01

    This is a review of current knowledge about Earth's nearest planetary neighbour and near twin, Venus. Such knowledge has recently been extended by the European Venus Express and the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft in orbit around the planet; these missions and their achievements are concisely described in the first part of the review, along with a summary of previous Venus observations. The scientific discussions which follow are divided into three main sections: on the surface and interior; the atmosphere and climate; and the thermosphere, exosphere and magnetosphere. These reports are intended to provide an overview for the general reader, and also an introduction to the more detailed topical surveys in the following articles in this issue, where full references to original material may be found.

  17. Comparing student and staff perceptions of the "Educational Climate" in Spanish Dental Schools using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, I; Aneiros, A; Casares-de-Cal, M A; Quintas, V; Prada-López, I; Balsa-Castro, C; Ceballos, L; Gómez-Moreno, G; Llena, C; López-Jornet, P; Machuca, M C; Palés, J

    2018-02-01

    To compare the perceptions of students and teachers of the "Educational Climate" (EC) in Spanish public dental schools. A group of 1064 students and 354 teachers from six Spanish public dental schools responded to the DREEM questionnaire. This has 50 items grouped into five subscales: perception of learning (Learning); perception of teachers (Teachers); academic self-perceptions (Academic); perception of the atmosphere in the faculty (Atmosphere); and social self-perceptions (Social). The DREEM scale provides results for each item, each subscale and the overall EC. The EC scores were 123.2 (61.6%) for the students and 134.1 (67.0%) for the teachers (Peducational aspects. Both groups agreed on the need to: improve support systems for students who suffer from stress and reduce teaching based on "factual learning." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Assessment of climate change impact on the fates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the multimedia environment based on model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Juan Juan; Song, Jee Hey; Lee, Yunah; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to quantitatively understand the impacts of climate change (CC) under the A1B scenario on the contamination levels of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pyrogenic sources in the environmental media based on model prediction. To predict the impacts of CC in South Korea, a revised version of KoEFT-PBTs, a dynamic multimedia model for persistent organic pollutants in South Korea, was used. Simulations were conducted for the period from 2000 to 2049 under the A1B scenario with the emission data for 2009 and the results for Seoul and Kangwon were compared to those under no climate change (NCC) scenario. Due to CC, the average of annual or monthly average concentration changes within a factor of two for the PAHs in air, soil and water. Time dependent comparison indicates that the maximum increase induced by CC in the monthly average concentration ranges from 10 to 10(2) in air and water. Change in advective flux due to wind speed difference between A1B and NCC dictates the change of the atmospheric PAHs levels while wet particle deposition due to rain rate difference contributes to some extent to the change of 5 and 6 ring PAHs. Whether the concentration change is positive or not depends primarily on the emission strength of internal sources relative to those in surrounding areas. The CC induced changes in atmospheric depositions and degradation rate in soil play a leading role in the change of soil concentration. In water, runoff and degradation are the key processes to the CC induced concentration change. Both in soil and water, the relative importance of individual key processes varies with PAHs. The difference between the two scenarios in wind speed and in rain rate shows stronger correlations with the concentration change than the temperature change. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a Three Dimensional Wireless Sensor Network for Terrain-Climate Research in Remote Mountainous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, K.; Davis, A.; Gessler, P.; Hess, H.; Holden, Z.; Link, T. E.; Newingham, B. A.; Smith, A. M.; Robinson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Developing sensor networks that are robust enough to perform in the world's remote regions is critical since these regions serve as important benchmarks compared to human-dominated areas. Paradoxically, the factors that make these remote, natural sites challenging for sensor networking are often what make them indispensable for climate change research. We aim to overcome these challenges by developing a three-dimensional sensor network arrayed across a topoclimatic gradient (1100-1800 meters) in a wilderness area in central Idaho. Development of this sensor array builds upon advances in sensing, networking, and power supply technologies coupled with experiences of the multidisciplinary investigators in conducting research in remote mountainous locations. The proposed gradient monitoring network will provide near real-time data from a three-dimensional (3-D) array of sensors measuring biophysical parameters used in ecosystem process models. The network will monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, humidity, air and soil temperature, soil water content, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation, snow depth, wind speed and direction, tree stem growth and leaf wetness at time intervals ranging from seconds to days. The long-term goal of this project is to realize a transformative integration of smart sensor networks adaptively communicating data in real-time to ultimately achieve a 3-D visualization of ecosystem processes within remote mountainous regions. Process models will be the interface between the visualization platforms and the sensor network. This will allow us to better predict how non-human dominated terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems function and respond to climate dynamics. Access to the data will be ensured as part of the Northwest Knowledge Network being developed at the University of Idaho, through ongoing Idaho NSF-funded cyber infrastructure initiatives, and existing data management systems funded by NSF, such as

  20. Passive Design Strategies to Enhance Natural Ventilation in Buildings "Election of Passive Design Strategies to Achieve Natural Ventilation in Iraqi Urban Environment with Hot Arid Climate"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada M.Ismael Abdul Razzaq Kamoona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the natural ventilation in buildings is one of effective strategies for achieving energy efficiency in buildings by employing methods and ways of passive design, as well as its efficiency in providing high ranges of thermal comfort for occupants in buildings and raises their productivity. Because the concept of natural ventilation for many people confined to achieve through the windows and openings only, become necessary to provide this research to demonstrate the various passive design strategies for natural ventilation. Then, research problem: Insufficient knowledge about the importance and mechanism of the application of passive design strategies for natural ventilation in buildings. The research objective is: Analysis of passive design strategies to achieve natural ventilation in buildings, for the purpose of the proper selection of them to Iraqi urban environment. Accordingly, the research included two parts: First, the theoretical part, which dealt with the conceptual framework of natural ventilation and deriving the most important aspects in it, in order to adopted as a base for the practical part of the research. Second: the practical part, which analyzed examples of buildings projects that employed various design strategies for natural ventilation, according to the theoretical framework that has been drawn. The main conclusion is, Necessity to adopt various passive design strategies for natural ventilation in Iraqi urban environment with hot dry climate, as they have a significant impact in reducing the energy consumption for the purposes of ventilation and cooling, as well as for its efficiency in improving air quality in indoor environments of buildings.

  1. The Response of Eastern African Terrestrial Environments to the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition: Paleosol Isotopic Evidence from the Turkana Basin, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R.; Lepre, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Heightened aridity and C4 grass expansion are recorded in Africa during the Mid-Pleistocene Climate Transition (MPCT, 1.3-0.7 Ma), potentially as consequences of decreasing atmospheric CO2. Whether all of Africa responded to the MPCT in the same manner is unclear. Recent studies of a Malawi Basin lake core and paleosols show abundant C3 flora across the MPCT. African climate change is often suggested as a primary cause of hominin speciation, extinction, and technological innovations. Competing environmental-based evolutionary hypotheses propose increased aridity, humidity pulses, and climatic variability as influences of water availability and vegetation structure in Plio-Pleistocene hominin habitats. The Turkana Basin in northern Kenya preserves a rich fossil record of hominins from 4.3-0.7 Ma and offers high-resolution age control via paleomagnetic stratigraphy, isotopic geochronology, and tephrostratigraphy. Turkana's large paleosol isotopic database demonstrates a gradual increase in C4 grass abundance and aridity from 4-1 Ma. Faunal evidence for increasing abundances of C4 grazers corroborates the spread of C4 grasslands from 2-1 Ma. However, there is a dearth of terrestrial environmental records after 1.5 Ma and through the MPCT at Turkana, during which time eastern Africa witnessed the extinction of Paranthropus and the disperal of genus Homo. Here we report a stable isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) record of paleosol carbonates from the Turkana Basin from 1.4 to 0.7 Ma. Based on our findings and comparisons with comparable datasets from other hominin locales, we suggest that eastern African environments responded to the MPCT in a phased shift from south to north, possibly as a consequence of the compression of the ITCZ during glacial maxima and/or to changes to the Indian Ocean Dipole.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal Communities on the Roots of Two Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from Contrasting Climates Differ in Nitrogen Acquisition in a Common Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Bilela, Silvija; Meier, Rudolf; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schloter, Michael; Polle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with (13)CO2 and (15)NH4 (+). Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower (15)N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in (15)N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in (13)C signatures. Because the level of (15)N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  3. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  4. The Challenge of Urban Heat Exposure under Climate Change: An Analysis of Cities in the Sustainable Healthy Urban Environments (SHUE Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Milner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The so far largely unabated emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs are expected to increase global temperatures substantially over this century. We quantify the patterns of increases for 246 globally-representative cities in the Sustainable Healthy Urban Environments (SHUE database. We used an ensemble of 18 global climate models (GCMs run under a low (RCP2.6 and high (RCP8.5 emissions scenario to estimate the increase in monthly mean temperatures by 2050 and 2100 based on 30-year averages. Model simulations were from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5. Annual mean temperature increases were 0.93 degrees Celsius by 2050 and 1.10 degrees Celsius by 2100 under RCP2.6, and 1.27 and 4.15 degrees Celsius under RCP8.5, but with substantial city-to-city variation. By 2100, under RCP2.6 no city exceeds an increase in Tmean > 2 degrees Celsius (relative to a 2017 baseline, while all do under RCP8.5, some with increases in Tmean close to, or even greater than, 7 degrees Celsius. The increases were greatest in cities of mid to high latitude, in humid temperate and dry climate regions, and with large seasonal variation in temperature. Cities are likely to experience large increases in hottest month mean temperatures under high GHG emissions trajectories, which will often present substantial challenges to adaptation and health protection.

  5. RIIHI. Radical innovations for combatting climate change. Results from Futures Clinique by the Ministry of the Environment; RIIHI. Radikaalit innovaatiot ilmastonmuutoksen hillitsemiseksi. RIIHI-tulevaisuusklinikan tulokset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, S.; Keskinen, A.; Ruotsalainen, J.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the starting poits, implementations and the results of the Futures Clinique commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment and conducted by Finland Futures Research Centre. The theme for the clinique was 'Radical innovations to constrain the climate change by the year 2050'. The focus was set on the households, since the attention has previously been on the industry and production. The time frame from the present to 2050 was chosen because achieving the goals set by EU's climate policy requires emission cuts of 80% by the year 2050. The carbon footprint of households was examined from the perspectives of energy, traffic, food and water and leisure, entertainment and communications. As desirable goals regarding these aspects the participants studied economic efficiency, sustainability and durability, safety and security, healthinesss and comfortable living. The groups discussed also on converging NBIC technologies (nano, bio, information and cognitive technologies) that could enable these goals. According to the concept of Futures Clinique the work was conducted in groups, in which topics attuned by pre-tasks done by the participants were worked on by the methods of the Futures Wheel and the Futures Table. From each group's working resulted various both technological and socio-cultural radical innovations. (orig.)

