WorldWideScience

Sample records for environment aerosol facility

  1. Facility of aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G; Regnier, J

    1975-04-18

    Said invention relates to a facility of aerosol filtration, particularly of sodium aerosols. Said facility is of special interest for fast reactors where sodium fires involve the possibility of high concentrations of sodium aerosols which soon clog up conventional filters. The facility intended for continuous operation, includes at the pre-filtering stage, means for increasing the size of the aerosol particles and separating clustered particles (cyclone separator).

  2. A new experimental facility for studying aerosol sampling in workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Witstchger, O.

    2000-01-01

    The european council directive 96/29/EURATOM requires its implementation into national regulations. This directive lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiations. This directive allows to use aerosol characteristics (particle size distribution, airborne concentration, morphology and chemical composition) measured in workplace to assess the effective radiation dose of workers resulting from the intake by inhalation of airborne radionuclides. Tests of performances of instruments used for the health-related sampling of particles in workplace are usually carried out in a wind tunnel or a calm air chamber. In these test conditions, instruments are exposed to uniform wind and steady homogeneous aerosol. In a real workplace situation, these instruments are usually exposed to highly non-uniform airflows and local emissions of particles. Moreover, it is not clear how differences in airflow pattern, proximity of the localised contamination source, worker location or activity would affect the personal/static measurement ratio. The objective of our experimental work is to investigate the relevant parameters that affect the aerosol characteristics in the microenvironment of a worker (including breathing zone) and in the workplace. The first part of that study was to design and built an experimental room CEPIA (french acronym for room for studying personal and area samplers). The ventilated chamber (volume 36 m 3 ) is equipped with an air delivery system to insure different ventilation patterns and flowrates. The CEPIA chamber should offer possibilities for performing experiments in situations representing a workplace environment, with airflows and aerosol parameters well controlled and characterised. (authors)

  3. Global Environment Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Ringtail lemur mom with two of paradise Nations rally to protect global environment Countries pledge US$4.1 billion to the Global Environment Facility Stockholm, Sweden birds-eye view Events GEF-7 Replenishment Trung Truong Son Landscapes

  4. A new laboratory facility to study the interactions of aerosols, cloud droplets/ice crystals, and trace gases in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H., II; Chang, K.; Ciochetto, D.; Niedermeier, D.; Bench, J.; Shaw, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed understanding of gas-aerosol-cloud interaction within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. As one example: While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in mixed phase clouds is also catalyzed by aerosol particles. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes. At least two other factors contribute significantly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or other trace gas concentrations, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is one of the major research challenges in cloud physics. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, (dubbed the Π Chamber, after the internal volume of 3.14 cubic meters) designed to address the problems outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~ 100 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +40 to -55 ºC. We can independently control the temperatures on the surfaces of three heat transfer zones. This allows us to establish a temperature gradient between the floor and ceiling inducing Rayleigh-Benard convection and inducing a turbulent environment. Interior surfaces are electropolished stainless steel to facilitate cleaning before and after chemistry experiments. At present, supporting

  5. Engine Environment Research Facility (EERF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility supports research and development testing of the behavior of turbine engine lubricants, fuels and sensors in an actual engine environment....

  6. PIXE analysis of work environment aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayashi, Hideo; Fujimoto, Fuminori; Komaki, Kenichiro; Ootuka, Akio; Kobayashi, Koichi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    In labor environment, the quantity of chemical substances in the air is more, and their kinds are more diversified than in general home environment. It has been well known that some substances contained in the aerosol in labor environment (floating dust in the atmosphere) such as asbestos and hexavalent chromium have the possibility of causing serious injuries such as cancer of respiratory organ. In order to identify the harmful substances to which laborers are exposed and to take the measures for removing them, it is necessary to investigate in detail into many factors related to the effect of aerosol on human bodies, such as the composition of elements, chemical condition, concentration, the particle size of dust and temporal and spatial distributions. For the purpose, sampling and analysis must be carried out so that information can be extracted as much as possible from a minute amount of sample. The particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is very effective for this application. In this paper, the development of a PIXE analysis system and the knowledge obtained by the sampling and measurement of aerosol in indoor labor environment are reported. The labor environment selected is that of the workshop of Department of Liberal Arts, University of Tokyo. Sampling, the experimental apparatus, the method of data analysis and the results of analysis are described. (Kako, I.)

  7. How thermodynamic environments control stratocumulus microphysics and interactions with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud interactions are central to climate system changes and depend on meteorological conditions. This study identifies distinct thermodynamic regimes and proposes a conceptual framework for interpreting aerosol effects. In the analysis, ten years (2003–2012) of daily satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are combined with reanalysis data to identify factors controlling Southeast Atlantic stratocumulus microphysics. Considering the seasonal influence of aerosol input from biomass burning, thermodynamic environments that feature contrasting microphysical cloud properties and aerosol–cloud relations are classified. While aerosol impact is stronger in unstable environments, it is mostly confined to situations with low aerosol loading (aerosol index AI ≲ 0.15), implying a saturation of aerosol effects. Situations with high aerosol loading are associated with weaker, seasonally contrasting aerosol-droplet size relationships, likely caused by thermodynamically induced processes and aerosol swelling. (letter)

  8. Characterization of aerosol particles in a mechanical workshop environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Yamanaka, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tsuboi, S.; Pelicon, P.; Zitnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    Indoor aerosols are directly affecting human lives. Especially aerosols in workshops, factories, and laboratories, where many chemical substances are used in treatment and production processes, might contain toxic elements: special care must be taken to alleviate air pollution and assure a clean breathing environment for the workers. For this study, size segregated aerosol particle sampling with a cascade impactor was performed in the machine workshop of Jozef Stefan Institute. The samples, collected during weekdays and weekend were analyzed with a microbeam facility at Tohoku University. Bulk PIXE analysis with scanning over the whole sample area was conducted along with multimodal microanalysis with microscopic scanning. Using bulk analysis, high concentrations of Pb and Ba were detected on weekend days, which was related to the removal of an old white paint from the furniture. On weekdays, concentrations of W and of soil origin elements increased, probably because of the machine operations and worker movements. At the same time high concentration of sulfur was detected. A microscopic multimodal analysis shows that it stems from a lubricant oil vapor. The combination of bulk and microanalysis of the size selected samples is an effective approach to aerosol characterization in the working environment. (author)

  9. CAIMAN: a versatile facility to produce aerosols of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, Jonathan; Bau, Sebastien; Witschger, Olivier, E-mail: sebastien.bau@inrs.fr [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Laboratoire de Metrologie des Aerosols, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, 54519 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France)

    2011-07-06

    This work aims at presenting a nanoparticle generation non-transportable facility in aerosol phase called 'CAIMAN' (acronym for Characterization of Instruments Measuring Aerosols of Nanoparticles) and its performances. This facility delivers primary nanoaerosols from electrodes made of C, Al, Cu (and mixtures containing Be), Ag, Constantane (a mixture of Cu-55wt% and Ni-45wt%) particles at known concentrations, sizes, shapes and mean charge levels. It is also capable to deliver well-known particle mixture containing combinations of the 'primary' nanoaerosols and particles representatives of background aerosols (in the present work NaCl). The output of the CAIMAN facility is very consistent over long time intervals when operating under similar conditions. It indicates that repeatability is also one of the important assets of the facility.

  10. The DRAGON aerosol research facility to study aerosol behaviour for reactor safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, Detlef; Guentay, Salih

    2008-01-01

    During a severe accident in a nuclear power plant fission products are expected to be released in form of aerosol particles and droplets. To study the behaviour of safety relevant reactor components under aerosol loads and prototypical severe accident conditions the multi-purpose aerosol generation facility DRAGON is used since 1994 for several projects. DRAGON can generate aerosol particles by the evaporation-condensation technique using a plasma torch system, fluidized bed and atomization of particles suspended in a liquid. Soluble, hygroscopic aerosol (i.e. CsOH) and insoluble aerosol particles (i.e. SnO 2 , TiO 2 ) or mixtures of them can be used. DRAGON uses state-of-the-art thermal-hydraulic, data acquisition and aerosol measurement techniques and is mainly composed of a mixing chamber, the plasma torch system, a steam generator, nitrogen gas and compressed air delivery systems, several aerosol delivery piping, gas heaters and several auxiliary systems to provide vacuum, coolant and off-gas treatment. The facility can be operated at system pressure of 5 bars, temperatures of 300 deg. C, flow rates of non-condensable gas of 900 kg/h and steam of 270 kg/h, respectively. A test section under investigation is attached to DRAGON. The paper summarizes and demonstrates with the help of two project examples the capabilities of DRAGON for reactor safety studies. (authors)

  11. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U 3 O 8 aerosols, Fe 2 O 3 aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air [relative humidity (RH) less than 20%] or steam-air [relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%] with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable

  12. Containment aerosol behaviour simulation studies in the BARC nuclear aerosol test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.; Sapra, B.K.; Khan, Arshad; Sunny, Faby; Nair, R.N.; Raghunath, Radha; Tripathi, R.M.; Markandeya, S.G.; Puranik, V.D.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Shreekumar, K.P.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A.; Murthy, P.S.S.; Venlataramani, N.

    2005-02-01

    A Nuclear Aerosol Test Facility (NATF) has been built and commissioned at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to carry out simulation studies on the behaviour of aerosols released into the reactor containment under accident conditions. This report also discusses some new experimental techniques for estimation of density of metallic aggregates. The experimental studies have shown that the dynamic densities of aerosol aggregates are far lower than their material densities as expected by the well-known fractal theory of aggregates. In the context of codes, this has significant bearing in providing a mechanistic basis for the input density parameter used in estimating the aerosol evolution characteristics. The data generated under the quiescent and turbulent conditions and the information on aggregate densities are now being subjected to the validation of the aerosol behaviour codes. (author)

  13. Aerosol volatility in a boreal forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, S. A. K.; ńijälä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; Junninen, H.; Virkkula, A.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Riipinen, I.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and health effects of atmospheric aerosols are determined by their properties such as their chemical composition. Aerosol chemical composition can be studied indirectly by measuring volatility of aerosol particles. The volatility of submicron aerosol particles (20-500 nm) was studied in a boreal forest site at SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II) station (Vesala et al., 1998) in Hyytiälä, Finland, during 01/2008-05/2010. The instrument used for the measurements was VDMPS (Volatility Differential Mobility Particle Sizer), which consists of two separate instruments: DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, Aalto et al., 2001) and TD (Thermodenuder, Wehner et al., 2002). Aerosol evaporation was examined by heating the aerosol and comparing the total aerosol mass before and after heating. In the VDMPS system ambient aerosol sample was heated up to temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 280 °C. The higher the heating temperature was the more aerosol material was evaporated. There was a non-volatile residual present in aerosol particles when heated up to 280 °C. This residual explained (20±8)% of the total aerosol mass. Aerosol non-volatile mass fraction was highest during winter and smallest during summer months. The role of black carbon in the observed non-volatile residual was determined. Black carbon explained 40 to 90% of the non-volatile mass. Especially during colder seasons noticeable amount of non-volatile material, something else than black carbon, was observed. According to Kalberer et al. (2004) some atmospheric organic species can form polymers that have high evaporation temperatures. Also low-volatile organic salts may contribute to the non-volatile aerosol (Smith et al., 2010). Aerosol mass composition measured directly with AMS (Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Jayne et al., 2000) was analyzed in order to examine the properties of the non-volatile material (other than black carbon). The AMS measurements were performed

  14. Aerosols: generation and role in medicine, industry and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sapra, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of topics in aerosol sciences. Areas covered for detailed evaluation with respect to the role of aerosols are industry, medicine, health care and environment, besides basic studies. Knowledge in the areas, specially on generation of aerosols and their role in those fields are briefly summarised and problems for future work are highlighted. Articles relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Effect of tropospheric aerosols on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meterology, Pune (India)

    1995-12-31

    The primary mechanism by which aerosols influences the environment is through changes in the amount of energy reaching the ground and the energy diffusing back to space. Keeping the above in view, a study has been undertaken to observe the effect of fire from an oil well at Pasarlapudi near Amalapuram, situated almost in the middle of the coastal Andhra belt, on environment. Fire started from an oil well at Pasarlapudi (16{degrees}N 82{degrees}E) near Amalapuram in Andhra Pradesh on 8 January 1995 and continues till today. For the above study daily maximum and minimum temperatures in celsius and rainfall in mm were collected from India Meteorological Department for two stations Kakinada and Machilipatnam from 19 January 1995 to 1 March 1995. It is seen from the above data at both Kakinada and Machilipatnam from 19 January to 1 February 1995 a decrease in minimum temperature from 0.5{degrees}C to 1.0{degrees}C. There is not much change in maximum temperature. 35 mm of excess rainfall was reported in coastal Andhra Pradesh from 1 Jan. to 25 Jan 1995 when the fire from the oil well was at maximum intensity. Some places near the Pasarlapudi reported rain with black carbon particles during third week of January. Pictures of the raging fire show a jet of burning gas extending into the atmosphere. The accompanying heat and smoke from the oil well fire could have led to cloud formation and rain containing black carbon particles in coastal belt of Andhra Pradesh.

  16. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; hide

    2015-01-01

    Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a

  17. Retrieving aerosol in a cloudy environment: aerosol product availability as a function of spatial resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Remer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of using satellite observations to retrieve aerosol properties in a cloudy environment is to prevent contamination of the aerosol signal from clouds, while maintaining sufficient aerosol product yield to satisfy specific applications. We investigate aerosol retrieval availability at different instrument pixel resolutions using the standard MODIS aerosol cloud mask applied to MODIS data and supplemented with a new GOES-R cloud mask applied to GOES data for a domain covering North America and surrounding oceans. Aerosol product availability is not the same as the cloud free fraction and takes into account the techniques used in the MODIS algorithm to avoid clouds, reduce noise and maintain sufficient numbers of aerosol retrievals. The inherent spatial resolution of each instrument, 0.5×0.5 km for MODIS and 1×1 km for GOES, is systematically degraded to 1×1, 2×2, 1×4, 4×4 and 8×8 km resolutions and then analyzed as to how that degradation would affect the availability of an aerosol retrieval, assuming an aerosol product resolution at 8×8 km. The analysis is repeated, separately, for near-nadir pixels and those at larger view angles to investigate the effect of pixel growth at oblique angles on aerosol retrieval availability. The results show that as nominal pixel size increases, availability decreases until at 8×8 km 70% to 85% of the retrievals available at 0.5 km, nadir, have been lost. The effect at oblique angles is to further decrease availability over land but increase availability over ocean, because sun glint is found at near-nadir view angles. Finer resolution sensors (i.e., 1×1, 2×2 or even 1×4 km will retrieve aerosols in partly cloudy scenes significantly more often than sensors with nadir views of 4×4 km or coarser. Large differences in the results of the two cloud masks designed for MODIS aerosol and GOES cloud products strongly reinforce that cloud masks must be developed with specific purposes in mind and

  18. Radiation protection instrumentation. Monitoring equipment. Radioactive aerosols in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This international standard applies to portable or installed equipment for continuous monitoring of radioactive aerosols in the environment in normal and emergency conditions. Monitoring involves continuous sampling and, where desirable, automatic start of sampling. The document applies particularly to the following assignments: (i) determination of the volume activity of radionuclides in the form of aerosols, either per time unit, along with its time changes, or in the integral form over a longer time period such as 24 h, and measurement of the volume sampled; (ii) triggering a warning alarm signal if the preset volume activity or time integral of the volume activity of aerosols has been exceeded. The document deals with radioactive aerosol monitor design, testing procedures, and documentation. Appended tables refer to the reference and normal testing conditions, tests in normal testing conditions, tests during changes of the affecting quantities, and tests of the air circuit. (P.A.)

  19. Assessment of anthropogen aerosols : influence on environment and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasny, F.

    2010-01-01

    The term aerosol describes a dispersion of liquid or solid particles in a gaseous medium, usually including particles at a size ranging from 0.001 to 100 μm. The size of an aerosol's particle is of special interest, as it influences its fate. Together with other physical properties like shape, density and mass of the particles, it defines the aerosol's possibilities of sedimentation, diffusion, dispersion, coagulation or impaction onto surfaces. As aerosols are by definition composed of a number of particles, this regime of constituent parts varies. Aerosols are well known with their common names such as dust, smoke, fume, fog, mist, spray or haze. The projects of this thesis deal with different aspects of anthropogenic aerosols. We investigated their influence on human health and environmental impact by looking at particle concentrations and size distributions of aerosols. Ultimately, we examined their fate in a human lung model to reveal a direct influence on humans. Our studies included brine inhalation at an open-air spa, exposure to ultrafine particles while driving a car through a heavy impacted environment, and the influence of aerosols on spectators while watching fireworks. In a project with the local environmental authorities we investigated the correlation of air quality, meteorological and traffic data with ultrafine particles. Resulting from our studies, we found beneficial effects of salt aerosols used for inhalation therapy, showing the positive influence in lung deposition, as well as, an effect on ultrafine particle inventory of the ambient air. Combustion aerosols and other man-made particulate matter proved to have adverse effects on human lung deposition, allowing ultrafine particles to reach deep into the human lung. This not only poses a threat to respiratory organs; particles can be translocated from the respiratory tract into the blood stream and from there to other organs, affecting the entire body. For the purpose of finding reasonable

  20. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  1. Lidar sprectroscopy instrument (LISSI: An infrastructure facility for chemical aerosol profiling at the University of Hertfordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesche Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The new facility will open new avenues for chemical profiling of aerosol pollution from measurements of Raman scattering by selected chemical compounds, provide data that allow to close the gap between optical and microphysical aerosol profiling with lidar and enables connecting lidar measurements to parameters used in atmospheric modelling.

  2. Current Status of Aerosol Generation and Measurement Facilities for the Verification Test of Containment Filtered Venting System in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; An, Sang Mo; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Hwan Yeol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the design of aerosol generation and measurement systems are explained and present circumstances are also described. In addition, the aerosol test plan is shown. Containment Filtered Venting System (FCVS) is one of the safety features to reduce the amount of released fission product into the environment by depressurizing the containment. Since Chernobyl accident, the regulatory agency in several countries in Europe such as France, Germany, Sweden, etc. have been demanded the installation of the CFVS. Moreover, the feasibility study on the CFVS was also performed in U.S. After the Fukushima accident, there is a need to improve a containment venting or installation of depressurizing facility in Korea. As a part of a Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) project, KAERI has been conducted the integrated performance verification test of CFVS. As a part of the test, aerosol generation system and measurement systems were designed to simulate the fission products behavior. To perform the integrated verification test of CFVS, aerosol generation and measurement system was designed and manufactured. The component operating condition is determined to consider the severe accident condition. The test will be performed in normal conditions at first, and will be conducted under severe condition, high pressure and high temperature. Undesirable difficulties which disturb the elaborate test are expected, such as thermophoresis on the pipe, vapor condensation on aerosol, etc.

  3. Aerosol nucleation in an ultra-low ion density environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Paling, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Ion-induced nucleation has been studied in a deep underground ultra-low background radiation environment where the role of ions can be distinguished from alternative neutral aerosol nucleation mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that ions have a significant effect on the production of small...... sulfuric acid–water clusters over a range of sulfuric acid concentrations although neutral nucleation mechanisms remain evident at low ionization levels. The effect of ions is found both to enhance the nucleation rate of stable clusters and the initial growth rate. The effects of possible contaminations...

  4. LMFBR source term experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrykowski, J.C.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) aerosol through liquid sodium was studied in a series of ten experiments in the Fuel Aerosol Simulant Test (FAST) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The experiments were designed to provide a mechanistic basis for evaluating the radiological source term associated with a postulated, energetic core disruptive accident (CDA) in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Aerosol was generated by capacitor discharge vaporization of UO 2 pellets which were submerged in a sodium pool under an argon cover gas. Measurements of the pool and cover gas pressures were used to study the transport of aerosol contained by vapor bubbles within the pool. Samples of cover gas were filtered to determine the quantity of aerosol released from the pool. The depth at which the aerosol was generated was found to be the most critical parameter affecting release. The largest release was observed in the baseline experiment where the sample was vaporized above the sodium pool. In the nine ''undersodium'' experiments aerosol was generated beneath the surface of the pool at depths varying from 30 to 1060 mm. The mass of aerosol released from the pool was found to be a very small fraction of the original specimen. It appears that the bulk of aerosol was contained by bubbles which collapsed within the pool. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Experimental study of radioactive aerosols emission during the thermal degradation of organic materials in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Yvette

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive products may be released during a fire in nuclear fuel cycles facilities. These products must be confined to avoid a contamination spread in the environment. It is therefore necessary to be able to predict the amount and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive material that may be airborne. The aim of this study is to determine experimentally the release of contamination aerosols in a typical fire scenario involving plutonium oxide in a glove box. Firstly, this phenomenon has been studied in a small scale test chamber where samples of polymethylmethacrylate (Plexiglas) contaminated by cerium oxide (used as a substitute for plutonium oxide) were submitted to thermal degradation (pyrolysis and combustion). The release of radioactive material is determined by the quantity of contaminant emitted, the kinetics of the release and the particle size distribution of aerosols. Secondly, the development of an experimental procedure allowed to realize large scale fires in more realistic conditions. The experimental tools developed in the course of this study allow to consider application to other scenarios. (author) [fr

  6. Study of aerosol diffusion behaviors in dismantling nuclear facilities. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Taro; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate aerosol diffusion behaviors under dismantling of nuclear facilities, plasma arc cuttings were conducted in the enclosure. The flow of air and high temperature gas in the enclosure were visualized, and the temperature distributions in the enclosure and the number density and size distribution of aerosol and the temperature in air of outlet flow were measured in the experiments. As a result, it was confirmed that ascending high temperature gas flow produced by the plasma arc is corresponded with aerosol diffusion behavior during cutting. It was also confirmed that after completing the cuttings the aerosol tends to fall due to decreasing of flow velocity of high temperature gas and the aerosol which reaches near the floor is resuspended by relatively high velocity exhaust flow. (author)

  7. Commissioning of the Winfrith Aerosol Deposition and Pipe Flow Facility (ADPFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.; Brighton, F.R.

    1991-02-01

    A facility has been constructed to investigate the turbulent deposition behaviour of micron-sized particles in large pipes. These studies are designed to generate suitable data to test and develop the ATLAS code, being developed by the AEA Safety and Reliability Business, to model aerosol transport through reactor components in certain severe accident sequences. The design specification of the Aerosol Deposition and Pipe Flow Facility (ADPFF) is described, together with the basic control instrumentation and commissioning trials. A preliminary assessment of the air velocity profiles measured at a Reynolds number of 10 5 is also included. The ADPFF meets the design specification and is available for the start of the first series of experiments to study aerosol deposition behaviour. (author)

  8. Lidar sprectroscopy instrument (LISSI): An infrastructure facility for chemical aerosol profiling at the University of Hertfordshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Matthias; Tatarov, Boyan; Noh, Youngmin; Müller, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    The lidar development at the University of Hertfordshire explores the feasibility of using Raman backscattering for chemical aerosol profiling. This paper provides an overview of the new facility. A high-power Nd:YAG/OPO setup is used to excite Raman backscattering at a wide range of wavelengths. The receiver combines a spectrometer with a 32-channel detector or an ICCD camera to resolve Raman signals of various chemical compounds. The new facility will open new avenues for chemical profiling of aerosol pollution from measurements of Raman scattering by selected chemical compounds, provide data that allow to close the gap between optical and microphysical aerosol profiling with lidar and enables connecting lidar measurements to parameters used in atmospheric modelling.

  9. The Inhalation Toxicity of VX Aerosols Assessed in the McNamara Glove Box Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpin, John C; McCaskey, David A; Cameron, Kenneth P

    2005-01-01

    ... in this facility and to serve as a benchmark for ranking the toxicity of other agents. Neat VX challenge aerosols were generated by feeding micro-liter quantities of agent from a loaded syringe to a custom-made air assist atomizer...

  10. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  11. Studies on aerosol optical properties over urban and semi-urban environments of Hyderabad and Anantapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, K.M.; Badarinath, K.V.S.; Rao, T.V. Ramakrishna; Reddy, R.R.; Ahammed, Y. Nazeer; Gopal, K. Rama; Azeem, P. Abdul

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols in the troposphere exert an important influence on global climate and the environment through scattering, transmission and absorption of radiation as well as acting as nuclei for cloud formation. Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the earth's radiation balance directly by scattering of infrared energy and indirectly by modifying the properties of clouds through microphysical processes. The present study addresses visibility, radiative forcing, size distribution and attenuation of aerosols over the period from January to May, 2001 for urban and semi-urban regions of Hyderabad and Anantapur. High aerosol loading has been observed over urban environment compared to semi-urban environment. Aerosol optical depth values increased from January to April and then decreased during May over both urban and semi-urban regions. Over urban region, visibility decreased from January to April and increased during May. Similar trend has been observed over semi-urban region with relatively higher values of visibility. Radiative forcing estimated using aerosol optical depth values increased from January to April and then decreased during the month of May over urban and semi-urban areas. High visibility and low radiative forcing has been noticed over semi-urban area due to less aerosol loading. Wavelength exponent and turbidity coefficient registered high values over urban environment compared to semi-urban environment. Attenuation coefficient showed high values over urban region compared to semi-urban region. It reveals that semi-urban environment receives high solar flux than urban environment. Using 10 channel quartz crystal microbalance, measurements of total mass concentration and mass size distribution of near surface aerosols has been made over semi-urban environment and compared with size distribution derived from inversion methods based on aerosol optical depth variation with wavelength. The sensitivity of constrained linear inversions for inferring columnar

  12. Techniques for measuring aerosol attenuation using the Central Laser Facility at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2013-04-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory in Malargüe, Argentina, is designed to study the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 10(18)eV. It is a hybrid facility that employs a Fluorescence Detector to perform nearly calorimetric measurements of Extensive Air Shower energies. To obtain reliable calorimetric information from the FD, the atmospheric conditions at the observatory need to be continuously monitored during data acquisition. In particular, light attenuation due to aerosols is an important atmospheric correction. The aerosol concentration is highly variable, so that the aerosol attenuation needs to be evaluated hourly. We use light from the Central Laser Facility, located near the center of the observatory site, having an optical signature comparable to that of the highest energy showers detected by the FD. This paper presents two procedures developed to retrieve the aerosol attenuation of fluorescence light from CLF laser shots. Cross checks between the two methods demonstrate that results from both analyses are compatible, and that the uncertainties are well understood. The measurements of the aerosol attenuation provided by the two procedures are currently used at the Pierre Auger Observatory to reconstruct air shower data.

  13. Aerosol-cloud feedbacks in a turbulent environment: Laboratory measurements representative of conditions in boundary layer clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Karki, S.; Kinney, G.; Shaw, R.

    2017-12-01

    Many of the climate impacts of boundary layer clouds are modulated by aerosol particles. As two examples, their interactions with incoming solar and upwelling terrestrial radiation and their propensity for precipitation are both governed by the population of aerosol particles upon which the cloud droplets formed. In turn, clouds are the primary removal mechanism for aerosol particles smaller than a few micrometers and larger than a few nanometers. Aspects of these interconnected phenomena are known in exquisite detail (e.g. Köhler theory), but other parts have not been as amenable to study in the laboratory (e.g. scavenging of aerosol particles by cloud droplets). As a complicating factor, boundary layer clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, which introduces fluctuations in the water vapor concentration and temperature, which govern the saturation ratio which mediates aerosol-cloud interactions. We have performed laboratory measurements of aerosol-cloud coupling and feedbacks, using Michigan Tech's Pi Chamber (Chang et al., 2016). In conditions representative of boundary layer clouds, our data suggest that the lifetime of most interstitial particles in the accumulation mode is governed by cloud activation - particles are removed from the Pi Chamber when they activate and settle out of the chamber as cloud droplets. As cloud droplets are removed, these interstitial particles activate until the initially polluted cloud cleans itself and all particulates are removed from the chamber. At that point, the cloud collapses. Our data also indicate that smaller particles, Dp defined through the use of the Dämkohler number, the ratio of the characteristic turbulence timescale to the cloud's microphysical response time. Chang, K., et al., 2016. A laboratory facility to study gas-aerosol-cloud interactions in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00203.1

  14. Gas and aerosol radionuclide transfers in complex environments: experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion and interfaces exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In situations of chronic or accidental releases, the atmosphere is the main pathway of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities to the environment and, consequently, to humans. It is therefore necessary to have sufficient information on this pathway to accurately assess the radiological impact on man and his environment. Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety develops its own tools of dispersion and atmospheric transfer for its expertise, under normal operation conditions of a facility, but especially in crisis or post-accident. These tools must have a national and international recognition in particular through scientific validation against benchmark experiments performed internationally, nationally or within the IRSN. The Radioecology Laboratory of Cherbourg-Octeville provides, and will increasingly make, a significant contribution to the scientific influence of the Institute in this field. The work presented in this report has contributed to the development or improvement of experimental techniques in the fields of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and transfer at interfaces, in complex environments (complex topography, urban area). These experimental techniques, applied during field campaigns, have allowed to acquire new data in order to get a better understanding of radionuclide transfers in the form of gases and aerosols. (author)

  15. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-03-01

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of aerosols in the tropics relationship with atmospheric and oceanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga-Arias, Manuel D.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's radiation budget is directly influenced by aerosols through the absorption of solar radiation and subsequent heating of the atmosphere. Aerosols modulate the hydrological cycle indirectly by modifying cloud properties, precipitation and ocean heat storage. In addition, polluting aerosols impose health risks in local, regional and global scales. In spite of recent advances in the study of aerosols variability, uncertainty in their spatio-temporal distributions still presents a challenge in the understanding of climate variability. For example, aerosol loading varies not only from year to year but also on higher frequency intraseasonal time scales producing strong variability on local and regional scales. An assessment of the impact of aerosol variability requires long period measurements of aerosols at both regional and global scales. The present dissertation compiles a large database of remotely sensed aerosol loading in order to analyze its spatio-temporal variability, and how this load interacts with different variables that characterize the dynamic and thermodynamic states of the environment. Aerosol Index (AI) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) were used as measures of the atmospheric aerosol load. In addition, atmospheric and oceanic satellite observations, and reanalysis datasets is used in the analysis to investigate aerosol-environment interactions. A diagnostic study is conducted to produce global and regional aerosol satellite climatologies, and to analyze and compare the validity of aerosol retrievals. We find similarities and differences between the aerosol distributions over various regions of the globe when comparing the different satellite retrievals. A nonparametric approach is also used to examine the spatial distribution of the recent trends in aerosol concentration. A significant positive trend was found over the Middle East, Arabian Sea and South Asian regions strongly influenced by increases in dust events. Spectral and composite analyses

  17. Characterization of aerosols in uranium handling facilities and its impact on the assessment of internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Ankush; Rao, D.D.; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Khan, Arshad; Srinivasan, P.; Chandrashekara, A.

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, compounds of uranium such as Magnesium DiUranate (MDU) U 3 O 8 , UO 2 etc. are handled in different stages of operation. There may be a possibility of intake of these compounds by radiation workers during the course of their work. The internal doses received by the workers depend not only on the quantity but also the physiochemical characteristics of the radioactive contaminant. The depositions in different regions of lung of these inhaled aerosols depend on their particle size; whereas the clearance is dependent upon the chemical nature. In this study, aerosol characterization is carried out in four different Uranium Handling Facilities (UF) for realistic assessment of internal dose to the radiation worker

  18. Characteristics of the aerosols released to the environment after a severe PWR accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhiaubet, G.; Manesse, D.

    1988-05-01

    In the event of a postulated severe accident on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) involving fuel degradation, gases and aerosols containing radioactive products could be released, with short, medium and long term consequences for the population and the environment. Under such accident conditions, the ESCADRE code system, developed at IPSN (Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection) can be used to calculate the properties of the substances released and, especially with the AEROSOLS/B2 code, the main characteristics of the aerosols (concentration, size distribution, composition). For conditions representative of severe PWR accidents, by varying different main parameters (structural material aerosols, steam condensation in the containment, etc...), indications are given on the range of characteristics of the aerosols (containing notably Cs, Te, Sr, Ru, etc...) released to the atmosphere. Information is also given on how more accurate data (especially on the chemical forms) will be obtainable in the framework of current or planned experimental programs (HEVA, PITEAS, PHEBUS PF, etc...) [fr

  19. Annual cycle of size-resolved organic aerosol characterization in an urbanized desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas M.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of size-resolved organic speciation of aerosols are still relatively rare and are generally only conducted over short durations. However, size-resolved organic data can both suggest possible sources of the aerosols and identify the human exposure to the chemicals since different aerosol sizes have different lung capture efficiencies. The objective of this study was to conduct size-resolved organic aerosol speciation for a calendar year in Phoenix, Arizona to determine the seasonal variations in both chemical concentrations and size profiles. The results showed large seasonal differences in combustion pollutants where the highest concentrations were observed in winter. Summertime aerosols have a greater proportion of biological compounds (e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and the biological compounds represent the largest fraction of the organic compounds detected. These results suggest that standard organic carbon (OC) measurements might be heavily influenced by primary biological compounds particularly if the samples are PM10 and TSP samples. Several large dust storms did not significantly alter the organic aerosol profile since Phoenix resides in a dusty desert environment, so the soil and plant tracer of trehalose was almost always present. The aerosol size profiles showed that PAHs were generally most abundant in the smallest aerosol size fractions, which are most likely to be captured by the lung, while the biological compounds were almost exclusively found in the coarse size fraction.

  20. Aerosol mass loading over the marine environment of Arabian Sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The decrease in mass loading from the coast of India towards west is estimated to ... ment of the role of aerosols in radiative forcing ... Oceans are the single largest sources of natural ... While island stations provide informa- ... (Pacific Exploratory Mission), INDOEX (Indian ... very close (150–200km away) to the west Asian.

  1. Transformations of Aerosol Particles from an Outdoor to Indoor Environment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Talbot, Nicholas; Kubelová, Lucie; Ondráček, Jakub; Cusack, Michael; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vodička, Petr; Zíková, Naděžda; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2017), s. 653-665 ISSN 1680-8584 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosols * shrinking * dissociation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2016

  2. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charifa Zemouri

    Full Text Available Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available.This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1 What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2 What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3 What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission?Systematic scoping review design. Searched in PubMed and EMBASE from inception to 09-03-2016. References were screened and selected based on abstract and full text according to eligibility criteria. Full text articles were assessed for inclusion and summarized. The results are presented in three separate objectives and summarized for an overview of evidence.The search yielded 5,823 studies, of which 62 were included. Dental hand pieces were found to generate aerosols in the dental settings. Another 30 sources from human activities, interventions and daily cleaning performances in the hospital also generate aerosols. Fifty-five bacterial species, 45 fungi genera and ten viruses were identified in a hospital setting and 16 bacterial and 23 fungal species in the dental environment. Patients with certain risk factors had a higher chance to acquire Legionella in hospitals. Such infections can lead to irreversible septic shock and death. Only a few studies found that bio-aerosol generating procedures resulted in transmission of infectious diseases or allergic reactions.Bio-aerosols are generated via multiple sources such as different interventions, instruments and human activity. Bio-aerosols compositions reported are heterogeneous in their microbiological composition dependent on the setting and methodology. Legionella species were found to be a bio-aerosol dependent hazard

  3. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  4. Filmless PACS in a multiple facility environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis L.; Glicksman, Robert A.; Prior, Fred W.; Siu, Kai-Yeung; Goldburgh, Mitchell M.

    1996-05-01

    A Picture Archiving and Communication System centered on a shared image file server can support a filmless hospital. Systems based on this architecture have proven themselves in over four years of clinical operation. Changes in healthcare delivery are causing radiology groups to support multiple facilities for remote clinic support and consolidation of services. There will be a corresponding need for communicating over a standardized wide area network (WAN). Interactive workflow, a natural extension to the single facility case, requires a means to work effectively and seamlessly across moderate to low speed communication networks. Several schemes for supporting a consortium of medical treatment facilities over a WAN are explored. Both centralized and distributed database approaches are evaluated against several WAN scenarios. Likewise, several architectures for distributing image file servers or buffers over a WAN are explored, along with the caching and distribution strategies that support them. An open system implementation is critical to the success of a wide area system. The role of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard in supporting multi- facility and multi-vendor open systems is also addressed. An open system can be achieved by using a DICOM server to provide a view of the system-wide distributed database. The DICOM server interface to a local version of the global database lets a local workstation treat the multiple, distributed data servers as though they were one local server for purposes of examination queries. The query will recover information about the examination that will permit retrieval over the network from the server on which the examination resides. For efficiency reasons, the ability to build cross-facility radiologist worklists and clinician-oriented patient folders is essential. The technologies of the World-Wide-Web can be used to generate worklists and patient folders across facilities. A reliable broadcast

  5. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  6. The added value of Facility management in the educational environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.B.; Mobach, M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to define the added value of facility management (FM) in general and to develop a typology of facility services based on their added value in the educational environment. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on a literature review and first

  7. Investigating walking environments in and around assisted living facilities: a facility visit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhipeng

    2010-01-01

    This study explores assisted living residents' walking behaviors, locations where residents prefer to walk, and walking environments in and around assisted living facilities. Regular walking is beneficial to older adults' physical and psychological health. Yet frail older residents in assisted living are usually too sedentary to achieve these benefits. The physical environment plays an important role in promoting physical activity. However, there is little research exploring this relationship in assisted living settings. The researcher visited 34 assisted living facilities in a major Texas city. Methods included walk-through observation with the Assisted Living Facility Walking Environment Checklist, and interviews with administrators by open- and close-ended questions. The data from 26 facilities were analyzed using descriptive statistics (for quantitative data) and content analysis (for qualitative data). The results indicate that (a) residents were walking both indoors and outdoors for exercise or other purposes (e.g., going to destinations); (b) assisted living facility planning and design details-such as neighborhood sidewalk conditions, facility site selection, availability of seating, walking path configuration (e.g., looped/nonlooped path), amount of shading along the path, presence of handrails, existence of signage, etc.-may influence residents' walking behaviors; and (c) current assisted living facilities need improvement in all aspects to make their environments more walkable for residents. Findings of the study provide recommendations for assisted living facilities to improve the walkability of environments and to create environmental interventions to promote regular walking among their residents. This study also implies several directions for future research.

  8. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  9. Nuclear facilities and environment - an overview of regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chande, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) operates the entire range of nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the country. The radioactive wastes generated in these facilities have to be disposed into the environment without any adverse effect. In doing so, utmost care is taken to ensure the highest level of safety to the environment, the general public and the occupational workers. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is entrusted with the responsibility of protecting workers, public and environment against undue hazards from ionising radiations. To achieve this objective, AERB exercises regulatory control on the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities. The disposal of radioactive effluents into the environment is governed by the Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, 1987. The regulatory aspects with respect to disposal of radioactive wastes are discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. On-site test of filters in nuclear facilities using radioactive sodium chloride (24Na)-aerosol and methyl iodide (131I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidam, N.Z.; Hansen, K.A.; Fenger, J.; Flyger, H.; Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1986-02-01

    The nuclar facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are equipped with high-efficiency filters to protect the environment from routine or accidental releases of radioactive material. The filter efficiency must be tested regularly and a method for on-site control is described. It is based on injection of a radioactive sample in the filter duct, followed by sampling before and after the filter. HEPA-filters are tested with a 24 NaCl-aerosol and charcoal filters with 131 ICH 3 . Normally samples of 1 mCi are used. Penetrations (1 - efficiency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty of 10-15%. (author)

  11. Aerosols from metal cutting techniques typical of decommissioning nuclear facilities - experimental system for collection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Barr, E.B.; Wong, B.A.; Ritter, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Decommissioning of radioactively contaminated sites has the potential for creating radioactive and other potentially toxic aerosols. We describe an experimental system to collect and characterize aerosols from metal cutting activities typical of those used in decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A special enclosure was designed for the experiment and consisted of a 2-in. x 4-in. stud frame with double walls of flame retardant polyethylene film. Large plexiglass windows allowed the cutting operations to be directed and filmed. Ventilation was 8500 L/min (300 CFM) exhausted through HEPA filters. Seven cutting techniques were evaluated: pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, oxy-acetylene torch, electric arc cut rod and plasma torch. Two grinding tools were also evaluated. Materials cut were 2-, 3- and 4-in. dia schedule 40, 80 and 180 type 304L stainless steel pipe. Basic studies were done on uncontaminated pipe. Four-inch-diameter sections of schedule 180 type 304L stainless steel pipe with radioactively contaminated internal surfaces were also cut. The experiments controlled important variables including tools, cutting technique, and type and thickness of material. 15 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  12. Nano size Aerosols of Radon Decay Products in Various Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn, alpha decay, t 1/2 = 3.82 days) is always accompanied by its short-lived decay products (RnDP): 218Po (alpha decay, t 1/2 = 3.10 min), 214Pb (beta/gamma decay, t 1/2 = 26.8 min), 214Bi (beta/gamma decay, t 1/2 = 19.9 min), and 214Po (alpha decay, t 1/2 = 164 μs). In indoor and outdoor air, they appear as unattached RnDP in the form of clusters in the size range 0.5-3 nm and as attached RnDP between 200 and 800 nm. Because of plate-out of aerosols on the walls and floor of a room, as well as air movement and entry of fresh air, radioactive equilibrium between RnDP and Rn in indoor air is only partly achieved and is expressed as a fraction between 0 and 1, called the equilibrium factor, F. Birchall and James elaborated a dosimetric approach to calculate the dose conversion factor, DCF D , based on f un . In this paper, the results of our studies on fun in 29 rooms of kindergartens and 26 rooms of elementary and high schools, at the lowest point and the railway station in the Postojna Cave, and in 4 rooms in wineries in Slovenia are reported, and DCF D values based on the Porstendorfer formulae are discussed and compared with the DCF E value recommended by ICRP-65

  13. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories.

  14. Aerosol Emissions from Fuse-Deposition Modeling 3D Printers in a Chamber and in Real Indoor Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Marina E; Pegues, Valerie; Van Montfrans, Schuyler; Leng, Weinan; Marr, Linsey C

    2017-09-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers are known to emit aerosols, but questions remain about their composition and the fundamental processes driving emissions. The objective of this work was to characterize the aerosol emissions from the operation of a fuse-deposition modeling 3D printer. We modeled the time- and size-resolved emissions of submicrometer aerosols from the printer in a chamber study, gained insight into the chemical composition of emitted aerosols using Raman spectroscopy, and measured the potential for exposure to the aerosols generated by 3D printers under real-use conditions in a variety of indoor environments. The average aerosol emission rates ranged from ∼10 8 to ∼10 11 particles min -1 , and the rates varied over the course of a print job. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) filaments generated the largest number of aerosols, and wood-infused polylactic acid (PLA) filaments generated the smallest amount. The emission factors ranged from 6 × 10 8 to 6 × 10 11 per gram of printed part, depending on the type of filament used. For ABS, the Raman spectra of the filament and the printed part were indistinguishable, while the aerosol spectra lacked important peaks corresponding to styrene and acrylonitrile, which are both present in ABS. This observation suggests that aerosols are not a result of volatilization and subsequent nucleation of ABS or direct release of ABS aerosols.

  15. Meteorological and Land Surface Properties Impacting Sea Breeze Extent and Aerosol Distribution in a Dry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Adele L.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Johnson, Jill S.

    2018-01-01

    The properties of sea breeze circulations are influenced by a variety of meteorological and geophysical factors that interact with one another. These circulations can redistribute aerosol particles and pollution and therefore can play an important role in local air quality, as well as impact remote sensing. In this study, we select 11 factors that have the potential to impact either the sea breeze circulation properties and/or the spatial distribution of aerosols. Simulations are run to identify which of the 11 factors have the largest influence on the sea breeze properties and aerosol concentrations and to subsequently understand the mean response of these variables to the selected factors. All simulations are designed to be representative of conditions in coastal sub tropical environments and are thus relatively dry, as such they do not support deep convection associated with the sea breeze front. For this dry sea breeze regime, we find that the background wind speed was the most influential factor for the sea breeze propagation, with the soil saturation fraction also being important. For the spatial aerosol distribution, the most important factors were the soil moisture, sea-air temperature difference, and the initial boundary layer height. The importance of these factors seems to be strongly tied to the development of the surface-based mixed layer both ahead of and behind the sea breeze front. This study highlights potential avenues for further research regarding sea breeze dynamics and the impact of sea breeze circulations on pollution dispersion and remote sensing algorithms.

  16. Ureterolithiasis: Management in an environment with limited facilities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the past 2–3 decades, there has been a dramatic development in the techniques of stone removal. This study highlights the management of symptomatic ureteral stones in an environment without such facilities. Materials and Methods: Sixty‑nine patients, comprising 53 (76.8%) males and 16 (23.2%) females ...

  17. Simulation of experiment on aerosol behaviour at severe accident conditions in the LACE experimental facility with the ASTEC CPA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.; Mavko, B.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment LACE LA4 on thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior in a nuclear power plant containment, which was performed in the LACE experimental facility, was simulated with the ASTEC CPA module of the severe accident computer code ASTEC V1.2. The specific purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the module (code) to simulate thermal-hydraulic conditions and aerosol behavior in the containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. The test was simulated with boundary conditions, described in the experiment report. Results of thermal-hydraulic conditions in the test vessel, as well as dry aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere, are compared to experimental results and analyzed. (author)

  18. Overview of TANGENT (Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube) 2017 IOP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiszenkel, L.

    2017-12-01

    New particle formation consists of two steps: nucleation and growth of nucleated particles. However, most laboratory studies have been conducted under conditions where these two processes are convoluted together, thereby hampering the detailed understanding of the effect of chemical species and atmospheric conditions on two processes. The objective of the Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth ENvironment Tube (TANGENT) laboratory study is to investigate aerosol nucleation and growth properties independently by separating these two processes in two different flow tubes. This research is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Delaware. In this poster we will present the experimental setup of TANGENT and summarize the key results from the first IOP (intense observation period) experiments undertaken during Summer 2017. Nucleation takes place in a temperature- and RH-controlled fast flow reactor (FT-1) where sulfuric acid forms from OH radicals and sulfur dioxide. Sulfuric acid and impurity base compounds are detected with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS). Particle sizes and number concentrations of newly nucleated particles are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and particle size magnifier (PSM), providing concentrations of particles between 1-100 nm. The nucleation particles are transferred directly to the growth tube (FT-2) where oxidants and biogenic organic precursors are added to grow nucleated nanoparticles. Sizes of particles after growth are analyzed with an additional SMPS and elemental chemical composition of 50 nm and above particles detected with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS). TANGENT provides the unique ability to conduct experiments that can monitor and control reactant concentrations, aerosol size and aerosol chemical composition during nucleation and growth. Experiments during this first IOP study have elucidated the effects of sulfur dioxide, particle size

  19. Virtual laboratories: Collaborative environments and facilities-on-line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). I and C Div.; Cavallini, J.S.; Seweryniak, G.R.; Kitchens, T.A.; Hitchcock, D.A.; Scott, M.A.; Welch, L.C. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Div.; Aiken, R.J. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Mathematical Information, and Computational Sciences Div.]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Stevens, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Sciences Div.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has major research laboratories in a number of locations in the US, typically co-located with large research instruments or research facilities valued at tens of millions to even billions of dollars. Present budget exigencies facing the entire nation are felt very deeply at DOE, just as elsewhere. Advances over the last few years in networking and computing technologies make virtual collaborative environments and conduct of experiments over the internetwork structure a possibility. The authors believe that development of these collaborative environments and facilities-on-line could lead to a ``virtual laboratory`` with tremendous potential for decreasing the costs of research and increasing the productivity of their capital investment in research facilities. The majority of these cost savings would be due to increased productivity of their research efforts, better utilization of resources and facilities, and avoiding duplication of expensive facilities. A vision of how this might all fit together and a discussion of the infrastructure necessary to enable these developments is presented.

  20. Publically Funded Recreation Facilities: Obesogenic Environments for Children and Families?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti-Jean Naylor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing healthy food options in public venues, including recreational facilities, is a health priority. The purpose of this study was to describe the public recreation food environment in British Columbia, Canada using a sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Facility audits assessed policy, programs, vending, concessions, fundraising, staff meetings and events. Focus groups addressed context and issues related to action. Eighty-eighty percent of facilities had no policy governing food sold or provided for children/youth programs. Sixty-eight percent of vending snacks were chocolate bars and chips while 57% of beverages were sugar sweetened. User group fundraisers held at the recreation facilities also sold ‘unhealthy’ foods. Forty-two percent of recreation facilities reported providing user-pay programs that educated the public about healthy eating. Contracts, economics, lack of resources and knowledge and motivation of staff and patrons were barriers to change. Recreation food environments were obesogenic but stakeholders were interested in change. Technical support, resources and education are needed.

  1. Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Weightless Environment Training Facility Material Coating Evaluation project has included preparing, coating, testing, and evaluating 800 test panels of three differing substrates. Ten selected coating systems were evaluated in six separate exposure environments and subject to three tests for physical properties. Substrate materials were identified, the manner of surface preparation described, and exposure environments defined. Exposure environments included immersion exposure, cyclic exposure, and field exposure. Cyclic exposures, specifically QUV-Weatherometer and the KTA Envirotest were found to be the most agressive of the environments included in the study when all three evaluation criteria are considered. This was found to result primarily from chalking of the coatings under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Volumes 2 and 3 hold the 5 appendices to this report.

  2. The System of the Calibration for Visibility Measurement Instrument Under the Atmospheric Aerosol Simulation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    formula, then it been divided by 3 is MOR. The aerosol concentration in chamber can be changed by adjusting aerosol generator that producing variety of visibility atmospherical environment. The experiment has been carried out and the measurement accuracy of atmospheric transmittance is 0.3‰ Corresponding to the accuracy of MOR 4.9% at the 2km visibility environment. So this system can be calibrated and validated the other visibility measuring devices.

  3. Description of test facilities bound to the research on sodium aerosols - some significant results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolias, M; Lafon, A; Vidard, M; Schaller, K H [DRNR/STRS - Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1977-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to the description of the CEA (French Atomic Energy Authority) testing located at CADARACHE and which are utilized for the study of sodium aerosols behavior. These testing loops are necessary for studying the operating of equipment such as filters, sodium vapour traps, condensers and separators. It is also possible to study the effect of characteristics parameters on formation, coagulation and carrying away of sodium aerosols in the cover gas. Sodium aerosols deposits in a vertical annular space configuration with a cold area in its upper part are also studied. Some significant results emphasize the importance of operating conditions on the formation of aerosols. (author)

  4. Aerosol size and chemical composition measurements at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Lab (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, P. L.; Tremblay, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Leaitch, R.; Kolonjari, F.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; AboEl Fetouh, Y.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in the Canadian High Arctic (80N, 86W). The current aerosol measurement program at PEARL has been ongoing for more than a year providing long-term observations of Arctic aerosol size distributions for both coarse and fine modes. Particle nucleation events were frequently observed during the summers of 2015 and 2016. The size distribution data are also compared against similar measurements taken at the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory (82N, 62W) for July and August 2015. The nucleation events are correlated at the two sites, despite a distance of approximately 500 km, suggesting regional conditions favorable for particle nucleation and growth during this period. Size resolved chemical composition measurements were also carried out using an aerosol mass spectrometer. The smallest measured particles between 40 and 60 nm are almost entirely organic aerosol (OA) indicating that the condensation of organic vapors is responsible for particle growth events and possibly particle nucleation. This conclusion is further supported by the relatively high oxygen content of the OA, which is consistent with secondary formation of OA via atmospheric oxidation.Lastly, surface measurements of the aerosol scattering coefficient are compared against the coefficient values calculated using Mie theory and the measured aerosol size distribution. Both the actual and the calculated scattering coefficients are then compared to sun photometer measurements to understand the relationship between surface and columnar aerosol optical properties. The measurements at PEARL provide a unique combination of surface and columnar data sets on aerosols in the High Arctic, a region where such measurements are scarce despite the important impact of aerosols on Arctic climate.PEARL research is supported by the Natural Sciences and

  5. Tritium monitoring for nuclear facilities and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaiyuan

    1995-12-01

    Reviews of achievement and great progress of tritium monitoring techniques for nuclear facility and environment in China over the past 30 years are made which including the development experiences of several important detectors and instruments for health physics monitoring on site and some sampling and measuring methods for environmental monitoring and assessment. Information on nation wide survey activities during 1970∼1980 years on natural environmental radioactivity level in China and the related tritium data are given. (28 refs., 6 tabs.)

  6. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  7. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, D.S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Dumka, U.C., E-mail: dumka@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital (India); Kaskaoutis, D.G. [School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Tehsil Dadri (India); Pipal, A.S. [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India); Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M. [India Meteorology Department, Lodhi Road, New Delhi (India); Tiwari, S. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, New Delhi (India)

    2015-07-15

    Particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM{sub 2.5} samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM{sub 2.5} (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM{sub 2.5} (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m{sup −3} (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m{sup −3}) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m{sup −3}) than daytime (103.8 μg m{sup −3}) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO{sub 3}{sup −}and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day{sup −1}) due to agricultural burning effects

  8. Carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants over Delhi urban environment: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisht, D.S.; Dumka, U.C.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Pipal, A.S.; Srivastava, A.K.; Soni, V.K.; Attri, S.D.; Sateesh, M.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected over Delhi, India during January to December 2012 and analysed for carbonaceous aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ) in order to examine variations in atmospheric chemistry, combustion sources and influence of long-range transport. The PM 2.5 samples are measured (offline) via medium volume air samplers and analysed gravimetrically for carbonaceous (organic carbon, OC; elemental carbon, EC) aerosols and inorganic ions (SO 4 2− and NO 3 − ). Furthermore, continuous (online) measurements of PM 2.5 (via Beta-attenuation analyser), black carbon (BC) mass concentration (via Magee scientific Aethalometer) and carbon monoxide (via CO-analyser) are carried out. PM 2.5 (online) range from 18.2 to 500.6 μg m −3 (annual mean of 124.6 ± 87.9 μg m −3 ) exhibiting higher night-time (129.4 μg m −3 ) than daytime (103.8 μg m −3 ) concentrations. The online concentrations are 38% and 28% lower than the offline during night and day, respectively. In general, larger night-time concentrations are found for the BC, OC, NO 3 − and SO 4 2− , which are seasonally dependent with larger differences during late post-monsoon and winter. The high correlation (R 2 = 0.74) between OC and EC along with the OC/EC of 7.09 (day time) and 4.55 (night-time), suggest significant influence of biomass-burning emissions (burning of wood and agricultural waste) as well as secondary organic aerosol formation during daytime. Concentrated weighted trajectory (CWT) analysis reveals that the potential sources for the carbonaceous aerosols and pollutants are local emissions within the urban environment and transported smoke from agricultural burning in northwest India during post-monsoon. BC radiative forcing estimates result in very high atmospheric heating rates (~ 1.8–2.0 K day −1 ) due to agricultural burning effects during the 2012 post-monsoon season. - Highlights: • Very high PM 2.5 (> 200 µg m −3 ) levels

  9. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.B.; Gentile, C.A.; Tully, C.G.; Austin, R.; Calaprice, F.; McDonald, K.; Ascione, G.; Baker, G.; Davidson, R.; Dudek, L.; Grisham, L.; Kugel, H.; Pagdon, K.; Stevenson, T.; Woolley, R.; Zwicker, A.

    2010-01-01

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m 3 ) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m 2 ) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10 13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m 2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned. The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new

  10. Phytochrome-mediated responses: Implications for controlled environment research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry

    1994-01-01

    Light is undoubtedly the most important environmental variable for plant growth and development; plants not only use radiant energy in photosynthesis, they also respond to the quantity, quality, direction and timing of incident radiation through photomorphogenic response that can have huge effects on the rate of growth and the pattern of development. It is surprising, therefore, that the manufacturers and suppliers of controlled environment facilities have been singularly uninventive in the design of the lighting assemblies they provide. The consumer has one choice only - a lighting assembly that provides irradiance levels usually only a fraction of sunlight, and a control system that is limited to regulating the timing of the on-off switch. The reasons for these limitations are partly technological, but in the main they result from ignorance on the part of both the consumer and the manufacturer. A specific and powerful example of this ignorance relates to the importance of the so-called far-red wavelengths (FR = 700-800 nm). Because the human eye can hardly detect wavelengths above 700 nm, and photosynthesis also cuts off at about 700 nm, the majority of plant and crop physiologists are still almost completely unaware that FR radiation can have massive effects on growth rate and development. In consequence, most growth cabinets have light sources based on fluorescent tubes, and provide very little FR apart from that emitted by a token number of small incandescent bulbs. Larger growth facilities often use broader spectrum light sources, but growth facilities that provide the capability to vary the FR incident upon the plants are about as abundant as seals in the Sahara. This article sets the background of the significance of FR radiation in the natural environment and its importance for plant growth and development in the hope that it might inform intelligently those concerned with improving the design of plant growth facilities.

  11. Phytochrome-mediated responses implications for controlled environment research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Light is undoubtedly the most important environmental variable for plant growth and development; plants not only use radiant energy in photosynthesis, they also respond to the quantity, quality, direction and timing of incident radiation through photomorphogenic responses that can have huge effects on the rate of growth and the pattern of development. It is surprising, therefore, that the manufacturers and suppliers of controlled environment facilities have been singularly uninventive in the design of the lighting assemblies they provide. The consumer has one choice only - a lighting assembly that provides irradiance levels usually only a fraction of sunlight, and a control system that is limited to regulating the timing of the on-off switch. The reasons for these limitations are partly technological, but in the main they result from ignorance on the part of both the consumer and the manufacturer. A specific and powerful example of this ignorance relates to the importance of the so-called far-red wavelengths (FR = 700-800 nm). Because the human eye can hardly detect wavelengths above 700 nm, and photosynthesis also cuts off at ca. 700 mn, the majority of plant and crop physiologists are still almost completely unaware that FR radiation can have massive effects on growth rate and development. In consequence, most growth cabinets have light sources based on fluorescent tubes, and provide very little FR apart from that emitted by a token number of small incandescent bulbs. Larger growth facilities often use broader spectrum light sources, but growth facilities that provide the capability to vary the FR incident upon the plants are about as abundant as seals in the Sahara. This article sets the background of the significance of FR radiation in the natural environment and its importance for plant growth and development in the hope that it might inform intelligently those concerned with improving the design of plant growth facilities.

  12. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  13. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  14. Dynamic parallel ROOT facility clusters on the Alice Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, C; Betev, L; Carminati, F; Grigoras, C; Saiz, P; Manafov, A

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has developed a production environment (AliEn) that implements the full set of the Grid tools enabling the full offline computational work-flow of the experiment, simulation, reconstruction and data analysis, in a distributed and heterogeneous computing environment. In addition to the analysis on the Grid, ALICE uses a set of local interactive analysis facilities installed with the Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF). PROOF enables physicists to analyze medium-sized (order of 200-300 TB) data sets on a short time scale. The default installation of PROOF is on a static dedicated cluster, typically 200-300 cores. This well-proven approach, has its limitations, more specifically for analysis of larger datasets or when the installation of a dedicated cluster is not possible. Using a new framework called PoD (Proof on Demand), PROOF can be used directly on Grid-enabled clusters, by dynamically assigning interactive nodes on user request. The integration of Proof on Demand in the AliEn framework provides private dynamic PROOF clusters as a Grid service. This functionality is transparent to the user who will submit interactive jobs to the AliEn system.

  15. Effective Density and Mixing State of Aerosol Particles in a Near-Traffic Urban Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rissler, Jenny; Nordin, Erik Z; Eriksson, Axel C

    2014-01-01

    -range transport from polluted continental areas. The effective density of each group was relatively stable over time, especially of the soot aggregates, which had effective densities similar to those observed in laboratory studies of fresh diesel exhaust emissions. When heated to 300 °C, the soot aggregate......In urban environments, airborne particles are continuously emitted, followed by atmospheric aging. Also, particles emitted elsewhere, transported by winds, contribute to the urban aerosol. We studied the effective density (mass-mobility relationship) and mixing state with respect to the density...... and more dense particles. Both groups were present at each size in varying proportions. Two types of temporal variability in the relative number fraction of the two groups were found: soot correlated with intense traffic in a diel pattern and dense particles increased during episodes with long...

  16. Evaluate of environment quality for γ irradiation facilities using fuzzy comprehensive judgment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Yiming

    2002-01-01

    The environment quality of Jining Irradiation Centre new γ radiation facility was evaluated by fuzzy comprehensive judgment method. The result showed that the place of γ radiation facility was well and the measures of radiate shelter and environment protect were effective. The environment quality of its area was not obvious change and the result of environment evaluation was first-rate

  17. A Pilot Study: The UNC Passive Aerosol Sampler in a Working Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdel, Mariam; Wingfors, Håkan; Andersson, Britt M; Sommar, Johan N; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Liljelind, Ingrid E

    2017-10-01

    Dust is generally sampled on a filter using air pumps, but passive sampling could be a cost-effective alternative. One promising passive sampler is the University of North Carolina passive aerosol sampler (UNC sampler). The aim of this study is to characterize and compare the UNC sampler's performance with PM10 and PM2.5 impactors in a working environment. Area sampling was carried out at different mining locations using UNC samplers in parallel with PM2.5 and PM10 impactors. Two different collection surfaces, polycarbonate (PC) and carbon tabs (CT), were employed for the UNC sampling. Sampling was carried out for 4-25 hours. The UNC samplers underestimated the concentrations compared to PM10 and PM2.5 impactor data. At the location with the highest aerosol concentration, the time-averaged mean of PC showed 24% and CT 35% of the impactor result for PM2.5. For PM10, it was 39% with PC and 58% with CT. Sample blank values differed between PC and CT. For PM2.5, PC blank values were ~7 times higher than those of CT, but only 1.8 times higher for PM10. The blank variations were larger for PC than for CT. Particle mass concentrations appear to be underestimated by the UNC sampler compared to impactors, more so for PM2.5 than for PM10. CT may be preferred as a collection surface because the blank values were lower and less variable than for PC. Future validations in the working environment should include respirable dust sampling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  18. Laser programs facility management plan for environment, safety, and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Laser Programs ES ampersand H policy is established by the Associate Director for Laser Programs. This FMP is one component of that policy. Laser Programs personnel design, construct and operate research and development equipment located in various Livermore and Site 300 buildings. The Programs include a variety of activities, primarily laser research and development, inertial confinement fusion, isotope separation, and an increasing emphasis on materials processing, imaging systems, and signal analysis. This FMP is a formal statement of responsibilities and controls to assure operational activities are conducted without harm to employees, the general public, or the environment. This plan identifies the hazards associated with operating a large research and development facility and is a vehicle to control and mitigate those hazards. Hazards include, but are not limited to: laser beams, hazardous and radioactive materials, criticality, ionizing radiation or x rays, high-voltage electrical equipment, chemicals, and powered machinery

  19. Studies on generation and transport of sodium aerosols in some test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, T.; Shimomura, T.; Hattori, N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical experiences that have been obtained during the course of the experiments to determine the sodium aerosol concentration, to study the deposition of sodium aerosol, and to predict mechanical properties of sodium vapor deposits are presented. In the first study, the sodium aerosol concentrations in an inert cover gas space over a sodium pool and those following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere were determined. The results from the two different experiments were compared with each other and were discussed in comparison with those from the literature. In the second study, deposition of sodium aerosol following a sodium spray injection into an inert atmosphere was examined. The deposition rates on the walls and the floor of a closed concrete cell were measured, and the results obtained were discussed. The third study relates to the sodium vapor deposition within a narrow annulus. In the experiments, a downward argon gas flow that passes the annulus was fed to prevent sodium vapor deposition. Average sodium vapor deposition rates on the walls of the annulus were determined, then the effect of the downward feed gas was discussed. The last study relates to one of the mechanical properties and the deformation rate of solid sodium being compressed. The purpose of the experiments were to obtain data to predict deformation rate of the sodium deposits. (author)

  20. The composition of aerosols generated during a severe reactor accident: Experimental results from the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.A.; Hobbins, R.R.; Hagrman, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental results on fission product and aerosol release during the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damages (SFD) Test 1-4 are examined to determine the composition of aerosols that would be generated during a severe reactor accident. The SFD 1-4 measured aerosol contained significant quantities of volatile fission products (VFPs) (cesium, iodine, tellurium), control materials (silver and cadmium), and structural materials (tin), indicating that fission product release, vaporization of control material, and release of tin from oxidized Zircaloy were all important aerosol sources. On average the aerosol composition is between one-quarter and one-half VFPs (especially cesium), with the remainder being control material (especially cadmium), and structural material (especially tin). Source term computer codes like CORSOR-M tend to overpredict the release of structural and control rod material relative to fission products by a factor of between 2 and 15 because the models do not account for relocation of molten control, fuel, and structural material during the degradation process, which tends to reduce the aerosol source. The results indicate that the aerosol generation in a severe reactor accident is intimately linked to the core degradation process. They recommend that these results be used to improve the models in source term computer codes

  1. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    to estimate the risk of infection by contact. The environmental control system (ECS) in a cabin creates air circulation mainly in the lateral direction, making lateral dispersions of aerosols much faster than longitudinal dispersions. Aerosols with initial sizes under 28 m in diameter can stay airborne......The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  2. Properties of aerosol floating in the air in a nuclear power plant workplace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, H.; Funabashi, M.; Ito, M.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on properties of radioactive aerosol floating in the air at several workplaces in nuclear power plant. The principal results are as follows: the aerosol particle size distributions consisted of two particle groups, whose aerodynamic diameters ranged from 4 to 7 microns and from 0.4 to 0.6 microns; the radioactive aerosol particle size distribution were unimodal. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was 6 microns, with geometric standard deviation microns; and, the average density of the aerosol was about 2.2g/cm 3 . (author)

  3. Tritium monitoring in environment at ICIT Tritium Separation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, Carmen; Stefanescu, I.; Vagner, Irina; Faurescu, I.; Toma, A.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project developed within the national nuclear energy research program, which is designed to develop the required technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation of heavy water. The process used in this installation is based on a combination between liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. Basically, there are two ways that the Cryogenic Pilot could interact with the environment: by direct atmospheric release and through the sewage system. This experimental installation is located 15 km near the region biggest city and in the vicinity - about 1 km, of Olt River. It must be specified that in the investigated area there is an increased chemical activity; almost the entire Experimental Cryogenic Pilot's neighborhood is full of active chemical installations. This aspect is really essential for our study because the sewerage system is connected with the other three chemical plants from the neighborhood. For that reason we progressively established elements of an environmental monitoring program well in advance of tritium operation in order to determine baseline levels. The first step was the tritium level monitoring in environmental water and wastewater of industrial activity from neighborhood. In order to establish the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities, we investigated the sample preparation treatment for different types of samples: onion, green beams, grass, apple, garden lettuce, tomato, cabbage, strawberry and grapes. We used azeotropic distillation of all types of samples, the carrier solvent being toluene from different Romanian providers. All measurements for the determination of environmental tritium concentration were performed using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with the Quantulus 1220 spectrometer. (authors)

  4. Aerosol transport simulations in indoor and outdoor environments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazuri, Andrea C.

    This dissertation focuses on aerosol transport modeling in occupational environments and mining sites in Arizona using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The impacts of human exposure in both environments are explored with the emphasis on turbulence, wind speed, wind direction and particle sizes. Final emissions simulations involved the digitalization process of available elevation contour plots of one of the mining sites to account for realistic topographical features. The digital elevation map (DEM) of one of the sites was imported to COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSRTM for subsequent turbulence and particle simulations. Simulation results that include realistic topography show considerable deviations of wind direction. Inter-element correlation results using metal and metalloid size resolved concentration data using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) under given wind speeds and directions provided guidance on groups of metals that coexist throughout mining activities. Groups between Fe-Mg, Cr-Fe, Al-Sc, Sc-Fe, and Mg-Al are strongly correlated for unrestricted wind directions and speeds, suggesting that the source may be of soil origin (e.g. ore and tailings); also, groups of elements where Cu is present, in the coarse fraction range, may come from mechanical action mining activities and saltation phenomenon. Besides, MOUDI data under low wind speeds (Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used as a source apportionment tool to identify areas that have an effect over specific sampling points and susceptible regions under certain meteorological conditions, and these conclusions can be supported with inter-element correlation matrices and lead isotope analysis, especially since there is limited access to the mining sites. Additional results concluded that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail, provides higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the

  5. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xu; Martinez, Alex; Schappert, Michael; Montoya, D.P.; Martinez, Patrick; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    A simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 deg C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements. (author)

  6. Overview of 3D-TRACE, a NASA Initiative in Three-Dimensional Tomography of the Aerosol-Cloud Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony; Diner, David; Yanovsky, Igor; Garay, Michael; Xu, Feng; Bal, Guillaume; Schechner, Yoav; Aides, Amit; Qu, Zheng; Emde, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key tool for sorting cloud ensembles by dynamical state, aerosol environments by source region, and establishing causal relationships between aerosol amounts, type, and cloud microphysics-the so-called indirect aerosol climate impacts, and one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate models. Current satellite imagers use data processing approaches that invariably start with cloud detection/masking to isolate aerosol air-masses from clouds, and then rely on one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer (RT) to interpret the aerosol and cloud measurements in isolation. Not only does this lead to well-documented biases for the estimates of aerosol radiative forcing and cloud optical depths in current missions, but it is fundamentally inadequate for future missions such as EarthCARE where capturing the complex, three-dimensional (3D) interactions between clouds and aerosols is a primary objective. In order to advance the state of the art, the next generation of satellite information processing systems must incorporate technologies that will enable the treatment of the atmosphere as a fully 3D environment, represented more realistically as a continuum. At one end, there is an optically thin background dominated by aerosols and molecular scattering that is strongly stratified and relatively homogeneous in the horizontal. At the other end, there are optically thick embedded elements, clouds and aerosol plumes, which can be more or less uniform and quasi-planar or else highly 3D with boundaries in all directions; in both cases, strong internal variability may be present. To make this paradigm shift possible, we propose to combine the standard models for satellite signal prediction physically grounded in 1D and 3D RT, both scalar and vector, with technologies adapted from biomedical imaging, digital image processing, and computer vision. This will enable us to demonstrate how the 3D distribution of atmospheric constituents, and their associated

  7. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, A.; Mabilia, R.; De Castro Vasconcellos, P.