  6. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21: Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Weimann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH, as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  7. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a resource-constrained environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, E; Patel, B

    2016-12-21

    The healthcare sector itself contributes to climate change, the creation of hazardous waste, use of toxic metals such as mercury, and water and air pollution. To mitigate the effect of healthcare provision on the deteriorating environment and avoid creating further challenges for already burdened health systems, Global Green Hospitals was formed as a global network. Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH), as the leading academic hospital in Africa, joined the network in 2014. Since then, several projects have been initiated to reduce the amount of general waste, energy consumption and food waste, and create an environmentally friendlier and more sustainable hospital in a resource-constrained public healthcare setting. We outline the various efforts made to reduce the carbon footprint of GSH and reduce waste and hazardous substances such as mercury and polystyrene, and elaborate how obstacles and resistance to change were overcome. The hospital was able to halve the amount of coal and water used, increase recycling by 50% over 6 months, replace polystyrene cups and packaging with Forest Stewardship Council recyclable paper-based products, reduce the effect of food wastage by making use of local farmers, and implement measures to reduce the amount of expired pharmaceutical drugs. To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will be unable to tackle the exponentially increasing costs related to climate change and its effects on healthcare.

  8. Past Holocene soil erosion modeling as a new way to decipher human-climate-environment interactions on natural geo-ecosystem over long time-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Di Giovanni, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a global phenomenon dealing with both environmental, societal and economic issues. Soil erosion is also one of the key processes when it is a matter of Human-climate-environment interactions [1, 2] since if mechanical erosion of continental surfaces initially results from climatic forcing, it can be largely amplified by anthropogenic activities. Using multi-scalar datasets to model long-term (Holocene) erosion fluxes in contrasted areas, where human pressure is well documented by geoarchaeology, we address how landscape evolution, geomorphological processes, ecosystem response and human impacts have been connected over time. Beyond that, such interdisciplinary and integrative approach allow (1) to locally date, qualify, and in particular quantify, both climate variability (rainfall) and impacts of human activities on soils, and (2) to discuss of potential feedback mechanisms and the legacy of past socio-cultural systems on actual geo-ecosystems. Lacustrine sediment represents one of the more relevant natural archives in order to reconstruct environmental or climatic variability and human activities over the past thousand years. Over the last 50 years, the edges of lakes Paladru (low altitude site, 640 m a.s.l.) and Blanc Huez (high-altitude site, 2250 m a.s.l.), both located in Western French Alps and therefore sensitive to the same climatic influences, have been deeply studied by archaeologists who documented and dated periods of enhanced human pressures (agriculture, mining [3, 4]). In these two case-studies, we were therefore able to confront the specific calendars of local human activities with past landscape evolution (vegetation cover, 5) and soil erosion fluxes reconstituted from specific organic tracers quantified into the lacustrine sediments [3, 6]. Results demonstrated that, over the Holocene, climatic forcing, and more particularly glacial fluctuations, influenced human accessibility to high-altitude sites (lake Blanc Huez) and therefore

  9. Re-use of wastewater for a sustainable forest production and climate change mitigation under arid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Monteverdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Over the last decades biotic and abiotic constrains together with human actions are determining a substantial environmental pressure, particularly in dry lands as the south of the Mediterranean region. From very long time, indeed, simultaneous drivers such as demographic growth, climate change and socio-economic factors are weakening the previous homeostasis between human needs and natural resources on the regional scale.Resulting pressures are determining environmental degradation and increase of desertification risk for the arid and semiarid lands. Water quality and availability are both crucial points limiting people well-being and livelihoods in the same context. Scarcity of fresh water and heavy and mismanaged production of wastewater are the main factors affecting water resources. Increasing pollution of soil and ground waters reduces the possibility of sustainable development of local communities with relevant social consequences. The FAO's supporting program in north Africa aims to: a develop new and cheaper phytotechnologies (e.g. constructed wetland system; innovative treatment system for reuse of waste water for fertigation; b treat wastewater for water quality protection; c promote land recovery by means of sustainable multipurpose forestry; d adopt bioengineering interventions to stop slopes erosion and protect urban, and semi-urban infrastructures; e create pilot demonstrative areas to test multi-purpose sustainable agroforestry systems. Within this frame, an integrated approach was designed to promote innovative sustainable water management and multipurpose forestry, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change, promote land recovery, and improve the livelihoods of local population. The present paper aims to provide an overview of the FAO project GCP/RAB/013/ITA. Particularly, two pilot studies are shown and discussed. Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions

  10. To What Extent Can Existing Research Help Project Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity in Aquatic Environments? A Review of Methodological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Forsman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  11. Phytochemicals of Brassicaceae in plant protection and human health--influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Maria; Klingen, Ingeborg; Birch, Andrew N E; Bones, Atle M; Bruce, Toby J A; Johansen, Tor J; Meadow, Richard; Mølmann, Jørgen; Seljåsen, Randi; Smart, Lesley E; Stewart, Derek

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO(2) are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...

  13. Health symptoms in relation to temperature, humidity, and self-reported perceptions of climate in New York City residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.

  14. Climate Change Indicator for Hazard Identification of Indian North West Coast Marine Environment Using Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambheer, Phani Raj

    2012-07-01

    Stormwater runoff, Petroleum Hydrocarbon plumes are found abundantly near coastal cities, coastal population settlements especially in developing nations as more than half the world's human population. Ever increasing coastal populations and development in coastal areas have led to increased loading of toxic substances, nutrients and pathogens. These hazards cause deleterious effects on the population in many ways directly or indirectly which lead to algal blooms, hypoxia, beach closures, and damage to coastal fisheries. Hence these pollution hazards are important and the coastal administrations and people need to be aware of such a danger lurking very close to them. These hazards due to their small size, dynamic and episodic in nature are difficult to be visualized or to sample using in-situ traditional scientific methods. Natural obstructions like cloud cover and complex coastal circulations can hinder to detect and monitor such occurrences in the selected areas chosen for observations. This study takes recourse to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery because the pollution hazards are easily detectable as surfactants are deposited on the sea surface, along with nutrients and pathogens, smoothing capillary and small gravity waves to produce areas of reduced backscatter compared with surrounding ocean. These black spots can be termed as `Ecologic Indicator' and formed probably due to stronger thermal stratification, a deepening event of thermocline. SAR imagery that delivers useful data better than others regardless of darkness or cloud cover, should be made as an important observational tool for assessment and monitoring marine pollution hazards in the areas close to coastal regions. Till now the effects of climate change, sea level rise and global warming seems to have not affected the coastal populace of India in intrusions of sea water but it takes significance to the human health as the tides dominate these latitudes with bringing these polluted waters. KEY

  15. Onset and stability of gas hydrates under permafrost in an environment of surface climatic change : past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J.A.; Osadetz, K.; Safanda, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented a model designed to simulate permafrost and gas hydrate formation in a changing surface temperature environment in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB). The numerical model simulated surface forcing due to general cooling trends that began in the late Miocene era. This study modelled the onset of permafrost formation and subsequent gas hydrate formation in the changing surface temperature environment for the BMB. Paleoclimatic data were used. The 1-D model was constrained by deep heat flow from well bottom hole temperatures; conductivity; permafrost thickness; and the thickness of the gas hydrates. The model used latent heat effects for the ice-bearing permafrost and hydrate intervals. Surface temperatures for glacial and interglacial histories for the last 14 million years were considered. The model also used a detailed Holocene temperature history as well as a scenario in which atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels were twice as high as current levels. Two scenarios were considered: (1) the formation of gas hydrates from gas entrapped under geological seals; and (2) the formation of gas hydrates from gas located in free pore spaces simultaneously with permafrost formation. Results of the study showed that gas hydrates may have formed at a depth of 0.9 km only 1 million years ago. Results of the other modelling scenarios suggested that the hydrates formed 6 million years ago, when temperature changes caused the gas hydrate layer to expand both downward and upward. Detailed models of more recent glacial and interglacial histories showed that the gas hydrate zones will persist under the thick body of the BMB permafrost through current interglacial warming as well as in scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled. 28 refs., 13 figs

  16. High tolerance to temperature and salinity change should enable scleractinian coral Platygyra acuta from marginal environments to persist under future climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apple Pui Yi Chui

    Full Text Available With projected changes in the marine environment under global climate change, the effects of single stressors on corals have been relatively well studied. However, more focus should be placed on the interactive effects of multiple stressors if their impacts upon corals are to be assessed more realistically. Elevation of sea surface temperature is projected under global climate change, and future increases in precipitation extremes related to the monsoon are also expected. Thus, the lowering of salinity could become a more common phenomenon and its impact on corals could be significant as extreme precipitation usually occurs during the coral spawning season. Here, we investigated the interactive effects of temperature [24, 27 (ambient, 30, 32°C] and salinity [33 psu (ambient, 30, 26, 22, 18, 14 psu] on larval settlement, post-settlement survival and early growth of the dominant coral Platygyra acuta from Hong Kong, a marginal environment for coral growth. The results indicate that elevated temperatures (+3°C and +5°C above ambient did not have any significant effects on larval settlement success and post-settlement survival for up to 56 days of prolonged exposure. Such thermal tolerance was markedly higher than that reported in the literature for other coral species. Moreover, there was a positive effect of these elevated temperatures in reducing the negative effects of lowered salinity (26 psu on settlement success. The enhanced settlement success brought about by elevated temperatures, together with the high post-settlement survival recorded up to 44 and 8 days of exposure under +3°C and +5°C ambient respectively, resulted in the overall positive effects of elevated temperatures on recruitment success. These results suggest that projected elevation in temperature over the next century should not pose any major problem for the recruitment success of P. acuta. The combined effects of higher temperatures and lowered salinity (26 psu could

  17. Climate-conscious architecture. Design and wind testing method for climates in change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuismanen, K.

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop practical tools with which it is possible to improve the environment, micro-climate and energy economy of buildings and plans in different climate zones, and take the climate change into account. The parts of the study are: State of art study into existing know-how about climate and planning. Study of the effects of climate change on the built environment. Development of simple micro-climate, nature and built environment analysis methods. Defining the criteria of an acceptable micro-climatic environment. Development of the wind test blower. Presenting ways to interpret test results and draw conclusions. Development of planning and design guidelines for different climate zones. An important part of the research is the development of the CASE wind test instrument, different wind simulation techniques, and the methods of observing the results. Bioclimatic planning and architectural design guidelines for different climate zones are produced. The analyse tools developed give a qualitative overall view, which can be deepened towards a quantitative analyse with wind testing measurements and roughness calculations. No mechanical rules are suggested, but complementary viewpoints and practices introduced to a normal planning process as well as improvement of consultative knowledge. The 'method' is that there is no strict mechanical method, but a deeper understanding of bioclimatic matters. Climate-conscious planning with the developed CASE method, make it possible to design a better micro-climate for new or old built-up areas. Winds can be used in to ventilate exhaust fumes and other pollutants, which improves the quality of air and the healthiness of the urban environment. The analyses and scale-model tests make it possible to shield cold windy areas and to diminish the cooling effect of wind on facades. According to studies in Scandinavian countries this will bring energy savings of 5-15 per cent. The method can

  18. A large scale study of the assessment of the social environment of middle and secondary schools: the validity and utility of teachers' ratings of school climate, cultural pluralism, and safety problems for understanding school effects and school improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young adolescents. Teachers' climate ratings exhibited a robust dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability over 1-and 2-year time spans. Teachers' climate ratings were also found to be related consistently with students' ratings. In three large-scale samples of schools, teachers' climate ratings were associated significantly and consistently with students' performance on standardized tests of academic achievement, and with indexes of their academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional adjustment.