    2001-01-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region [it

  8. First Results of the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” Experiment: Beyond Current Standards for PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Costabile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2017 the “Carbonaceous Aerosol in Rome and Environs (CARE” experiment was carried out in downtown Rome to address the following specific questions: what is the color, size, composition, and toxicity of the carbonaceous aerosol in the Mediterranean urban background area of Rome? The motivation of this experiment is the lack of understanding of what aerosol types are responsible for the severe risks to human health posed by particulate matter (PM pollution, and how carbonaceous aerosols influence radiative balance. Physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous aerosol were characterised, and relevant toxicological variables assessed. The aerosol characterisation includes: (i measurements with high time resolution (min to 1–2 h at a fixed location of black carbon (eBC, elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, particle number size distribution (0.008–10 μ m, major non refractory PM1 components, elemental composition, wavelength-dependent optical properties, and atmospheric turbulence; (ii 24-h measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble OC and brown carbon (BrC, and levoglucosan; (iii mobile measurements of eBC and size distribution around the study area, with computational fluid dynamics modeling; (iv characterisation of road dust emissions and their EC and OC content. The toxicological assessment includes: (i preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of ultrafine particles on lung epithelia cells (cultured at the air liquid interface and directly exposed to particles; (ii assessment of the oxidative stress induced by carbonaceous aerosols; (iii assessment of particle size dependent number doses deposited in different regions of the human body; (iv PAHs biomonitoring (from the participants into the mobile measurements. The first experimental results of the CARE experiment are presented in this paper. The objective here is to provide baseline levels of carbonaceous aerosols for Rome, and to address

  9. Performance confirmation operation of water environment control facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Tomita, Kenji; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Masaru; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. The material irradiation test facility is used for IASCC study, and consists of mainly three equipments. This report described performance operating test of the water environmental control facilities for IASCC study carried out 2013 fiscal year. (author)

  10. MIMI: Multimodality, Multiresource, Information Integration Environment for Biomedical Core Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administrativel...

  11. Annual limits on intake for aerosols in the working environment on Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, F.G.C.; Harte, G.A.

    1983-09-01

    Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for inhaled radionuclides given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are derived for single isotopes and for an aerosol size (AMAD) of 1 micron. A recent investigation into aerosols in the pond hall of a Magnox Power Station has demonstrated that the aerosol in the pond hall consists of particles of corroded fuel and that the size distribution has an AMAD nearer 6 microns than 1 micron. Experiments in rodents with a simulated pond hall aerosol indicate that clearance characteristics of these particles in the lung are closer to ICRP's class W classification than to any other. Accordingly ALIs were calculated as a function of particle size and for various cooling times for Magnox-fuel of burnup 3500 MWd/t and 7000 MWd/t. Separate values for alpha and beta activity were derived, based on stochastic and non-stochastic dose limits. For a 6 micron aerosol the ALI (α-activity) based on limiting the committed dose to bone surfaces lies between 120 and 320 Bq, depending on fuel burnup and cooling time. The ALI (β-activity) in the same circumstances lies between 10 4 and 8 x 10 4 Bq. Beta activity in the aerosol is dominated by the fission products but dose is overwhelmingly due to the actinides in the fuel. In addition an attempt was made to construct or to find a lung model which more closely represented the observed clearance to blood in the animal experiments. A recent model for large inhaled particles derived at the NRPB was found to give the best fit to the experimental data. ALIs derived on the basis of this model, for a 6 micron aerosol, are roughly 2 times higher than those based completely on the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  12. Aerosol and iodine removal from the head-end offgas of a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.; Wilhelm, J.C.

    The offgases of a reprocessing facility must be cleaned, removing liquid and solid suspended matter, gaseous iodine and ruthenium (in the form of RuO 4 ), and the noble gases and tritium. Suspended particulates which call for radiation protection are those radioisotopes like the actinides Pu, Am, and Cm, and other radioisotopes such as 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 89 Sr, 90 Sr and 144 Ce

  13. Hydrolysis of glyoxal in water-restricted environments: formation of organic aerosol precursors through formic acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Montu K; Francisco, Joseph S; Sinha, Amitabha

    2014-06-12

    The hydrolysis of glyoxal involving one to three water molecules and also in the presence of a water molecule and formic acid has been investigated. Our results show that glyoxal-diol is the major product of the hydrolysis and that formic acid, through its ability to facilitate intermolecular hydrogen atom transfer, is considerably more efficient than water as a catalyst in the hydrolysis process. Additionally, once the glyoxal-diol is formed, the barrier for further hydrolysis to form the glyoxal-tetrol is effectively reduced to zero in the presence of a single water and formic acid molecule. There are two important implications arising from these findings. First, the results suggest that under the catalytic influence of formic acid, glyoxal hydrolysis can impact the growth of atmospheric aerosols. As a result of enhanced hydrogen bonding, mediated through their polar OH functional groups, the diol and tetrol products are expected to have significantly lower vapor pressure than the parent glyoxal molecule; hence they can more readily partition into the particle phase and contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols. In addition, our findings provide insight into how glyoxal-diol and glyoxal-tetrol might be formed under atmospheric conditions associated with water-restricted environments and strongly suggest that the formation of these precursors for secondary organic aerosol growth is not likely restricted solely to the bulk aqueous phase as is currently assumed.

  14. Effects of a Facility Dog on Student Learning and Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jordana; Maldonado, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Educators must consider alternative teaching strategies. Facility dogs as an instructional enhancement are an innovative teaching approach. This case study, guided by human-animal bond theory, investigated how the presence of a trained facility dog, Smooch, affected the school environment. Interviews, field notes and observations were used to…

  15. Facility Energy Performance Benchmarking in a Data-Scarce Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    0.10 0.43 Commercial Studies Barracks Dining Facilities Vehicle Maintenance CBECS - 2003 •Dormitory •Fraternity •Sorority • Restaurant •Cafeteria...Vehicle service/repair shop CTS •Residence Hall/Dormitory •Food service • Restaurant /cafeteria •Vehicle service/repair •Vehicle DC - 2013 •Residence...Hall/Dormitory N/A N/A NYC - 2013 •Residence Hall/Dormitory • Restaurant •Food service •Automobile dealership CEUS •Lodging • Restaurant N/A CEC

  16. A study of the effect of non-spherical dust particles on Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Choi, M.; Lim, H.

    2017-12-01

    Non-spherical assumption of particle shape has been used to replace the spherical assumption in the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) aerosol optical properties retrievals for dust particles. GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithms are based on optimal estimation method to provide aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) at 443nm, and aerosol loading height (ALH) simultaneously as products. Considering computing time efficiency, the algorithm takes Look-Up Table (LUT) approach using Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer code (VLIDORT), and aerosol optical properties for three aerosol types of absorbing fine aerosol (BC), dust and non-absorbing aerosol (NA) are integrated from AERONET inversion data, and fed into the LUT calculation. In this study, by applying the present algorithm to OMI top-of the atmosphere normalized radiance, retrieved AOD, SSA with both spherical and non-spherical assumptions have been compared to the surface AERONET observations at East Asia sites for 3 years from 2005 to 2007 to evaluate and quantify the effect of non-spherical dust particles on the satellite aerosol retrievals. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) in the satellite retrieved AOD have been slightly reduced as a result of adopting the non-spherical assumption in the GEMS aerosol retrieval algorithm. For SSA, algorithm tested with spheroid models on dust particle shows promising results for the improved SSA. In terms of ALH, the results are qualitatively compared with CALIOP products, and shows consistent variation. This result suggests the importance of taking into account the effects of non-sphericity in the retrieval of dust particles from GEMS measurements.

  17. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ABOUT CLINICAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT IN THE PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY MEDICAL FACILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Dian Puspita; Rahayu, Gandes Retno; Kristina, Tri Nur

    2018-01-01

    Background: Learning environment is an important factor in learning process and can affect students' competence and work-readiness. Learning environment is not only about physical facilities but also social and psychological condition. The complexity of clinical learning environments pose challenges and problems that may affect students learning process so it is necessary to monitoring and evaluating students learning environments. This study aims to assess students' perception of their learn...

  18. Acoustical Environments. Educational Facilities Review Series Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Alan M.

    This review surveys documents and journal articles previously announced in RIE and CIJE that deal with the principles and techniques of sound transmission and control, particularly as they relate to school environments. School planners and administrators are advised that excessive acoustical insulation costs may be avoided by early decisions…

  19. National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The ES ampersand H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES ampersand H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK

  20. FBR structural material test facility in flowing sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugasundaram, M.; Kumar, Hemant; Ravi, S.

    2016-01-01

    In Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), components such as Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (DSRDM), Transfer arm and primary sodium pumps etc., are experiencing friction and wear between the moving parts in contact with liquid sodium at high temperature. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the friction and wear behaviour to validate the design of components. In addition, the above core structural reactor components such as core cover plate, control plugs etc., undergoes thermal striping which is random thermal cycling induced by flow stream resulting from the mixing of non isothermal jets near that component. This leads to development of surface cracks and assist in crack growth which in turn may lead to failure of the structural component. Further, high temperature components are often subjected to low cycle fatigue due to temperature gradient induced cyclic thermal stresses caused by start-ups, shutdowns and transients. Also steady state operation at elevated temperature introduces creep and the combination of creep and fatigue leads to creep-fatigue interactions. Therefore, resistance to low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue are important considerations in the design of FBR components. Liquid sodium is used as coolant and hence the study of the above properties in dynamic sodium are equally important. In view of the above, facility for materials testing in sodium (INSOT) has been constructed and in operation for conducting the experiments such as tribology, thermal stripping, low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue interaction etc. The salient features of the operation and maintenance of creep and fatigue loops of INSOT facility are discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Objectives of radiological environment protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the radiological environment protection is to avoid risks to the health of the population. But the risks from radiation can only be considered in connection with spontaneously occuring malignancies. The comparison shows that according to the maximum permissible doses in the German Ordinance of Radiation Protection the risks of radiation injury are so low that they cannot be detected relative to the spontaneous malignancies. (orig.) [de

  2. Observations of black carbon aerosols characteristics over an urban environment: Radiative forcing and related implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Samina; Alam, Khan; Chishtie, Farrukh; Bibi, Humera; Rahman, Said

    2017-12-15

    With observations of black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations, optical and radiative properties were obtained over the urban city of Karachi during the period of March 2006-December 2008. BC concentrations were continuously measured using an Aethalometer, while optical and radiative properties were estimated through the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) and Santa Barbra DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) models, respectively. For the study period, the measured BC concentrations were higher during January, February and November, while lower during May, June, July and August. A maximum peak value was observed during January 2007 while the minimum value was observed during June 2006. The Short Wave (SW) BC Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) both at Top of the Atmosphere (ToA) and within ATMOSphere (ATMOS) were positive during all the months, whereas negative SW BC ARF was found at the SurFaCe (SFC). Overall, SW BC ARF was higher during January, February and November, while relatively lower ARF was found during May, June, July and August. Conversely, the Long Wave (LW) BC ARF at ToA and SFC remained positive, whereas within ATMOS it shifted towards positive values (heating effect) during June-August. Finally, the net (SW+LW) BC ARF were found to be positive at ToA and in ATMOS, while negative at SFC. Moreover, a systematic increase in Atmospheric Heating Rate (AHR) was found during October to January. Additionally, we found highest correlation between Absorption Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD abs ) and SW BC ARF within ATMOS followed by SFC and ToA. Overall, the contribution of BC to the total ARF was found to greater than 84% for the whole observational period while contributing up to 93% during January 2007. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracing of aerosol sources in an urban environment using chemical, Sr isotope, and mineralogical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Ribeiro, Sara; Santos, José Francisco; Patinha, Carla; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Soares, Rosário; Duarte, Armando C

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of two national research projects (ORGANOSOL and CN-linkAIR), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) was sampled for 17 months at an urban location in the Western European Coast. The PM 2.5 samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), major water-soluble inorganic ions, mineralogical, and for the first time in this region, strontium isotope ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) composition. Organic matter dominates the identifiable urban PM 2.5 mass, followed by secondary inorganic aerosols. The acquired data resulted also in a seasonal overview of the carbonaceous and inorganic aerosol composition, with an important contribution from primary biomass burning and secondary formation processes in colder and warmer periods, respectively. The fossil-related primary EC seems to be continually present throughout the sampling period. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were measured on both the labile and residual PM 2.5 fractions as well as on the bulk PM 2.5 samples. Regardless of the air mass origin, the residual fractions are more radiogenic (representative of a natural crustal dust source) than the labile fractions, whose 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are comparable to that of seawater. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and the mineralogical composition data further suggest that sea salt and mineral dust are important primary natural sources of fine aerosols throughout the sampling period.

  4. Size distributions of aerosols in an indoor environment with engineered nanoparticle synthesis reactors operating under different scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim

    2010-01-01

    Size distributions of nanoparticles in the vicinity of synthesis reactors will provide guidelines for safe operation and protection of workers. Nanoparticle concentrations and size distributions were measured in a research academic laboratory environment with two different types of gas-phase synthesis reactors under a variety of operating conditions. The variation of total particle number concentration and size distribution at different distances from the reactor, off-design state of the fume hood, powder handling during recovery, and maintenance of reactors are established. Significant increases in number concentration were observed at all the locations during off-design conditions (i.e., failure of the exhaust system). Clearance of nanoparticles from the work environment was longer under off-design conditions (20 min) compared to that under normal hood operating conditions (4-6 min). While lower particle number concentrations are observed during operation of furnace aerosol reactors in comparison to flame aerosol reactors, the handling, processing, and maintenance operations result in elevated concentrations in the work area.

  5. Satellite-Surface Perspectives of Air Quality and Aerosol-Cloud Effects on the Environment: An Overview of 7-SEAS BASELInE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Buntoung, Sumaman; Chantara, Somporn; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Gabriel, Philip M.; Goodloe, Colby S.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of 7-SEASBASELInE (Seven SouthEast Asian Studies Biomass-burning Aerosols and Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) campaigns in spring 2013-2015 were to synergize measurements from uniquely distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)), MPLNET ( NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network)) and sophisticated platforms (e.g.,SMARTLabs (Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research and Testbed Laboratories), regional contributing instruments), along with satellite observations retrievals and regional atmospheric transport chemical models to establish a critically needed database, and to advance our understanding of biomass-burning aerosols and trace gases in Southeast Asia (SEA). We present a satellite-surface perspective of 7-SEASBASELInE and highlight scientific findings concerning: (1) regional meteorology of moisture fields conducive to the production and maintenance of low-level stratiform clouds over land; (2) atmospheric composition in a biomass-burning environment, particularly tracers-markers to serve as important indicators for assessing the state and evolution of atmospheric constituents; (3) applications of remote sensing to air quality and impact on radiative energetics, examining the effect of diurnal variability of boundary-layer height on aerosol loading; (4) aerosol hygroscopicity and ground-based cloud radar measurements in aerosol-cloud processes by advanced cloud ensemble models; and (5) implications of air quality, in terms of toxicity of nanoparticles and trace gases, to human health. This volume is the third 7-SEAS special issue (after Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, 2013; and Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, 2013) and includes 27 papers published, with emphasis on air quality and aerosol-cloud effects on the environment. BASELInE observations of stratiform clouds over SEA are unique, such clouds are embedded in a heavy aerosol-laden environment and feature characteristically greater

  6. Storage facilities for radioactive waste in tertiary education environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.; Benke, G.

    1994-01-01

    The research and teaching endeavors of the university environment generate an assortment of radioactive waste that is unique in the range of isotopes and activities present, although the physical quantities of the waste may not be large. Universities may also be subject to unexpected, close public scrutiny of their operations due to the diverse nature of the university campus. This is rarely the case for other generators of radioactive waste. The experience of Monash University in formulating solutions for long term storage of radioactive waste is examined with respect to design, location and administration of the waste stores that were finally constructed. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Comparing the nutrition environment and practices of home- and centre-based child-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Olivia J M; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M; Tucker, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    To assess and compare the nutrition environment and practices (as they relate to pre-schoolers) of centre- and home-based child-care facilities. Using a cross-sectional study design, nineteen child-care facilities (ten centre-based, nine home-based) were assessed for one full day using the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool (consisting of a day-long observation/review of the nutrition environment, practices and related documents). Specifically, eight nutrition-related subscales were considered. Child-care facilities in London, Ontario, Canada. Child-care facilities were recruited through directors at centre-based programmes and the providers of home-based programmes. The mean total nutrition environment EPAO scores for centre- and home-based facilities were 12·3 (sd 1·94) and 10·8 (sd 0·78) out of 20 (where a higher score indicates a more supportive environment with regard to nutrition), respectively. The difference between the total nutrition environment EPAO score for centre- and home-based facilities was approaching significance (P=0·055). For both types of facilities, the highest nutrition subscale score (out of 20) was achieved in the staff behaviours domain (centre mean=17·4; home mean=17·0) and the lowest was in the nutrition training and education domain (centre mean=3·6; home mean=2·0). Additional research is needed to confirm these findings. In order to better support child-care staff and enhance the overall nutrition environment in child care, modifications to food practices could be adopted. Specifically, the nutritional quality of foods/beverages provided to pre-schoolers could be improved, nutrition-related training for child-care staff could be provided, and a nutrition curriculum could be created to educate pre-schoolers about healthy food choices.

  8. Financing power facilities in the competitive bidding environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (open-quote FERC close-quote) issued proposed rules and guidelines for the use of competitive bidding by state utility commissions to chose new power supplies. Since then, more than 20 states have implemented bidding programs to determine the price and sources of incremental generating capacity. This presentation discusses the impact of the use of competitive bidding on how landers and equity investors perceive the risks of project-supported financing arrangements and describes the actions that project developers have taken to adapt the project financing process to win bidding contests and as importantly, successfully obtain project financing in spite of the open-quotes credit crunchclose quotes market environment

  9. The environment and urban adolescents' use of recreational facilities for physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Amy V; Gittelsohn, Joel; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Roche, Kathleen M; Clifton, Kelly J; Astone, Nan M

    2008-01-01

    Investigate environmental factors influencing the use of recreational facilities for physical activity by urban African-American adolescents. Qualitative in-depth interviews and direct observation. Two public high schools and 24 public recreational facilities in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-eight African-American adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. Data from 48 in-depth interviews and 26 observations were coded using NVivo software and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Facility use is influenced by characteristics of the physical, social, organizational, and economic environments. Adolescents are attracted to low-cost, well-maintained facilities that offer preferred activities and that are within close proximity to home. Adolescents with limited access to facilities use alternative play spaces, like the streets or vacant lots, where they risk injury from falling or being hit by a car. They are drawn to facilities where they find active adolescents, and they avoid those where young people are engaged in drug or gang activity. Concerns about facility safety largely determine use, particularly for adolescent girls. Previous research points to the importance of increasing facility availability as a means of promoting physical activity, particularly in minority communities in which availability is disproportionately limited. This study shows that, while availability is important, additional facility characteristics should be considered when using environmental change to promote facility use for physical activity.

  10. Plutonium in the aquatic environment around the Rocky Flats facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration has been fabricating and chemically recovering plutonium for over 20 years. During that time, small amounts of plutonium have been released with liquid process and sanitary waste discharges. The liquid waste flows through a series of holding ponds from which it is discharged into a creek that is part of a municipal drinking water supply. The water flows for about 1.5 km between the last holding pond and the municipal drinking water reservoir. In addition, liquid wastes containing high levels of chemical contaminants and plutonium concentrations less than allowable drinking water standards have been discharged to large evaporation ponds. The fate of the plutonium in both the surface and subsurface aquatic environment has been extensively monitored and studied. It has been found that plutonium does not move very far or very rapidly through subsurface water. The majority of the plutonium released through surface water has been contained in the sediments of the plant holding ponds. Small amounts of plutonium have also been found in the sediments of the draining creek and in the sediments of the receiving reservoir. Higher than normal amounts of plutonium were released from the waste treatment plants during times when suspended solids were high. Various biological species have been examined and plutonium concentration factors determined. Considerably less than 1% of the 210 mCi of plutonium released has been detected in biological systems including man. After more than 20 years of large scale operations, no health or environmental hazard has been identified due to the release of small amounts of plutonium. (author)

  11. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    I. Nuaaman; S.-M. Li; K. L. Hayden; T. B. Onasch; P. Massoli; D. Sueper; D. R. Worsnop; T. S. Bates; P. K. Quinn; R. McLaren

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR...

  12. Where there is no toilet: water and sanitation environments of domestic and facility births in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Benova

    Full Text Available Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives.We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones.42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%-44.2% of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%-2.0% were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%-42%. Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone.Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of

  13. Where there is no toilet: water and sanitation environments of domestic and facility births in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M R

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%-44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%-2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%-42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply more empirical definitions of WATSAN

  14. Where There Is No Toilet: Water and Sanitation Environments of Domestic and Facility Births in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Cumming, Oliver; Gordon, Bruce A.; Magoma, Moke; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inadequate water and sanitation during childbirth are likely to lead to poor maternal and newborn outcomes. This paper uses existing data sources to assess the water and sanitation (WATSAN) environment surrounding births in Tanzania in order to interrogate whether such estimates could be useful for guiding research, policy and monitoring initiatives. Methods We used the most recent Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to characterise the delivery location of births occurring between 2005 and 2010. Births occurring in domestic environments were characterised as WATSAN-safe if the home fulfilled international definitions of improved water and improved sanitation access. We used the 2006 Service Provision Assessment survey to characterise the WATSAN environment of facilities that conduct deliveries. We combined estimates from both surveys to describe the proportion of all births occurring in WATSAN-safe environments and conducted an equity analysis based on DHS wealth quintiles and eight geographic zones. Results 42.9% (95% confidence interval: 41.6%–44.2%) of all births occurred in the woman's home. Among these, only 1.5% (95% confidence interval: 1.2%–2.0%) were estimated to have taken place in WATSAN-safe conditions. 74% of all health facilities conducted deliveries. Among these, only 44% of facilities overall and 24% of facility delivery rooms were WATSAN-safe. Combining the estimates, we showed that 30.5% of all births in Tanzania took place in a WATSAN-safe environment (range of uncertainty 25%–42%). Large wealth-based inequalities existed in the proportion of births occurring in domestic environments based on wealth quintile and geographical zone. Conclusion Existing data sources can be useful in national monitoring and prioritisation of interventions to improve poor WATSAN environments during childbirth. However, a better conceptual understanding of potentially harmful exposures and better data are needed in order to devise and apply

  15. Exposure implications for uranium aerosols formed at a new laser enrichment facility: application of the ICRP Respiratory Tract and Systemic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansorbolo, E.; Hodgson, A.; Stradling, G.N.; Hodgson, S.; Metivier, H.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.; Jarvis, N.S.; Birchall, A

    1998-07-01

    A pilot enrichment facility developed in France employs laser technology. The development of this process has resulted in three different types of aerosols identified as variable mixtures of U{sub metal}+ UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. A procedure is described for assessing intakes and doses after inhalation of these dusts using site and material specific data in conjunction with the most recent ICRP biokinetic models. It is concluded that exposure control could be based on either radiotoxicity or chemical toxicity and that chest monitoring and urine assay could be useful, provided that measurements are made soon after a known acute intake. (author)

  16. Research on aerosol formation, aerosol behaviour, aerosol filtration, aerosol measurement techniques and sodium fires at the Laboratory for Aerosol Physics and Filter Technology at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S; Schikarski, W; Schoeck, W [Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of aerosols in LMFBR plant systems is of great importance for a number of problems, both normal operational and accident kind. This paper covers the following: aerosol modelling for LMFBR containment systems; aerosol size spectrometry by laser light scattering; experimental facilities and experimental results concerned with aerosol release under accident conditions; filtration of sodium oxide aerosols by multilayer sand bed filters.

  17. Research on aerosol formation, aerosol behaviour, aerosol filtration, aerosol measurement techniques and sodium fires at the Laboratory for Aerosol Physics and Filter Technology at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Schikarski, W.; Schoeck, W.

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of aerosols in LMFBR plant systems is of great importance for a number of problems, both normal operational and accident kind. This paper covers the following: aerosol modelling for LMFBR containment systems; aerosol size spectrometry by laser light scattering; experimental facilities and experimental results concerned with aerosol release under accident conditions; filtration of sodium oxide aerosols by multilayer sand bed filters

  18. Study of radioactive aerosols emissions and establishment of a model in a nuclear medicine environment during the use of a technetium generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the control of radioactive aerosols emissions inside the nuclear medicine facilities. These emissions occur during pulmonary scintigraphy examinations using aerosols marked with 99m Tc. Using a test chamber, we have developed a method permitting to quantify these emissions around the aerosol generator. A method dedicated to emissions measurement coming from the patient during the pulmonary ventilation is also described. The results obtained on one patient are exposed in this thesis. We characterized and modelled the ventilation of a complete nuclear medicine department with a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software. This permitted us to study the dissemination of the radioactive aerosol and to compare it with measures of ambient air activity. The numerical model of this department was then employed to test containment solutions and to help defining the best location for air contaminations sensors. An original method combining staff position information and the simulation of the dissemination for the aerosol released has been used to confirm the exposure levels for several professional groups and enhance the workplace studies. (author)

  19. Secondary organic aerosol origin in an urban environment: influence of biogenic and fuel combustion precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Marchand, N; Bertrand, A; Temime-Roussel, B; Agrios, K; Szidat, S; van Drooge, B; Sylvestre, A; Alastuey, A; Reche, C; Ripoll, A; Marco, E; Grimalt, J O; Querol, X

    2016-07-18

    Source contributions of organic aerosol (OA) are still not fully understood, especially in terms of quantitative distinction between secondary OA formed from anthropogenic precursors vs. that formed from natural precursors. In order to investigate the OA origin, a field campaign was carried out in Barcelona in summer 2013, including two periods characterized by low and high traffic conditions. Volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were higher during the second period, especially aromatic hydrocarbons related to traffic emissions, which showed a marked daily cycle peaking during traffic rush hours, similarly to black carbon (BC) concentrations. Biogenic VOC (BVOC) concentrations showed only minor changes from the low to the high traffic period, and their intra-day variability was related to temperature and solar radiation cycles, although a decrease was observed for monoterpenes during the day. The organic carbon (OC) concentrations increased from the first to the second period, and the fraction of non-fossil OC as determined by (14)C analysis increased from 43% to 54% of the total OC. The combination of (14)C analysis and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) OA source apportionment showed that the fossil OC was mainly secondary (>70%) except for the last sample, when the fossil secondary OC only represented 51% of the total fossil OC. The fraction of non-fossil secondary OC increased from 37% of total secondary OC for the first sample to 60% for the last sample. This enhanced formation of non-fossil secondary OA (SOA) could be attributed to the reaction of BVOC precursors with NOx emitted from road traffic (or from its nocturnal derivative nitrate that enhances night-time semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA)), since NO2 concentrations increased from 19 to 42 μg m(-3) from the first to the last sample.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment in the meat processing facilities in republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Jankuloski; Pavle Sekulovski; Risto Prodanov; Zehra Hajrulai Musliu; Biljana Stojanovska Dimzovska

    2007-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment was examined in seven meat processing facilities. Up to date prevalence of this foodborn pathogen in meat processing facilities facilities in Republic of Macedonia was unknown. Biofilms are composed from food spoilage microorganisms and food born pathogens. They are located on the surfaces of the equipment that come in contact with food and in facilities environment. Microorganisms in biofilm presenting micr...

  1. Real-Time Observations of Secondary Aerosol Formation and Aging from Different Emission Sources and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A. M.; Palm, B. B.; Hayes, P. L.; Day, D. A.; Cubison, M.; Brune, W. H.; Hu, W.; Flynn, J. H.; Grossberg, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglueck, B.; Bon, D.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J.; Kuster, W.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate atmospheric processing of direct urban and wildfire emissions, we deployed a photochemical flow reactor (Potential Aerosol Mass, PAM) with submicron aerosol size and chemical composition measurements during FLAME-3, a biomass-burning study at USDA Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, MT, and CalNex, a field study investigating the nexus of air quality and climate change at a receptor site in the LA-Basin at Pasadena, CA. The reactor produces OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air, achieving equivalent aging of ~2 weeks in 5 minutes of processing. The OH exposure (OHexp) was stepped every 20 min in both field studies. Results show the value of this approach as a tool for in-situ evaluation of changes in OA concentration and composition due to photochemical processing. In FLAME-3, the average OA enhancement factor was 1.42 × 0.36 of the initial POA. Reactive VOCs, such as toluene, monoterpenes, and acetaldehyde, decreased with increased OHexp; however, formic acid, acetone, and some unidentified OVOCs increased after significant exposure. Net SOA formation in the photochemical reactor increased with OHexp, typically peaking around 3 days of equivalent atmospheric photochemical age (OHexp ~3.9e11 molecules cm-3 s), then leveling off at higher exposures. Unlike other studies, no decrease in OA is observed at high exposure, likely due to lower max OHexp in this study due to very high OH reactivity. The amount of additional OA mass added from aging is positively correlated with initial POA concentration, but not with the total VOC concentration or the concentration of known SOA precursors. The mass of SOA formed often exceeded the mass of the known VOC precursors, indicating the likely importance of primary semivolatile/intermediate volatility species, and possibly of unidentified VOCs as SOA precursors in biomass burning smoke. Results from CalNex show enhancement of OA and inorganic aerosol from gas-phase precursors

  2. Quality of Learning Facilities and Learning Environment: Challenges for Teaching and Learning in Kenya's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndirangu, Mwangi; Udoto, Maurice O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report findings on the perceptions of quality of educational facilities in Kenyan public universities, and the implications for teaching/learning, and the learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: The study adopted an exploratory descriptive design. A total of 332 and 107 undergraduate students…

  3. The consequences of nuclear waste disposal facilities on public health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasi, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report, from the French parliament office for the evaluation of scientifical and technological choices, makes a status of the effluents and waste stocks from different types of nuclear facilities and analyzes the consequences of these effluents and wastes on the public health and on the environment. Finally, it examines the necessary scientifical, technical and legal improvements. (J.S.)

  4. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  5. Questionnaire survey report on measurement of radioactivity in working environment of radioisotopes facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    To look over the current measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environment of many radioisotopes facilities, a questionnaire survey was carried out under the auspices of the Planning Committee of the Japan Society of Radiation Safety Management. 64 responses were obtained in 128 radiation facilities, which the questionnaires were sent to. The main results were obtained by aggregate analysis of the answers for questionnaires as the followings. Major nuclides subject to measurement were 3 H, 14 C, 32 P and 125 I Sampling of radioisotopes in air was mainly performed using collectors like dust samplers and HC-collectors. Liquid scintillation counters and gamma counters were used to measure β and γ radioactivity contained in airborne particles or gas samples. Contamination by radioactivity was not detected in 55% facilities surveyed, but in 40% facilities at the same level as or at lower levels than a hundredth part of the regulated concentration limit of each nuclide. Almost all facilities is found to consider that the measurement of radioactivity concentration in working environments is not always necessary. (author)

  6. Device for increasing the safety in the environment of nuclear facilities in case of containment failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlock, G.; Wiesemes, J.; Bachner, D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to increase the safety in the environment of nuclear facilities, e.g. in case of containment failure, with respect to released radioactive material new or existing facilities are covered with ground. The ground material has got a consistency very much reducing the permeability for liquids and gases. In addition irrigation devices for keeping the ground wet and/or intermediate layers of films pervious to water, e.g. perforated sheets, may be provided. Additionally the ground is protected against frost. Especially suited for ground material is clay. (DG) [de

  7. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downs Shauna M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151 with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11% of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY

  8. Aerosols CFA 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    During the thirteen congress on aerosols several papers were presented about the behaviour of radioactive aerosols and their impact on environment, or the exposure to radon and to its daughters, the measurement of the size of the particulates of the short-lived radon daughters and two papers about the behaviour of aerosols in containment during a fission products release in the primary circuit and susceptible to be released in atmosphere in the case of containment failure. (N.C.)

  9. Minimizing Sources of Airborne, Aerosolized, and Contact Contaminants in the OR Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellino, Donna

    2017-12-01

    Surgical site infections are unintended consequences of surgery that can cause harm to patients and place financial burdens on health care organizations. Extrinsic factors in the OR-including health care providers' behavior and practices that modify air movement, the physical environment, equipment, or surgical instruments-can increase microbial contamination. Microbes can be transported into the surgical incision by airborne or contact routes and contribute to a surgical site infection. Simple practices to prevent infection-such as minimizing airborne particles and contaminants, maintaining equipment according to the manufacturer's recommendations, cleaning and disinfecting the environment and surgical instruments, and performing proper hand hygiene-can reduce the degree of microbial contamination. Perioperative leaders and health care providers can help decrease the patient's risk of surgical site infection with proactive preventive practices that break the chain of infection. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BASIC LAWS OF FORMATION OF INNOVATION HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING FACILITIES IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMIRNOVA O. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Formulation of the problem. Innovative buildings and structures are architectural objects, the distinguishing feature of which is the presence of certain levels of their formation - material and functional (provided certain functional purpose object and its material embodiment, art-shaped (the presence of an individual artistic image structural and process (use of new technologies and fundamentally new design; communication and of environmental (harmonious integration of the object in the environment. Absence of analogues - a prerequisite for innovative buildings. Innovative architectural and urban objects created in the development of civilization. Innovations in design and construction of architectural and urban facilities - this is the final result of the creation (design and development (implementation of a fundamentally new or modified facility satisfies human needs. Purpose. Consider the historical features of formation of innovative architectural and urban facilities in the urban environment. The main objectives - to identify the main types of innovative historical objects and identify patterns of their formation. Conclusions. The main historical innovative architectural and urban facilities were buildings and structures formed during two periods of historical development: in the pre-industrial period and during the industrial revolution.

  11. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena. (JRD)

  12. Control of the radiation environment and the worker in high-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy behind the prediction, measurement, monitoring and limitation by access control of the radiation hazard in high-energy accelerator facilities is compared with that which could be employed for controlling similar hazards due to cosmic radiation in civil aircraft flights. Special mention is made of computer simulations of the radiation environment as a means of predicting necessary control measures, of the reliability and integration of radiation measuring devices into control procedures and of the relevance of different access control procedures. (author)

  13. Hanford environment as related to radioactive waste burial grounds and transuranium waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed characterization of the existing environment at Hanford was provided by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) in the Final Environmental Statement, Waste Management Operations, Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington, December 1975. Abbreviated discussions from that document are presented together with current data, as they pertain to radioactive waste burial grounds and interim transuranic (TRU) waste storage facilities. The discussions and data are presented in sections on geology, hydrology, ecology, and natural phenomena

  14. Season-dependent size distribution of aerosols over the tropical coastal environment of south-west India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryasree, S.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study on the size characteristics of aerosols at the tropical coastal site Thiruvananthapuram based on the in-situ measurements of size resolved aerosol number density using an aerosol spectrometer, covering a period of 28 months from September 2011 to December 2013. The diurnal pattern of aerosol number density is characterized by day time low and a two-fold increase during nighttime and these changes are closely associated with the strong mesoscale features namely the sea breeze and land breeze prevailing at the site. Aerosol Number Size Distribution (NSD) depicts a multi-modal nature with two prominent modes, one ≤0.1 μm and other ∼1 μm. Two other less pronounced modes are also observed in the NSD, one ∼0.3-0.5 μm and other ∼5-8 μm. The NSDs also exhibited strong seasonal changes linked with the synoptic meteorological feature of this region namely the South Asian monsoon. The seasonal NSDs were parameterized and analyzed. In addition to this, the effects of meteorological parameters temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and airflow patterns on aerosol number density as revealed by partial correlation analysis were found to be aerosol size dependent.

  15. The ALARA assessment system based on virtual concurrent environment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kang, ShinYoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations.

  16. The ALARA assessment system based on virtual concurrent environment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kang, ShinYoung

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations

  17. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  18. Reliability Verification of DBE Environment Simulation Test Facility by using Statistics Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kyung Nam; Kim, Jong Soeg; Jeong, Sun Chul; Kyung Heum

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant, all the safety-related equipment including cables under the harsh environment should perform the equipment qualification (EQ) according to the IEEE std 323. There are three types of qualification methods including type testing, operating experience and analysis. In order to environmentally qualify the safety-related equipment using type testing method, not analysis or operation experience method, the representative sample of equipment, including interfaces, should be subjected to a series of tests. Among these tests, Design Basis Events (DBE) environment simulating test is the most important test. DBE simulation test is performed in DBE simulation test chamber according to the postulated DBE conditions including specified high-energy line break (HELB), loss of coolant accident (LOCA), main steam line break (MSLB) and etc, after thermal and radiation aging. Because most DBE conditions have 100% humidity condition, in order to trace temperature and pressure of DBE condition, high temperature steam should be used. During DBE simulation test, if high temperature steam under high pressure inject to the DBE test chamber, the temperature and pressure in test chamber rapidly increase over the target temperature. Therefore, the temperature and pressure in test chamber continue fluctuating during the DBE simulation test to meet target temperature and pressure. We should ensure fairness and accuracy of test result by confirming the performance of DBE environment simulation test facility. In this paper, in order to verify reliability of DBE environment simulation test facility, statistics method is used

  19. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Kristýna; Wittlingerová, Zdeňka; Zimová, Magdaléna; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency of a filter based sampling method and a high volume sampling method for sampling airborne culturable fungi present in waste sorting facilities. Membrane filters method was compared with surface air system method. The selected sampling methods were modified and tested in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities. The total number of colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of airborne fungi was dependent on the type of sampling device, on the time of sampling, which was carried out every hour from the beginning of the work shift, and on the type of cultivation medium (p airborne fungi ranged 2×102-1.7×106 CFU/m3 when using the membrane filters (MF) method, and 3×102-6.4×104 CFU/m3 when using the surface air system (SAS) method. Both methods showed comparable sensitivity to the fluctuations of the concentrations of airborne fungi during the work shifts. The SAS method is adequate for a fast indicative determination of concentration of airborne fungi. The MF method is suitable for thorough assessment of working environment contamination by airborne fungi. Therefore we recommend the MF method for the implementation of a uniform standard methodology of airborne fungi sampling in working environments of waste treatment facilities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  1. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  2. Evolution of Multispectral Aerosol Absorption Properties in a Biogenically-Influenced Urban Environment during the CARES Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyawali, Madhu; Arnott, W.; Zaveri, Rahul; Song, Chen; Flowers, Bradley; Dubey, Manvendra; Setyan, Ari; Zhang, Qi; China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Subramanian, R.; Moosmüller, Hans

    2017-11-01

    We present the evolution of multispectral optical properties as urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions resulting in stronger short wavelength absorption and formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols. Ground-based aerosol measurements were made during June 2010 within the Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Data on black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition were collected at both sites. In addition, photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers were used to measure spectral absorption and scattering coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 870 nm. The daytime absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) indicated a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. From the 22nd to the 28th of June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the median BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for 405 nm and 532 nm at T1 increased by ~23% and ~35%, respectively, compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for the 870 nm wavelength were similar for both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary organic aerosols in biogenically-influenced urban air.

  3. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with ...

  4. Dynamic high energy density plasma environments at the National Ignition Facility for nuclear science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerjan, Ch J.; Bernstein, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Brune, C. R.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G.; Hagmann, Chr; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Henry, E. A.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khater, H. Y.; Kim, Y.; Kritcher, A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Merrill, F.; Moody, K.; Neumayer, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, Ch; Velsko, C.; Wiescher, M.; Couder, M.; Zylstra, A.; Schneider, D.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of dynamic high energy density plasmas in the pico- to nano-second time domain at high-energy laser facilities affords unprecedented nuclear science research possibilities. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the primary goal of inertial confinement fusion research has led to the synergistic development of a unique high brightness neutron source, sophisticated nuclear diagnostic instrumentation, and versatile experimental platforms. These novel experimental capabilities provide a new path to investigate nuclear processes and structural effects in the time, mass and energy density domains relevant to astrophysical phenomena in a unique terrestrial environment. Some immediate applications include neutron capture cross-section evaluation, fission fragment production, and ion energy loss measurement in electron-degenerate plasmas. More generally, the NIF conditions provide a singular environment to investigate the interplay of atomic and nuclear processes such as plasma screening effects upon thermonuclear reactivity. Achieving enhanced understanding of many of these effects will also significantly advance fusion energy research and challenge existing theoretical models.

  5. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of bacteria-like particles to PM2.5 aerosol in urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dällenbach, K.; Bruns, E.; Vasilescu, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report highly time-resolved estimates of airborne bacteria-like particle concentrations in ambient aerosol using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). AMS measurements with a newly developed PM2.5 and the standard (PM1) aerodynamic lens were performed at an urban background site (Zurich) and at a rural site (Payerne) in Switzerland. Positive matrix factorization using the multilinear engine (ME-2) implementation was used to estimate the contribution of bacteria-like particles to non-refractory organic aerosol. The success of the method was evaluated by a size-resolved analysis of the organic mass and the analysis of single particle mass spectra, which were detected with a light scattering system integrated into the AMS. Use of the PM2.5 aerodynamic lens increased measured bacteria-like concentrations, supporting the analysis method. However, at all sites, the low concentrations of this component suggest that airborne bacteria constitute a minor fraction of non-refractory PM2.5 organic aerosol mass. Estimated average mass concentrations were below 0.1 μg/m3 and relative contributions were lower than 2% at both sites. During rainfall periods, concentrations of the bacteria-like component increased considerably reaching a short-time maximum of approximately 2 μg/m3 at the Payerne site in summer.

  7. Impact of human presence on secondary organic aerosols derived from ozone-initiated chemistry in a simulated office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadeyi, Moshood O.; Weschler, Charles J.; Tham, Kwok W.

    2013-01-01

    's reactions with various indoor pollutants. The present study examines this possibility for secondary organic aerosols (SOA) derived from ozone-initiated chemistry with limonene, a commonly occurring indoor terpene. The experiments were conducted at realistic ozone and limonene concentrations in a 240 m3...

  8. Structural signatures of water-soluble organic aerosols in contrasting environments in South America and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Matos, João T V; Paula, Andreia S; Lopes, Sónia P; Pereira, Guilherme; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Gioda, Adriana; Carreira, Renato; Silva, Artur M S; Duarte, Armando C; Smichowski, Patricia; Rojas, Nestor; Sanchez-Ccoyllo, Odon

    2017-08-01

    This study describes and compares the key structural units present in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) fraction of atmospheric aerosols collected in different South American (Colombia - Medellín and Bogotá, Peru - Lima, Argentina - Buenos Aires, and Brazil - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Porto Velho, during moderate (MBB) and intense (IBB) biomass burning) and Western European (Portugal - Aveiro and Lisbon) locations. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the relative distribution of non-exchangeable proton functional groups in aerosol WSOC of diverse origin, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in South America. The relative contribution of the proton functional groups was in the order H-C > H-C-C= > H-C-O > Ar-H, except in Porto Velho during MBB, Medellín, Bogotá, and Buenos Aires, for which the relative contribution of H-C-O was higher than that of H-C-C=. The 1 H NMR source attribution confirmed differences in aging processes or regional sources between the two geographic regions, allowing the differentiation between urban combustion-related aerosol and biological particles. The aerosol WSOC in Aveiro, Lisbon, and Rio de Janeiro during summer are more oxidized than those from the remaining locations, indicating the predominance of secondary organic aerosols. Fresh emissions, namely of smoke particles, becomes important during winter in Aveiro and São Paulo, and in Porto Velho during IBB. The biosphere is an important source altering the chemical composition of aerosol WSOC in South America locations. The source attribution in Medellín, Bogotá, Buenos Aires, and Lima confirmed the mixed contributions of biological material, secondary formation, as well as urban and biomass burning emissions. Overall, the information and knowledge acquired in this study provide important diagnostic tools for future studies aiming at understanding the water-soluble organic aerosol problem, their sources and

  9. Evolution of multispectral aerosol optical properties in a biogenically-influenced urban environment during the CARES campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Pekour, M.; Flowers, B.; Dubey, M. K.; Setyan, A.; Zhang, Q.; Harworth, J. W.; Radney, J. G.; Atkinson, D. B.; China, S.; Mazzoleni, C.; Gorkowski, K.; Subramanian, R.; Jobson, B. T.; Moosmüller, H.

    2013-03-01

    Ground-based aerosol measurements made in June 2010 within Sacramento urban area (site T0) and at a 40-km downwind location (site T1) in the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area are used to investigate the evolution of multispectral optical properties as the urban aerosols aged and interacted with biogenic emissions. Along with black carbon and non-refractory aerosol mass and composition observations, spectral absorptio (βabs), scattering (βsca), and extinction (βext) coefficients for wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm were measured at both sites using photoacoustic (PA) instruments with integrating nephelometers and using cavity ring-down (CRD) instruments. The daytime average Ångström exponent of absorption (AEA) was ~1.6 for the wavelength pair 405 and 870 nm at T0, while it was ~1.8 for the wavelength pair 355 and 870 nm at T1, indicating a modest wavelength-dependent enhancement of absorption at both sites throughout the study. The measured and Mie theory calculations of multispectral βsca showed good correlation (R2=0.85-0.94). The average contribution of supermicron aerosol (mainly composed of sea salt particles advected in from the Pacific Ocean) to the total scattering coefficient ranged from less than 20% at 405 nm to greater than 80% at 1064 nm. From 22 to 28 June, secondary organic aerosol mass increased significantly at both sites due to increased biogenic emissions coupled with intense photochemical activity and air mass recirculation in the area. During this period, the short wavelength scattering coefficients at both sites gradually increased due to increase in the size of submicron aerosols. At the same time, BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) values for ultraviolet wavelengths at T1 increased by ~60% compared to the relatively less aged urban emissions at the T0 site. In contrast, the average MAC values for 870 nm wavelength were identical at both sites. These results suggest formation of moderately brown secondary

  10. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The San Joaquin Valley (SJV in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1 concentration was 31.0 µg m−3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %, followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %. High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.09 associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.19 associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.60 most likely

  11. Influence of the environment and phototoxicity of the live cell imaging system at IMP microbeam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe; Chen, Hao; Li, Yaning; Zhao, Jing; Li, Xiaoyue

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of DNA damage and repair after the ion irradiation, an online live cell imaging system has been established based on the microbeam facility at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP). The system could provide a sterile and physiological environment by making use of heating plate and live cell imaging solution. The phototoxicity was investigated through the evaluation of DNA repair protein XRCC1 foci formed in HT1080-RFP cells during the imaging exposure. The intensity of the foci induced by phototoxicity was much lower compared with that of the foci induced by heavy ion hits. The results showed that although spontaneous foci were formed due to RFP exposure during live cell imaging, they had little impact on the analysis of the recruitment kinetics of XRCC1 in the foci induced by the ion irradiation.

  12. Pb isotope composition in lichens and aerosols from eastern Sicily: Insights into the regional impact of volcanoes on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. (Institut FA Forel (Switzerland)); Aiuppa, A.; Varrica, D. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy)); Dongarra, G. (Dipt. C.F.T.A., Palermo (Italy) CNR, Palermo (Italy). Istituto Geochimica dei Fluidi)

    1999-08-01

    A total of 25 lichen thalli of Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh), collected at Vulcano island and at Mt. Etna, during a one-year biogeochemical survey, were analyzed for Pb, br, Al, Sc,[sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb/[sup 206]Pb ratios. Lead isotope ratios were also measured on aerosol samples from urban areas and industrial sites of Sicily. The observed [sup 206]Pb/[sup 207]Pb range for urban and industrial aerosols matches the anthropogenic signature. Lichens instead, are closer to the compositional field of [sup 206]Pb rich geogenic sources. This natural input is more evident at Vulcano island than at Mt. Etna, where the anthropogenic activities are considerably more effective. On the basis of lead isotope data, Pb/Br ratios and calculated lead enrichment factors, a natural lead pollution from volcanoes is suggested. Volcanic lead contribution ranges from 10 to 30% at Mt. Etna to 10--80% at Vulcano island.

  13. Lessons learned from case studies of worker exposures to radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Guilmette, R.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable efforts in the aerosol science and health protection communities are devoted to developing a defensible technical basis for measuring, modeling, and mitigating toxic aerosols. These efforts involve understanding aerosol source terms, projecting potential aerosol releases, describing their behavior in the workplace and environment, developing instruments and techniques to measure the aerosols, designing ways to contain or control the aerosols, modeling and measuring uptake by workers and other people, estimating health effects, and planning appropriate responses. To help in this effort, we have compiled a data base of case studies involving releases of aerosols and worker exposures in a wide range of industries. Sources of information have included personal communications, limited distribution reports, open literature publications, and reports of abnormal occurrences in U.S. Department of Energy facilities and among licensees of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data base currently includes more than 100 cases. The case studies have been organized according to the radionuclides involved and the circumstances and consequences of the release. This information has been used to address a number of important questions, such as the adequacy of current aerosol sampling and monitoring procedures, areas needing improvement, and strategies for planning for or responding to accidents. One area of particular interest is related to strategies for prospective or retrospective characterization of aerosol source terms. In some cases, worker exposures have involved aerosols that are similar in particle size distribution, composition, and solubility to aerosols routinely produced in the normal process activities. In such cases, prospective characterization of aerosol source terms has provided relevant and useful information

  14. A Phenomenological Study of the Work Environment in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sandy Pin Pin; Yeung, Cheryl Chi Yan; Lee, Joseph Kok Long

    2018-05-01

    Attempts to meet the increasing demand for long-term care (LTC) services have been hindered by acute staff shortages and high turnover. Distinct from previous studies, a descriptive phenomenological approach with van Kaam's controlled explication method was adopted in this study, to delineate how attributes of the LTC work environment shape the workforce crisis. Individual interviews were conducted with 40 LTC workers from 10 facilities in Hong Kong. The results suggest that the work environment in LTC facilities is not only characterized by organization- and job-related attributes that influence staff outcomes but also is a socially constructed concept with derogatory connotations that can influence staff recruitment and retention. Concerted efforts from facility administrators and policy makers are needed to improve the quality of the work environment. Future initiatives should focus on developing a vision and strategic plan to facilitate the rise of the LTC sector as a profession.

  15. Organic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN

  16. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  17. Installation of the water environment irradiation facility for the IASCC research under the BWR irradiation environment (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yuji; Magome, Hirokatsu; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Ohmi, Masao; Kanno, Masaru; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Shibata, Mitsunobu; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu

    2013-10-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material is advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. This material irradiation test facility and power ramping test facility for doing the neutron irradiation test of the fuel and material for light water reactors is scheduled to be manufactured and installed between the 2008 fiscal year and the 2012 fiscal year. This report summarizes manufacture and installation of the material irradiation test facility for IASCC research carried out from the 2008 fiscal year to the 2010 fiscal year. (author)

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of carbonaceous aerosols: Assessing the impact of biomass burning in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titos, G; Del Águila, A; Cazorla, A; Lyamani, H; Casquero-Vera, J A; Colombi, C; Cuccia, E; Gianelle, V; Močnik, G; Alastuey, A; Olmo, F J; Alados-Arboledas, L

    2017-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a significant source of atmospheric particles in many parts of the world. Whereas many studies have demonstrated the importance of BB emissions in central and northern Europe, especially in rural areas, its impact in urban air quality of southern European countries has been sparsely investigated. In this study, highly time resolved multi-wavelength absorption coefficients together with levoglucosan (BB tracer) mass concentrations were combined to apportion carbonaceous aerosol sources. The Aethalometer model takes advantage of the different spectral behavior of BB and fossil fuel (FF) combustion aerosols. The model was found to be more sensitive to the assumed value of the aerosol Ångström exponent (AAE) for FF (AAE ff ) than to the AAE for BB (AAE bb ). As result of various sensitivity tests the model was optimized with AAE ff =1.1 and AAE bb =2. The Aethalometer model and levoglucosan tracer estimates were in good agreement. The Aethalometer model was further applied to data from three sites in Granada urban area to evaluate the spatial variation of CM ff and CM bb (carbonaceous matter from FF or BB origin, respectively) concentrations within the city. The results showed that CM bb was lower in the city centre while it has an unexpected profound impact on the CM levels measured in the suburbs (about 40%). Analysis of BB tracers with respect to wind speed suggested that BB was dominated by sources outside the city, to the west in a rural area. Distinguishing whether it corresponds to agricultural waste burning or with biomass burning for domestic heating was not possible. This study also shows that although traffic restrictions measures contribute to reduce carbonaceous concentrations, the extent of the reduction is very local. Other sources such as BB, which can contribute to CM as much as traffic emissions, should be targeted to reduce air pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12 yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain specially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μg m-3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC) with very little elemental carbon (EC), around 0.1 μg m-3; OC / EC = 12-15), to the highly polluted major cities (8-10 μg m-3 of nmC; 3-4 μg m-3 of EC; 4-5 μg m-3 of OC; OC / EC = 1-2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning and of biogenic emissions. Correlations between yearly averaged OC / EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC = 3.37 EC0.326, R2 = 0.8). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (OC = 3.60EC0.491, R2 = 0.7). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance from road, traffic volume and density, mixing-layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend for

  20. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be

  1. Gaps in perceived quality of facility services between stakeholders in the built learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Herman; Mobach, Mark P.; Omta, Onno; Alexander, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to identify perception gaps on the quality of facility services among different users of educational buildings, and provide possible explanations for these perception gaps, and discussing the consequences regarding Facility Management (FM) governance.

  2. The assessment system based on virtual decommissioning environments to reduce abnormal hazards from human errors for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Byung Seon; Hyun, Dong jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities has to be accomplished by assuring the safety of workers. So, it is necessary that before decommissioning, the exposure dose to workers has to be analyzed and assessed under the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable). Furthermore, to improve the proficiency of decommissioning environments, method and system need to be developed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities, it is necessary that assessment system is developed. This system has been successfully developed so that exposure dose to workers could be real-time measured and assessed in virtual decommissioning environments. It can be concluded that this system could be protected from accidents and enable workers to improve his familiarization about working environments. It is expected that this system can reduce human errors because workers are able to improve the proficiency of hazardous working environments due to virtual training like real decommissioning situations.

  3. Does health facility service environment matter for the receipt of essential newborn care? Linking health facility and household survey data in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Aguirre, Liliana; Mehra, Vrinda; Amouzou, Agbessi; Khan, Shane M; Vaz, Lara; Guenther, Tanya; Kalino, Maggie; Zaka, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Health facility service environment is an important factor for newborns survival and well-being in general and in particular in high mortality settings such as Malawi where despite high coverage of essential interventions, neonatal mortality remains high. The aim of this study is to assess whether the quality of the health service environment at birth is associated with quality of care received by the newborn. We used data from the Malawi Millennium Development Goals Endline household survey conducted as part of MICS survey program and Service Provision Assessment Survey carried out in 2014. The analysis is based on 6218 facility births that occurred during the past 2 years. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate random effect models are used to assess the association of health facility service readiness score for normal deliveries and newborn care with newborns receiving appropriate newborn care, defined for this analysis as receiving 5 out of 6 recommended interventions during the first 2 days after birth. Newborns in districts with top facility service readiness score have 1.5 higher odds of receiving appropriate newborn care (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.19-1.95, P  = 0.001), as compared to newborns in districts with a lower facility score after adjusting for potential confounders. Newborns in the Northern region were two times more likely to receive 5 newborn care interventions as compared to newborns in the Southern region (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.50-2.83, P  < 0.001). Living in urban or rural areas did not have an impact on receiving appropriate newborn care. There is need to increase the level of service readiness across all facilities, so that all newborns irrespective of the health facility, district or region of delivery are able to receive all recommended essential interventions. Investments in health systems in Malawi should concentrate on increasing training and availability of

  4. Stack released plutonium in the environment of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, J.H.; Sanders, S.M.; Corey, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical separations facilities at the Savannah River Plant have released very small quantities of plutonium to the environment since 1955. Characterization studies of airborne particulates from the process stack show that the plutonium is nearly always attached to nonradioactive particles. The geometric mean diameter of plutonium-bearing particulates in the stack gas is 5.43 μm. Most of the particles contain less than 10 -15 Ci of 239 Pu. Studies with cascade impactors 1.1 m above the ground indicated that the average annual air concentration was 612 x 10 -18 Ci/m 3 (less than 0.1% of the maximum permissible concentration recommended by the ICRP). Cropping studies showed plutonium concentrations of 3 x 10 -3 pCi/g in wheat, 5.5 x 10 -4 in soybeans, and 1.7 x 10 -4 in corn. The 70-year dose-to-bone from ingesting 10 5 g of grain would be less than 1 mrem

  5. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  6. Real-time assessment of exposure dose to workers in radiological environments during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok; Jeong, SeongYoung; Lee, JungJun; Song, HaeSang; Lee, SangWha; Son, BongKi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method of exposure dose assessment to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • The environments of simulation were designed under a virtual reality. • To assess exposure dose to workers, human model was developed within a virtual reality. - Abstract: This objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. To simulate several scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed using virtual reality. To assess exposure dose to workers, a human model was also developed using virtual reality. The exposure dose was measured and assessed under the principle of ALARA in accordance with radiological environmental change. This method will make it possible to plan for the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  7. Installation of the water environment irradiation facility for the IASCC research under the BWR/PWR irradiation environment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Hirokatsu; Okada, Yuji; Hanawa, Hiroshi; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Masaru; Iida, Kazuhiro; Ando, Hitoshi; Yonekawa, Akihisa; Ueda, Haruyasu; Shibata, Mitsunobu

    2014-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in order to solve the problem in the long-term operation of a light water reactor, preparation which does the irradiation experiment of light-water reactor fuel and material was advanced. JMTR stopped after the 165th operation cycle in August 2006, and is advancing renewal of the irradiation facility towards re-operation. The material irradiation test facility was installed from 2008 fiscal year to 2012 fiscal year in JMTR. This report summarizes manufacture and installation of the material irradiation test facility for IASCC research carried out from 2012 to 2014 in the follow-up report reported before (JAEA-Technology 2013-019). (author)

  8. Determination of the elemental composition of aerosol samples in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obiajunwa, E.I.; Johnson-Fatokun, F.O.; Olaniyi, H.B.; Olowole, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique was employed to determine the concentrations of elements in aerosol samples collected in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria. Sampling was done using Whatman-41 cellulose filters mounted in Negretti air samplers at 10 locations within the factory. The concentrations of eight elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were determined. The TSP values ranged from 70 to 7963 μg/m 3 and the concentration of Pb was found to be between 2.98 and 538.47 μg/m 3 . The high Pb concentration is a danger signal to the health of the factory workers

  9. The physical environment, activity and interaction in residential care facilities for older people: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Susanna; McKee, Kevin; Wallinder, Maria; von Koch, Lena; Wijk, Helle; Elf, Marie

    2017-12-01

    The physical environment is of particular importance for supporting activities and interactions among older people living in residential care facilities (RCFs) who spend most of their time inside the facility. More knowledge is needed regarding the complex relationships between older people and environmental aspects in long-term care. The present study aimed to explore how the physical environment influences resident activities and interactions at two RCFs by using a mixed-method approach. Environmental assessments were conducted via the Swedish version of the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (S-SCEAM), and resident activities, interactions and locations were assessed through an adapted version of the Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The Observed Emotion Rating Scale (OERS) was used to assess residents' affective states. Field notes and walk-along interviews were also used. Findings indicate that the design of the physical environment influenced the residents' activities and interactions. Private apartments and dining areas showed high environmental quality at both RCFs, whereas the overall layout had lower quality. Safety was highly supported. Despite high environmental quality in general, several factors restricted resident activities. To optimise care for older people, the design process must clearly focus on accessible environments that provide options for residents to use the facility independently. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. The effectiveness of environment assessment tools to guide refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, Samantha; Bulsara, Caroline; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-01

    To determine applicability of environment assessment tools in guiding minor refurbishments of Australian residential aged care facilities. Studies conducted in residential aged care settings using assessment tools which address the physical environment were eligible for inclusion in a systematic review. Given these studies are limited, tools which have not yet been utilised in research settings were also included. Tools were analysed using a critical appraisal screen. Forty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Ten environment assessment tools were identified, of which four addressed all seven minor refurbishment domains of lighting, colour and contrast, sound, flooring, furniture, signage and way finding. Only one had undergone reliability and validity testing. There are four tools which may be suitable to use for minor refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities. Data on their reliability, validity and quality are limited. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment in the meat processing facilities in republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Jankuloski

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes contamination of the environment and surfaces of the equipment was examined in seven meat processing facilities. Up to date prevalence of this foodborn pathogen in meat processing facilities facilities in Republic of Macedonia was unknown. Biofilms are composed from food spoilage microorganisms and food born pathogens. They are located on the surfaces of the equipment that come in contact with food and in facilities environment. Microorganisms in biofilm presenting micro eco system and are source of dissemination and contamination of food born pathogens in final meat products. During the preparation of this study we have covered a 7 meat processing facilities and we took a total of 39 swabs from surfaces that come in direct or indirect contact with food. Listeria monocytogenes was discovered in 10 (25,64% swabs (locations. Prevalence of other Listeria spp. compared with total number of taken samples was 15 (38,46% Listeria innocua, 3 (7,69% Listeria welshimeri and 1 (2,65% isolate Listeria seeligeri.

  12. Measuring relative humidity in the radioactive environment of the IRRAD proton facility

    CERN Document Server

    Paerg, Marten

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the project was to obtain information on relative humidity conditions at different locations in the IRRAD proton facility. Due to high radiation levels inside the facility, different sensors had to be qualified and dedicated electronics had to be built to transfer the data of the sensors over long wires to a less radioactive area, where it could be collected.

  13. A Qualitative Study Investigating Facility Managers' Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Eric Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Facility managers have the challenge of adhering to community college policies and procedures while fulfilling requirements of administration, students, and teachers concerning specific needs of classroom aesthetics. The role of facility manager and how specific entities affect perceptions of the design and implementation of classroom aesthetics…

  14. A distributed data base management facility for the CAD/CAM environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balza, R. M.; Beaudet, R. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    Current/PAD research in the area of distributed data base management considers facilities for supporting CAD/CAM data management in a heterogeneous network of computers encompassing multiple data base managers supporting a variety of data models. These facilities include coordinated execution of multiple DBMSs to provide for administration of and access to data distributed across them.

  15. Aerosol particle mixing state, refractory particle number size distributions and emission factors in a polluted urban environment: Case study of Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecorius, Simonas; Madueño, Leizel; Vallar, Edgar; Alas, Honey; Betito, Grace; Birmili, Wolfram; Cambaliza, Maria Obiminda; Catipay, Grethyl; Gonzaga-Cayetano, Mylene; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Lorenzo, Genie; Müller, Thomas; Simpas, James B.; Tamayo, Everlyn Gayle; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafine soot particles (black carbon, BC) in urban environments are related to adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects, increased cases of asthma and premature deaths. These problems are especially pronounced in developing megacities in South-East Asia, Latin America, and Africa, where unsustainable urbanization ant outdated environmental protection legislation resulted in severe degradation of urban air quality in terms of black carbon emission. Since ultrafine soot particles do often not lead to enhanced PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration, the risks related to ultrafine particle pollution may therefore be significantly underestimated compared to the contribution of secondary aerosol constituents. To increase the awareness of the potential toxicological relevant problems of ultrafine black carbon particles, we conducted a case study in Metro Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Here, we present a part of the results from a detailed field campaign, called Manila Aerosol Characterization Experiment (MACE, 2015). Measurements took place from May to June 2015 with the focus on the state of mixing of aerosol particles. The results were alarming, showing the abundance of externally mixed refractory particles (soot proxy) at street site with a maximum daily number concentration of approximately 15000 #/cm3. That is up to 10 times higher than in cities of Western countries. We also found that the soot particle mass contributed from 55 to 75% of total street site PM2.5. The retrieved refractory particle number size distribution appeared to be a superposition of 2 ultrafine modes at 20 and 80 nm with a corresponding contribution to the total refractory particle number of 45 and 55%, respectively. The particles in the 20 nm mode were most likely ash from metallic additives in lubricating oil, tiny carbonaceous particles and/or nucleated and oxidized organic polymers, while bigger ones (80 nm) were soot agglomerates. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no other

  16. Characterization and source estimation of size-segregated aerosols during 2008-2012 in an urban environment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lingda; Wang, Guangfu; Zhang, Renjiang

    2013-01-01

    Full text: During 2008-2012, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage cascade impactor at Beijing Normal University (BNU) Site, China. These samples were analyzed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis for concentrations of 21 elements consisting of Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ba and Pb. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Nine sources were resolved in eight size ranges (025 ∼ 16μm) and included secondary sulphur, motor vehicles, coal combustion; oil combustion, road dust, biomass burning, soil dust, diesel vehicles and metal processing. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by soil dust and road dust contributed about 57% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM) mass in the coarse size range(>2μm). On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as secondary sulphur, coal and oil combustion, biomass burning and motor vehicle contributed about 73% in the fine size range <2μm). The diesel vehicles and secondary sulphur source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (<0.25μm) and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass. (author)

  17. Characterization and source estimation of size-segregated aerosols during 2008-2012 in an urban environment in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingda [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materiais Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Wang, Guangfu, E-mail: guangfuw@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing (China); Zhang, Renjiang [Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate Eas tAsia (RCE-TEA), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: During 2008-2012, size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage cascade impactor at Beijing Normal University (BNU) Site, China. These samples were analyzed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis for concentrations of 21 elements consisting of Mg, AI, Si, P, S, CI, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Ba and Pb. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. Nine sources were resolved in eight size ranges (025 ∼ 16μm) and included secondary sulphur, motor vehicles, coal combustion; oil combustion, road dust, biomass burning, soil dust, diesel vehicles and metal processing. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by soil dust and road dust contributed about 57% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM) mass in the coarse size range(>2μm). On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as secondary sulphur, coal and oil combustion, biomass burning and motor vehicle contributed about 73% in the fine size range <2μm). The diesel vehicles and secondary sulphur source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (<0.25μm) and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass. (author)

  18. Influence of the aquatic environment on release behavior of fission products. Experimental study of aerosol emission during a PWR severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfort, M.

    1989-06-01

    This experimental study concerns the consequences on the environment of a PWR severe accident. A preliminary bibliographical survey has been undertaken in order to determine the elements to study, and the experimental protocols to use. 4 fission products (Cs, Sr, Ru, Ce) and 3 structure materials (Ag, Fe, In) have been chosen. Tests of cations (Cs + ) retention by soils have been done. They showed up the great variability of the results according to experimental procedures (contact time, agitation, solid phase concentration...). The adoption of a standard procedure which would enable the different results comparison is suggested. Then, the dissolution of powders from the 7 elements has been studied in different solutions. Two different phenomena occurs for some elements. We observed a partial dissolution of Ag, In and Ce, according to solution compositions, but fine particles or colloid presence may contribute to the solution total activity. The Cs dissolution is more important but never complete, because of an amalgam formation during calcination with structure materials. Ru doesn't dissolve, and fine particles presence is the reason of solution activity. Soils retention is minimal for the elements that are neutral, like Ru, and maximal for cations, especially Cs + . High contents of organic matter and clay in soils enhance retention. Thanks to the new theoretical source term values, plurielementary aerosols fabrication has debuted. The installation we used (Inducing oven with an aerosol maturation enclosure) allows the obtention of temperatures as high as 2800 - 3000 0 C and the volatilization of 13 elements between the 16 presents. Suggestions are done that may increase the Ru, Ce and Zr emissions [fr

  19. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petäjä, Tuukka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Moisseev, Dmitri [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Sinclair, Victoria [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); O' Connor, Ewan J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Manninen, Antti J. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Levula, Janne [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Väänänen, Riikka [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Heikkinen, Liine [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Äijälä, Mikko [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Aalto, Juho [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Bäck, Jaana [University of Helsinki, Finland

    2015-11-01

    “Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  20. Methods of sampling airborne fungi in working environments of waste treatment facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, K.; Wittlingerová, Z.; Zimová, M.; Janovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2016), s. 493-502 ISSN 1232-1087 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : airborne fungi * filter based bioaerosol sampling * waste sorting facility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2016

  1. Healthscapes: the role of the facility and physical environment on consumer attitudes, satisfaction, quality assessments, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, J D; Richardson, L D

    1995-01-01

    The role of the health care physical or tangible environment, including the facility, is essentially an unstudied area. This article identifies and defines components of "atmospherics" concerning health care (Healthscapes), to assess their strengths and predictiveness in the relationship between patient and other customer outcomes, satisfaction, quality assessments, intention to return, and willingness to recommend a health care provider to others and to propose much needed research in the area.