  19. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over

  20. Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:136-146.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  1. A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

  2. STENCIL - Strategies and Tools for Environment-friendly Shore Nourishments as Climate Change Impact Low-Regret Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmels, Stefan; Cofalla, Catrina; Deutschmann, Björn; Ganal, Caroline; Gijsman, Rik; Hass, H. Christian; Hollert, Henner; Mielck, Finn; Schlurmann, Thorsten; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Shiravani, Gholamreza; Staudt, Franziska; Strusinska, Agnieszka; Visscher, Jan; Wiltshire, Karen; Wolbring, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    Shore nourishments are regarded as an almost routine coastal protection measure and have been carried out worldwide for several decades. Recent studies generally conclude that "soft" coastal protection measures are an effective option for a sustainable coastal management. However, more research on economic sustainability, species-specific habitat demands and availability of sand deposits is required. Nowadays, the recent paradigm shifts to concepts like the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and the Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM). For the German Wadden Sea these management objectives are an important issue of the "Wattenmeerstrategie 2100" (MELLUR-SH, 2015), a political strategy report that demands an adaption against the global change and the expected sea-level rise up to the year 2100. Hence, also new concepts and tools for the implementation of more sustainable, effective and environment-friendly shore nourishments are needed. The research project STENCIL joins the expertise of coastal engineers, geologists, biologists and toxicologists in order to make a first step towards the long-term goal of establishing an ICZM and EAM for shore nourishments in the German Wadden Sea. The project focuses on providing improved tools, models and methods for the prediction of coastal hydro- and morphodynamics. Furthermore, the impact of dredging and dumping activities on benthic habitats and their natural regeneration potentials will be evaluated. Since these impacts are still widely uninvestigated, monitoring of dredging areas and the surrounding sites using hydroacoustic devices, aerial photos and sediment samples for grain-size and benthos analysis remains of high importance. In order to develop standardized operative observation methods, analysis and decision-supporting tools, an implementation of field measurements, laboratory experiments as well as conceptual and numerical models is planned. These combined approaches will result in valuable data sets for

  3. Guide to the declaration procedure and coding system for criteria concerning significant events related to safety, radiation protection or the environment, applicable to basic nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, Andre-Claude

    2005-01-01

    This guide notably contains various forms associated with the declaration of significant events, and explanations to fill them in: significant event declaration form for a basic nuclear installation, significant event declaration form for radioactive material transport, significant event report for a basic nuclear installation, significant event report for radioactive material transport, declaration criteria for significant events related to the safety of non-PWR basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events related to PWR safety, significant events declared further to events resulting in group 1 unavailability and non-compliance with technical operating specifications, declaration criteria for significant events concerning radiation protection for basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events concerning environmental protection, applicable to basic nuclear installations, and declaration criteria for significant events concerning radioactive material transport

  4. Plio-Pleistocene facies environments from the KBS Member, Koobi Fora Formation: implications for climate controls on the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin (northwest Kenya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J; Quinn, Rhonda L; Joordens, Josephine C A; Swisher, Carl C; Feibel, Craig S

    2007-11-01

    Climate change is hypothesized as a cause of major events of Plio-Pleistocene East African hominin evolution, but the vertically discontinuous and laterally confined nature of the relevant geological records has led to difficulties with assessing probable links between the two. High-resolution sedimentary sequences from lacustrine settings can provide comprehensive data of environmental changes and detailed correlations with well-established orbital and marine records of climate. Hominin-bearing deposits from Koobi Fora Ridge localities in the northeast Turkana Basin of Kenya are an archive of Plio-Pleistocene lake-margin sedimentation though significant developmental junctures of northern African climates, East African environments, and hominin evolution. This study examines alluvial channel and floodplain, nearshore lacustrine, and offshore lacustrine facies environments for the approximately 136-m-thick KBS Member (Koobi Fora Formation) exposed at the Koobi Fora Ridge. Aspects of the facies environments record information on the changing hydrosedimentary dynamics of the lake margin and give insights into potential climatic controls. Seasonal/yearly climate changes are represented by the varve-like laminations in offshore mudstones and the slickensides, dish-shaped fractures, and other paleosol features overprinted on floodplain strata. Vertical shifts between facies environments, however, are interpreted to indicate lake-level fluctuations deriving from longer-term, dry-wet periods in monsoonal rainfall. Recurrence periods for the inferred lake-level changes range from about 10,000 to 50,000 years, and several are consistent with the average estimated timescales of orbital precession ( approximately 20,000 years) and obliquity ( approximately 40,000 years). KBS Member facies environments from the Koobi Fora Ridge document the development of lake-margin hominin habitats in the northeast Turkana Basin. Environmental changes in these habitats may be a result of

  5. Climate Change Portal - Home Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Partnerships Contact Us Take Action Climate change is already having significant and widespread of climate change. Business Businesses throughout California are taking action to address climate climate change impacts and informing policies to reduce greenhouse gases, adapt to changing environments

  6. Development of Web GIS for complex processing and visualization of climate geospatial datasets as an integral part of dedicated Virtual Research Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Okladnikov, Igor; Titov, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    For comprehensive usage of large geospatial meteorological and climate datasets it is necessary to create a distributed software infrastructure based on the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) approach. Currently, it is generally accepted that the development of client applications as integrated elements of such infrastructure should be based on the usage of modern web and GIS technologies. The paper describes the Web GIS for complex processing and visualization of geospatial (mainly in NetCDF and PostGIS formats) datasets as an integral part of the dedicated Virtual Research Environment for comprehensive study of ongoing and possible future climate change, and analysis of their implications, providing full information and computing support for the study of economic, political and social consequences of global climate change at the global and regional levels. The Web GIS consists of two basic software parts: 1. Server-side part representing PHP applications of the SDI geoportal and realizing the functionality of interaction with computational core backend, WMS/WFS/WPS cartographical services, as well as implementing an open API for browser-based client software. Being the secondary one, this part provides a limited set of procedures accessible via standard HTTP interface. 2. Front-end part representing Web GIS client developed according to a "single page application" technology based on JavaScript libraries OpenLayers (http://openlayers.org/), ExtJS (https://www.sencha.com/products/extjs), GeoExt (http://geoext.org/). It implements application business logic and provides intuitive user interface similar to the interface of such popular desktop GIS applications, as uDIG, QuantumGIS etc. Boundless/OpenGeo architecture was used as a basis for Web-GIS client development. According to general INSPIRE requirements to data visualization Web GIS provides such standard functionality as data overview, image navigation, scrolling, scaling and graphical overlay, displaying map

  7. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    " level of the Gran Dolina cave (Atapuerca) that has yielded H. antecessor remains at ca 960 ky. When compared with Orce localities of similar age (i.e. Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3) that have yielded strong evidence of hominin presence (mainly lithic industries), it appears that they have a fairly similar environmental pattern, having in common a good representation of woodland and water-edge areas, even though dry environments are more developed in Barranco León D and Fuente Nueva 3 than in Sima del Elefante and Gran Dolina. H. antecessor may have thus lived under a warm-humid climate in a patchy landscape mainly composed of humid meadows and riparian woodlands. Such a landscape may have provided favourable conditions for a high diversity of large mammals, as well as for hiding and escaping from large carnivores.

  8. Climate Change and Its Impact on the Eco-Environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region on the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong; Zhang, Linbo

    2015-09-25

    This study analyzes the impact of climate change on the eco-environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR), Tibetan Plateau, China. Temperature and precipitation experienced sharp increases in this region during the past 57 years. A dramatic increase in winter temperatures contributed to a rise in average annual temperatures. Moreover, annual runoff in the Lancang (LRB) and Yangtze (YARB) river basins showed an increasing trend, compared to a slight decrease in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). Runoff is predominantly influenced by rainfall, which is controlled by several monsoon systems. The water temperature in the YRB and YARB increased significantly from 1958 to 2007 (p changes. Additionally, owing to warming and wetting trends in the TRHR, the net primary productivity (NPP) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed significant increasing trends during the past half-century. Furthermore, although an increase in water erosion due to rainfall erosivity was observed, wind speeds declined significantly, causing a decline in wind erosion, as well as the frequency and duration of sandstorms. A clear regional warming trend caused an obvious increasing trend in glacier runoff, with a maximum value observed in the 2000s.

  9. Climate Change and Its Impact on the Eco-Environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region on the Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of climate change on the eco-environment of the Three-Rivers Headwater Region (TRHR, Tibetan Plateau, China. Temperature and precipitation experienced sharp increases in this region during the past 57 years. A dramatic increase in winter temperatures contributed to a rise in average annual temperatures. Moreover, annual runoff in the Lancang (LRB and Yangtze (YARB river basins showed an increasing trend, compared to a slight decrease in the Yellow River Basin (YRB. Runoff is predominantly influenced by rainfall, which is controlled by several monsoon systems. The water temperature in the YRB and YARB increased significantly from 1958 to 2007 (p < 0.001, driven by air temperature changes. Additionally, owing to warming and wetting trends in the TRHR, the net primary productivity (NPP and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI showed significant increasing trends during the past half-century. Furthermore, although an increase in water erosion due to rainfall erosivity was observed, wind speeds declined significantly, causing a decline in wind erosion, as well as the frequency and duration of sandstorms. A clear regional warming trend caused an obvious increasing trend in glacier runoff, with a maximum value observed in the 2000s.

  10. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  11. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0 to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Badawy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs. Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC's weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG to consistently model atmosphere–land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as

  12. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0) to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Bakr; Polavarapu, Saroja; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Deng, Feng; Neish, Michael; Melton, Joe R.; Nassar, Ray; Arora, Vivek K.

    2018-02-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM) together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs). Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC)'s weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG) to consistently model atmosphere-land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as prior estimates

  13. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  14. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  15. Aid, Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Aid and aid institutions constitute an important element of the global response to interlinked global developmental and environmental challenges. As such, these institutions are now being drawn into new arenas beyond the traditional focus on improving the livelihoods of poor people in low-income ...

  16. The great climate debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakara Reddy, B.; Assenza, Gaudenz B.

    2009-01-01

    For over two decades, scientific and political communities have debated whether and how to act on climate change. The present paper revisits these debates and synthesizes the longstanding arguments. Firstly, it provides an overview of the development of international climate policy and discusses clashing positions, represented by sceptics and supporters of action on climate change. Secondly, it discusses the market-based measures as a means to increase the win-win opportunities and to attract profit-minded investors to invest in climate change mitigation. Finally, the paper examines whether climate protection policies can yield benefits both for the environment and the economy. A new breed of analysts are identified who are convinced of the climate change problem, while remaining sceptical of the proposed solutions. The paper suggests the integration of climate policies with those of development priorities that are vitally important for developing countries and stresses the need for using sustainable development as a framework for climate change policies.