  2. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  3. Stratospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Ivanov, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol measurements can provide both spatial and temporal data of sufficient resolution to be of use in climate models. Relatively recent results from a wide range of instrument techniques for measuring stratospheric aerosol parameters are described. Such techniques include impactor sampling, lidar system sensing, filter sampling, photoelectric particle counting, satellite extinction-sensing using the sun as a source, and optical depth probing, at sites mainly removed from tropospheric aerosol sources. Some of these techniques have also had correlative and intercomparison studies. The main methods for determining the vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosols are outlined: lidar extinction measurements from satellites; impactor measurements from balloons and aircraft; and photoelectric particle counter measurements from balloons, aircraft, and rockets. The conversion of the lidar backscatter to stratospheric aerosol mass loading is referred to. Absolute measurements of total solar extinction from satellite orbits can be used to extract the aerosol extinction, and several examples of vertical profiles of extinction obtained with the SAGE satellite are given. Stratospheric mass loading can be inferred from extinction using approximate linear relationships but under restrictive conditions. Impactor sampling is essentially the only method in which the physical nature of the stratospheric aerosol is observed visually. Vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol number concentration using impactor data are presented. Typical profiles using a dual-size-range photoelectric dustsonde particle counter are given for volcanically disturbed and inactive periods. Some measurements of the global distribution of stratospheric aerosols are also presented. Volatility measurements are described, indicating that stratospheric aerosols are composed primarily of about 75% sulfuric acid and 25% water

  4. Aerosol studies with Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Oyarzabal, Omar A; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-08-01

    Aerosol studies of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants have been limited by lack of a suitable surrogate microorganism. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using green fluorescent protein-labeled strains of Listeria innocua as a surrogate for L. monocytogenes for aerosol studies. These studies were conducted in a laboratory bioaerosol chamber and a pilot food-processing facility. Four strains of L. innocua and five strains of L. monocytogenes were used. In the laboratory chamber study, Listeria cells were released into the environment at two different cell numbers and under two airflow conditions. Trypticase soy agar (TSA) plates and oven-roasted breasts of chicken and turkey were placed in the chamber to monitor Listeria cell numbers deposited from aerosols. A similar experimental design was used in the pilot plant study; however, only L. innocua was used. Results showed that L. monocytogenes and L. innocua survived equally well on chicken and turkey breast meats and TSA plates. No-fan and continuous fan applications, which affected airflow, had no significant effect on settling rates of aerosolized L. monocytogenes and L. innocua in the bioaerosol chamber or L. innocua in the pilot plant study. Listeriae cell numbers in the air decreased rapidly during the first 1.5 h following release, with few to no listeriae detected in the air at 3 h. Aerosol particles with diameters of 1 and 2 microM correlated directly with the number of Listeria cells in the aerosol but not with particles that were 0.3, 0.5, and 5 microM in diameter. Results indicate that L. innocua can be used as a surrogate for L. monocytogenes in an aerosol study.

  5. Estimation of Uncertainty in Aerosol Concentration Measured by Aerosol Sampling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chan; Song, Yong Jae; Jung, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Gyu Tae; Lee, Doo Yong [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    FNC Technology Co., Ltd has been developed test facilities for the aerosol generation, mixing, sampling and measurement under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The aerosol generation system is connected to the aerosol mixing system which injects SiO{sub 2}/ethanol mixture. In the sampling system, glass fiber membrane filter has been used to measure average mass concentration. Based on the experimental results using main carrier gas of steam and air mixture, the uncertainty estimation of the sampled aerosol concentration was performed by applying Gaussian error propagation law. FNC Technology Co., Ltd. has been developed the experimental facilities for the aerosol measurement under high pressure and high temperature. The purpose of the tests is to develop commercial test module for aerosol generation, mixing and sampling system applicable to environmental industry and safety related system in nuclear power plant. For the uncertainty calculation of aerosol concentration, the value of the sampled aerosol concentration is not measured directly, but must be calculated from other quantities. The uncertainty of the sampled aerosol concentration is a function of flow rates of air and steam, sampled mass, sampling time, condensed steam mass and its absolute errors. These variables propagate to the combination of variables in the function. Using operating parameters and its single errors from the aerosol test cases performed at FNC, the uncertainty of aerosol concentration evaluated by Gaussian error propagation law is less than 1%. The results of uncertainty estimation in the aerosol sampling system will be utilized for the system performance data.

  6. Development of α and/or β activity aerosol instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhengyong; Li Aiwu; Gou Quanlu

    1996-01-01

    A radioactive aerosol instrumentation is developed recently for measuring the α and/or β activity of artificial radioactivity aerosols which are produced in nuclear facilities. The instrumentation has the function discriminating natural radioactivity aerosols resulted from radon and thoron daughters, and it is enabled in time and without delay to measure α and β artificial activity collected with a filter by pumping aerosols through this filter. The energy discrimination and compensation method is used for eliminating the influence of natural αradioactivity aerosols. To minimize the influence of natural β-radioactivity aerosols, the method measuring the ratio α/β of natural aerosols is also used in the instrument. The improved methods eliminating the influence of natural background α and β aerosols are used so that both α and β artificial activities in aerosol filter samples can be monitored simultaneously. The instrumentation is appropriate for monitoring α and/or β artificial radioactive aerosols

  7. Comparison of a traditional and non-traditional residential care facility for persons living with dementia and the impact of the environment on occupational engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kieva; D'Cruz, Rachel; Harman, Suzanne; Stagnitti, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Dementia residential facilities can be described as traditional or non-traditional facilities. Non-traditional facilities aim to utilise principles of environmental design to create a milieu that supports persons experiencing cognitive decline. This study aimed to compare these two environments in rural Australia, and their influence on residents' occupational engagement. The Residential Environment Impact Survey (REIS) was used and consists of: a walk-through of the facility; activity observation; interviews with residents and employees. Thirteen residents were observed and four employees interviewed. Resident interviews did not occur given the population diagnosis of moderate to severe dementia. Descriptive data from the walk-through and activity observation were analysed for potential opportunities of occupational engagement. Interviews were thematically analysed to discern perception of occupational engagement of residents within their facility. Both facilities provided opportunities for occupational engagement. However, the non-traditional facility provided additional opportunities through employee interactions and features of the physical environment. Interviews revealed six themes: Comfortable environment; roles and responsibilities; getting to know the resident; more stimulation can elicit increased engagement; the home-like experience and environmental layout. These themes coupled with the features of the environment provided insight into the complexity of occupational engagement within this population. This study emphasises the influence of the physical and social environment on occupational engagement opportunities. A non-traditional dementia facility maximises these opportunities and can support development of best-practice guidelines within this population. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1 delay in making the decision to seek care; 2 delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3 delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden

  9. An Investigation of the Effects of a Facility Dog on Student Learning and the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jordana

    2013-01-01

    According to No Child Left Behind, teachers must consider alternative teaching strategies to improve student achievement. The use of a facility dog as an instructional enhancement is an innovative teaching approach that deserves further research. The theoretical framework for the study was human-animal bond theory, which postulates that…

  10. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  11. Papers of the 14. french congress on aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. Eight other ones are analyzed in ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  12. Intercomparison of OH and OH reactivity measurements in a high isoprene and low NO environment during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Dianne; Jeong, Daun; Seco, Roger; Wrangham, Ian; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Brune, William H.; Koss, Abigail; Gilman, Jessica; de Gouw, Joost; Misztal, Pawel; Goldstein, Allen; Baumann, Karsten; Wennberg, Paul O.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung

    2018-02-01

    We intercompare OH and OH reactivity datasets from two different techniques, chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a high isoprene and low NO environment in a southeastern US forest during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). An LIF instrument measured OH and OH reactivity at the top of a tower, a CIMS instrument measured OH at the top of the tower, and a CIMS based comparative reactivity method (CRM-CIMS) instrument deployed at the base of the tower measured OH reactivity. Averaged diel variations of OH and OH reactivity from these datasets agree within analytical uncertainty and correlations of LIF versus CIMS for OH and OH reactivity have slopes of 0.65 and 0.97, respectively. However, there are systematic differences between the measurement datasets. The CRM-CIMS measurements of OH reactivity were ∼16% lower than those by the LIF technique in the late afternoon. We speculate that it is caused by losses in the sampling line down to the CRM-CIMS instrument. On the other hand, we could not come up with a reasonable explanation for the difference in the LIF and CIMS OH datasets for early morning and late afternoon when OH is below 1 × 106 molecules cm-3. Nonetheless, results of this intercomparison exercise strengthen previous publications from the field site on OH concentrations and atmospheric reactivity.

  13. Aerosol science: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold. First, it is intended to give a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of aerosol behavior with rigorous proofs and detailed derivations of the basic equations and removal mechanisms. Second, it is intended to provide practical examples with special attention to radioactive particles and their distribution in size following a radioactive release arising from an accident with a nuclear system. We start with a brief introduction to the applications of aerosol science and the characteristics of aerosols in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we devote considerable attention to single and two particle motion with respect to both translation and rotation. Chapter 3 contains extensive discussion of the aerosol general dynamical equation and the dependences of aerosol distributions on size, shape, space, composition, radioactivity, and charge. Important particle rate processes of coagulation, condensation, and deposition/resuspension are discussed in the chapters 4, 6 and 7, respectively. In Chapter 5, we provide a thorough treatment of the analytical and numerical methods used in solving the various forms of the aerosol dynamical equation. We discuss the importance and applications of aerosol science to nuclear technology and, in particular, the nuclear source term in Chapter 8. Our focus in this chapter is on discussions of nuclear accidents that can potentially release large amount of radioactivity to environment. We also discuss the progress that has been made in understanding the natural and engineered aerosol processes that limit or affect such releases. (author)

  14. Development of the computer code to monitor gamma radiation in the nuclear facility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad, Y. R.; Pudjiyanto, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Computer codes for gamma radiation monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear facility which have been developed could be introduced to the commercial potable gamma analyzer. The crucial stage of the first year activity was succeeded ; that is the codes have been tested to transfer data file (pulse high distribution) from Micro NOMAD gamma spectrometer (ORTEC product) and the convert them into dosimetry and physics quantities. Those computer codes are called as GABATAN (Gamma Analyzer of Batan) and NAGABAT (Natural Gamma Analyzer of Batan). GABATAN code can isable to used at various nuclear facilities for analyzing gamma field up to 9 MeV, while NAGABAT could be used for analyzing the contribution of natural gamma rays to the exposure rate in the certain location

  15. Facilities for technology testing of ITER divertor concepts, models, and prototypes in a plasma environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.

    1991-12-01

    The exhaust of power and fusion-reaction products from ITER plasma are critical physics and technology issues from performance, safety, and reliability perspectives. Because of inadequate pulse length, fluence, flux, scrape-off layer plasma temperature and density, and other parameters, the present generation of tokamaks, linear plasma devices, or energetic beam facilities are unable to perform adequate technology testing of divertor components, though they are essential contributors to many physics issues such as edge-plasma transport and disruption effects and control. This Technical Requirements Documents presents a description of the capabilities and parameters divertor test facilities should have to perform accelerated life testing on predominantly technological divertor issues such as basic divertor concepts, heat load limits, thermal fatigue, tritium inventory and erosion/redeposition. The cost effectiveness of such divertor technology testing is also discussed

  16. Facility of Laboratories for Sustainable Habitation - an Initial Design of a Closed-Loop Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Maiwald, Volker; Parìs Lopéz, Rosa; Hauslage, Jens; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Doule, Ondrej; Schlacht, Irene Lia; Ransom, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An effective and self-sustainable artificial habitat design is essential for human spaceflight and expansion of mankind into orbit or towards other celestial bodies. Besides the necessity to create an artificial habitat for the extreme environments of space, development of a self-sustainable habitat can also enable more effective exploration of extreme environments on Earth. One major application of the habitat’s closed-loop capabilities can also be in enabling ecological habitation of human ...

  17. Aerosol Inlet Characterization Experiment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, Robert L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kuang, Chongai [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Uin, Janek [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observation System inlet stack was characterized for particle penetration efficiency from 10 nm to 20 μm in diameter using duplicate scanning mobility particle sizers (10 nm-450 nm), ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometers (60 nm-μm), and aerodynamic particle sizers (0.5 μm-20 μm). Results show good model-measurement agreement and unit transmission efficiency of aerosols from 10 nm to 4 μm in diameter. Large uncertainties in the measured transmission efficiency exist above 4 μm due to low ambient aerosol signal in that size range.

  18. DSMC multicomponent aerosol dynamics: Sampling algorithms and aerosol processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya

    The post-accident nuclear reactor primary and containment environments can be characterized by high temperatures and pressures, and fission products and nuclear aerosols. These aerosols evolve via natural transport processes as well as under the influence of engineered safety features. These aerosols can be hazardous and may pose risk to the public if released into the environment. Computations of their evolution, movement and distribution involve the study of various processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, etc., and are influenced by factors such as particle shape, charge, radioactivity and spatial inhomogeneity. These many factors make the numerical study of nuclear aerosol evolution computationally very complicated. The focus of this research is on the use of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to elucidate the role of various phenomena that influence the nuclear aerosol evolution. In this research, several aerosol processes such as coagulation, deposition, condensation, and source reinforcement are explored for a multi-component, aerosol dynamics problem in a spatially homogeneous medium. Among the various sampling algorithms explored the Metropolis sampling algorithm was found to be effective and fast. Several test problems and test cases are simulated using the DSMC technique. The DSMC results obtained are verified against the analytical and sectional results for appropriate test problems. Results show that the assumption of a single mean density is not appropriate due to the complicated effect of component densities on the aerosol processes. The methods developed and the insights gained will also be helpful in future research on the challenges associated with the description of fission product and aerosol releases.

  19. Development of a grow-cell test facility for research into sustainable controlled-environment agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsimpelis, Ioannis; Wolfenden, Ian; Taylor, C. James

    2016-01-01

    The grow-cell belongs to a relatively new category of plant factory in the horticultural industry, for which the motivation is the maximization of production and the minimization of energy consumption. This article takes a systems design approach to identify the engineering requirements of a new grow-cell facility, with the prototype based on a 12 m X 2.4 m X 2.5 m shipping container. Research contributions are made in respect to: (i) the design of a novel conveyor-irrigation system for mecha...

  20. Modelling and prediction of radionuclide migration from shallow, subgrade nuclear waste facilities in arid environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Ward, A.; Geldenhuis, S.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, prodigious efforts and significant advances have been made in methods of prediction of the migration rate of dissolved species in aqueous systems. Despite such work, there remain formidable obstacles in prediction of solute transport in the unsaturated zone over the long time periods necessarily related to the radionuclide bearing wastes. The objective of this paper is to consider the methods, issues and problems with the use of predictive solute transport models for radionuclide migration from nuclear waste disposal in arid environments, if and when engineering containment of the waste fails. Having considered the ability for long term solute prediction for a number of geological environments, the advantages of a disposal environment in which the solute transport process is diffusion controlled will be described

  1. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  2. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  3. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF

  4. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  5. Remote-Controlled Inspection Robot for Nuclear Facilities in Underwater Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhiro Miwa; Syuichi Satoh; Naoya Hirose

    2002-01-01

    A remote-controlled inspection robot for nuclear facilities was developed. This is a underwater robot technology combined with inspection and flaw removal technologies. This report will describe the structure and performance of this robot. The inspection robot consists of two parts. The one is driving equipment, and the other is inspection and grinding units. It can swim in the tank, move around the tank wall, and stay on the inspection area. After that it starts inspection and flaw removal with a special grinding wheel. This technology had been developed to inspect some Radioactive Waste (RW) tanks in operating nuclear power plants. There are many RW tanks in these plants, which human workers can be hard to access because of a high level dose. This technology is too useful for inspection works of human-inaccessible areas. And also, in conventional inspection process, some worker go into the tank and set up scaffolding after full drainage and decontamination. It spends too much time for these preparations. If tank inspection and flaw removal can be performed in underwater, the outage period will be reduced. Remote-controlled process can be performed in underwater. This is the great advantage for plant owners. Since 1999 we have been applying this inspection robot to operating nuclear 11 facilities in Japan. (authors)

  6. The VERITAS Facility: A Virtual Environment Platform for Human Performance Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    IAE The IAE supports the audio environment that users experience during the course of an experiment. This includes environmental sounds, user-to...future, we are looking towards a database-based system that would use MySQL or an equivalent product to store the large data sets and provide standard

  7. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  8. Determination of the environmental effect for the sea salt aerosols corrosion (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio; Umehara, Toshihiro; Kato, Akitoshi; Taniguchi, Akihide

    2009-01-01

    Fukui Prefecture presently hosts 15 reactor units, including PWRs, BWR, FBR (Monjyu) and Japanese ATR (Fugen), all of which are located along the Japan Sea. Under such a circumstange, corrosion due to sea salt aerosols is one of the major factors causing ageing degradation of nuclear power plants facilities. Many scientists have been engaged in research on the corrosion of structures due to sea salt aerosols. In pursuing sea salt aerosol-induced corrosion research, it was necessary to perform corrosion tests under a certain set of environmental conditions since corrosion of structures is highly sensitive to environmental factors. In this respect, we installed the outdoor exposure test facilities along the sea coast in Awara-city and inland in Fukui-city, Fukui Prefecture of Japan. The amounts of sea salt aerosol tend to be lower in the summer season and higher in the winter season. The difference between seasons is expected to relate to the wind speed, the sunshine time, the rain amount and others. We tried to use the multivariate analysis for finding some relations between sea salt aerosol amounts and environment factor. We found the clear relations. (author)

  9. Lightweight scheduling of elastic analysis containers in a competitive cloud environment: a Docked Analysis Facility for ALICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Charalampidis, I.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.

    2015-12-01

    During the last years, several Grid computing centres chose virtualization as a better way to manage diverse use cases with self-consistent environments on the same bare infrastructure. The maturity of control interfaces (such as OpenNebula and OpenStack) opened the possibility to easily change the amount of resources assigned to each use case by simply turning on and off virtual machines. Some of those private clouds use, in production, copies of the Virtual Analysis Facility, a fully virtualized and self-contained batch analysis cluster capable of expanding and shrinking automatically upon need: however, resources starvation occurs frequently as expansion has to compete with other virtual machines running long-living batch jobs. Such batch nodes cannot relinquish their resources in a timely fashion: the more jobs they run, the longer it takes to drain them and shut off, and making one-job virtual machines introduces a non-negligible virtualization overhead. By improving several components of the Virtual Analysis Facility we have realized an experimental “Docked” Analysis Facility for ALICE, which leverages containers instead of virtual machines for providing performance and security isolation. We will present the techniques we have used to address practical problems, such as software provisioning through CVMFS, as well as our considerations on the maturity of containers for High Performance Computing. As the abstraction layer is thinner, our Docked Analysis Facilities may feature a more fine-grained sizing, down to single-job node containers: we will show how this approach will positively impact automatic cluster resizing by deploying lightweight pilot containers instead of replacing central queue polls.

  10. Air Motion and Thermal Environment in Pig Housing Facilities with Diffuse Inlet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lis

    A ventilation system with ambient air supply through diffuse ceiling used in pig production facilities is presented. The climatic conditions were examined both experimentally and numerically in an full scale experimental room and the inlet boundary conditions of the diffuse inlet were examined...... in ambient temperature and air exchange rate. The effect of housing equipment on environmental conditions has been examined both experimental and numerically and it was found that impervious housing equipment has a significant effect on the climatic conditions close to the wall in the occupational zone...... in a wind tunnel model. In the full scale experiments the focus has been on the correlation between variations in ambient climatic conditions and changes in environmental condition in the occupational zone. It was found that the environmental conditions in the occupational zone were independent on changes...

  11. Provisions against damage in permits of environment-related large facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author in detail covers the legal treatment of technological risks, especially the roles played by experts and those applying the law, when it comes to the application of uncertain legal terms and criteria of evaluating the principle of provision for damage. He finds that an increasingly more important role was played by the legal evaluation of risks stemming from large technical facilities, in addition to the (socio-)political assessment of the consequences of technologies. For risk assessment, engineers had a primary responsibility, but the evaluation of risk in an overall process of weighing legal assets was a responsibility of lawyers. The residual risk to be tolerated legally (without the compulsory need to make provisions for damage) was to be determined by weighing legal assets, by the principle of adequacy, and by comparative risk assessment. (HSCH) [de

  12. The radiological consequences of releases from nuclear facilities to the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, A.

    1975-01-01

    The release of radioactive materials to the environment is an inescapable consequence of the utilization of nuclear energy. The objective therefore is to decide on what basis and against what criteria regulatory action should be taken to protect the environment against the impact of radioactive substances. In properly regulated situations releases of such material will be minor in character and their radiological implications will rest largely in the field of public health. There are now some three decades of experience in respect of the environmental impact of radioactive materials, and certain major conclusions can be drawn. This paper reviews this experience in broad terms, and draws conclusions relevant to the regulatory problem. Future problems, especially in the context of an expanding use of nuclear power, are considered and priority research needs and opportunities indicated. (author)

  13. A software environment to execute automatic operational sequences on the ITER-FEAT DTP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermani, G.; Zarfino, M.

    2001-01-01

    The divertor test platform (DTP) maintenance operations are carried out by means of the remote handling equipments (RHE), each dedicated to perform a set of specialised remote actions. Each RHE is controlled by an RHE control system (RHE-CS) and can be locally operated by an RHE-operator using the local control panel (LOP). To perform the maintenance activity, the DTP-operator coordinates the remote operations of every RHEs, using the supervisory system (DTP S S). Because the remote maintenance activities demand for a high degree of parallelism, automation and cooperation between various RHEs, the development of a software environment (OSAExE) that had the indicated characteristics has been necessary. The OSAExE environment is applicable to any distributed and cooperating system that is modelled as a set of autonomous subsystems. Each maintenance remote sequence needs to be modelled as a modified Petri-net diagram and subsequently 'compiled', in order to be automatically executed on OSAExE environment. The OSAExE architecture allows both, to program 'event driven' automatic sequences, and to maintain unchanged all the existing DTP S S features

  14. Environment, safety, and health at DOE facilities. Annual report, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    During 1981 the US Department of Energy's (DOE) safety and property protection performance remained excellent in all reported categories with loss rates generally less than one-third of comparable private-industry rates. The 1981 occupational-injury rates of 1.0 lost-workday cases and 13.5 lost workdays per 200,000 work hours were better than 1980 rates of 1.1 lost-workday cases and 17.5 lost workdays per 200,000 work hours. The recorded occupational illness rate, based on only 61 cases in 1981, was 0.04 cases per 200,000 work hours compared to 0.06 cases per 200,000 work hours for 1980. Property losses during 1981 totaled $4.7 million, with the largest loss of $1.25 million resulting from a fire at a Bonneville Power Administration lighting substation in Ellenberg, Washington. Fire losses during 1981 totaled $2.01 million, resulting in a fire loss rate of 0.38 cent per $100 property valuation - about one-eight the best class private-sector rate. Non-fire losses during 1981 totaled $2.65 million. The resulting non-fire loss rate of 0.48 cent per $100 property valuation was approx. one-third (36%) the 1980 loss rate of 1.34 cents per $100 property valuation. The 82,873 monitored Department of Energy federal and contractor employees received a total radiation dose of 6902 rem in 1981. The total amount of effluent radioactivity released from all DOE facilities in 1981 was 1.9 million curies, compared to 1.4 million curies in 1980. The largest probable whole-body radiation dose received by a maximally exposed public individual from any of these facilities was the same as in 1980: 15 millirem, or 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Guide standard. A major accomplishemet during 1981 was the successful pilot testing of the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS), which will provide more-comprehensive safety information than the present data system

  15. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Effects Facility(LASREF). The ''rabbit'' system contains four test tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 m off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 h to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of isotope production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 m of iron outside the IP targets. An enhancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15m. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of two when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline

  16. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). The ''raffit'' system contains four tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 meters off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 hours to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of the Isotope Production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 meters of iron outside the IP targets. An enchancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15 meters. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of 2 when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline

  17. Hazards of ionizing radiations for human beings and environment with respect to nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, Felix; Jung, Jennifer Jana; Schultmann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, nuclear fission is used to produce electricity. On the one hand, the low emission of CO_2 is often mentioned as an advantage of this technology. On the other hand, warnings about the dangers of nuclear fission are mentioned. Consequently, an overview about the dangers of ionizing radiation to human beings as well as animals and the environment is important. However, the focus will be on possible health effects for humans with regards to nuclear power plants. In nuclear power plants, both natural types of radiation and artificially produced radiation occur. During normal operation, it is possible that small quantities of this ionizing radiation are released to the environment. In case of nuclear disasters or faults during decommissioning and dismantling processes the consequences of thereby emitted quantities can be even more severe. Reference nuclides vary by reactor type, operating stage and respective incident. At the beginning, different types of radiation and their characteristics and effects on the affected organism are explained. Sensitive organs are emphasized in this context. The individual risk is determined by numerous factors and therefore cannot be predicted. Based on scientific studies and medical publications the hazards of ionizing radiation are compiled. Effects of high exposure of ionizing radiation are well-investigated. Scientists are still divided over the connection between several diseases and the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. For this reason, the positions of different international organizations are critically contrasted in this study.

  18. Distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorochemicals in the ambient environment around a manufacturing facility in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Pan, Yuanyuan; Cai, Yaqi; Jiang, Guibin

    2010-11-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) can be released to the surrounding environment during manufacturing and usage of PFC containing products, which are considered as main direct sources of PFCs in the environment. This study evaluates the release of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFCs to the ambient environment around a manufacturing plant. Among the nine PFCs analyzed, only PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were found in dust, water, soil, and chicken eggs. Very high concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were found in dust from the production storage, raw material stock room, and sulfonation workshop in the manufacturing facility, with the highest value at 4962 μg/g (dry weight) for PFOS and 160 μg/g for PFOA. A decreasing trend of the three PFCs concentrations in soils, water, and chicken eggs with increasing distance from the plant was found, indicating the production site to be the primary source of PFCs in this region. Risk quotients (RQs) assessment for surface water >500 m away from the plant were less than unity. Risk assessment of PFOS using predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC, 3.23 ng/g on a logarithmic scale) indicated no immediate ecological risk of a reduction in offspring survival. PFOS concentrations in most egg samples did not exceed the benchmark concentration derived in setting a reference dose for noncancer health effects (0.025 μg/(kgxd)).

  19. Radiological impacts of releases from nuclear facilities into aquatic environments - USA views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    We may be entering an age which will see a rapid proliferation of nuclear power plants. Since we learn from past experience, the author looks back at two major events that led to large-scale releases of radionuclides to the environment. While these two events did not lead to major exposure doses to man, they would have been precluded in peacetime by the many environmental protection laws now in existence in the United States. Although during the peak, the Hanford Laboratories released about 1000 curies a day of neutron-induced radionuclides to the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, no harmful effects have been observed. Studies of worldwide fallout show a larger dose to man than from nuclear power, but food chains in the ocean seem to filter out much of the radioactivity from fission products so that they only appear minimally in the diet of man. These past events appear encouraging for the future of nuclear power. (author)

  20. Green energy facilitated? The uncertain function of the global environment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Z.; Boehmer-Christiansen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The GEF remains the interim operating entity of the financial mechanism, the aid provider, for the Climate Change Convention (FCCC); It had 1.6 billion dollars to spend between 1994 and 1997 on the 'incremental costs' of implementing UN environmental conventions in eligible countries. The paper describes how this multilateral fund has functioned so far in the energy-environment arena, analyzing its governance and policies, decision-making criteria, project cycle and strategies for monitoring and evaluation. Through the patterns of GEF assistance to climate change related science, technologies and institutions, we explore the origins and wider purposes of the entity and in the process illuminate some assumptions and principles underlying the work of the GEF Secretariat and associated bureaucracies. What can realistically be expected should GEF become a more permanent fund for 'global environmental benefits' after current negotiations for its second replenishment? (author)

  1. Comparison of a direct-reading device to gravimetric methods for evaluating organic dust aerosols in an enclosed swine production environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D; Reynolds, S J

    2001-01-01

    The production of livestock in enclosed facilities has become an accepted practice, driven by the need for increased efficiency. Exposure to organic dusts, containing various bioactive components, has been identified an important risk factor for the high rate of lung disease found among workers in these environments. Assessment of organic dust exposure requires technical skills and instrumentation not readily available to most agricultural enterprises. Development of a simple, cost-effective method for measuring organic dust levels would be useful in evaluating and controlling exposures in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the direct reading MIE PDM-3 Miniram for estimating organic dust concentrations in enclosed swine production facilities. Responses from the MIE PDM-3 Miniram were compared to gravimetric methods for total and inhalable dust. Total dust determinations were conducted in accordance with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 0500. Inhalable particulate mass (IPM) sampling was conducted using SKC brand IOM (Institute of Occupational Medicine) sampling cassettes, which meet the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH criteria for inhalable dust sampling. This study design also allowed for the comparison of traditional total dust method to the IPM method, in collecting organic dusts in an agricultural setting. Fifteen sets of side-by-side samples (Miniram, total dust, and IPM) were collected over a period of six months in a swine confinement building. There were statistically significant differences in the results provided by the three sampling methods. Measurements for inhalable dust exceeded those for total dust in eleven of fifteen samples. The Miniram time-weighted average (TWA) response to the organic dust was always the lower of the three methods. A high degree of correlation was found among all three methods. The Miniram performed well under

  2. Evaluation of Quantitative Exposure Assessment Method for Nanomaterials in Mixed Dust Environments: Application in Tire Manufacturing Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Marisa L; Cyrs, William D; Tosiano, Melissa A; Panko, Julie M

    2015-11-01

    Current recommendations for nanomaterial-specific exposure assessment require adaptation in order to be applied to complicated manufacturing settings, where a variety of particle types may contribute to the potential exposure. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a method that would allow for exposure assessment of nanostructured materials by chemical composition and size in a mixed dust setting, using carbon black (CB) and amorphous silica (AS) from tire manufacturing as an example. This method combined air sampling with a low pressure cascade impactor with analysis of elemental composition by size to quantitatively assess potential exposures in the workplace. This method was first pilot-tested in one tire manufacturing facility; air samples were collected with a Dekati Low Pressure Impactor (DLPI) during mixing where either CB or AS were used as the primary filler. Air samples were analyzed via scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to identify what fraction of particles were CB, AS, or 'other'. From this pilot study, it was determined that ~95% of all nanoscale particles were identified as CB or AS. Subsequent samples were collected with the Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) at two tire manufacturing facilities and analyzed using the same methodology to quantify exposure to these materials. This analysis confirmed that CB and AS were the predominant nanoscale particle types in the mixing area at both facilities. Air concentrations of CB and AS ranged from ~8900 to 77600 and 400 to 22200 particles cm(-3), respectively. This method offers the potential to provide quantitative estimates of worker exposure to nanoparticles of specific materials in a mixed dust environment. With pending development of occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials, this methodology will allow occupational health and safety practitioners to estimate worker exposures to specific materials, even in scenarios

  3. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  4. Microbiological contamination with moulds in work environment in libraries and archive storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska-Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozajda, Anna; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological contamination with fungi, including moulds, can pose a significant health hazard to those working in archives or museums. The species involved include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium which are associated mostly with allergic response of different types. The aim of the study was to analyse, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, workplace air samples collected in a library and archive storage facilities. Occupational exposure and the related health hazard from microbiological contamination with moulds were assessed in three archive storage buildings and one library. Air samples (total 60) were collected via impact method before work and at hourly intervals during work performance. Surface samples from the artifacts were collected by pressing a counting (RODAC) plate filled with malt extract agar against the surface of the artifacts. The air sample and surface sample analyses yielded 36 different mould species, classified into 19 genera, of which Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent. Twelve species were regarded as potentially pathogenic for humans: 8 had allergic and 11 toxic properties, the latter including Aspergillus fumigatus. Quantitative analysis revealed air microbiological contamination with moulds at the level ranging from 1.8 x 10(2)-2.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). In surface samples from library and archive artifacts, 11 fungal species were distinguished; the number of species per artifact varying from 1-6 and colony count ranging from 4 x 10(1) to 8-10(1) cfu/100 cm(2). Higher contamination levels were found only for Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.48 x 10(3) cfu/100 cm(2)) and Paecillomyces varioti (1.2 x 10(2) cfu/100 cm(2)). At the workposts examined, although no clearly visible signs of mould contamination could be found, the study revealed abundant micromycetes, with the predominant species of Cladosporium and Penicillium. The detected species included

  5. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-08-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.

  6. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  7. A Study of Mars Dust Environment Simulation at NASA Johnson Space Center Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Liang Albert

    1999-01-01

    The dust environment on Mars is planned to be simulated in a 20 foot thermal-vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center, Energy Systems Test Area Resource Conversion Test Facility in Houston, Texas. This vacuum chamber will be used to perform tests and study the interactions between the dust in Martian air and ISPP hardware. This project is to research, theorize, quantify, and document the Mars dust/wind environment needed for the 20 foot simulation chamber. This simulation work is to support the safety, endurance, and cost reduction of the hardware for the future missions. The Martian dust environment conditions is discussed. Two issues of Martian dust, (1) Dust Contamination related hazards, and (2) Dust Charging caused electrical hazards, are of our interest. The different methods of dust particles measurement are given. The design trade off and feasibility were studied. A glass bell jar system is used to evaluate various concepts for the Mars dust/wind environment simulation. It was observed that the external dust source injection is the best method to introduce the dust into the simulation system. The dust concentration of 30 Mg/M3 should be employed for preparing for the worst possible Martian atmosphere condition in the future. Two approaches thermal-panel shroud for the hardware conditioning are discussed. It is suggested the wind tunnel approach be used to study the dust charging characteristics then to be apply to the close-system cyclone approach. For the operation cost reduction purpose, a dehumidified ambient air could be used to replace the expensive CO2 mixture for some tests.

  8. Data resources for assessing regional impacts of energy facilities on health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions from fossil-fuel power plants and other sources continue to cause concern about impacts of these pollutants on human health and the environment. Assessing these impacts requires a regional-scale approach that integrates spatial and temporal patterns of emissions, environmental factors and human populations. Two examples of regional studies are presented, including a comparison of patterns of coal-fired power plants and selected diseases and identification of areas sensitive to acid rain which may transfer acid and toxic metals to aquatic systems and man. Energy, socio-economic, health and environmental data are often collected and summarized for counties in the USA. Counties are well-defined geopolitical units which can be used to integrate data, to aggregate data into larger regional units, and to display data as thematic maps. However, researchers are too frequently faced with the tedious task of assembling and reformatting files from several data-collection agencies prior to conducting regional studies. Systems such as UPGRADE, DIDS, SEEDIS and Geoecology have standardized many files into integrated data bases which utilize counties as the primary spatial unit. These systems are compared and data resources discussed. (author)

  9. Radioactivity of uranium production cycle facilities in the Czech Republic compared to the natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matolin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-five years (1946-1990) of intensive uranium exploration and exploitation in the Czech Republic led to mining at 64 uranium deposits. These mining and milling activities left numerous accumulations of waste rock material in the landscape. The radioactivity of these man-made accumulations was measured and compared to the natural radiation environment. Waste rock dumps at the uranium deposits Pribram, Rozna, Jachymov, Straz-Hamr and deposits in the Zelezne Hory area show surface gamma dose rates mostly in the range of 200-1000 nGy/h, with a uranium concentration 10-100 ppm eU. An extremely high radioactivity of 3000-4200 nGy/h was detected at the extensive uranium processing tailings impoundments at Straz. Terrestrial gamma dose rate of regional geological units in the Czech Republic is in the range of 6-245 nGy/h. Reclamation and recultivation of dumps, control of their radioactivity and restriction of their accessibility are the major measures introduced to protect the public. (author)

  10. Transfer of tritium released into the marine environment by French nuclear facilities bordering the English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiévet, Bruno; Pommier, Julien; Voiseux, Claire; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Laguionie, Philippe; Cossonnet, Catherine; Solier, Luc

    2013-06-18

    Controlled amounts of liquid tritium are discharged as tritiated water (HTO) by the nuclear industry into the English Channel. Because the isotopic discrimination between 3H and H is small, organically bound tritium (OBT) and HTO should show the same T/H ratio under steady-state conditions. We report data collected from the environment in the English Channel. Tritium concentrations measured in seawater HTO, as well as in biota HTO and OBT, confirm that tritium transfers from HTO to OBT result in conservation of the T/H ratio (ca. 1 × 10(-16)). The kinetics of the turnover of tritium between seawater HTO, biota HTO, and OBT was investigated. HTO in two algae and a mollusk is shown to exchange rapidly with seawater HTO. However, the overall tritium turnover between HTO and the whole-organism OBT is a slow process with a tritium biological half-life on the order of months. Nonsteady-state conditions exist where there are sharp changes in seawater HTO. As a consequence, for kinetic reasons, the T/H ratio in OBT may deviate transiently from that observed in HTO of samples from the marine ecosystem. Dynamic modeling is thus more realistic for predicting tritium transfers to biota OBT under nonsteady-state conditions.

  11. Atmospheric fine and coarse mode aerosols at different environments of India and the Bay of Bengal during winter-2014: Implications of a coordinated campaign

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sen, A.; Ahammed, Y.N.; Arya, B.C.; Banerjee, T.; Begam, R.G.; Baruah, B.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhuri, A.K.; Dhir, A.; Das, T.; Dhyani, P.P.; Deb, N.C.; Gadi, R.; Gauns, M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, K.C.; Khan, A.H.; Kumari, K.M.; Kumar, M.; Kumar, A.; Kuniyal, J.C.; Lakhani, A.; Meena, R.K.; Mahapatra, P.S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Singh, D.P.; Pal, S.; Panda, S.; Rohtash; Saikia, J.; Saikia, P.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, P.; Saxena, M.; Shenoy, D.M.; Vachaspati, C.V.; Sharma, S.K.; Mandal, T.K.

    and 83–89�E longitudes. 2.2. Sample Collection and Analysis The APM 550, APM 460 NL and APM 430 samplers used during the campaign are manufactured by M/s. Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. The APM 550 is utilized for sampling aerosols falling... in the PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions (http://www.envirotechindia.com). The impactors are designed as per United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Ambient air enters the sampler through an omni-directional air inlet. PM10 aerosols...

  12. The association between the physical environment and the well-being of older people in residential care facilities: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Susanna; McKee, Kevin; Wijk, Helle; Elf, Marie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the associations between the quality of the physical environment and the psychological and social well-being of older people living in residential care facilities. Many older people in care facilities have cognitive and physical frailties and are at risk of experiencing low levels of well-being. High-quality physical environments can support older people as frailty increases and promote their well-being. Although the importance of the physical environment for residents' well-being is recognized, more research is needed. A cross-sectional survey of 20 care facilities from each of which 10 residents were sampled. As the individual resident data were nested in the facilities, a multilevel analysis was conducted. Data were collected during 2013 and 2014. The care facilities were purposely sampled to ensure a high level of variation in their physical characteristics. Residents' demographic and health data were collected via medical records and interviews. Residents' well-being and perceived quality of care were assessed via questionnaires and interviews. Environmental quality was assessed with a structured observational instrument. Multilevel analysis indicated that cognitive support in the physical environment was associated with residents' social well-being, after controlling for independence and perceived care quality. However, no significant association was found between the physical environment and residents' psychological well-being. Our study demonstrates the role of the physical environment for enhancing the social well-being of frail older people. Professionals and practitioners involved in the design of care facilities have a responsibility to ensure that such facilities meet high-quality specifications. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Environmental survey near a decommissioning nuclear facility: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville - Environmental survey near a nuclear facility undergoing decommissioning: example of tritium monitoring in the terrestrial environment of Creys-Malville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Gontier, G.; Chauveau, J.L. [EDF CIDEN, Division Environnement, 154 Avenue Thiers, 69458 Lyon (France); Pourcelot, L.; Roussel-Debet, S.; Cossonnet, P.C. [IRSN, LERCM Cadarache and LMRE Orsay (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [LSCE, UMR 1572-CEA/CNRS/UVQS, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    and adapts it to the specific radionuclides generated by the decommissioning phase. Some results from the terrestrial monitoring of the decommissioning site of Creys-Malville are presented here. Data highlight the very weak influence of gaseous discharges during all the operating phases and the decommissioning of the facility. Since the beginning (1985) to the end of plant operation (1998), tritium detected in the terrestrial environment near the Creys-Malville site (some Bq.L{sup -1} to a few tens of Bq.L{sup -1}) is almost exclusively linked to the global fall-out of nuclear bomb tests. During decommissioning operations, most of the observed environmental values remain very close to the ambient levels measured in zones not influenced by radioactive releases from nuclear activities i.e. 1 to 10 Bq.L{sup -1} (depending on the nature of the samples analyzed). In connection with the specific decommissioning operations, a slight influence of discharges had been briefly observed in the terrestrial environment; the measured concentrations were from 1 to 18 Bq.L{sup -1} for free water tritium, and from 1 to 11 Bq.L{sup -1} for organically bound tritium. (authors)

  14. Airborne particles in indoor environment of homes, schools, offices and aged care facilities: The main routes of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Bae, G N; Buonanno, G; Chao, C Y H; Clifford, S; Fu, S C; Hänninen, O; He, C; Isaxon, C; Mazaheri, M; Salthammer, T; Waring, M S; Wierzbicka, A

    2017-11-01

    It has been shown that the exposure to airborne particulate matter is one of the most significant environmental risks people face. Since indoor environment is where people spend the majority of time, in order to protect against this risk, the origin of the particles needs to be understood: do they come from indoor, outdoor sources or both? Further, this question needs to be answered separately for each of the PM mass/number size fractions, as they originate from different sources. Numerous studies have been conducted for specific indoor environments or under specific setting. Here our aim was to go beyond the specifics of individual studies, and to explore, based on pooled data from the literature, whether there are generalizable trends in routes of exposure at homes, schools and day cares, offices and aged care facilities. To do this, we quantified the overall 24h and occupancy weighted means of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PN - particle number concentration. Based on this, we developed a summary of the indoor versus outdoor origin of indoor particles and compared the means to the WHO guidelines (for PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) and to the typical levels reported for urban environments (PN). We showed that the main origins of particle metrics differ from one type of indoor environment to another. For homes, outdoor air is the main origin of PM 10 and PM 2.5 but PN originate from indoor sources; for schools and day cares, outdoor air is the source of PN while PM 10 and PM 2.5 have indoor sources; and for offices, outdoor air is the source of all three particle size fractions. While each individual building is different, leading to differences in exposure and ideally necessitating its own assessment (which is very rarely done), our findings point to the existence of generalizable trends for the main types of indoor environments where people spend time, and therefore to the type of prevention measures which need to be considered in general for these environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  15. Seasonal variability of carbon in humic-like matter of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols from urban background environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frka, Sanja; Grgić, Irena; Turšič, Janja; Gini, Maria I.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Long-term measurements of carbon in HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS-C) of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols were performed using a ten-stage low-pressure Berner impactor from December 2014 to November 2015 at an urban background environment in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The mass size distribution patterns of measured species (PM - particulate matter, WSOC - water-soluble organic carbon and HULIS-C) for all seasons were generally tri-modal (primarily accumulation mode) but with significant seasonal variability. HULIS-C was found to have similar distributions as WSOC, with nearly the same mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs), except for winter when the HULIS-C size distribution was bimodal. In autumn and winter, the dominant accumulation mode with MMAD at ca. 0.65 μm contributed 83 and 97% to the total HULIS-C concentration, respectively. HULIS-C accounted for a large fraction of WSOC, averaging more than 50% in autumn and 40% in winter. Alternatively, during warmer periods the contributions of ultrafine (27% in summer) and coarse mode (27% in spring) were also substantial. Based on mass size distribution characteristics, HULIS-C was found to be of various sources. In colder seasons, wood burning was confirmed as the most important HULIS source; secondary formation in atmospheric liquid water also contributed significantly, as revealed by the MMADs of the accumulation mode shifting to larger sizes. The distinct difference between the spring and summer ratios of HULIS-C/WSOC in fine particles (ca. 50% in spring, but only 10% in summer) indicated different sources and chemical composition of WSOC in summer (e.g., SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) via photochemistry). The enlarged amount of HULIS-C in the ultrafine mode in summer suggests that the important contribution was most likely from new particle formation during higher emissions of BVOC due to the vicinity of a mixed deciduous forest; the higher contribution of

  16. Three-dimensional neutron dose distribution in the environment around a 1-GeV electron synchrotron facility at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwamino, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    1987-01-01

    The three-dimensional (surface and altitude) skyshine neutron-dose-equivalent distribution around the 1-GeV electron synchrotron (ES) of the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, was measured with a high-sensitivity dose-equivalent counter. The neutron spectrum in the environment was also measured with a multimoderator spectrometer incorporating a 3 He counter. The dose-equivalent distribution and the leakage neutron spectrum at the surface of the ES building were measured with a Studsvik 2202D counter and the multimoderator spectrometer, including an indium activation detector. Skyshine neutron transport calculations, beginning with the photoneutron spectrum and yielding the dose-equivalent distribution in the environment, were performed with the DOT3.5 code and two Monte Carlo codes, MMCR-2 and MMCR-3, using the DLC-87/HILO group cross sections. The calculated neutron spectra at the top surface of the concrete ceiling and at a point 111 m from the ES agreed well with the measured results, and the calculated three-dimensional dose-equivalent distribution also agreed. The dose value increased linearly with altitude, and the slope was estimated for neutron-producing facilities. (author)

  17. An ARM Mobile Facility Designed for Marine Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements) Program is designing a Mobile Facility exclusively for marine deployments. This marine facility is patterned after ARM's land Mobile Facility, which had its inaugural deployment at Point Reyes, California, in 2005, followed by deployments to Niger in 2006 and Germany in 2007 (ongoing), and a planned deployment to China in 2008. These facilities are primarily intended for the study of clouds, radiation, aerosols, and surface processes with a goal to include these processes accurately in climate models. They are preferably embedded within larger field campaigns which provide context. They carry extensive instrumentation (in several large containers) including: cloud radar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared spectrometers, broadband and narrowband radiometers, sonde-launching facilities, extensive surface aerosol measurements, sky imagers, and surface latent and sensible heat flux devices. ARM's Mobile Facilities are designed for 6-10 month deployments in order to capture climatically-relevant datasets. They are available to any scientist, U.S. or international, who wishes to submit a proposal during the annual Spring call. The marine facility will be adapted to, and ruggedized for, the harsh marine environment and will add a scanning two-frequency radar, a boundary-layer wind profiler, a shortwave spectrometer, and aerosol instrumentation adapted to typical marine aerosols like sea salt. Plans also include the use of roving small UAVs, automated small boats, and undersea autonomous vehicles in order to address the point-to-area-average problem which is so crucial for informing climate models. Initial deployments are planned for small islands in climatically- interesting cloud regimes, followed by deployments on oceanic platforms (like decommissioned oil rigs and the quasi-permanent platform of this session's title) and eventually on large ships like car carriers plying routine routes.

  18. Aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; De Smet, M.; Trine, J.; Hertschap, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on the development of fibre metallic prefilters to be placed upstream of HEPA filters for the exhaust gases of nuclear process plants. Investigations at ambient and high temperature were carried out. Measurements of the filtration performance of Bekipor porous webs and sintered mats were performed in the AFLT (aerosol filtration at low temperature) unit with a throughput of 15 m 3 /h. A parametric study on the influence of particle size, fibre diameter, number of layers and superficial velocity led to the optimum choice of the working parameters. Three selected filter types were then tested with polydisperse aerosols using a candle-type filter configuration or a flat-type filter configuration. The small-diameter candle type is not well suited for a spraying nozzles regeneration system so that only the flat-type filter was retained for high-temperature tests. A high-temperature test unit (AFHT) with a throughput of 8 to 10 m 3 /h at 400 0 C was used to test the three filter types with an aerosol generated by high-temperature calcination of a simulated nitric acid waste solution traced with 134 Cs. The regeneration of the filter by spray washing and the effect of the regeneration on the filter performance was studied for the three filter types. The porous mats have a higher dust loading capacity than the sintered web which means that their regeneration frequency can be kept lower

  19. Measures to reduce the impact of anti-icing agents on the environment and on the work of wastewater treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the excess of chemical agents in the snow on the environment and on the working waste water treatment facilities. The article presents some suggestions for improvement of regulatory requirements concerning design engineering of snow melting facilities in the water disposal system. This suggestion was substantiated to assess snow as waste disposed from road surface, and to register snow mass delivered to snow melting facilities in equivalent units. It is assumed that snow melting stations are facilities designed for waste treatment, and this is why the project documentation for construction of these facilities has to undergo a state expertise for Environmental Impact Assessment. Completed studies provide estimates of the receipted snow, its pollution, etc. But at the same time these studies serve as the basis for approving the necessity of developing a unified system for monitoring the city's snow-melting plants to ensure the reliability.

  20. Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Wood, Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    for comprehensive in situ characterizations of boundary-layer structure, and associated vertical distributions and horizontal variabilities of low clouds and aerosol over the Azores. ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft will be deployed at the ENA site during two intensive operational periods (IOPs) of early summer (June to July) of 2017 and winter (January to February) of 2018, respectively. Deployments during both seasons allow for examination of key aerosol and cloud processes under a variety of representative meteorological and cloud conditions. The science themes for the deployments include: 1) Budget of MBL CCN and its seasonal variation; 2) Effects of aerosol on cloud and precipitation; 3) Cloud microphysical and macrophysical structures, and entrainment mixing; 4) Advancing retrievals of turbulence, cloud, and drizzle; and 5) Model evaluation and processes studies. A key advantage of the deployments is the strong synergy between the measurements onboard the G-1 and the routine measurements at the ENA site, including state-of-the-art profiling and scanning radars. The 3D cloud structures provided by the scanning radars will put the detailed in situ measurements into mesoscale and cloud lifecycle contexts. On the other hand, high quality in situ measurements will enable validation and improvements of ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA site, leading to high-quality and statistically robust data sets from the routine measurements. The deployments, combined with the routine measurements at the ENA site, will have a long lasting impact on the research and modeling of low clouds and aerosols in the remote marine environment.

  1. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  2. Premonsoon aerosol optical properties from AERONET retrievals and its probable source fields in Eastern India urban environment (Kolkata): evaluating spatial variability and its comparison with MODIS retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, B.; Verma, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol characteristics were examined using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS retrievals (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) during the period, February to June 2009 in Eastern India, Kolkata (KOL). AERONET retrievals results for the study period manifested an aerosol optical depth - AOD (Angstrom exponent - α) in the range 0.65 - 0.81 (0.66 - 0.97) with an intermittent influence of dust. A substantial dominance of finer (coarser) particles were found in February (April) and an equal dominance of both in June. Aerosol size distribution (ASD) revealed a high volume in fine mode during June and that in April for the coarse mode. A few areas of in and around KOL, Odisha, and Sikkim influenced AOD ascertained using the Potential source contribution function (PSCF). Cluster analysis revealed preferred pathway as continental during February and both continental and marine during March to June. Episodic days identified for dust occurrence was examined and was further corroborated by MODIS Rapid response images. Further, comparative results of seven collateral AERONET sites in India, revealed a high AOD (α) at KOL during February to May (March and April) with Fine mode - FM (Coarse mode - CM) AOD of KOL being high during March and April (February to April) than other locations. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 0.67 μm at KOL was slightly lower during February and March, with being equivalent and or higher than other sites during April to June. Comparison of AERONET - MODIS AOD at 0.55 µm for KOL (entire study period) for the collateral days revealed underestimation of MODIS during February to April and overestimation during May and June than AERONET. AERONET - MODIS AOD comparison for seven locations, during low (February) and high (June) aerosol loading, showed good agreement for few stations and divulged discrepancy for other sites.

  3. Onshore Wind Speed Modulates Microbial Aerosols along an Urban Waterfront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elias Dueker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind blowing over aquatic and terrestrial surfaces produces aerosols, which include microbial aerosols. We studied the effect of onshore wind speeds on aerosol concentrations as well as total and culturable microbial aerosols (bacterial and viral at an urban waterfront (New York, NY, United States of America. We used two distinct methods to characterize microbial aerosol responses to wind speed: A culture-based exposure-plate method measuring viable bacterial deposition near-shore (CFU accumulation rate; and a culture-independent aerosol sampler-based method measuring total bacterial and viral aerosols (cells m−3 air. While ambient coarse (>2 µm and fine (0.3–2 µm aerosol particle number concentrations (regulated indicators of air quality decreased with increasing onshore wind speeds, total and depositing culturable bacterial aerosols and total viral aerosols increased. Taxonomic identification of the 16S rDNA of bacterial aerosol isolates suggested both terrestrial and aquatic sources. Wind appears to increase microbial aerosol number concentrations in the near-shore environment by onshore transport at low wind speeds (<4 m s−1, and increased local production and transport of new microbial aerosols from adjacent water surfaces at higher wind speeds (>4 m s−1. This study demonstrates a wind-modulated microbial connection between water and air in the coastal urban environment, with implications for public health management and urban microbial ecology.

  4. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A

  5. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  6. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  7. Intercomparison test of various aerosol measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Hassa, C.; Jordan, S.

    1984-01-01

    At the suggestion of the CONT group (Containment Loading and Response), which is a subgroup of the Safety Working Group of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee, a group of experts undertook a comparison of the techniques of sodium aerosol measurement used in various laboratories in the EC. The following laboratories took part in the exercise: CEN-Mol (Belgium), CEA-Cadarache (France), CEA-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France), KfK-Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), ENEA-Bologna (Italy), and UKAEA-Winfrith (United Kingdom). The objective of the aerosol measurement workshop was to assess the applicability and reliability of specific aerosol measuring instruments. Measurements performed with equipment from the participating laboratories were evaluated using a standard procedure. This enabled an estimate of the accuracy of the experimental data to be provided for the verification of aerosol codes. Thus these results can be used as input for the physical modelling of aerosol behaviour, and the work reported here is a contribution to the definition of the radioactive source term for severe accidents in LMFBRs. The aerosol experts participating in the exercise agreed to concentrate on the techniques of measuring aerosol particle size distributions. The tests were performed at the FAUNA test facility using the aerosol loop. A sodium spray fire, which provides a continuous aerosol source of variable concentration, was produced under open-loop conditions in this facility. Although the primary objective of the workshop was to determine the particle size distributions of the aerosols, measurements of the sodium mass concentration were also made

  8. Monitoring the Impacts of Wildfires on Forest Ecosystems and Public Health in the Exo-Urban Environment Using High-Resolution Satellite Aerosol Products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Amy K; Kondragunta, Shobha; Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing development of exo-urban environments and the spread of urbanization into forested areas is making humans and forest ecosystems more susceptible to the risks associated with wildfires. Larger and more damaging wildfires are having a negative impact on forest ecosystem services, and smoke from wildfires adversely affects the public health of people living in exo-urban environments. Satellite aerosol measurements are valuable tools that can track the evolution of wildfires and monitor the transport of smoke plumes. Operational users, such as air quality forecasters and fire management officials, can use satellite observations to complement ground-based and aircraft measurements of wildfire activity. To date, wildfire applications of satellite aerosol products, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been limited by the relatively coarse resolution of available AOD data. However, the new Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite has high-resolution AOD that is ideally suited to monitoring wildfire impacts on the exo-urban scale. Two AOD products are available from VIIRS: the 750-m × 750-m nadir resolution Intermediate Product (IP) and the 6-km × 6-km resolution Environmental Data Record product, which is aggregated from IP measurements. True color (red, green, and blue [RGB]) imagery and a smoke mask at 750-m × 750-m resolution are also available from VIIRS as decision aids for wildfire applications; they serve as counterparts to AOD measurements by providing visible information about areas of smoke in the atmosphere. To meet the needs of operational users, who do not have time to process raw data files and need access to VIIRS products in near-real time (NRT), VIIRS AOD and RGB NRT imagery are available from the Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications (IDEA) web site. A key feature of IDEA is an interactive visualization tool that allows users to

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC POLICY IN CREATING BUSINESS CLIMATE, BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FACILITIES TOWARDS BUSINESS EMPOWERMENT ON SMALL MEDIUM CRAFT ENTERPRISES IN AMBON INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Papilaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing and explaining whether there was the influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities towards empowerment on small and medium enterprises as well as whether there is synchronously influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities for business empowerment on small and medium scale enterprises through a survey in the city of Ambon. The results show, that there is a positive and significant effect of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate to empower small and medium enterprises. There is a positive and significant effect on the business environment toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive and significant effect of providing support facilities toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, and there is a positive and significant simultaneously effect in business climate, business environment and support facilities for business towards the empowerment of small business in Ambon city. Empowerment programs are conducted to maintain a conducive business climate, including: 1. the innovation promotion, 2. enhancing human resources through training development; 3. providing financial support, 4. giving support to the marketing strategy, 5. opening the business partnership. While the supporting facilities granted to small and medium enterprises including: 1. giving the fishing boat for the Fishermen, 2. providing the workshop (machine shop service facilities to small crafts business Enterprises, 3. establish vendors for small enterprises, 4. provide the area for street vendors, 5. provide tents for merchants culinary who work at night. Providing the assistance to encourage the business climate and create conducive business environment.

  10. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intensive campaign, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance, as well as strong sources, of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average mid-visible single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more suitable for climate modeling purposes than the 24-h average of 0.82, as the latter value is

  11. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  12. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  13. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  14. Aerosol scrubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Submerged Gravel Scrubber is an air cleaning system developed by the Department of Energy's Liquid Metal Reactor Program. The Scrubber System has been patented by the Department of Energy. This technology is being transferred to industry by the DOE. Its basic principles can be adapted for individual applications and the commercialized version can be used to perform a variety of tasks. The gas to be cleaned is percolated through a continuously washed gravel bed. The passage of the gas through the gravel breaks the stream into many small bubbles rising in a turbulent body of water. These conditions allow very highly efficient removal of aerosols from the gas

  15. Calibration of aerosol radiometers. Special aerosol sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Fertman, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Problems of calibration of artificial aerosol radiometry and information-measurement systems of radiometer radiation control, in particular, are considered. Special aerosol source is suggested, which permits to perform certification and testing of aerosol channels of the systems in situ without the dismantling

  16. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  17. Developing a systems framework for sustainable infrastructure technologies (SIT) in the built environment focussing on health facilities: A case for Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saidi, M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a systems framework for the implementation and management of sustainable infrastructure technologies in the built environment with specific focus on health facilities. It look at the global trends and drivers...

  18. Variations of aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and optical properties from roadside to ambient environment: A case study in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ning, Zhi; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Junke; Lei, Yali; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Westerdahl, Dane; Gali, Nirmal Kumar; Gong, Xuesong

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the ;roadside-to-ambient; evolution of particle physicochemical and optical properties in typical urban atmospheres of Hong Kong through collection of chemically-resolved PM2.5 data and PM2.5 size distribution at a roadside and an ambient site. Roadside particle size distribution showed typical peaks in the nuclei mode (30-40 nm) while ambient measurements peaked in the Aitken mode (50-70 nm), revealing possible condensation and coagulation growth of freshly emitted particles during aging processes. Much higher levels of anthropogenic chemical components, i.e. nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), but lower levels of OC/EC and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA)/EC ratios appeared in roadside than ambient particles. The high OC/EC and SIA/EC ratios in ambient particles implied high contributions from secondary aerosols. Black carbon (BC), a strong light absorbing material, showed large variations in optical properties when mixed with other inorganic and organic components. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs), an indicator of brown carbon (BrC), showed significant UV-absorbing ability. The average BC and p-PAHs concentrations were 3.8 and 87.6 ng m-3, respectively, at the roadside, but were only 1.5 and 18.1 ng m-3 at the ambient site, suggesting BC and p-PAHs concentrations heavily driven by traffic emissions. In contrast, PM2.5 UV light absorption coefficients (babs-BrC,370nm) at the ambient site (4.2 Mm-1) and at the roadside site (4.1 Mm-1) were similar, emphasizing that particle aging processes enhanced UV light-absorbing properties, a conclusion that was also supported by the finding that the Absorption Ångström coefficient (AAC) value at UV wavelengths (AAC_UV band) at the ambient site were ∼1.7 times higher than that at the roadside. Both aqueous reaction and photochemically produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) for ambient aerosols contributed to the peak values of babs

  19. Recent activities in the Aerosol Generation and Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    General statements may be made on the behavior of single-component and multi-component aerosols in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant vessel. The removal processes for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols are enhanced in a steam-air atmosphere. Steam-air seems to have little effect on removal of concrete aerosol from the vessel atmosphere. A steam-air environment causes a change in aerosol shape from chain-agglomerate to basically spherical for U 3 O 8 , Fe 2 O 3 , and U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosol; for concrete the change in aerosol shape is from chain-agglomerate to partially spherical. The mass ratio of the individual components of a multi-component aerosol seems to have an observable influence on the resultant behavior of these aerosols in steam. The enhanced rate of removal of the U 3 O 8 , the Fe 2 O 3 , and the mixed U 3 O 8 + Fe 2 O 3 aerosols from the atmosphere of the NSPP vessel by steam-air is probably caused by the change in aerosol shape and the condensation of steam on the aerosol surfaces combining to increase the effect of gravitational settling. The apparent lack of an effect by steam-air on the removal rate of concrete aerosol could result from a differing physical/chemical response of the surfaces of this aerosol to condensing steam

  20. Aerosols and the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The lectures of the colloquium are discussed in summary form. There were 5 lectures on aerosol deposition, 5 on aerosol elimination, 7 on toxicology, and 7 on the uses of aerosols in medical therapy. In some cases aerosols with radioactive labels were used. Several lectures reviewed the kinetics and toxicology of airborne environmental pollutants. (MG) [de

  1. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  2. Study of atmospheric aerosols by IBA techniques: The LABEC experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2018-02-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN (Florence, Italy) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of the elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols. All the elements with Z > 10 are simultaneously detected by PIXE typically in one minute. This setup allows us an easy automatic positioning, changing and scanning of samples collected by different kinds of devices: long series of daily PM (Particulate Matter) samples can be analysed in short times, as well as size-segregated and high time-resolution aerosol samples. Thanks to the capability of detecting all the crustal elements, PIXE-PIGE analyses are unrivalled in the study of mineral dust: consequently, they are very effective in the study of natural aerosols, like, for example, Saharan dust intrusions. Among the detectable elements there are also important markers of anthropogenic sources, which allow effective source apportionment studies in polluted urban environments using a multivariate method like Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Examples regarding recent monitoring campaigns, performed in urban and remote areas, both daily and with high time resolution (hourly samples), as well as with size selection, are presented. The importance of the combined use of the Particle Induced Gamma Ray emission technique (PIGE) and of other complementary (non-nuclear) techniques is highlighted.

  3. The intercomparison of aerosol codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way

  4. Optical characterization of metallic aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenbo; Lin Bing

    2006-01-01

    Airborne metallic particulates from industry and urban sources are highly conducting aerosols. The characterization of these pollutant particles is important for environment monitoring and protection. Because these metallic particulates are highly reflective, their effect on local weather or regional radiation budget may also need to be studied. In this work, light scattering characteristics of these metallic aerosols are studied using exact solutions on perfectly conducting spherical and cylindrical particles. It is found that for perfectly conducting spheres and cylinders, when scattering angle is larger than ∼90 o the linear polarization degree of the scattered light is very close to zero. This light scattering characteristics of perfectly conducting particles is significantly different from that of other aerosols. When these perfectly conducting particles are immersed in an absorbing medium, this light scattering characteristics does not show significant change. Therefore, measuring the linear polarization of scattered lights at backward scattering angles can detect and distinguish metallic particulates from other aerosols. This result provides a great potential of metallic aerosol detection and monitoring for environmental protection

  5. Secondary organic aerosol formation by limonene ozonolysis: Parameterizing multi-generational chemistry in ozone- and residence time-limited indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael S.

    2016-11-01

    Terpene ozonolysis reactions can be a strong source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) indoors. SOA formation can be parameterized and predicted using the aerosol mass fraction (AMF), also known as the SOA yield, which quantifies the mass ratio of generated SOA to oxidized terpene. Limonene is a monoterpene that is at sufficient concentrations such that it reacts meaningfully with ozone indoors. It has two unsaturated bonds, and the magnitude of the limonene ozonolysis AMF varies by a factor of ∼4 depending on whether one or both of its unsaturated bonds are ozonated, which depends on whether ozone is in excess compared to limonene as well as the available time for reactions indoors. Hence, this study developed a framework to predict the limonene AMF as a function of the ozone [O3] and limonene [lim] concentrations and the air exchange rate (AER, h-1), which is the inverse of the residence time. Empirical AMF data were used to calculate a mixing coefficient, β, that would yield a 'resultant AMF' as the combination of the AMFs due to ozonolysis of one or both of limonene's unsaturated bonds, within the volatility basis set (VBS) organic aerosol framework. Then, β was regressed against predictors of log10([O3]/[lim]) and AER (R2 = 0.74). The β increased as the log10([O3]/[lim]) increased and as AER decreased, having the physical meaning of driving the resultant AMF to the upper AMF condition when both unsaturated bonds of limonene are ozonated. Modeling demonstrates that using the correct resultant AMF to simulate SOA formation owing to limonene ozonolysis is crucial for accurate indoor prediction.

  6. Improving the knowledge of environment around French nuclear facilities for better dose assessment and post-accidental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parache, V.; Renaud, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of an industrial pollution for the population and the environment depend not only on the nature and extent of the pollution, but also of the characteristics of concerned environment: the use that man made of it, and of the man's habits, notably food practices. To improve the consideration of the specificities of territories in its evaluations and its recommendations, in normal operation or in accident and post-accident situations, the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety characterizes the environment of the nuclear installations. This standardised measurement of the environmental and population characteristics will be useful in risk assessment and management, and in all the operational stages of a nuclear installation. This characterization concerns the inventory of the main agricultural productions (vegetable and animal), the important agricultural dates (seeding, harvest) and the practices and eating habits of animals, the industry and the local food-processing, as well as on the food practices of the persons which live around the French nuclear power plant. National surveys have identified the major characteristics of French eating habits. Above and beyond the fact that these surveys do not consider local specificities, the use of their results for dosimetric assessments has certain drawbacks: the categories of foodstuffs most vulnerable to contamination in post-accident situations (fresh fruit and vegetables, fresh milk and cheeses) are very rarely described in detail; representation of the eating habits of an 'average' population does not give us as the behaviors of the most sensitive groups. The prime objective of local studies is to describe eating habits (rations and local production rates) of potentially most exposed population around nuclear facilities which may cultivate various foodstuffs. These comparative studies highlighted the important variability of the particular eating habits of the French population

  7. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99; Actes du 15. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. They concern the aerosol capture simulation, the aerosols sampling in workplace environment, a ring-effect ion generator development for the charge and the neutralization of an aerosol cloud, the radon 222 characterization in a house, a particle re-entrainment, the electrical charge process of beta emitter radioactive aerosols, the simulation of air flows in many filters. The other ones are analyzed in the ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  8. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  9. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I—Overview and impact of elevated aerosol layers on aerosol optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, Johnathan W.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, Kathleen; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail; Rogers, Ray R.; Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Volkamer, Rainer; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere between and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  10. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jefferson, Anne; Johnson, Roy; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Kollias, Pavlos; Lamer, Katia; Lantz, K.; Mei, Fan; Miller, Mark A.; Michalsky, Joseph; Ortega, Ivan; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rogers, Ray; Russell, P.; Redemann, Jens; Sedlacek, Art; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Schmid, Beat; Shilling, John E.; Shinozuka, Yohei; Springston, Stephen R.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Tyrrell, Megan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2016-01-08

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), which was conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique field study that was designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere at a number of altitudes, from near the surface to as high as 8 km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. TCAP included the yearlong deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) that was located at the base of the Cape Cod column, as well as summer and winter aircraft intensive observation periods of the ARM Aerial Facility. One important finding from TCAP is the relatively common occurrence (on four of six nearly cloud-free flights) of elevated aerosol layers in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2). These layers contributed up to 60% of the total aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in the column. Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning aerosol and nitrate compared to the aerosol found near the surface.

  11. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact of Elevated Aerosol Layers on Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Barnard, James C.; Burton, Sharon P.; Cairns, Brian; Chand, Duli; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dunagan, Stephen; Ferrare, Richard A.; Flynn, Connor J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP), conducted from June 2012 through June 2013, was a unique study designed to provide a comprehensive data set that can be used to investigate a number of important climate science questions, including those related to aerosol mixing state and aerosol radiative forcing. The study was designed to sample the atmosphere be tween and within two atmospheric columns; one fixed near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second moveable column over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed at the base of the Cape Cod column, and the ARM Aerial Facility was utilized for the summer and winter intensive observation periods. One important finding from TCAP is that four of six nearly cloud-free flight days had aerosol layers aloft in both the Cape Cod and maritime columns that were detected using the nadir pointing second-generation NASA high-spectral resolution lidar (HSRL-2).These layer s contributed up to 60 of the total observed aerosol optical depth (AOD). Many of these layers were also intercepted by the aircraft configured for in situ sampling, and the aerosol in the layers was found to have increased amounts of biomass burning material and nitrate compared to aerosol found near the surface. In addition, while there was a great deal of spatial and day-to-day variability in the aerosol chemical composition and optical properties, no systematic differences between the two columns were observed.