  17. Climatic change and health. Which problems are caused by thermophile hazardous organisms? Final report. Environment and health: climatic change; Klimawandel und Gesundheit. Welche Probleme verursachen Waerme liebende Schadorganismen? Abschlussbericht. Umwelt and Gesundheit: Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Jobst; Muecke, Hans-Guido (comps.)

    2010-03-15

    Climatic changes can cause health hazards due to thermophile harmful organisms, especially those with increased allergic potentials. The meeting covered the following topics: climatic change induced health hazards and the German adaptation strategies; the complex relation between climatic change and allergies; ambrosia propagation in Germany - hazards for health and biodiversity; climatic change induced reaction of hygienically precarious organism in urban regions; monitoring and abatement of Thaumetopoea processionea in Bavarian woods; climatic change and pollen flight dynamics; Thaumetopoea processionea as cause for non-distinctive respiratory systems diseases; risk and protection factors for the development of asthma and allergies during infancy; abatement of pathogenic or invasive harmful organisms in Switzerland; health hazards in connection with Thaumetopoea processionea - examples from Bavaria; retrospective analysis of EPS diseases during 2004 and 2005 in the region Kleve.

  18. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  19. CCS site characterisation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Hawkes, C.; Lawton, D.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Perkins, E.

    2009-12-15

    IEA GHG recently commissioned the Alberta Research Counil in Canada to conduct a review of storage site selection criteria and site characterisation methods in order to produce a synthesis report. This report reviews the literature on the subject on the site seleciton and characterisation since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on CCS, and provides a synthesis and classification of criteria. 161 refs.

  20. Provincial government performance on climate change: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of provincial government performance on climate change is intended as a 'baseline' prior to the implementation of the National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change, (NIS) scheduled to be signed by the federal and provincial Ministers of Energy and Environment in Quebec City in October 2000. Participants are also expected to agree on a 'First Business Plan' for the NIS at that same meeting, including identification of measures each of the provincial governments plan to institute to address climate change issues over the next two to three years. The report is based on performance of government activity in climate change in Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec , the five provinces that together account for 89 per cent of Canada's total GHG emissions, against the greenhouse gas emission measures identified by the various provincial governments on various occasions over the past 10 years. Nine areas of potential activity to address climate change with a total of 38 criteria were used. Each criterion was used to determine whether or not a provincial government has implemented a specific measure that will likely be an integral component of a national effort to address climate change. The nine categories forming the base of the assesment were: transportation, electricity generation,buildings, industry, readiness to facilitate emissions trading, 'own house in order' other sources of GHG, promoting GHG reduction technology development, and enhancing awareness and public education. All provincial governments received a very poor, failing grade . (The 'best': British Columbia with 30.5 per cent; the 'worst': Saskatchewan with 20.5 per cent). The report characterizes the last 10 years as 'the lost decade' with respect to government action on the issue of climate change. It points out that time is running out; provincial governments have to make the effort to be part of the solution to climate change, or they will have solutions

  1. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  2. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  3. Criteria for operator review of workplace changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2000-01-01

    A set of criteria for reviewing workplace changes has been developed for use by plant Operations staff. The criteria were developed to provide Operations staff with a practical framework for structuring assessments and subsequent review comments with regard to control room modifications and innovations that impact their work environment. The criteria were assembled from design, operations and human factors engineering principles, and system review experiences with plant Operations staff over the past ten years. Operations staff at several CANDU stations helped shape the emphasis for initial criteria definition and have assisted with criteria refinement through trial applications. Use of the criteria is expected to lead to more effective and task relevant equipment evaluations by Operations staff, and ultimately lead to system modifications and innovations that better serve plant operation needs. The paper begins with a discussion of the rationale for criteria development and the attributes of 'good' design. The balance of the paper outlines the project objectives, describes the approach applied in assembling, structuring, and refining the review criteria, and illustrates the application of the criteria in the review of a proposed control room innovation. (author)

  4. Rocks, climate and the survival of human societies in hyper-arid and arid environments - Are the human civilization in deserts at a permanent risk of collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoav, Avni; Noa, Avriel-Avni

    2017-04-01

    The great challenges of living in the arid and hyper arid regions worldwide are the shortage of water, limited resources and the permanent uncertainty of the desert climate. These challenges are known as the main weaknesses of desert societies that are prone, according to the existing paradigm, to a permanent risk of collapse. However, in the Middle East deserts, human societies are known since prehistoric times and during the entire hyper-dry Holocene. This hints that the simple paradigm of desert societies' high vulnerability to harsh desert environments needs to be better examined. In this context we examine three case studies: 1. The Southern Sinai region in Egypt: In this region, the annual precipitation fluctuates between 20-50 mm/y. However, in this highly mountainous area, desert agriculture plots including orchards were constructed, located mainly around the byzantine monastery of Santa Katerina. During the last 1500 years, much of the water supply needed for humans and agriculture was generated from runoff developed on exposed granite rocks. 2. The southern Jordan region south of Petra: Much of this wide area connecting the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Jordan receive only 20-30 mm/y. However, the main caravan route established by the Arabian tribes during the first millennia BC managed to cross this land, supplying the water needs of many camels. Most of this water was stored in large cisterns dug into the sandstone rock formations exposed along the route, especially within the Disi Formation. 3. The Negev Highlands of southern Israel: This region is divided between the hyper arid region to the south, receiving 70-80 mm/y, and the arid region to the north receiving 90-130 mm/y. During the last two millennia, the hyper arid area was used for camel grazing and goats herds, while the northern sector was used for the construction of agriculture plots, agriculture farms and even desert towns. All these activities were sustained by runoff

  5. Analysis of the 'Educational Climate' in Spanish Public Schools of Dentistry using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, I; Millán, U; Casares, M A; Abad, M; Ceballos, L; Gómez-Moreno, G; Hidalgo, J J; Llena, C; López-Jornet, P; Machuca, M C; Monticelli, F; Palés, J

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the 'Educational Climate' (EC) of dental students in Spain. The study group consisted of 1391 students from nine Spanish Public Schools of Dentistry, who responded to the questionnaire based on 'Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure' (DREEM). This questionnaire has 50 items that are grouped into five domains: Learning, Teachers, Academic, Atmosphere and Social. The global score on the EC was 123.1 (interpretation: 'EC more positive than negative'). The scores obtained in the different domains were: 28.0 in Learning (interpretation: 'a generally positive perception of learning'), 26.8 in Teachers (interpretation: 'teachers are going in the right direction'), 20.8 in Academic (interpretation: 'feeling more on the positive side'), 29.7 in Atmosphere (interpretation: 'a generally positive atmosphere') and 17.7 in Social (interpretation: 'social perception acceptable'). In seven items (14%), an average of Schools of Dentistry, an average of >100 was achieved in all of them, although there were two centres that showed significantly higher values of EC. Spanish dental students felt that their EC was more positive than negative and considered that the different domains were positive and acceptable. However, they pointed out the existence of several educational problem areas associated with the development of a traditional curriculum. Accordingly, and in parallel with the implementation of an innovative curriculum in all Spanish Dental Schools in the coming years, immediate educational goals must address the problem areas identified, thereby further promoting a more positive perception of EC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Investigation of Sustainable Housing Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roshanfekr Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to sustainable development in cities. The quality of human life is directly related to environmental quality. Because many people live in cities as a place of social, economic and cultural relationships, certain issues such as environmental crises, energy, air and noise pollution and traffic jams are some of the factors that can alter the quality of human life. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of human life, attention to sustainable development (or sustainability in cities is proposed. Sustainable building has a comprehensive significance that begins with the conception of negative and positive impacts on the environment. Several descriptions of sustainable or green buildings have been created; however, they all pursue one goal, which is to create sustainable urban developments and protection of the environment. The quality of indoor environments, materials, and energy consumption, water usage, the impact of building construction processes and building maintenance are some of the factors that affect the environment and sustainability. Sustainable building is an attempt to relieve the minus impacts on the environment that occur during a building’s lifetime. This research investigates the important factors that have relevance to green buildings and introduces several criteria of sustainable housing.

  7. Climate change with Korea as the center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Ok

    1998-04-01

    This book deals with climate change with Korea as the center, which is divided into ten chapters. It explain climate change by human life. The contents of this book are climate change, climate before human period, great ice age of prehistoric period, prehistoric times of last glacial era, climate change in historical era, change during observation time for 100 years, warming period, global environment period, the cause of climate change and climate and human. It has reference and an index.

  8. PREFACE: Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada/ECORD summer school

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Solignac, Sandrine

    2011-05-01

    IODP logoECORD logo The European Consortium for Ocean Drilling Program (ECORD), the Canadian Consortium for Ocean Drilling (CCOD), the Network of the Universités du Québec (UQ), the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and GEOTOP sponsored, in 2010, a summer school entitled 'Ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments'. This summer school took place from 27 June to 12 July in Rimouski, Québec city and Montréal (Quebec, Canada) and was attended by nineteen students and postdoctoral fellows from seven countries: Canada, France, Germany, UK, Serbia, Portugal and the USA. Lectures, hands-on laboratory exercises and laboratory visits were conducted at the Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE) and UQAM, in addition to two field trips and a short geological and geophysical cruise on board the R/V Coriolis II in the St Lawrence Estuary and Saguenay Fjord. During the summer school, more than twenty researchers gave lectures on the use of several paleoceanographic and geophysical techniques to reconstruct ocean and climate changes in polar and sub-polar environments. Some of these lectures are presented as short review papers in this volume. They are intended to portray a brief, but state-of-the-art overview of an array of techniques applied to Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, as well as the geological background information needed by the summer school participants to put the scientific expedition and fieldwork into context. The volume begins with a view on the great challenges and key issues to be addressed in the Arctic Ocean (Stein) in the forthcoming years and is followed by a review (O'Regan) on Late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Central Arctic. The two subsequent papers (St-Onge et al and de Vernal et al) deal with the oceanographic, paleoceanographic and geological context of the Saguenay Fjord, and St Lawrence Estuary and Gulf

  9. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  10. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  11. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  12. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  13. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  14. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  15. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs

  16. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-01-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref

  17. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  18. The climate bishop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, Bishop George

    2006-01-01

    Climate change is not a choice between economics and the environment. It is important for the politicians of every nation to invest in saving the environment, invest in developing the technology that will prevent the climate change. We need to change, the change at the end of the day will not affect our lifestyle substantially, but it will make a huge difference to the future generation

  19. Modeling the effect of climate change on the indoor climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Within the new EU project ‘Climate for Culture’ researchers are investigating climate change impacts on UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Simulation results are expected to give information on the possible impact of climate change on the built cultural heritage and its indoor environment. This paper

  20. Global vs climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, H.L.; Bach, M.C.; Goklany, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    The various agents of global change that will affect the state of natural resources 50-100 years from now are discussed. These include economic and population growth, technological progress, and climatic change. The importance of climatic change lies in its effects on natural resources and on human activities that depend on those resources. Other factors affecting those resources include the demand on those resources from an increasing population and from a growing economy, and a more efficient use of those resources that comes from technological changes and from the consequences of economic growth itself. It is shown that there is a considerable ability to adapt to climatic change, since humans already have an intrinsic ability to adapt to the wide variations in climates that already exist and since technological developments can make it easier to cope with climatic variability. It appears that agents other than climatic change are more significant to the future state of natural resources than climatic change. Criteria for selecting options for addressing climatic change are outlined. Technological change and economic growth are seen to be key response options, since the vulnerability to climatic change depends on economic resources and technological progress. Specific options to stimulate sustainable economic growth and technological progress are listed. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  2. Heuristic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Giunta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the identification of a paradigm which fixes the basic concepts and the type of logical relationships between them, whereby direct, govern and evaluate choises on new technologies. The contribution is based on the assumption that the complexity of knowledge is correlated with the complexity of the learning environment. From the existence of this correlation will descend a series of consequences that contribute to the definition of a theoretical construct in which the logical categories of learning become the guiding criteria on which to design learning environments and, consequently, also the indicators on by which to evaluate its effectiveness.