  12. Mobile Atmospheric Aerosol and Radiation Characterization Observatory (MAARCO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: MAARCO is designed as a stand-alone facility for basic atmospheric research and the collection of data to assist in validating aerosol and weather models....

  13. Aerosol characterizaton in El Paso-Juarez airshed using optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Angel Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The assessment and characterization of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties are of great significance for several applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric visibility, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and impacts on climate change. Decades ago, the interest in atmospheric aerosols was primarily for visibility impairment problems; however, recently interest has intensified with efforts to quantify the optical properties of aerosols, especially because of the uncertainties surrounding the role of aerosols in climate change. The main objective of the optical characterization of aerosols is to understand their properties. These properties are determined by the aerosols' chemical composition, size, shape and concentration. The general purpose of this research was to contribute to a better characterization of the aerosols present in the Paso del Norte Basin. This study permits an alternative approach in the understanding of air pollution for this zone by analyzing the predominant components and their contributions to the local environment. This dissertation work had three primary objectives, in which all three are intertwined by the general purpose of the aerosol characterization in the Paso del Norte region. The first objective was to retrieve the columnar aerosol size distribution for two different cases (clean and polluted scenarios) at each season (spring, summer, fall and winter) of the year 2009. In this project, instruments placed in buildings within the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) as well as a monitoring site (CAMS 12) from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) provided the measurements that delimited the aerosol size distribution calculated by our model, the Environmental Physics Inverse Reconstruction (EPIRM) model. The purpose of this objective was to provide an alternate method of quantifying and size-allocating aerosols in situ, by using the optical properties of the aerosols and inversely reconstruct and

  14. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  15. Aerosol measurement techniques and accuracy in the CSTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R. K.

    1979-11-01

    The Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF) provides the capability of performing large-scale aerosol behavior experiments at a scale factor of approximately 0.5 in height for a typical reactor containment building. The containment height is 20.3 m, the volume is 850 m 3 , the design pressure is 5 bar, and quantities of sodium up to 1250 kg can be sprayed or spilled for sodium combustion product aerosol sources. Instrumentation is provided for characterization of the aerosol and the containment atmosphere. This paper describes the aerosol sampling techniques and instruments used in the CSTF and discusses their accuracy and reproducibility

  16. Engendering a conducive environment for university students with physical disabilities: assessing availability of assistive facilities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Ojo, Temitope O; Akintan, Florence O; Adeyemo, Ayoade O; Afolayan, Ademola S; Akanji, Olakunle G

    2018-03-12

    This study assessed awareness and availability of assistive facilities in a Nigerian public university. Study was conducted in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile Ife Nigeria using a mixed methods approach. Fifty two students with disability (SWD) were interviewed with a semistructured, self-administered questionnaire. A checklist was used to assess assistive facilities on campus while in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with university officials, to assess their perspectives about the availability and use of assistive facilities in the university. Almost three-thirds (57.7%) of SWD were male while more than two-thirds were aged between 21 and 30 years. About seven in 10 (71.1%) respondents, had mobility impairment, while two-fifth had visual impairment (40.8%) and a few had hearing impairment. Only the university's administrative building had a functioning elevator. Slightly more than half (54.5%) of the lecture theatres have public address systems, while only two have special entrances and exits with ramps for SWD. Almost all respondents were unaware of facilities that aid learning (96.2%) and facilities for library use (90.4%). University officials were aware of assistive facilities for SWD but do not know the actual number of SWD. Assistive facilities for SWD on campus are limited. More assistive facilities need to be provided alongside increased awareness about these facilities and a disability register should be open for students on campus. Assistive facilities to aid learning and make SWD more comfortable are required. Implications for Rehabilitation Universities should have an official policy on students with disabilities and implement it, such a policy should address special considerations for disabled students, such as having an updated register for students with disability, having examination questions in large fonts for students with visual disabilities, giving them extra time for examinations and providing special counselling services for

  17. Assessment of aerosol radiation environment in short-range region of ChNPP during building of the new safe confinment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garger, E.K.; Shynkarenko, V.K.; Kashpur, V.A.; Skoryak, G.G.; Kalinovsky, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Variability of 137 Cs volume activity in a subsurface layer of the atmosphere of a short-range region of the object ''Shelter'' (object ''Ukryttya'') during the works on building of a new safety confinement in 2016 was investigated. Influence of the type and location of works, weather conditions, and sampling points was shown. Excess of medial permissible concentrations of 137 Cs in the air was not fixed during the observations. However, due to the averaging of the measured values of the volume activity for the exposure time of the filter and use of the stationary aerosol samplers, it cannot ensure the absence of excess of the permissible concentrations at the locations of works and on the propagation path of the local emission plumes. In 2016, as well as in 2013 - 2015, high levels of 137 Cs volume activity in the air were preferentially localized near to the machine hall of the 4th block and near to the places of ground works at the industrial site [ 1]. Concurrently the levels of volume activity essentially grew (practically by the order of magnitude) due to the intense works on the machine hall transformation. The conservative estimation of volume activity of isotopes of the plutonium, executed in the assumption of fuel composition of hot particles, showed the presence of substantial excess of permissible limits even for the average values within, at least, four weeks. Absence of reliable correlation (R = -0.09) of 137 Cs volume activity in the air near to the machine hall and near to the aerosol sampler 1,4 km remote from it testifies the localization of pollution within the industrial site.

  18. Analysis of NSPP experiment with ART code for analyzing transport behavior of Aerosol and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-01-01

    The ART code calculates transport behavior of aerosols and radionuclides during core meltdown accidents in the light water reactors. Since aerosols play an important role in carrying fission products from the core region to the environment, the ART code includes detailed models of aerosol behavior. Aerosols including several radionuclides are classified into many groups according to the aerosol mass. The models of aerosol behavior include agglomeration processes caused by Brownian motion, aerosol settling velocity difference and turbulent flow, and natural deposition processes due to diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, gravitational settling and forced convection. In order to examine validity of the ART models, the NSPP aerosol experiment was analyzed. The ART calculated results showed good agreement with the experimental data. It was ascertained that aerosol growth due to agglomeration, gravitational settling, thermophoresis in an air atmosphere, and diffusiophoresis in an air-steam atmosphere were important physical phenomena in the aerosol behavior. (author)

  19. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. They concern the aerosol capture simulation, the aerosols sampling in workplace environment, a ring-effect ion generator development for the charge and the neutralization of an aerosol cloud, the radon 222 characterization in a house, a particle re-entrainment, the electrical charge process of beta emitter radioactive aerosols, the simulation of air flows in many filters. The other ones are analyzed in the ETDE data base. (A.L.B.)

  20. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  1. The influence of fog parameters on aerosol depletion measured in the KAEVER experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poss, G.; Weber, D.; Fritsche, B.

    1995-01-01

    The release of radioactive aerosols in the environment is one of the most serious hazards in case of an accident in nuclear power plant. Many efforts have been made in the past in numerous experimental programs like NSPP, DEMONA, VANAM, LACE, MARVIKEN, others are still underway to improve the knowledge of the aerosol behavior and depletion in a reactor containment in order to estimate the possible source term and to validate computer codes. In the German single compartment KAEVER facility the influence of size distribution, morphology, composition and solubility on the aerosol behavior is investigated. One of the more specific items is to learn about open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes means, the aerosol depletion behavior in condensing atmospheres. There are no experiments known where the fog parameters like droplet size distribution, volume concentration, respectively airborne liquid water content have been measured in- and on-line explicitly. To the authors knowledge the use of the Battelle FASP photometer, which was developed especially for this reason, for the first time gives insight in condensation behavior under accident typical thermal hydraulic conditions. It delivers a basis for code validation in terms of a real comparison of measurements and calculations. The paper presents results from open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes aerosol experiments demonstrating how depletion velocity depends on the fog parameters and where obviously critical fog parameter seem to change the regime from a open-quotes pseudo dry depletionclose quotes at a relative humidity of 100% but quasi no or very low airborne liquid water content to a real open-quotes wet depletionclose quotes under the presence of fogs with varying densities. Characteristics are outlined how soluble and insoluble particles as well as aerosol mixtures behave under condensing conditions

  2. Papers of the 14. french congress on the aerosols CFA 98; Actes du 14. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1998. It was presented in four main themes: the aerosols in the environment; the bio-aerosols, filtering and purifying; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols physic and application. Eight papers have been analyzed in ETDE data base showing the importance of the aerosols physic knowledge in the air quality and seven other in the INIS data base for their specific interest in the nuclear industry. (A.L.B.)

  3. Intermediate results of a one-year study of a laser spectrometer in the DOE filter test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, S.C.; Tillery, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A 1-year study of the model LAS-X (Particle Measuring Systems, Inc.) laser spectrometer in the Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facilities (FTFs) was begun on August 1, 1983. The principal objectives of the study were to gain operational experience with the LAS-X/diluter/HP-85 particle size measurement system in the FTF environment, acquire size distribution data to quantify the consistency of the Q107 aerosol size distribution at each FTF and among FTFs, and compare the FTF test aerosols to current and proposed standards. Results of the first 9 months of the study are summarized and discussed. Major conclusions based on these data are: (1) the LAS-X system can be operated successfully in the FTF environment, (2) each FTF would require a back-up LAS-X to be able to continue filter testing during the (at least) once each year removal of a LAS-X from service for major recalibration and repair, (3) the FTF test aerosols are not monodisperse, as assumed in the military standard MIL-STD-282, and do not all meet the new DOE Nuclear Standard NE-F-3-43, which a replacement aerosol would be required to meet, (4) the test aerosol at each FTF is quite consistent over time, and (5) the test aerosols at the three FTFs differ consistently. Final conclusions and recommendations from this study will be developed after analysis of the full 12 months of data

  4. Evolution of biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon: airborne measurements of aerosol chemical composition, microphysical properties, mixing state and optical properties during SAMBBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Liu, D.; O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Szpek, K.; Johnson, B.; Haywood, J.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. On regional scales, the impacts are substantial, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated in the Cerrado. This led to significant differences in aerosol chemical composition, particularly in terms of the BC content, with BC being enhanced in the Cerrado

  5. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large warming by elevated aerosols · AERONET – Global network (NASA) · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28 · Slide 29 · Slide 30 · Slide 31 · Long-term trends - Trivandrum · Enhanced warming over Himalayan-Gangetic region · Aerosol Radiative Forcing Over India _ Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment ...

  6. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-10-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit.

  7. Leak-Path Factor Analysis for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, C.; Leonard, M.

    1999-01-01

    Leak-path factors (LPFs) were calculated for the Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) located in the Plutonium Facility, Building 41 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 55. In the unlikely event of an accidental fire powerful enough to fail a container holding actinides, the subsequent release of oxides, modeled as PuO 2 aerosols, from the facility and into the surrounding environment was predicted. A 1-h nondestructive assay (NDA) laboratory fire accident was simulated with the MELCOR severe accident analysis code. Fire-driven air movement along with wind-driven air infiltration transported a portion of these actinides from the building. This fraction is referred to as the leak-path factor. The potential effect of smoke aerosol on the transport of the actinides was investigated to verify the validity of neglecting the smoke as conservative. The input model for the NMSF consisted of a system of control volumes, flow pathways, and surfaces sufficient to model the thermal-hydraulic conditions within the facility and the aerosol transport data necessary to simulate the transport of PuO 2 particles. The thermal-hydraulic, heat-transfer, and aerosol-transport models are solved simultaneously with data being exchanged between models. A MELCOR input model was designed such that it would reproduce the salient features of the fire per the corresponding CFAST calculation. Air infiltration into and out of the facility would be affected strongly by wind-driven differential pressures across the building. Therefore, differential pressures were applied to each side of the building according to guidance found in the ASHRAE handbook using a standard-velocity head equation with a leading multiplier to account for the orientation of the wind with the building. The model for the transport of aerosols considered all applicable transport processes, but the deposition within the building clearly was dominated by gravitational settling

  8. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging

  9. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  10. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  11. NASA's Aerosol Sampling Experiment Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  12. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalardo Gelsomina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  14. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-04-01

    The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS) is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  15. Criticality Safety Lessons Learned in a Deactivation and Decommissioning Environment [A Guide for Facility and Project Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirider, L. Tom

    2003-08-06

    This document was designed as a reference and a primer for facility and project managers responsible for Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) processes in facilities containing significant inventories of fissionable materials. The document contains lessons learned and guidance for the development and management of criticality safety programs. It also contains information gleaned from occurrence reports, assessment reports, facility operations and management, NDA program reviews, criticality safety experts, and criticality safety evaluations. This information is designed to assist in the planning process and operational activities. Sufficient details are provided to allow the reader to understand the events, the lessons learned, and how to apply the information to present or planned D&D processes. Information is also provided on general lessons learned including criticality safety evaluations and criticality safety program requirements during D&D activities. The document also explores recent and past criticality accidents in operating facilities, and it extracts lessons learned pertinent to D&D activities. A reference section is included to provide additional information. This document does not address D&D lessons learned that are not pertinent to criticality safety.

  16. Criticality Safety Lessons Learned in a Deactivation and Decommissioning Environment [A Guide for Facility and Project Managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIRIDER, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    This document was designed as a reference and a primer for facility and project managers responsible for Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) processes in facilities containing significant inventories of fissionable materials. The document contains lessons learned and guidance for the development and management of criticality safety programs. It also contains information gleaned from occurrence reports, assessment reports, facility operations and management, NDA program reviews, criticality safety experts, and criticality safety evaluations. This information is designed to assist in the planning process and operational activities. Sufficient details are provided to allow the reader to understand the events, the lessons learned, and how to apply the information to present or planned D and D processes. Information is also provided on general lessons learned including criticality safety evaluations and criticality safety program requirements during D and D activities. The document also explores recent and past criticality accidents in operating facilities, and it extracts lessons learned pertinent to D and D activities. A reference section is included to provide additional information. This document does not address D and D lessons learned that are not pertinent to criticality safety

  17. Characterization of the radiation environment at the UNLV accelerator facility during operation of the Varian M6 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, M.; Barzilov, A.; Chen, Y.; Lowe, D.

    2016-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung photon flux from the UNLV particle accelerator (Varian M6 model) was determined using MCNP5 code for 3 MeV and 6 MeV incident electrons. Human biological equivalent dose rates due to accelerator operation were evaluated using the photon flux with the flux-to-dose conversion factors. Dose rates were computed for the accelerator facility for M6 linac use under different operating conditions. The results showed that the use of collimators and linac internal shielding significantly reduced the dose rates throughout the facility. It was shown that the walls of the facility, in addition to the earthen berm enveloping the building, provide equivalent shielding to reduce dose rates outside to below the 2 mrem/h limit. - Highlights: • A 3/6 MeV electron accelerator equipped with a high energy x-ray target was studied. • Monte Carlo modeling of photon flux was carried out for three accelerator configurations. • Human biological equivalent doses were evaluated within the accelerator facility building.

  18. Fostering Positive Classroom Environments: The Relationship between Teacher Qualifications, Facility Management, and Perceptions of Leadership on Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of schools that have highly qualified teachers, along with a well managed facility, and the administration's perception of the leadership role as an instructional specialist on the outcomes that students displayed. Also, the relationship between two instruments used to determine the quality of…

  19. Disability, residential environment and social participation: factors influencing daily mobility of persons living in residential care facilities in two regions of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapegno, Noémie; Ravaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-29

    Despite the context of individualization of public policies and promotion of independent living, residential care facilities (RCFs) (called "établissements medico-sociaux" in France) still represent the main system used by disabled people. Through a study of their daily mobility, this article proposes a geographical approach to the examination of factors influencing the social participation of disabled persons with motor impairments who live in residential care facilities. The data were collected in three stages from several sources. We first carried out 24 semi-directive interviews among supervisory staff in all the institutions in two regions of France (Greater Paris and Upper Normandy) to better understand the nature of services offered by medico-social facilities. We next did field work in greater detail in 10 of these institutions. We selected residents by random sampling. These first stages then allowed us to study the mobility of residents and record their perceptions. We conducted participant observation and interviews with 81 disabled residents within the 10 RCF. Data analysis enabled consideration not only of the role of the residential environment in people's daily mobility, but the role of the institutions as well. We identified three typical profiles of mobility practices depending on the facilities: "the islanders", living in isolated facilities far from public transportation, or in so-called "difficult" neighborhoods; people who alternate individual and group mobility in a more or less large area; and "the navigators" who have high mobility over a very large area, often living in facilities located in urban areas. The study also enabled an analysis of the obstacles and facilitators inside and outside the residential facilities. These place restrictions on social participation by disabled adults. However, possibilities for individual negotiation may enable bypassing some obstacles. The three ideal-type profiles of mobility analyzed constitute

  20. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  1. Biomass burning aerosol over the Amazon during SAMBBA: impact of chemical composition on radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William; Allan, James; Flynn, Michael; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Hodgson, Amy; Liu, Dantong; O'shea, Sebastian; Bauguitte, Stephane; Szpek, Kate; Langridge, Justin; Johnson, Ben; Haywood, Jim; Longo, Karla; Artaxo, Paulo; Coe, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, resulting in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect but with the uncertainty being 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months. Absorption by atmospheric aerosols is underestimated by models over South America, which points to significant uncertainties relating to Black Carbon (BC) aerosol properties. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft, are presented here. Aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a DMT Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions including sampling of pristine Rainforest, fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The aircraft sampled biomass burning aerosol across the southern Amazon in the states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, as well as in a Cerrado (Savannah-like) region in Tocantins state. This presented a range of fire conditions, both in terms of their number, intensity, vegetation-type and their combustion efficiencies. Near-source sampling of fires in Rainforest environments suggested that smouldering combustion dominated, while flaming combustion dominated

  2. The safety assessment system based on virtual networked environment for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Hyun, Dong Jun; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Ik June; Kang, Shin Young; Choi, Jong Won; Ahn, Sang Myeon; Lee, Jung Jun; Lee, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest a system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The system was developed under virtual networked environment. The innovative features are real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario and real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. The system will be expected to be utilized as a training tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents. - Highlights: • A system for evaluation on the hazards from human errors during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • Real-time changing direction of workers in a scenario. • Real-time measuring personal exposure dose and collective exposure dose. • A tool for improving familiarization of a workplace and for preventing workers from accidents.

  3. Proton Radiation Therapy in the Hospital Environment: Conception, Development, and Operation of the Initial Hospital-Based Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, James M.; Slater, Jerry D.; Wroe, Andrew J.

    The world's first hospital-based proton treatment center opened at Loma Linda University Medical Center in 1990, following two decades of development. Patients' needs were the driving force behind its conception, development, and execution; the primary needs were delivery of effective conformal doses of ionizing radiation and avoidance of normal tissue to the maximum extent possible. The facility includes a proton synchrotron and delivery system developed in collaboration with physicists and engineers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and from other high-energy-physics laboratories worldwide. The system, operated and maintained by Loma Linda personnel, was designed to be safe, reliable, flexible in utilization, efficient in use, and upgradeable to meet demands of changing patient needs and advances in technology. Since the facility opened, nearly 14,000 adults and children have been treated for a wide range of cancers and other diseases. Ongoing research is expanding the applications of proton therapy, while reducing costs.

  4. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  5. Remote sensing in the marine environment. A description of facilities, applications, needs and opportunities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shannon, LV

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Against a background of the techniques and instrumentation available for remote sensing in the marine environment, this report considers the rationale for their use by the South African marine community. Local applications of remote sensing...

  6. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1991-09-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between ∼0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m 3 /s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Aerosol behaviour modeling and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, J A; Reed, L D [Batelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Aerosol behavior within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) containments is of critical importance since most of the radioactive species are expected to be associated with particulate forms and the mass of radiologically significant material leaked to the ambient atmosphere is directly related to the aerosol concentration airborne within the containment. Mathematical models describing the behavior of aerosols in closed environments, besides providing a direct means of assessing the importance of specific assumptions regarding accident sequences, will also serve as the basic tool with which to predict the consequences of various postulated accident situations. Consequently, considerable efforts have been recently directed toward the development of accurate and physically realistic theoretical aerosol behavior models. These models have accounted for various mechanisms affecting agglomeration rates of airborne particulate matter as well as particle removal rates from closed systems. In all cases, spatial variations within containments have been neglected and a well-mixed control volume has been assumed. Examples of existing computer codes formulated from the mathematical aerosol behavior models are the Brookhaven National Laboratory TRAP code, the PARDISEKO-II and PARDISEKO-III codes developed at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, and the HAA-2, HAA-3, and HAA-3B codes developed by Atomics International. Because of their attractive short computation times, the HAA-3 and HAA-3B codes have been used extensively for safety analyses and are attractive candidates with which to demonstrate order of magnitude estimates of the effects of various physical assumptions. Therefore, the HAA-3B code was used as the nucleus upon which changes have been made to account for various physical mechanisms which are expected to be present in postulated accident situations and the latest of the resulting codes has been termed the HAARM-2 code. It is the primary purpose of the HAARM

  8. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  9. Ecological behaviour of high-thermal origin cesium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raiies, A.H.; Ronneau, C.; Apers, D.; Myttenaer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Nine-fold Cs enrichment of the forming aerosols' surface in a result of heating UO 2 pellets up to 2000degC. Such aerosols contain up to 90% of the dissoluble Cs fraction in aqueous environment, that explains ecological behaviour of 134 Cs and 137 Cs

  10. Substantial secondary organic aerosol formation in a coniferous forest: observations of both day- and nighttime chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Y. Lee; J. P. D. Abbatt; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; S. J. Sjostedt; S. J. Sjostedt; J. J. B. Wentzell; J. Liggio; A. M. Macdonald

    2016-01-01

    Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region at Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment with limited influence from anthropogenic emissions. Positive matrix factorization of aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement identifie...

  11. Application of remote sensing techniques to study aerosol water vapour uptake in a real atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A. J.; Molero, F.; Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Salvador, P.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a study of several observations of aerosol water uptake in a real (non-controlled) atmosphere, registered by remote sensing techniques, are presented. In particular, three events were identified within the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and other two events were detected in the free troposphere (beyond the top of the ABL). Then, aerosol optical properties were measured at different relative humidity (RH) conditions by means of a multi-wavelength (MW) Raman lidar located at CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology) facilities in Madrid (Spain). Additionally, aerosol optical and microphysical properties provided by automatic sun and sky scanning spectral radiometers (CIMEL CE-318) and a meteorological analysis complement the study. However, a detailed analysis only could be carried out for the cases observed within the ABL since well-mixed atmospheric layers are required to properly characterize these processes. This characterization of aerosol water uptake is based on the curve described by the backscatter coefficient at 532 nm as a function of RH which allows deriving the enhancement factor. Thus, the Hänel parameterization is utilized, and the results obtained are in the range of values reported in previous studies, which shows the suitability of this approach to study such hygroscopic processes. Furthermore, the anti-correlated pattern observed on backscatter-related Ångström exponent (532/355 nm) and RH indicates plausible signs of aerosol hygroscopic growth. According to the meteorological analysis performed, we attribute such hygroscopic behaviour to marine aerosols which are advected from the Atlantic Ocean to the low troposphere in Madrid. We have also observed an interesting response of aerosols to RH at certain levels which it is suggested to be due to a hysteresis process. The events registered in the free troposphere, which deal with volcano

  12. Pulmonary aerosol delivery and the importance of growth dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddrell, Allen E; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Vehring, Reinhard; Murnane, Darragh; Reid, Jonathan P

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols are dynamic systems, responding to variations in the surrounding environmental conditions by changing in size, composition and phase. Although, widely used in inhalation therapies, details of the processes occurring on aerosol generation and during inhalation have received little attention. Instead, research has focused on improvements to the formulation of the drug prior to aerosolization and the resulting clinical efficacy of the treatment. Here, we highlight the processes that occur during aerosol generation and inhalation, affecting aerosol disposition when deposited and, potentially, impacting total and regional doses. In particular, we examine the response of aerosol particles to the humid environment of the respiratory tract, considering both the capacity of particles to grow by absorbing moisture and the timescale for condensation to occur. [Formula: see text].

  13. Principles and techniques for post-accident assessment and recovery in a contaminated environment of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To assist operators and public authorities alike in their advance preparation of emergency plans and in the establishment of emergency preparedness infrastructures, the IAEA has already issued several Safety Series publications dealing with these matters. This Safety Guide complements the technical guidance already published. It provides: a) Information and practical guidance relevant to assessing the off-site consequences during the late phase of a serious accident in a nuclear facility; b) Guidance on recovery operations off the site and the associated decision making process; and c) Proposals for consideration by national authorities regarding the organizational structure for the conduct of recovery operations. 52 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs.

  14. Influence of moisture on the behavior of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Longest, A.W.; Tobias, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It has been observed that in a saturated steam-air environment a change occurs in the shape of aerosol agglomerates of U 3 O 8 aerosol, Fe 2 O 3 aerosol, and mixed U 3 O 8 -Fe 2 O 3 aerosol from branched-chain to spherical, and that the rate of reduction in the airborne aerosol mass concentration is increased relative to the rate observed in a dry atmosphere. The effect of a steam-air environment on the behavior of concrete aerosol is different. The shape of the agglomerated concrete aerosol is intermediate between branched-chain and spherical and the effect on the rate of reduction in airborne mass concentration appears to be slight. In a related project the shape of an agglomerated Fe 2 O 3 aerosol was observed to change from branched-chain to spherical at, or near, 100% relative humidity

  15. Influence of moisture on the behavior of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Longest, A.W.; Tobias, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor accident sequences and released into containment has been studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been observed that in a saturated steam-air environment a change occurs in the shape of aerosol agglomerates of U 3 O 8 aerosol, Fe 2 O 3 aerosol, and mixed U 3 O 8 -Fe 2 O 3 aerosol from branched-chain to spherical, and that the rate of reduction in the airborne aerosol mass concentration is increased relative to the rate observed in a dry atmosphere. The effect of a steam-air environment on the behavior of concrete aerosol is different. The shape of the agglomerated concrete aerosol is intermediate between branched-chain and spherical and the effect on the rate of reduction in airborne mass concentration appears to be slight. In a related project the shape of an agglomerated Fe 2 O 3 aerosol was observed to change from branched-chain to spherical at, or near, 100% relative humidity

  16. Antarctic aerosols - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1988-02-01

    Tropospheric aerosols with the diameter range of half a micron reside in the atmosphere for tens of days and teleconnect Antarctica with other regions by transport that reaches planetary scales of distances; thus, the aerosol on the Antarctic ice represents 'memory modules' of events that took place at regions separated from Antarctica by tens of thousands of kilometers. In terms of aerosol mass, the aerosol species include insoluble crustal products (less than 5 percent), transported sea-salt residues (highly variable but averaging about 10 percent), Ni-rich meteoric material, and anomalously enriched material with an unknown origin. Most (70-90 percent by mass) of the aerosol over the Antarctic ice shield, however, is the 'natural acid sulfate aerosol', apparently deriving from biological processes taking place in the surrounding oceans.

  17. Simultaneous Laser-induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide and Atomic Oxygen in the Hypersonic Materials Environment Test System Arcjet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Craig; Lincoln, Daniel; Bathel, Brett; Inman, Jennifer; Danehy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous nitric oxide (NO) and atomic oxygen (O) laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The data serves as an experimental database for validation for chemical and thermal nonequilibrium models used in hypersonic flows. Measurements were taken over a wide range of stagnation enthalpies (6.7 - 18.5 MJ/kg) using an Earth atmosphere simulant with a composition of 75% N2, 20% O2, and 5% Ar (by volume). These are the first simultaneous measurements of NO and O LIF to be reported in literature for the HYMETS facility. The maximum O LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of approximately 12 MJ/kg while the maximum NO LIF mean signal intensity was observed at a stagnation enthalpy of 6.7 MJ/kg. Experimental results were compared to simple fluorescence model that assumes equilibrium conditions in the plenum and frozen chemistry in the isentropic nozzle expansion (Mach 5). The equilibrium calculations were performed using CANTERA v2.1.1 with 16 species. The fluorescence model captured the correlation in mean O and NO LIF signal intensities over the entire range of stagnation enthalpies tested. Very weak correlations between single-shot O and NO LIF intensities were observed in the experiments at all of the stagnation enthalpy conditions.

  18. Diffusive deposition of aerosols in Phebus containment during FPT-2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontautas, A.; Urbonavicius, E.

    2012-01-01

    At present the lumped-parameter codes is the main tool to investigate the complex response of the containment of Nuclear Power Plant in case of an accident. Continuous development and validation of the codes is required to perform realistic investigation of the processes that determine the possible source term of radioactive products to the environment. Validation of the codes is based on the comparison of the calculated results with the measurements performed in experimental facilities. The most extensive experimental program to investigate fission product release from the molten fuel, transport through the cooling circuit and deposition in the containment is performed in PHEBUS test facility. Test FPT-2 performed in this facility is considered for analysis of processes taking place in containment. Earlier performed investigations using COCOSYS code showed that the code could be successfully used for analysis of thermal-hydraulic processes and deposition of aerosols, but there was also noticed that diffusive deposition on the vertical walls does not fit well with the measured results. In the CPA module of ASTEC code there is implemented different model for diffusive deposition, therefore the PHEBUS containment model was transferred from COCOSYS code to ASTEC-CPA to investigate the influence of the diffusive deposition modelling. Analysis was performed using PHEBUS containment model of 16 nodes. The calculated thermal-hydraulic parameters are in good agreement with measured results, which gives basis for realistic simulation of aerosol transport and deposition processes. Performed investigations showed that diffusive deposition model has influence on the aerosol deposition distribution on different surfaces in the test facility. (authors)

  19. Current construction status of Korea Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center (low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Through the RANDEC delegation tour to Korea in Nov. 2009, we have earned new information on recent development of the radioactive waste management in Korea. In this report, we will introduce such development in Korea, focusing on the current construction status of Korean LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive waste) disposal site, now called, Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center. (author)

  20. Radioactive aerosols. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanson, G L

    1956-01-01

    Tabulations are given presenting various published data on safe atmospheric concentrations of various radioactive and non-radioactive aerosols. Methods of determination of active aerosol concentrations and dispersion as well as the technical applications of labeled aerosols are discussed. The effect of atomic explosions are analyzed considering the nominal atomic bomb based on /sup 235/U and /sup 232/Pu equivalent to 20,000 tons of TNT.

  1. Investigation on aerosol transport in containment cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parozzi, F.; Chatzidakis, S.; Housiadas, C.; Gelain, T.; Nahas, G.; Plumecocq, W.; Vendel, J.; Herranz, L.E.; Hinis, E.; Journeau, C.; Piluso, P.; Malgarida, E.

    2005-01-01

    Under severe accident conditions, the containment leak-tightness could be threatened by energetic phenomena that could yield a release to the environment of nuclear aerosols through penetrating concrete cracks. As few data are presently available to quantify this aerosol leakage, a specific action was launched in the framework of the Santar Project of the European 6 th Framework Programme. In this context, both theoretical and experimental investigations have been managed to develop a model that can readily be applied within a code like Aster (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). Particle diffusion, settling, turbulent deposition, diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis have been considered as deposition mechanisms inside the crack path. They have been encapsulated in numerical models set up to reproduce experiments with small tubes and capillaries and simulate the plug formation. Then, an original lagrangian approach has been used to evaluate the crack retention under typical PWR accident conditions, comparing its predictions with those given by the eulerian approach implemented in the ECART code. On the experimental side, the paper illustrates an aerosol production and measurement system developed to validate aerosol deposition models into cracks and the results that can be obtained: a series of tests were performed with monodispersed fluorescein aerosols injected into a cracked concrete sample. A key result that should be further explored refers to the high enhancement of aerosol retention that could be due to steam condensation. Recommendations concerning future experimentation are also given in the paper. (author)

  2. A novel facility for 3D micro-irradiation of living cells in a controlled environment by MeV ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäckel, V; Meissl, W; Ikeda, T; Clever, M; Meissl, E; Kobayashi, T; Kojima, T M; Imamoto, N; Ogiwara, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel facility for micro-irradiation of living targets with ions from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. We show results using 1 MeV protons and 2 MeV He(2+). In contrast to common micro-irradiation facilities, which use electromagnetic or electrostatic focusing and specially designed vacuum windows, we employ a tapered glass capillary with a thin end window, made from polystyrene with a thickness of 1-2 μm, for ion focusing and extraction. The capillary is connected to a beamline tilted vertically by 45°, which allows for easy immersion of the extracted ions into liquid environment within a standard cell culture dish. An inverted microscope is used for simultaneously observing the samples as well as the capillary tip, while a stage-top incubator provides an appropriate environment for the samples. Furthermore, our setup allows to target volumes in cells within a μm(3) resolution, while monitoring the target in real time during and after irradiation.

  3. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  4. Devices and methods for generating an aerosol

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio; Scribano, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generators and methods of generating aerosols are provided. The aerosol can be generated at a stagnation interface between a hot, wet stream and a cold, dry stream. The aerosol has the benefit that the properties of the aerosol can

  5. Aerosol modelling and validation during ESCOMPTE 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, F.; Liousse, C.; Cachier, H.; Bessagnet, B.; Guillaume, B.; Rosset, R.

    The ESCOMPTE 2001 programme (Atmospheric Research. 69(3-4) (2004) 241) has resulted in an exhaustive set of dynamical, radiative, gas and aerosol observations (surface and aircraft measurements). A previous paper (Atmospheric Research. (2004) in press) has dealt with dynamics and gas-phase chemistry. The present paper is an extension to aerosol formation, transport and evolution. To account for important loadings of primary and secondary aerosols and their transformation processes in the ESCOMPTE domain, the ORISAM aerosol module (Atmospheric Environment. 35 (2001) 4751) was implemented on-line in the air-quality Meso-NH-C model. Additional developments have been introduced in ORganic and Inorganic Spectral Aerosol Module (ORISAM) to improve the comparison between simulations and experimental surface and aircraft field data. This paper discusses this comparison for a simulation performed during one selected day, 24 June 2001, during the Intensive Observation Period IOP2b. Our work relies on BC and OCp emission inventories specifically developed for ESCOMPTE. This study confirms the need for a fine resolution aerosol inventory with spectral chemical speciation. BC levels are satisfactorily reproduced, thus validating our emission inventory and its processing through Meso-NH-C. However, comparisons for reactive species generally denote an underestimation of concentrations. Organic aerosol levels are rather well simulated though with a trend to underestimation in the afternoon. Inorganic aerosol species are underestimated for several reasons, some of them have been identified. For sulphates, primary emissions were introduced. Improvement was obtained too for modelled nitrate and ammonium levels after introducing heterogeneous chemistry. However, no modelling of terrigeneous particles is probably a major cause for nitrates and ammonium underestimations. Particle numbers and size distributions are well reproduced, but only in the submicrometer range. Our work points out

  6. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  7. Papers of the 15. french congress on the aerosols CFA 99; Actes du 15. congres francais sur les aerosols CFA 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This french congress on the aerosols took place in Paris the 8 and 9 december 1999. It was presented in four main themes: bio-aerosols and filtering; the aerosols metrology; the aerosols in the environment; aerosols physic and applications. Seven papers have been analyzed in INIS data base for their specific interest in nuclear industry. The four papers selected for ETDE cover a larger domain: annular slot samplers in turbulent flow, the air quality monitoring in France, suspension particles characterization in an urban area, application of the remote sensing to the atmospheric pollution. (A.L.B.)