  3. Climate Change and Natural Disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos; Negri, Stefania; Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Only 21 years ago, in 1992, the first ever convention on climate change, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was signed. The science behind studying climate change and its effects on the environment is not only mind-boggling but still in its infancy. It should come

  4. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  5. Ebook Evaluation Criteria: A Proposed Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaebi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E-books embody diverse features, each of which could contribute towards increasing their user-agreeability and attracting more users. In order to select an Ebook best suited to their needs, both users and librarians consider a set of criteria. The present study aims at providing the evaluation criteria from the standpoint of both the users and librarys by employing two approaches, i.e. through considering the characteristics of the electronic environment, and also maintaining the desired features of the printed media in E-books. By reviewing the resources published in the field of E-books, 15 criteria along with 101 components have been collectively discussed for evaluation of the suitable E-book for users and libraries. Four criteria with 24 components have been solely devised for libraries and librarians.

  6. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ''Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards''. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life

  7. Development of climate risk services under climate change scenarios in the North Adriatic coast (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Silvia, Torresan; Anna, Sperotto; Elisa, Furlan; Andrea, Critto; Antonio, Marcomini

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, the challenge for coastal stakeholders and decision makers is to incorporate climate change in land and policy planning in order to ensure a sustainable integrated coastal zone management aimed at preserve coastal environments and socio-economic activities. Consequently, an increasing amount of information on climate variability and its impact on human and natural ecosystem is requested. Climate risk services allows to bridge the gap between climate experts and decision makers communicating timely science-based information about impacts and risks related to climate change that could be incorporated into land planning, policy and practice. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), a participatory Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was applied for the evaluation of water-related hazards in coastal areas (i.e. pluvial flood and sea-level rise inundation risks) taking into consideration future climate change scenarios in the case study of the North Adriatic Sea for the period 2040-2050. Specifically, through the analysis of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk and the application of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the RRA methodology allowed to identify and prioritize targets (i.e. residential and commercial-industrial areas, beaches, infrastructures, wetlands, agricultural typology) and sub-areas that are more likely to be affected by pluvial flood and sea-level rise impacts in the same region. From the early stages of the climate risk services development and application, the RRA followed a bottom-up approach taking into account the needs, knowledge and perspectives of local stakeholders dealing with the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM), by means of questionnaires, workshops and focus groups organized within the project. Specifically, stakeholders were asked to provide their needs in terms of time scenarios, geographical scale and resolution, choice of receptors, vulnerability factors and thresholds that were considered in the

  8. The neurobiology of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean

    2018-01-06

    Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness. At the population level, natural selection forces stemming from directional climate change may drive rapid evolutionary change in nervous system structure and function.

  9. The neurobiology of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean

    2018-02-01

    Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness. At the population level, natural selection forces stemming from directional climate change may drive rapid evolutionary change in nervous system structure and function.

  10. Climate oblige

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognasse, Olivier; Dumas, Arnaud; Dupin, Ludovic; Gateaud, Pascal; Moragues, Manuel; Ducamp, Pauline; Lucas, Thierry; Meddah, Hassan; Delamarche, Myrtille

    2015-01-01

    This file contains 15 articles discussing various aspects of the struggle against climatic change: 'greening' the industry in order to cope with the COP 21 expectations of a 2 deg C maximum warming at the end of this century; financing the transition energy policy in the poorest countries; the issues and stakes for the COP 21 conference to be held in Paris; towards an energy system with fossil fuels to be left in the ground, especially coal; emerging and developing countries could be in the future at the forefront to benefit from the renewable energy technologies; towards a 100 pc renewable France with wind and solar power; low carbon electric power (including nuclear power) is one of the best solutions against global warming; solar energy: the example of India and its 100 GW objective in 2022; the main struggle against climatic change lies in the cities and especially with the development of low-energy buildings and energy conservation systems; with de-polluted engine, connectivity and light structure technologies, the automotive sector can mix mobility and environment protection; some examples of the environmental policy underway in Grenoble city; green collective transportation systems in Sweden; application of simulation tools and satellite observations for climatic change forecasting and analysis; the importance of eco-design of manufactured products following the 'from well to wheel' and 'from cradle to grave' concepts

  11. Evaluation of the national component of the climate protection initiative of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. Summary. Final Report 2012; Evaluierung des nationalen Teils der Klimaschutzinitiative des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit. Zusammenfassung. Endbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Katja; Repenning, Julia; Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko-Institut - Institut fuer angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    2012-10-19

    The National Climate Initiative of Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) is an important component of the integrated energy and climate protection programme of the Federal Government as well as the energy concept of the Federal Government or the energy policy turnaround, respectively. The National Climate Initiative has to reduce the German greenhouse gas emissions to 40 % in the year 2020 in comparison to the year 1990. The evaluation of the National Climate Initiative refers to 21 single projects, 4 regulations and 4 accumulations of capital in the support years 2008 to 2011. 900 million Euro of federal funds were invested in these measures. The evaluated portfolio is the first generation of the National Climate Initiatives. Since then, the concept of the National Climate Initiative was refined. In the course of the implementation and evaluation of these first activities important experiences were gathered yielded in a further design of the National Climate Initiative.

  12. [Constructing climate. From classical climatology to modern climate research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Both climate researchers and historians of climate science have conceived climate as a stable and well defined category. This article argues that such a conception is flawed. In the course of the 19th and 20th century the very concept of climate changed considerably. Scientists came up with different definitions and concepts of climate, which implied different understandings, interests, and research approaches. Understanding climate shifted from a timeless, spatial concept at the end of the 19th century to a spaceless, temporal concept at the end of the 20th. Climatologists in the 19th and early 20th centuries considered climate as a set of atmospheric characteristics associated with specific places or regions. In this context, while the weather was subject to change, climate remained largely stable. Of particular interest was the impact of climate on human beings and the environment. In modern climate research at the close of the 20th century, the concept of climate lost its temporal stability. Instead, climate change has become a core feature of the understanding of climate and a focus of research interests. Climate has also lost its immediate association with specific geographical places and become global. The interest is now focused on the impact of human beings on climate. The paper attempts to investigate these conceptual shifts and their origins and impacts in order to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the history of climate research.

  13. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  14. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  15. Trading for climate without trading off on the environment. An Australian perspective on integration between emissions trading and other environmental objectives and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David

    2003-12-01

    With policy and legislative developments for the mitigation of climate change advancing apace, there has been little consideration given to the interactions, both positive and negative, that such instruments are likely to have with other forms of existing environmental management. Australia in particular has a number of environmental problems such as dryland salinity, biodiversity loss and general land management that will be directly impacted by climate change, and the instruments used to try and control its impacts. This paper considers the opportunities and arguments for integration among environmental schemes, using examples from both Australian and international experiences to date

  16. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  17. Gas, a decisive pillar of the sustainable future of the world: Contribution of the gas industry to fight against climate change and for sustainable development. LPG: a beneficial solution for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gourrierec, Meline

    2015-01-01

    Gas has a crucial role to play in developing energy that is less carbon-intensive and more respectful of the environment. Recognised as being the cleanest fossil energy, its use in different sectors of activity leads to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, gas contributes to the development of renewable energies and becomes itself renewable through biomethane production. The development of this green gas based on a circular economy has opened up new prospects for the use of gas in all parts of the world. The 21. Conference of the Parties of the Framework Convention of the United Nations, that will be held in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015 (COP21) is a decisive step in the negotiation of the future international agreement on the climate that will enter in force in 2020. The target is ambitious: restricting the global warming below the critical threshold of 2 deg. C by 2100. Aware of the climate challenge and the essential role of all the economic actors, the gas industry has embarked on a series of measures contributing to keeping to this global target and facilitating sustainable development through access to energy that is less carbon-intensive and more respectful of the environment. Changing from a solid fuel to a liquid or gaseous fuel provides modern domestic energy with beneficial effects on the environment and on the quality of life. The World LPG Association has the ambition that a billion people making this transition

  18. Investigation of Relationship between Level of Awareness around Health, Safety and Environment Management System and Its Effects on Safety Climate and Risk Perception by Employees in an Iran Oil Refinery, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Special attention of and oil, gas and petrochemical large corporation in the world to the HSE management system is due to its importance in the designing and development of products, services and processes by considering its health, safety and environment requirements. Staff's perception of the existing job risks has a significant impact on their safe behavior at work. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between safety climate and staff's perception of risk with an awareness level among employees of the HSE management system in an oil refinery in Kermanshah. The study population was employees in one of the oil refineries in Iran. After designing and questionnaire psychometric assessment of staff knowledge of HSE management system (Cronbach's alpha was 0.9 and its validity was assessed by certified professionals, Loughborough safety climate questionnaire and Flin risk perception questionnaire were used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS V22 software. Results showed that the relationship between safety climate and awareness level of the HSE management system; also the relationship between safety climate and perception of risk was also getting significant. However, the relationship between perception of risk and awareness level of the HSE management system was not significant. The results of this study showed a moderate awareness of HSE Management System in refinery workers. In this regard, appropriate and proper management policy should be committed to improving the situation. The results of this study is a profile the situation of safety climate in the refinery, which can be used as an indicator for the development of preventive policies and evaluate the performance of the organization's safety and the results of the safety improvement organization.

  19. The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from 96…

  20. Modeling the combined impact of changing climate and changing nutrient loads on the Baltic Sea environment in an ensemble of transient simulations for 1961-2099

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E.M.; Hordoir, R.; Andersson, H.C.; Dieterich, C.; Hoeglund, A.; Schimanke, S. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Department of Research and Development, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Eilola, K. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Department of Research and Development, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G. [Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    The combined future impacts of climate change and industrial and agricultural practices in the Baltic Sea catchment on the Baltic Sea ecosystem were assessed. For this purpose 16 transient simulations for 1961-2099 using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the Baltic Sea were performed. Four climate scenarios were combined with four nutrient load scenarios ranging from a pessimistic business-as-usual to a more optimistic case following the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Annual and seasonal mean changes of climate parameters and ecological quality indicators describing the environmental status of the Baltic Sea like bottom oxygen, nutrient and phytoplankton concentrations and Secchi depths were studied. Assuming present-day nutrient concentrations in the rivers, nutrient loads from land increase during the twenty first century in all investigated scenario simulations due to increased volume flows caused by increased net precipitation in the Baltic catchment area. In addition, remineralization rates increase due to increased water temperatures causing enhanced nutrient flows from the sediments. Cause-and-effect studies suggest that both processes may play an important role for the biogeochemistry of eutrophicated seas in future climate partly counteracting nutrient load reduction efforts like the BSAP. (orig.)

  1. Energy and Climate Change (Executive Summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Energy Council

    2007-01-01

    The world needs urgently to develop a coherent and practical approach to reducing greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions. Energy professionals from across the world have been examining climate change policies to see what works in promoting sustainable development. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recently confirmed that the evidence for global warming is unequivocal and the Stern Report has argued that early action to combat climate change makes economic sense. However, existing efforts are clearly insufficient - most countries with targets under Kyoto Protocol are not on track to meeting them and many countries do not have Kyoto targets. As a result, ghg emissions are still rising and are forecast to go on doing so for decades to come. The problem is not a lack of policies to deal with climate change - some thousands of policies have been introduced, both by countries within the Kyoto system and those outside, and the effort is under way to develop a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Yet so far those policies are not proving adequate to the scale of the problem. There is a pressing need to understand why they are failing and to implement measures that are more effective in reducing emissions, particularly from the energy sector, which accounts for around two thirds of total ghg emissions. The WEC has therefore undertaken a Study of Energy and Climate Change, drawing on the collective experience and resources of energy professionals worldwide. It has looked in detail at the impact of existing climate change measures and how effective they have been in promoting sustainable development, using the criteria of the three A's - accessibility (to affordable energy); acceptability (of the energy sources used, particularly in environmental terms); and availability (how secure and reliable are those sources?). It is important to remember that sustainable development is not only about the environment - policies which fail to contribute to economic and social

  2. A comparative review of multi-risk modelling methodologies for climate change adaptation in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Stefano; Torresan, Silvia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Climate change, mountain regions, multi-risk assessment, climate change adaptation. Climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on the environment, the economy and society. Adaptation actions are needed to cope with the impacts that have already occurred (e.g. storms, glaciers melting, floods, droughts) and to prepare for future scenarios of climate change. Mountain environment is particularly vulnerable to the climate changes due to its exposure to recent climate warming (e.g. water regime changes, thawing of permafrost) and due to the high degree of specialization of both natural and human systems (e.g. alpine species, valley population density, tourism-based economy). As a consequence, the mountain local governments are encouraged to undertake territorial governance policies to climate change, considering multi-risks and opportunities for the mountain economy and identifying the best portfolio of adaptation strategies. This study aims to provide a literature review of available qualitative and quantitative tools, methodological guidelines and best practices to conduct multi-risk assessments in the mountain environment within the context of climate change. We analyzed multi-risk modelling and assessment methods applied in alpine regions (e.g. event trees, Bayesian Networks, Agent Based Models) in order to identify key concepts (exposure, resilience, vulnerability, risk, adaptive capacity), climatic drivers, cause-effect relationships and socio-ecological systems to be integrated in a comprehensive framework. The main outcomes of the review, including a comparison of existing techniques based on different criteria (e.g. scale of analysis, targeted questions, level of complexity) and a snapshot of the developed multi-risk framework for climate change adaptation will be here presented and discussed.

  3. Water use efficiency and crop water balance of rainfed wheat in a semi-arid environment: sensitivity of future changes to projected climate changes and soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanmin; Liu, De Li; Anwar, Muhuddin Rajin; O'Leary, Garry; Macadam, Ian; Yang, Yonghui

    2016-02-01

    Wheat production is expected to be affected by climate change through changing components of the crop water balance such as rainfall, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff and drainage. We used the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-wheat model to simulate the potential impact of climate change on field water balance, ET and water use efficiency (WUE) under the SRES A2 emissions scenario. We ran APSIM with daily climate data statistically downscaled from 18 Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Twelve soil types of varying plant available water holding capacity (PAWC) at six sites across semi-arid southeastern Australia were considered. Biases in the GCM-simulated climate data were bias-corrected against observations for the 1961-1999 baseline period. However, biases in the APSIM output data relative to APSIM simulations forced with climate observations remained. A secondary bias correction was therefore performed on the APSIM outputs. Bias-corrected APSIM outputs for a future period (2021-2040) were compared with APSIM outputs generated using observations for the baseline period to obtain future changes. The results show that effective rainfall was decreased over all sites due to decreased growing season rainfall. ET was decreased through reduced soil evaporation and crop transpiration. There were no significant changes in runoff at any site. The variation in deep drainage between sites was much greater than for runoff, ranging from less than a few millimetres at the drier sites to over 100 mm at the wetter. However, in general, the averaged drainage over different soil types were not significantly different between the baseline (1961-1999) and future period of 2021-2040 ( P > 0.05). For the wetter sites, the variations in the future changes in drainage and runoff between the 18 GCMs were larger than those of the drier sites. At the dry sites, the variation in drainage decreased as PAWC increased. Overall, water use efficiency based on transpiration (WUE

  4. Design criteria for plutonium gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard defines criteria for the design of glovebox systems to be used for the handling of plutonium in any form or isotopic composition or when mixed with other elements or compounds. The glovebox system is a series of physical barriers provided with glove ports and gloves, through which process and maintenance operations may be performed, together with an operating ventilation system. The system minimizes the potential for release of radioactive material to the environment, protects operators from contamination, and mitigates the consequences of abnormal condiations. The standard covers confinement, construction, materials, windows, glove ports, gloves, equipment insertion and removal, lighting, ventilation, fire protection, criticality prevention, services and utilities, radiation shielding, waste systems, monitoring and alarm systems, safeguards, quality assurance, and decommissioning

  5. Impact of climate variability on terrestrial environment in Western Europe between 45 and 9 kyr cal. BP: vegetation dynamics recorded by the Bergsee Lake (Black Forest, Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprat-Oualid, Fanny; Begeot, Carole; Rius, Damien; Millet, Laurent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Between 9 and 45 kyr cal. BP, two great transitions lead the global climate system to evolve from the Last-Glacial period (115-14.7 kyr cal. BP), to two successive warmer periods, the Late-Glacial Interstadial (14.7-11.7 kyr cal. BP) and the Holocene (11.7-0 kyr cal. BP). δ18O variations recorded in Greenland ice cores (GRIP & NGRIP) revealed high frequency climate variability within the Last Glacial. These reference isotopic records highlighted a succession of centennial-to-millennial warm/cold events, the so-called Greenland Interstadials (GI) and Greenland Stadials (GS). The number continental records about the period 14.7-0 kyr cal. BP is substantial. This allowed to understand the vegetation dynamics in response to climate changes this period at the North-Atlantic scale. However, sequences covering the glacial period (beyond 20 kyr cal.BP) remain rare, because of hiatuses mostly due to local glaciers. Therefore, sedimentary continuous records of vegetation dynamics are still needed to better understand climate changes during the Last Glacial in Western Europe (Heiri et al. 2014). Here we present a new high-resolution pollen record from Lake Bergsee (47°34'20''N, 7°56'11''E, 382 m a.s.l). This lake is located south of Black Forest and north of the Alps, beyond the zone of glaciers maximal extension. Therefore it could have recorded the whole last climatic cycle, i.e. 120-0 kyr cal. BP. In 2013, a 29 m long core was extracted from the Bergsee. According to the depth-age model based on 14C AMS dating and the Laacher See Tephra (LST), the record spans continuously at least the last 45 kyrs. The first series of pollen analysis, focused on the 45-9 kyr cal. BP time window, allows us to reconstruct a precise, faithful and continuous vegetation history at the centennial scale. This high temporal resolution enabled to assess the response of vegetation to secular climate events (e.g. GI-4 = 200 yrs). First, our results show that vegetation responded to climate

  6. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  7. Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Andrew; Damon Matthews, H

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted risks associated with the use of climate engineering as a method of stabilizing global temperatures, including the possibility of rapid climate warming in the case of abrupt removal of engineered radiative forcing. In this study, we have used a simple climate model to estimate the likely range of temperature changes associated with implementation and removal of climate engineering. In the absence of climate engineering, maximum annual rates of warming ranged from 0.015 to 0.07 deg. C/year, depending on the model's climate sensitivity. Climate engineering resulted in much higher rates of warming, with the temperature change in the year following the removal of climate engineering ranging from 0.13 to 0.76 deg. C. High rates of temperature change were sustained for two decades following the removal of climate engineering; rates of change of 0.5 (0.3,0.1) deg. C/decade were exceeded over a 20 year period with 15% (75%, 100%) likelihood. Many ecosystems could be negatively affected by these rates of temperature change; our results suggest that climate engineering in the absence of deep emissions cuts could arguably constitute increased risk of dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system under the criteria laid out in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  8. The influence of the cultural climate of the training environment on physicians' self-perception of competence and preparedness for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busari, Jamiu O.; Verhagen, Eduard A. A.; Muskiet, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In current supervisory practice, the learning environment in which the training of specialist registrars (SpRs) takes place is important. Examples of such learning environments are the hospital settings and/or geographical locations where training occurs. Our objective was to investigate

  9. Assessing Educational Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Testing and Measurement, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Educational environment data derived from classroom settings strongly suggest the positive contribution that climate variables can make in accounting for learning performance. Such measures are not only related to productivity but may constitute criterion variables in and of themselves. (Author)

  10. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  11. Criteria for the PNE seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    A 1976 treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union permits a local seismic network to be deployed at the site of a peaceful nuclear explosion to monitor the event. Criteria for the design and selection of the data-acquisition equipment for such a network are provided. Constraints imposed by the protocol of the treaty, the environment, and the expected properties of seismic signals (based on experiences at the Nevada Test Site) are discussed. Conclusions are drawn about the desired operating mode. Criteria for a general seismic instrumentation system are described

  12. Adapting Indian Agriculture to Global Climate Change

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adapting Indian Agriculture to Global Climate Change · Climate Change: Generic Implications for Agriculture · Controlled environment facilities at IARI used for evaluating model performance in future climate change scenarios · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Global studies indicate considerable impact of climate change in tropics.

  13. Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  14. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  15. Changes in climate-growth relationships and IADF formation over time of pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Olivar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Mediterranean basin has experienced an increase in the mean annual temperature, a decrease in the mean annual precipitation, and an increase in the frequency of severe drought periods during the second half of the 20th century. However, winter and spring precipitation has increased and summer precipitation has decreased in the western Mediterranean region. Aim of the study: The objectives of the present study were: i to compare changes in climate-growth relationships over time for Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris in Spain ii to quantify the presence of intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs on the three species, and iii to define the associated climatic variables. Area of study: 26 sampling sites (8 P. halepensis sites, 8 P. pinaster sites and 10 P. sylvestris sites were selected in their distribution area in Spain. Main results: Precipitation is the main factor influencing growth and IADF occurrence in the three species. Wet periods during previous winter and spring induced higher growth rates on P. halepensis and P. pinaster, while P. sylvestris was mostly influenced by summer precipitation. However, the influence of these climatic variables on the growth of these species changed over the studied period. The increase of winter and spring precipitation combined with increasingly harsh summer climatic conditions in the second half of the 20th century may have enhanced the importance of precipitation at the beginning of the growing season on the growth of species subject to higher summer drought stress (P. halepensis and P. pinaster and increased IADF occurrence. Research highlights: Besides reflecting changes in the environmental conditions during the growing season, the inclusion of IADF detection in chronologies adds new information to ring-width chronologies, thereby improving its quality.

  16. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Roberts

    Full Text Available The Middle Stone Age (MSA of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  17. Climate, Environment and Early Human Innovation: Stable Isotope and Faunal Proxy Evidence from Archaeological Sites (98-59ka) in the Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Patrick; Henshilwood, Christopher S; van Niekerk, Karen L; Keene, Petro; Gledhill, Andrew; Reynard, Jerome; Badenhorst, Shaw; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) of southern Africa, and in particular its Still Bay and Howiesons Poort lithic traditions, represents a period of dramatic subsistence, cultural, and technological innovation by our species, Homo sapiens. Climate change has frequently been postulated as a primary driver of the appearance of these innovative behaviours, with researchers invoking either climate instability as a reason for the development of buffering mechanisms, or environmentally stable refugia as providing a stable setting for experimentation. Testing these alternative models has proved intractable, however, as existing regional palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records remain spatially, stratigraphically, and chronologically disconnected from the archaeological record. Here we report high-resolution records of environmental shifts based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshell (OES) fragments, faunal remains, and shellfish assemblages excavated from two key MSA archaeological sequences, Blombos Cave and Klipdrift Shelter. We compare these records with archaeological material remains in the same strata. The results from both sites, spanning the periods 98-73 ka and 72-59 ka, respectively, show significant changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature in the vicinity of the sites during periods of human occupation. While these changes clearly influenced human subsistence strategies, we find that the remarkable cultural and technological innovations seen in the sites cannot be linked directly to climate shifts. Our results demonstrate the need for scale-appropriate, on-site testing of behavioural-environmental links, rather than broader, regional comparisons.

  18. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  19. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  20. Human response to combined indoor environment exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    Most thermal comfort standards and guidelines presume sedentary, light activity and a neutral overall thermal sensation when predicting local thermal discomfort. In addition, current standards specify criteria for separate aspects of the indoor environment, e.g. thermal climate, air quality...... or noise, with only little consideration of possible interactions between the different types of exposure. The studies summarized in this article found a clear impact of activity and overall thermal sensation on human sensitivity to air movement, whereas no interaction effects of exposure to several local...... thermal discomfort factors were observed. Limited evidence was found of significant interactions between different aspects of the indoor environment. Only for the effect of air temperature and air humidity on sensory air quality were well-estabished relationships available....

  1. Regulatory criteria for the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaff, K.P.

    1986-09-01

    Radiological protection criteria have been proposed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for judging the potential long-term impacts of radioactive waste disposal options in which the wastes are contained and isolated from the human environment. This paper reviews the proposed criteria and the regulatory guidelines for their application in performance assessments, taking note of the public comments received to-date

  2. 40 CFR 227.4 - Criteria for evaluating environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... impact. 227.4 Section 227.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN... Impact § 227.4 Criteria for evaluating environmental impact. This subpart B sets specific environmental... of direct environmental impact. ...

  3. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  4. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The indicators in this bulletin are part of a national set of environmental indicators designed to provide a profile of the state of Canada's environment and measure progress towards sustainable development. A review of potential impacts on Canada shows that such changes would have wide-ranging implications for its economic sectors, social well-being including human health, and ecological systems. This document looks at the natural state of greenhouse gases which help regulate the Earth's climate. Then it looks at human influence and what is being done about it. The document then examines some indicators: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use; global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases; and global and Canadian temperature variations

  5. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by both the IADPSG and WHO criteria (P = 0.001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of GDM that meets both the WHO and IADPSG criteria provides stronger prediction for adverse pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that ...

  6. Uncertainty of climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandel, R.

    1998-01-01

    The climate is a fundamental aspect of our environment. It determines the life possibilities on our planet. The author takes stock of actual questions such: the greenhouse effect, the hole of the ozone layer, the deforestation of tropical forests, the warming of the planet, 'El Nino', by initiating us into climatology, this science that just have known a true technological revolution: climate modeling, paleoclimatology rise, development of observations by satellites. (N.C.)

  7. The soil-water system as basis for a climate proof and healthy urban environment: opportunities identified in a Dutch case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Jacqueline; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Dirven-van Breemen, Liesbet; Otte, Piet; van Wijnen, Harm

    2014-07-01

    One of the effects of climate change expected to take place in urban areas in the Netherlands is an increase in periods of extreme heat and drought. How the soil can contribute to making cities more climate proof is often neglected. Unsealed soil and green spaces increase water storage capacity and can consequently prevent flooding. The planning of public or private green spaces can have a cooling effect and, in general, have a positive effect on how people perceive their health. This paper reviews existing guidelines from Dutch policy documents regarding unsealed soil and green spaces in the Netherlands; do they support climate adaptation policies? Scientific literature was used to quantify the positive effects of green spaces on water storage capacity, cooling and public health. Finally we present a case study of a model town where different policy areas are linked together. Maps were made to provide insight into the ratio of unsealed soil and the number of green spaces in relation to existing guidelines using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Maps marking the age and social-economic status of the population were also made. The benefits of green spaces are difficult to express in averages because they depend on many different factors such as soil properties, type of green spaces, population characteristics and spatial planning. Moreover, it is not possible to provide quantifications of the benefits of green spaces because of a lack of scientific evidence at the moment. Based on the maps, however, policy assessments can be made, for example, in which site a neighborhood will most benefit from investment in parks and public gardens. Neighborhoods where people have a low social-economic status have for example fewer green spaces than others. This offers opportunities for efficient adaptation policies linking goals of several policy fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate Change | Page 23 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · Agriculture and Environment. Climate Change. Language English. Read more about Strengthening Local Agricultural Innovation Systems in Tanzania and Malawi. Language English. Read more about African Climate Change Fellowship. Language English. Read more about Adaptation aux changements ...

  9. Active learning innovative for the study of climatic variations in Sicily (Italy) and micro-climates in confined environments. Digitized construction of agro-meteorological laboratory and entrepreneurial development of methodical home automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    In education to issues of environmental sustainability and the use of renewable energy resources, there are the existing laboratory teaching methodologies in Superior School "A. Volta" in Palermo (Italy) for acquisition, processing and control network of agro-meteorological data on the local area. This station was planned to allow students practical multidisciplinary learning experiences in the field of agro-meteorological applications. The School started a few months ago a project of MIUR (Italian Ministry of Education) that updates the lab through the most innovative digital technologies in the field of mechatronics, domotic and sustainable energy, that are supported by the latest needs of scientific-educational multimedia. It is an educational training that intends to implement a data collection center agro-meteorological on "digital platforms," informational purposes and applications, on current issues of climate changes and their consequences in Sicily (Italy). This active learning will interconnect the data collected from the station weather and climate of the school with those locally and regionally, with "weather-climatic patterns" correlations that are implemented in the Mediterranean area (International Program "GAW-Global Atmosphere Watch"). For this reason were enabled synergies with two major public scientific research and acquisition services-data disclosure (ENEA and SIAS-Agrometeorological Information Service, Sicily Region), both to energy efficiency of the School Station, both to support data and digital applications in GIS, with agro-meteorological services to companies operating in the agricultural and environmental sustainability, high consideration themes in European Programming. A branch of this training course is the entrepreneurship education, carried out by a few years in School with the development of "experimental models" for the creation of "innovation clusters" to make entrepreneurial experience since school, creating/managing mini

  10. Energy policies and climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.

    1994-01-01

    One year after the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, an assessment is made of what progress is being made towards sustainability. The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on climate change has provided the expert background for action to protect the climate. It lists some of the measured and noticed first signs of climate change as identified by the German Bundestag Enquete Commission, and mentions the effects of climatically induced catastrophes on the world's insurance industry and the fact that the Third World is likely to suffer most from climatic change. A Greenpeace report advocates the phasing out of fossil fuels and of nuclear power as a way to combat climatic change. The article reviews developments relevant to protecting the climate worldwide and specifically in the Netherlands, incorporating Greenpeace's views on these

  11. Witnesses of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    After having evoked the process of climate change, the effect of greenhouse gas emissions, the evolution of average temperatures in France since 1900, and indicated the various interactions and impacts of climate change regarding air quality, water resources, food supply, degradation and loss of biodiversity, deforestation, desertification, this publication, while quoting various testimonies (from a mountain refuge guardian, a wine maker, a guide in La Reunion, an IFREMER bio-statistician engineer, and a representative of health professionals), describes the various noticed impacts of climate change on the environment in mountain chains, on agriculture, on sea level rise, on overseas biodiversity, and on health

  12. Climate engineering and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrogl, K.-U.; Summerer, L.

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a comprehensive look at climate engineering and space. Its starting point is that the States are failing to slow down global warming. The consequences for the environment and the economic and societal burden are uncontested. The priority to maintain the use of fossil resources might soon lead to the implementation of deliberate engineering measures to alter the climate instead of reducing the greenhouse gases. The article describes these currently discussed measures for such climate engineering. It will particularly analyse the expected contributions from space to these concepts. Based on this it evaluates the economic and political implications and finally tests the conformity of these concepts with space law.

  13. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  14. Modeling and performance improvement: the Remedy to treat social and environment issues for enterprises in today\\'s difficult economic climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Eric Dossou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: European economies have been deeply affected by different crises. The impact of the economic crisis on enterprises is now recognized by everybody. Enterprises need to reorganize in order to be better adapted to this situation and to integrate new dimensions in their development. Reduction of cost is not the only way for making enterprises more efficient. It is now clear that a mono-criterion analysis is not adapted to the actual enterprise situation. Enterprises need a multi-criteria analysis by combining quality, cost, lead time but also carbon management, social societal and environmental dimensions. If QCD criteria are already considered as necessary for obtaining the optimum enterprise system, it remains difficult to convince the enterprise management of the opportunity to integrate social, societal and environmental dimensions for improving cost. This need still needs to be clearly demonstrated. Method: This paper introduces concepts for showing that enterprises would be more efficient, better-organized and adapted to the new changes in society. Conclusions: The reduction of cost is necessary, the increase in enterprise turnover too, but it is also indispensable to change the structure of enterprises. Enterprise modeling (GRAI Methodology and a tool is used for illustrating the concepts presented through a detailed case study.

  15. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  16. Territorial characterisation considering geo morphological properties of subsoil as well as climatic and meteorological conditions for the evaluation of the effects of radiological nature on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvicini, A.; Esposito, P.

    2002-01-01

    The composition and origin of the rocky substratum, the permeability of the ground, its degree of humidity and the particle size are the main factors that influence radon concentration in the subsoil and in the water stratums as well as its upward migration. The climatic and meteorological conditions, particularly the moisture, the barometric pressure and the temperature, can influence more or less directly the underground emanation and diffusion properties of radon and thoron giving rise to short-term modifications of radiological nature in the subsoil, closely related to the presence of these elements. The great concentration of some radioisotopes, in some particular areas, can also induce high dose rates caused by the radiation coming from emergent rocks, due for instance to activities related to building works, with consequent possible exposure of the personnel involved in underground excavations. In such situations it is possible to carry out systematical radiometric measurements, which provide instantaneous and time integrated data, using fixed or movable instrumentation. The stratigraphical structure of the subsoil and the related variations of lithological nature as well as the lack of homogeneity in the land, due also to the unevenness of the ground outline and to the presence of fault planes, increase considerably the complexity of analytical evaluations based upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the subsoil and upon the meteorological and climatic properties

  17. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  18. Diagnostic Criteria for Pediatric MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago review the diagnostic criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis, the differential diagnosis, the 2010 McDonald criteria, and Callen criteria.

  19. Looking for Improvement in Last Planner System: Defining Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    criteria was carried out. Six flows are identified as relevant: workforce, material, and machinery which comprise the needed resources and safety, climate conditions, and space which affect the pace of the work. Because of the importance to progress in the workflow, and the on-schedule completeness...

  20. Competencies Framework for Climate Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva, 2009) established the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to enable better management of the risks of climate variability and change and adaptation to climate change at all levels, through development and incorporation of science-based climate information and prediction into planning, policy and practice. The GFCS defines Climate Services as the result of transforming climate data into climate information in a way that responds to user needs and assists decision-making by individuals and organizations. Capacity Development is a cross-cutting pillar of the GFCS to ensure that services are provided by institutions with professionals whom achieved the adequate set of competencies recommended by WMO, which are yet to be fully defined. The WMO-Commission for Climatology Expert Team on Education and Training, ET-ETR, has been working to define a Competencies Framework for Climate Services to help the institutions to deliver high quality climate services in compliance with WMO standards and regulations, specifically those defined by WMO's Commission for Climatology and the GFCS. This framework is based in 5 areas or competence, closely associated to the areas of work of climate services providers: create and manage climate data sets; derive products from climate data; create and/or interpret climate forecasts and model output; ensure the quality of climate information and services; communicate climatological information with users. With this contribution, we intend to introduce to a wider audience the rationale behind these 5 top-level competency statements and the performance criteria associated with them, as well as the plans of the ET-ETR for further developing them into an instrument to support education and training within the WMO members, specially the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.

  1. Climate, environment and society in southern Italy during the last 2000 years. A review of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadori, Laura; Giraudi, Carlo; Masi, Alessia; Magny, Michel; Ortu, Elena; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the interrelationship between the natural and human history of Sicily over the last 2000 years. It presents a close comparison of the data from the key multi-proxy site of Lago di Pergusa - located inland in the eastern part of Sicily - with the existing archaeological and textual evidence on the socio-economic processes. The article also includes a review of the available natural proxy archives from the Central Mediterranean. On the basis of the isotope and pollen data from the Lago di Pergusa core PRG2, we identified two humid periods (ca. 450-750 AD and ca. 1400-1800 AD) as well as a dry one (ca. 1100-1350 AD); our evidence corresponds closely with other environmental palaeoclimate proxies from the Mediterranean region. In our synthesis of the environmental, historical and archaeological evidence from southern Italy, we argue that during both periods of increased humidity - that is during the late antique-Byzantine times and during the late medieval and early modern periods - intense agricultural use of the Sicilian landscape developed on an unprecedented scale. This in turn contributed to the impressive demographic and economic expansion visible during these periods. A sudden period of aridity followed the first of these eras of humidity-related agricultural growth. This climatic shift, dated to around 750 AD, corresponds to a decrease in synanthropic taxa and a recovery of arboreal vegetation. We argue that in this case a climatic change contributed to socio-economic decline. Moreover, as this change occurred prior to the Arab invasion of Sicily in AD 827, the environmental processes may help to explain the collapse of Byzantine society on Sicily which, in turn made the Muslim conquest possible. After this event, there occurred a longer period of agricultural decline, lasting until around 1000 AD, after which we see the first signs of a slow recovery. Ongoing research in nearby archaeological sites will help defining if it was a local

  2. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  3. Chemistry and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Jean-Claude; Brasseur, Guy; Brechet, Yves; Candel, Sebastien; Cazenave, Anny; Courtillot, Vincent; Fontecave, Marc; Garnier, Emmanuel; Goebel, Philippe; Legrand, Jack; Legrand, Michel; Le Treut, Herve; Mauberger, Pascal; Dinh-Audouin, Minh-Thu; Olivier, Daniele; Rigny, Paul; Bigot, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In its first part, this collective publication addresses the decennial and centuries-old variations of climate: perspectives and implications of climate change for the 21. century, questions remaining about the understanding of climate change from its sources to its modelling, extreme climate variations and societies during the last millennium. The contributions of the second part outline how chemistry is a tool to study climate change: ice chemistry as an archive of our past environment, observations and predictions on sea level rise, relationship between atmosphere chemistry and climate. The third set of contributions discusses the transformation of the energy system for a cleaner atmosphere and the management of the climate risk: the chemical processing of CO_2, actions of chemical companies to support the struggle against climate change, relationship between barrel price and renewable energies, relationship between grid complexity and green energy. The last part outlines the role chemistry can have to be able to do without fossil fuels: chemistry in front of challenges of transformation of the energy system, the use of micro-algae, the use of hydrogen as a vector of energy transition

  4. Sonification of Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katharina; Visda, Goudarzi

    2013-04-01

    Sonification is the acoustic analogue of data visualization and takes advantage of human perceptual and cognitive capabilities. The amount of data being processed today is steadily increasing, and both scientists and society need new ways to understand scientific data and their implications. Sonification is especially suited to the preliminary exploration of complex, dynamic, and multidimensional data sets, as can be found in climate science. In the research project SysSon (https://sysson.kug.ac.at/), we apply a systematic approach to design sonifications to climate data. In collaboration with the Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change (http://www.wegcenter.at/) we assessed the metaphors climate scientists use and their typical workflows, and chose data sets where sonification has high potential revealing new phenomena. This background will be used to develop an audio interface which is directly linked to the visualization interfaces for data analysis the scientists use today. The protoype will be evaluated according to its functionality, intuitivity for climate scientists, and aesthetic criteria. In the current stage of the project, conceptual links between climate science and sound have been elaborated and first sonification designs have been developed. The research is mainly carried out at the Institute of Electronic Music and Acoustics (http://iem.kug.ac.at/), which has extensive experience in interactive sonification with multidimensional data sets.

  5. Health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants as affected by nitrogen fertilisation in projected future climatic change environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoud, Chokri; Carvajal, Micaela; Moreno, Diego A; Ferchichi, Ali; Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, María

    2016-01-30

    The complex interactions between CO2 increase and salinity were investigated in relation to decreased N supply, in order to determine the nutritional quality of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) plants under these conditions. Three different decreased N fertilisation regimes (NO3(-)/NH4(+) ratios of 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 respectively) were combined with ambient (380 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm) [CO2 ] under non-saline (0 mmol L(-1) NaCl) and saline (80 mmol L(-1) NaCl) conditions. Nutrients (minerals, soluble protein and total amino acids) and natural antioxidants (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, flavonoids and vitamin C) were determined. In NH4(+) -fed broccoli plants, a marked growth reduction was shown and a redistribution of amino acids to cope with NH4(+) toxicity resulted in higher levels of indolic glucosinolate and total phenolic compounds. However, the positive effect of the higher [CO2] - ameliorating adverse effects of salinity--was only observed when N was supplied as NO3(-). Under reduced N fertilisation, the total glucosinolates were increased by a decreased NO3(-)/NH4 (+) ratio and elevated [CO2] but were unaffected by salinity. Under future climatic challenges, such as increased salinity and elevated [CO2], a clear genotypic dependence of S metabolism was observed in broccoli plants. In addition, an influence of the form in which N was supplied on plant nutritional quality was observed; a combined NO3(-)/NH4(+) (50:50) supply allowed broccoli plants not only to deal with NH4(+) toxicity but also to modify their glucosinolate content and profile. Thus, for different modes of N fertilisation, the interaction with climatic factors must be considered in the search for an optimal balance between yield and nutritional quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Environment stakes and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquoy, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This document devoted to the environment discusses on the following topics: the environmental policies, the threats for the environment (climatic change, water management and risks), the deforestation, the sustainable development of cities, the safety first principle, the energy challenge, the international cooperation, the North-South relations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  8. Criteria for onset of firestorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, G.F.; Fendell, F.E.; Feldman, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative criteria are evolved for onset of firestorms, severe stationary (nonpropagating) holocausts arising via merger of fires from multiple simultaneous ignitions in a heavily fuel-laden urban environment. Within an hour, surface-level radial inflow from all directions sustains a large-diameter convective column that eventually reaches altitude of about 10 km (e.g., Hamburg, Dresden, Hiroshima). As the firestorm achieves peak intensity (2 to 3 hours after the ignitions), inflow speeds are inferred to attain 25 to 50 m/s; typically 12 km 2 are reduced to ashes, before winds relax to ambient levels in six-to-nine hours. Here the firestorm is interpreted to be a mesocyclone (rotating severe local storm). Even with exceedingly large heat release sustained over a concentrated area, in the presence of a very nearly autoconvectively unstable atmospheric stratification, onset of vigorous swirling on the scale of two hours requires more than concentration of circulation associated with the rotation of the earth; rather, a preexisting, if weak, circulation appears necessary for firestorm cyclogenesis

  9. Diversification criteria for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharbach, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Growing power demand, fuel availability and prices, technology changes, the environmental impacts of energy consumption, the changing regulatory environments and the uncertainties around such elements make the planning for optimal power mix a challenging task. The diversity approach is advocated as a most appropriate planning methodology for the optimal energy mix (Hickey et al., 2010). Shannon Wiener Index (SWI), which is the most cited diversity metric has been used to assess power systems diversity mainly from an energy perspective. To our best knowledge, there is no rigorous justification why energy has been the main variable used in diversification exercises rather than other variables such as capacity. We use a stylized power generation framework to show that diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. We also introduce a Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) that we believe captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI. - Highlights: • Ranking power systems, from a diversity perspective, based on one criteria has many shortcomings. • Diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. • A Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI.

  10. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Criteria of site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Fuchs, H.

    1975-01-01

    The criteria which lead to the choice of a particular site for a nuclear power station are in general very similar to those which would apply to any other type of power station. The principal differences derive from the simpler transport problems for the fuel compared with, say, solid fuel and the special safety considerations which attach to nuclear reactors. The search for a suitable site obviously starts by considering where the power is needed, i.e. where the load centers are and also the existing transmission network which may help to bring the power from a more remote site to the load centers. This economic incentive to put the plant close to loads conflicts directly with the nuclear safety argument which favours more remote siting, and part of the problem of site selection is to reconcile these two matters. In addition, there are many other important matters which will be considered later concerning the adequacy of cooling water supplies, foundation conditions, etc., all of which must be examined in considerable detail. (orig./TK) [de

  12. Criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benef