  8. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

    2011-07-27

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

  9. Status of the LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.R.; Dickinson, D.R.; Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LACE program, sponsored by an international consortium, is investigating inherent aerosol behavior for three postulated high consequence accident sequences; the containment bypass or V-sequence, failure to isolate containment, and delayed containment failure. Six large-scale tests are described which focus on these accident situations and which will be completed in the Containment Systems Test Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The aerosol generation systems used to generate soluble and insoluble aerosols for the large-scale tests are described. The report then focuses on those tests which deal with the containment bypass accident sequence. Test results are presented and discussed for three containment bypass scoping tests

  10. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  11. Preparation for environment of residences. Residence and information facilities; Sumai no kankyo zukuri. Sumai to joho setsubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanjo, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    Taking up the home automation (HA) as the information facility of residence, business and technical trend of HA system together with its present and future condition are described. The service functions of HA system used for multiple dwelling houses are home telephone function, security function, control function and visual communication function. Besides, development concept of dormitory control system and service functions which are attractive to people like owner, manager and residents are described. As for its trend in foreign countries, though in France HA system under government guidance was applied in the 1980`s, it was not successful and market related to HA system was held in check. Since 1990`s, due to government policy for its introduction, this system is getting popular in the residences of disabled person, advanced age person and so forth. As for the development of HA system, more improvement not only indoor the home but also comfort, safety and so forth linking to the outdoor system is necessary. 6 figs.

  12. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  13. PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUE-SANG LIEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. A quantity of 0.1 g of Bacillus atropheus (formerly referred to as Bacillus subtilis var globigii (BG spores in dry powder form, which was used here as a surrogate species for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax, was released from an opened letter in the experiment. The accuracy of the model for prediction of the spatial distribution of BG spores in the office from the opened letter is assessed qualitatively (and to the extent possible, quantitatively by detailed comparison with measured BG concentrations obtained under a number of different scenarios, some involving people moving within the office. The observed discrepancy between the numerical predictions and experimental measurements of concentration was probably the result of a number of physical processes which were not accounted for in the numerical simulation. These include air flow leakage from cracks and crevices of the building shell; the dispersion of BG spores in the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system; and, the effect of deposition and re-suspension of BG spores from various surfaces in the office environment.

  14. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  15. Development of an aerosol decontamination factor evaluation method using an aerosol spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Taizo, E-mail: t-kanai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Furuya, Masahiro, E-mail: furuya@criepi.denken.or.jp; Arai, Takahiro, E-mail: t-arai@criepi.denken.or.jp; Nishi, Yoshihisa, E-mail: y-nishi@criepi.denken.or.jp

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aerosol DF of each diameter is evaluable by using optical scattering method. • Outlet aerosol concentration shows exponential decay by the submergence. • This decay constant depends on the aerosol diameter. • Aerosol DF at water scrubber is described by simple equation. - Abstract: During a severe nuclear power plant accident, the release of fission products into containment and an increase in containment pressure are assumed to be possible. When the containment is damaged by excess pressure or temperature, radioactive materials are released. Pressure suppression pools, containment spray systems and a filtered containment venting system (FCVS) reduce containment pressure and reduce the radioactive release into the environment. These devices remove radioactive materials via various mechanisms. Pressure suppression pools remove radioactive materials by pool scrubbing. Spray systems remove radioactive materials by droplet−aerosol interaction. FCVS, which is installed in the exhaust system, comprises multi-scrubbers (venturi-scrubber, pool scrubbing, static mixer, metal−fiber filter and molecular sieve). For the particulate radioactive materials, its size affects the removal performance and a number of studies have been performed on the removal effect of radioactive materials. This study has developed a new means of evaluating aerosol removal efficiency. The aerosol number density of each effective diameter (light scattering equivalent diameter) is measured using an optical method, while the decontamination factor (DF) of each effective diameter is evaluated by the inlet outlet number density ratio. While the applicable scope is limited to several conditions (geometry of test section: inner diameter 500 mm × height 8.0 m, nozzle shape and air-water ambient pressure conditions), this study has developed a numerical model which defines aerosol DF as a function of aerosol diameter (d) and submergences (x).

  16. Decommissioning nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities at the Mining and Chemical Combine: International cooperation in assessment of impact on the environment and population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Zhidkov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the Yenisei River has substantially reduced after shutdown of direct cycle reactors at the Mining and Chemical Combine; currently exposure dose rate above water surface and radionuclide concentration in sewage water flows do not exceed the levels set by existing sanitary rules. The results of other protection measures connected with decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-dangerous facilities and environment restoration activity are considered in the paper. Recently, the workers of the Mining and Chemical Combine, together with specialists from other Russian institutions and with international participation, made significant progress in investigation and monitoring of the radiological impact, primarily in the Yenisei River floodplain and around the 'Severnyi' radwaste disposal site. The inventory of man-made radionuclides in flood-plain deposits of the Yenisei River was assessed and long-term radionuclide transport into the Kara Sea forecasted. New local information on radionuclide pathways to man and environment was the basis for the development of an original dosimetric model. The models of radionuclide migration in the underground liquid radwaste disposal sites have been created and associated human doses predicted. A GIS project has been developed for Yenisei River floodplain contamination. Future work will include development of M and CC ecological geoinformation cadastre and assessments of the impact of radionuclide exposure on the environment, agriculture, fishing, and water quality, as well as identification of necessary rehabilitation measures. (author)

  17. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  18. Aerosol in the containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, S.; Mariotti, P.

    1986-01-01

    The US program LACE (LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments), in which Italy participates together with several European countries, Canada and Japan, aims at evaluating by means of a large scale experimental activity at HEDL the retention in the pipings and primary container of the radioactive aerosol released following severe accidents in light water reactors. At the same time these experiences will make available data through which the codes used to analyse the behaviour of the aerosol in the containment and to verify whether by means of the codes of thermohydraulic computation it is possible to evaluate with sufficient accuracy variable influencing the aerosol behaviour, can be validated. This report shows and compares the results obtained by the participants in the LACE program with the aerosol containment codes NAVA 5 and CONTAIN for the pre-test computations of the test LA 1, in which an accident called containment by pass is simulated

  19. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Preliminary Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, Adam [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nesbitt, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Salio, Paola [Univ. of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zipser, Edward [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); van den Heever, Susan [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); McFarquhar, Greg [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Kreidenweis, Sonia [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); DeMott, Paul [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Jensen, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Houze, Jr., Robert [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, Kristen [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Leung, Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Romps, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gochis, David [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Avila, Eldo [National Univ. of Cordoba (Argentina); Williams, Christopher [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    well as blowing dust are common in the austral spring, while changes in land surface properties as the wet season progresses impact surface fluxes and boundary layer evolution on daily and seasonal time scales that feed back to cloud and rainfall generation. This range of environmental conditions and cloud properties coupled with a high frequency of events makes this an ideal location for improving our understanding of cloud-environment interactions. The following primary science questions will be addressed through coordinated first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1), mobile C-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR2), guest instrumentation, and potential ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-1 (G-1) observations: 1. How are the properties and lifecycles of orographically generated cumulus humulis, mediocris, and congestus clouds affected by environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, aerosols, and surface properties? How do these cloud types alter these environmental conditions? 2. How do environmental kinematics, thermodynamics, and aerosols impact deep convective initiation, upscale growth, and mesoscale organization? How are soil moisture, surface fluxes, and aerosol properties altered by deep convective precipitation events and seasonal accumulation of precipitation? This multi-faceted experiment involves a long term 8.5-month Extended Observing Period (EOP, 15 August, 2018-30 April, 2019) as well as a 6-week Intensive Observation Period (IOP, 1 November-15 December) that will coincide with the international multi-agency RELAMPAGO field campaign.

  20. International standard problem ISP37: VANAM M3 - A Multi compartment aerosol depletion test with hygroscopic aerosol material: comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnhaber, M.; Kanzleiter, T.F.; Schwarz, S.; Weber, G.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the results and assessment of the 'open' ISP37, which deals with the containment thermal-hydraulics and aerosol behavior during an unmitigated severe LWR accident with core melt-down and steam and aerosol release into the containment. Representatives of 22 organizations participated to the ISP37 using the codes CONTAIN, FIPLOC, MELCOR, RALOC, FUMO, MACRES, REMOVAL etc. The containment and aerosol behavior experiment VANAM M3 was selected as experimental comparison basis. The main phenomena investigated are the thermal behavior of a multi-compartment containment, e.g. pressure, temperature and the distribution and depletion of a soluble aerosol. The ISP37 has demonstrated that the codes used could calculate the thermal-hydraulic containment behavior in general with sufficient accuracy. But with respect to the needs of aerosol behavior analysis the accuracies, both analytical and experimental as well, for specific thermal-hydraulic variables should be improved. Although large progress has been made in the simulation of aerosol behavior in multi-compartment geometries the calculated local aerosol concentrations scatter widely. However, the aerosol source term to the environment is overestimated in general. The largest uncertainty concerning the aerosol results is caused by a limited number of thermal hydraulic variables like relative humidity, volume condensation rate and atmospheric flow rate. In some codes also a solubility model is missing

  1. A transuranic aerosol measurement system: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state: an aerosol microphysical module for global atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bauer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS climate model (ModelE are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM, represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mixing, and cloud-drop activation and provides aerosol particle mass and number concentration and particle size information for up to 16 mixed-mode aerosol populations. Internal and external mixing among aerosol components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, carbonaceous aerosols, dust and sea-salt particles are represented. The solubility of each aerosol population, which is explicitly calculated based on its soluble and insoluble components, enables calculation of the dependence of cloud drop activation on the microphysical characterization of multiple soluble aerosol populations.

    A detailed model description and results of box-model simulations of various aerosol population configurations are presented. The box model experiments demonstrate the dependence of cloud activating aerosol number concentration on the aerosol population configuration; comparisons to sectional models are quite favorable. MATRIX is incorporated into the GISS climate model and simulations are carried out primarily to assess its performance/efficiency for global-scale atmospheric model application. Simulation results were compared with aircraft and station measurements of aerosol mass and number concentration and particle size to assess the ability of the new method to yield data suitable for such comparison. The model accurately captures the observed size distributions in the Aitken and accumulation modes up to particle diameter 1 μm, in which sulfate, nitrate, black and organic carbon are predominantly located; however the model underestimates coarse-mode number concentration and size, especially in the marine environment

  3. DARE : Dedicated Aerosols Retrieval Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, K.; Courrèges-Lacoste, G.B.; Decae, R.; Court, A.J.; Leeuw, G. de; Visser, H.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an increasing interest in remote sensing of aerosols from space because of the large impact of aerosols on climate, earth observation and health. TNO has performed a study aimed at improving aerosol characterisation using a space based instrument and state-of-the-art aerosol

  4. LMFBR aerosol release and transport program. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Tobias, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes progress for the Aerosol Release and Transport Program sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Accident Evaluation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the period July-September 1981. Topics discussed include (1) preparations for under-sodium tests at the Fast Aerosol Simulant Test Facility, (2) progress in interpretation of Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sandia Laboratory normalization test results, (3) U 3 O 8 in steam (light-water reactor accident) aerosol experiments conducted in the Nuclear Safety Power Plant, (4) experiments on B 2 O 3 and SiO 2 aerosols at the Containment Research Installation-II Facility, (5) fuel-melting tests in small-scale experimental facilities for the core-melt aerosol program, (6) analytical comparison of simple adiabatic nonlinear and linear analytical models of bubble oscillation phenomena with experimental data

  5. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  6. Seasonal dependence of aerosol processing in urban Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, A. M.; Waring, M. S.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban aerosols pose an important threat to human health due to the conflation of emissions and concentrated population exposed. Winter and summer aerosol and trace gas measurements were taken in downtown Philadelphia in 2016. Measurements included aerosol composition and size with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), particle size distributions with an SMPS, and an aethalometer. Trace gas measurements of O3, NO, CH4, CO, and CO2 were taken concurrently. Sampling in seasonal extremes provided contrast in aerosol and trace gas composition, aerosol processing, and emission factors. Inorganic aerosol components contributed approximately 60% of the submicron aerosol mass, while summertime aerosol composition was roughly 70% organic matter. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on the organic aerosol (OA) matrix revealed three factors in common in each season, including an oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factor with different temporal behavior in each season. In summertime, OOA varied diurnally with ozone and daytime temperature, but in the wintertime, it was anti-correlated with ozone and temperature, and instead trended with calculated liquid water, indicating a seasonally-dependent processing of organic aerosol in Philadelphia's urban environment. Due to the inorganic dominant winter aerosol, liquid water much higher (2.65 μg/m3) in winter than in summer (1.54 μg/m3). Diurnally varying concentrations of background gas phase species (CH4, CO2) were higher in winter and varied less as a result of boundary layer conditions; ozone was also higher in background in winter than summer. Winter stagnation events with low windspeed showed large buildup of trace gases CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Traffic related aerosol was also elevated with black carbon and hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) plumes of each at 3-5 times higher than the winter the average value for each. Winter ratios of HOA to black carbon were significantly higher in the winter than the summer due to lower

  7. Water content of aged aerosol

    OpenAIRE

    G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

    2010-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during mo...

  8. Degraded core accidents: review of aerosol behaviour in the containment of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Walker, B.C.

    1981-09-01

    Low probability-high consequence accidents have become an important issue in reactor safety studies. Such accidents would involve damage to the core and the subsequent release of radioactive fission products into the environment. Aerosols play a major role in the transport and removal of these fission products in the reactor building containment. The aerosol mechanisms, computer modelling codes and experimental studies used to predict aerosol behaviour in the containment of a PWR are reviewed. There are significant uncertainties in the aerosol source terms and specific recommendations have been made for further studies, particularly with respect to code development and high density aerosol-fission product transport within closed systems. (author)

  9. The dynamics of aerosol behaviour and fate within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Zitouni

    1996-01-01

    -6 s -1 ± 3.43 x 10 -7 was obtained for the canopy as a whole and Λ values were significantly different (p -6 s -1 at the canopy top to about 10 -8 s -1 towards the base of the canopy (i.e. layer 4) after a period of 14 hours. Field loss measurements, following a dry deposition experiment, were carried out in order to evaluate the rate of loss of deposits with time when the contaminated saplings were exposed to ambient conditions. A canopy loss rate coefficient (λ) of 0.0271 d -1 was obtained corresponding to an environmental half-life (t 1/2 ) of 25.5 days for the experimental period of 45 days. The highest loss rate (λ 0.0732 d -1 ) occurred from the top of the trees corresponding to the shortest t 1/2 of 9.5 days whereas the lowest loss rate (λ = 0.0149 d -1 ) was recorded at layer 3 leading to the lowest t 1/2 of 46.5 days. Following an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, it is essential to predict accurately the expected dose to the human population in order to evaluate its consequences and to establish adequate countermeasures. Environmental radiological assessments currently rely on the use of models in order to predict the dose to the public following an accidental release of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The experimental data reported here can be used to calibrate such models and test the accuracy and precision of their predictions. This application may also be appropriate for pollutant aerosols such as SO 4 , NO 3 and NH 4 which are characterized by particle sizes in the range used in the present study. Experimental data were used to calibrate a multi-layer compartmental model, CANDEP, of aerosol flux which combines the processes of dry deposition, resuspension and field loss in individual layers of 'model' canopies. (author)

  10. Fog and Cloud Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M. A.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, G. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Large fine mode (sub-micron radius) dominated aerosols in size distributions retrieved from AERONET have been observed after fog or low-altitude cloud dissipation events. These column-integrated size distributions have been obtained at several sites in many regions of the world, typically after evaporation of low altitude cloud such as stratocumulus or fog. Retrievals with cloud processed aerosol are sometimes bimodal in the accumulation mode with the larger size mode often approx.0.4 - 0.5 microns radius (volume distribution); the smaller mode typically approx.0.12 to aprrox.0.20 microns may be interstitial aerosol that were not modified by incorporation in droplets and/or aerosol that are less hygroscopic in nature. Bimodal accumulation mode size distributions have often been observed from in situ measurements of aerosols that have interacted with clouds, and AERONET size distribution retrievals made after dissipation of cloud or fog are in good agreement with particle sizes measured by in situ techniques for cloud-processed aerosols. Aerosols of this type and large size range (in lower concentrations) may also be formed by cloud processing in partly cloudy conditions and may contribute to the shoulder of larger size particles in the accumulation mode retrievals, especially in regions where sulfate and other soluble aerosol are a significant component of the total aerosol composition. Observed trends of increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) as fine mode radius increased suggests higher AOD in the near cloud environment and therefore greater aerosol direct radiative forcing than typically obtained from remote sensing, due to bias towards sampling at low cloud fraction.

  11. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  12. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  13. Aerosol chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A classification of the research fields in the chemical physics of aerosol microparticles is given. The emphasis lies on the microphysics of isolated particles and clusters and on physical transformations and thermodynamics. (LDN)

  14. Sodium oxide aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the scope of the sodium aerosol trapping research effort by the CEA/DSN, the retention capacity and yield were measured for very high efficiency fiberglass filters and several types of prefilters (cyclone agglomerator, fabric prefilters, water scrubbers). (author)

  15. Aerosols and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aerosols, clouds, radiation and climate. ... the solar radiation to pass through but absorb most of infrared radiation emitted .... Fine soil and sand particles become airborne due to wind. Over ..... its sampling is difficult compared to other species.

  16. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  17. Mechanistic facility safety and source term analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLYS, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    A PC-based computer program was created for facility safety and source term analysis at Hanford The program has been successfully applied to mechanistic prediction of source terms from chemical reactions in underground storage tanks, hydrogen combustion in double contained receiver tanks, and proccss evaluation including the potential for runaway reactions in spent nuclear fuel processing. Model features include user-defined facility room, flow path geometry, and heat conductors, user-defined non-ideal vapor and aerosol species, pressure- and density-driven gas flows, aerosol transport and deposition, and structure to accommodate facility-specific source terms. Example applications are presented here

  18. Emergency Protection from Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.

    2001-11-13

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved.

  19. Emergency protection from aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-07-01

    Expedient methods were developed that could be used by an average person, using only materials readily available, to protect himself and his family from injury by toxic (e.g., radioactive) aerosols. The most effective means of protection was the use of a household vacuum cleaner to maintain a small positive pressure on a closed house during passage of the aerosol cloud. Protection factors of 800 and above were achieved

  20. MISR Aerosol Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2014-01-01

    AeroCom is an open international initiative of scientists interested in the advancement of the understanding of global aerosol properties and aerosol impacts on climate. A central goal is to more strongly tie and constrain modeling efforts to observational data. A major element for exchanges between data and modeling groups are annual meetings. The meeting was held September 20 through October 2, 1014 and the organizers would like to post the presentations.

  1. Effect of acidic seed on biogenic secondary organic aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoschke, Nadine M.; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M.

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth in the presence of acid aerosols was studied in twin 500 l Teflon bags and in a 4 m flow reactor. In Teflon bags, isoprene, acrolein and α-pinene were all made to react individually with ozone and exposed to either acid or non-acid inorganic seed aerosols to determine the effect of acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions on SOA growth. α-Pinene and ozone were made to react in a flow reactor to assess the immediate effect of mixing an acid aerosol with SOA at high and low relative humidity levels. In all cases, exposure to acid seed aerosol increased the amount of SOA mass produced. Fourier transform infrared spectra of the SOA in acid systems confirmed the transformation of carbonyl functional groups through acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions when SOAs formed in acidic environments or were exposed to acidic aerosols. Organic products initially produced from ozonation in the gas phase partition onto the inorganic seed aerosol and react heterogeneously with an acid catalyst forming low vapor pressure products. These acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions are implicated in generating the increased SOA mass observed in acidic aerosol systems as they transform predominantly gas phase compounds of high volatility into low vapor pressure predominantly particle phase products.

  2. Fission product aerosol removal test by containment spray under accident management conditions (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi; Nagasaka, Hideo; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the effective FP aerosol removal by containment spray under Japanese AM conditions, two system integral tests and two separate effect tests were carried out using a full-height simulation test facility. In case of PWR LOCA, aerosol concentration in the upper containment vessel decreased even under low spray flow rate. In case of BWR LOCA with water injection into RPV, the aerosol concentration in the entire vessel also decreased rapidly after aerosol supply stopping. In both cases, the removal rate estimated from the NUREG-1465 was coincided with test results. The aerosol washing effect by spray was confirmed to be predominant by conducting suppression chamber isolation test. It turned out that the effect of aerosol solubility and density on aerosol removal by spray was quite small by conducting insoluble aerosol injection test. After the modification of aerosol removal model by the spray and hygroscopic aerosol model in original MELCOR 1.8.4, calculated aerosol concentration transient in the containment vessel agreed well with the test data. (author)

  3. Characterization of Wildfire-Induced Aerosol Emissions From the Maritime Continent Peatland and Central African Dry Savannah with MISR and CALIPSO Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huikyo; Jeong, Su-Jong; Kalashnikova, Olga; Tosca, Mika; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2018-03-01

    Aerosol plumes from wildfires affect the Earth's climate system through regulation of the radiative budget and clouds. However, optical properties of aerosols from individual wildfire smoke plumes and their resultant impact on regional climate are highly variable. Therefore, there is a critical need for observations that can constrain the partitioning between different types of aerosols. Here we present the apparent influence of regional ecosystem types on optical properties of wildfire-induced aerosols based on remote sensing observations from two satellite instruments and three ground stations. The independent observations commonly show that the ratio of the absorbing aerosols is significantly lower in smoke plumes from the Maritime Continent than those from Central Africa, so that their impacts on regional climate are different. The observed light-absorbing properties of wildfire-induced aerosols are explained by dominant ecosystem types such as wet peatlands for the Maritime Continent and dry savannah for Central Africa, respectively. These results suggest that the wildfire-aerosol-climate feedback processes largely depend on the terrestrial environments from which the fires originate. These feedbacks also interact with climate under greenhouse warming. Our analysis shows that aerosol optical properties retrieved based on satellite observations are critical in assessing wildfire-induced aerosols forcing in climate models. The optical properties of carbonaceous aerosol mixtures used by state-of-the-art chemistry climate models may overestimate emissions for absorbing aerosols from wildfires over the Maritime Continent.

  4. Aerosolization and Atmospheric Transformation of Engineered Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Andrea J.

    While research on the environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing, the potential for them to be chemically transformed in the atmosphere has been largely ignored. The overall objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric transformation of carbonaceous nanoparticles (CNPs). The research focuses on C60 fullerene because it is an important member of the carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) family and is used in a wide variety of applications. The first specific objective was to review the potential of atmospheric transformations to alter the environmental impacts of CNPs. We described atmospheric processes that were likely to physically or chemically alter aerosolized CNPs and demonstrated their relevance to CNP behavior and toxicity in the aqueous and terrestrial environment. In order to investigate the transformations of CNP aerosols under controlled conditions, we developed an aerosolization technique that produces nano-scale aerosols without using solvents, which can alter the surface chemistry of the aerosols. We demonstrated the technique with carbonaceous (C60) and metal oxide (TiO2, CeO2) nanoparticle powders. All resulting aerosols exhibited unimodal size distributions and mode particle diameters below 100 nm. We used the new aerosolization technique to investigate the reaction between aerosolized C60 and atmospherically realistic levels of ozone (O3) in terms of reaction products, reaction rate, and oxidative stress potential. We identified C60O, C60O2, and C60O3 as products of the C60-O3 reaction. We demonstrated that the oxidative stress potential of C 60 may be enhanced by exposure to O3. We found the pseudo-first order reaction rate to be 9 x 10-6 to 2 x 10 -5 s-1, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the rate for several PAH species under comparable conditions. This research has demonstrated that a thorough understanding of atmospheric chemistry of ENPs is critical for accurate prediction of their environmental

  5. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Larry K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study included the deployment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facility (AMF), ARM Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The study was a collaborative effort involving scientists from DOE national laboratories, NOAA, NASA, and universities. The AAF and MAOS were deployed for two approximately month-long Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) conducted in June 2012 and February 2013. Seasonal differences in the aerosol chemical and optical properties observed using the AMF, AAF, and MAOS are presented in this report. The total mass loading of aerosol is found to be much greater in the summer than in the winter, with the difference associated with greater amounts of organic aerosol. The mass fraction of organic aerosol is much reduced in the winter, when sulfate is the dominant aerosol type. Surprisingly, very little sea-salt aerosol was observed in the summer. In contrast, much more sea salt aerosol was observed in the winter. The mass loading of black carbon is nearly the same in both seasons. These differences lead to a relative increase in the aerosol light absorption in the winter and an associated decrease in observed single-scattering albedo. Measurements of aerosol mixing state were made using a single-particle mass spectrometer, which showed that the majority of the summertime aerosol consisted of organic compounds mixed with various amounts of sulfate. A number of other findings are also summarized in the report, including: impact of aerosol layers aloft on the column aerosol optical depth; documentation of the aerosol properties at the AMF; differences in the aerosol properties associated with both columns, which are not systematic but reflect the complicated meteorological and chemical processes that impact aerosol as it is advected away from North America; and new instruments and data-processing techniques for measuring both aerosol and

  6. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  7. TEM investigations of microstructures of combustion aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquardt, A.; Hackfort, H.; Borchardt, J.; Schober, T.; Friedrich, J.

    1992-12-01

    In the incineration of organic material, apart from a series of gaseous pollutants, particulate pollutants or combustion aerosols also arise. The latter frequently consist of particles with a solid core of carbon to which a large number of inorganic and organic compounds are attached. These primarily include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-derivatives (NPAH), whose mutagenic or carcinogenic effect is known. The invisible particle sizes in the nanometer range, whose retention in the incineration off-gas is not state of the art, are of increasing significance for man and environment. On the one hand, they are deposited almost completely in the human lung. On the other hand, due to their fine dispersity they have along residence time in the atmosphere where they participate in chemical reactions and climatically significant processes. Important insights about the formation process of combustion aerosols are to be expected from the imaging of their microstructures in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The present contribution describes the development and application of a representative sampling procedure for aerosols from a partial flow of flue gas from a fluidized-bed furnace. The method developed consists of electrically charging aerosol particles in situ and subsequently selectively precipitating them onto a microscope slide in an electric field. TEM studies of aerosol microstructures on the microscope slides revealed that in the combustion of petrol and heating oil under different combustion conditions in principle the same particle structures result, whereas in the incineration of used lubricating oil quite different particle structures were found. Results from the literature on aerosol microstructures in exhaust gases from petrol and diesel engines demonstrate agreement with the results of this study in the basic structure of the particles. (orig.) [de

  8. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  9. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V M; Hillamo, R; Maekinen, M; Virkkula, A; Maekelae, T; Pakkanen, T [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  10. Physical metrology of aerosols; Metrologie physique des aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulaud, D.; Vendel, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    The various detection and measuring methods for aerosols are presented, and their selection is related to aerosol characteristics (size range, concentration or mass range), thermo-hydraulic conditions (carrier fluid temperature, pressure and flow rate) and to the measuring system conditions (measuring frequency, data collection speed, cost...). Methods based on aerosol dynamic properties (inertial, diffusional and electrical methods) and aerosol optical properties (localized and integral methods) are described and their performances and applications are compared

  11. Aerosol sampling and characterization for hazard evaluation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.; Stafford, R.G.; Romero, P.O.

    1977-04-01

    A draft Manual of Recommended Practice for Aerosol Sampling and Evaluation was completed and sent to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Division of Safety, Standards, and Compliance (DSSC) for review. The results of the Survey of Sampling Techniques for Defining Respirable Concentration and/or Particle Size Characteristics of Aerosols were published as LA-6087. The need for greater standardization of ERDA aerosol sampling techniques was indicated. The Aerosol Training Course was presented in 11 sessions to 85 persons. General elements of good practice were emphasized, and recommendation of specific sampling devices or procedures was avoided. A system for estimating dissolution rates of plutonium aerosols was developed. Studies indicate that plutonium aerosols found in the field have a rapid initial dissolution phase followed by a slower secondary phase. Three methods of particle sizing air samples collected on membrane filters were investigated. The most promising was a scanning electron microscope electron microprobe (SEM-EMp) method. An operating plutonium handling facility was a model for development of techniques to evaluate aerosol surveillance systems performance. Airborne contamination records were studied. The physicochemical properties of a plutonium aerosol existing in the facility were investigated in relation to plutonium handling operations. The techniques developed have indicated some areas of the aerosol surveillance system that need improvement

  12. The aerosols and the greenhouse effect; Aerosoler og klimaeffekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Trond; Kirkevaag, Alf; Seland, Oeyvind; Debernard, Jens Boldingh; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Storelvmo, Trude

    2008-07-01

    The article discussed the aerosol effects on the climatic changes and points out that the climate models do not incorporate these components satisfactorily mostly due to insufficient knowledge of the aerosol pollution sources. The direct and indirect effects of aerosols are mentioned as well as the climate response (tk)

  13. Aerosol generation and filter behaviour in sodium fires. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, L; Jordan, S

    1975-11-01

    In the scope of a long-term program (a) aerosol-formation rates during Na fires, (b) the behavior of Na aerosols in a closed system, and (c) the filtration of Na aerosols were investigated. These experiments in the ABRAUS facility should simulate the behaviour of Na aerosols after an accident in the inner and outer containment of the sodium-cooled fast Reactor SNR 300. At the conditions of the inner-containment (0.7% oxygen content in the atmosphere) aerosol-concentrations by Na - 0/sub 2/ reactions of 1 - 10 g/m/sup 3/ are possible. At the conditions of the outer-containment (21% 0/sub 2/-content) aerosol-concentrations at Na fires of 10 - 50 g/m/sup 3/ have been measured. The aerosol-formation rates are proportional to the 0/sub 2/-concentration: the rate at 21% 0/sub 2/-concentration is about 10-times higher than the rate at 0.7% 0/sub 2/. The aerosol formation rate was determined to 20 kgNa/m/sup 2/h at 21% 0/sub 2/. The behaviour of sand-bed-filters was investigated. A sand-bed-filter arrangement was developed which is better than HEPA-standard of fiberglas-filters concerning efficiency (better than 99.99) and load capacity (about 500 g Na/sub 2/0/sub 2//m/sup 2/). Beyond that sand-bed-filters resist high pressure- and temperature-peaks. Liquid Na aerosols are filtered with an efficiency better than 99.9%. A physical model was evaluated to explain pressure increase at the sand-bed-filter during load and penetration of the filter. The calculated values were in good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  15. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  16. Gorliz wastewater plant extension biofiltration as the solution for urban environment integrated facilities; Ampliacion de la EDAR de Gorliz. La biofiltracion como solucion en plantas integrada en medios urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolome Quintano, M.

    2005-07-01

    This article sets out to show biofiltration as the most suitable technology for wastewater treatment facilities that show specials requirements. Mainly, these considerations are surface deficiency, special foundations, high flow variations and environmentally sensitive areas. Gorliz wastewater plant extension is showed as a good example of this technology. It is located inside the urban environment and its constructive project has been recently approved. (Author)

  17. Annual public information report about the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  18. Annual public information report about the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Annual public information report about the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Annual public information report about the nuclear facilities of EDF's Penly NPP - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Annual public information report about the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  2. Annual public information report about the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Annual public information report about the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Annual public information report about the Saint-Alban Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 119 and 120). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  5. Annual public information report about the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  6. Annual public information report about the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  7. Stable generator of polydisperse aerosol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, Suppl. 1 (2001), s. S823-S824 ISSN 0021-8502. [European Aerosol Conference 2001. Leipzig, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : aerosol generator * fine aerosol * polydisperse aerosol Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2001

  8. Annual public information report about the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 78, 89 (NPPs in operation), 465 (NPP under deconstruction), 102 (fuel storage facility), and 173 (radioactive waste conditioning and storage facility under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. An Overview of INEL Fusion Safety R&D Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. A.; Smolik, G. R.; Anderl, R. A.; Carmack, W. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1997-06-01

    The Fusion Safety Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has the lead for fusion safety work in the United States. Over the years, we have developed several experimental facilities to provide data for fusion reactor safety analyses. We now have four major experimental facilities that provide data for use in safety assessments. The Steam-Reactivity Measurement System measures hydrogen generation rates and tritium mobilization rates in high-temperature (up to 1200°C) fusion relevant materials exposed to steam. The Volatilization of Activation Product Oxides Reactor Facility provides information on mobilization and transport and chemical reactivity of fusion relevant materials at high temperature (up to 1200°C) in an oxidizing environment (air or steam). The Fusion Aerosol Source Test Facility is a scaled-up version of VAPOR. The ion-implanta-tion/thermal-desorption system is dedicated to research into processes and phenomena associated with the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with fusion materials. In this paper we describe the capabilities of these facilities.

  10. Prospects of real-time single-particle biological aerosol analysis: A comparison between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddows, D.C.S.; Telle, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the prospects of real-time, in situ laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy applied for the identification and classification of bio-aerosols (including species of potential bio-hazard) within common urban aerosol mixtures. In particular, we address the issues associated with the picking out of bio-aerosols against common background aerosol particles, comparing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements with data from a mobile single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (ATOFMS). The data from the latter provide statistical data over an extended period of time, highlighting the variation of the background composition. While single-particle bio-aerosols are detectable in principle, potential problems with small (∼ 1 μm size) bio-aerosols have been identified; constituents of the air mass other than background aerosols, e.g. gaseous CO 2 in conjunction with common background aerosols, may prevent unique recognition of the bio-particles. We discuss whether it is likely that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy on its own can provide reliable, real-time identification of bio-aerosol in an urban environment, and it is suggested that more than one technique should be or would have to be used. A case for using a combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman (and/or) laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is made

  11. Aerosols, clouds and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1991-01-01

    Most of the so-called 'CO{sub 2} effect' is, in fact, an 'H{sub 2}O effect' brought into play by the climate modeler's assumption that planetary average temperature dictates water-vapor concentration (following Clapeyron-Clausius). That assumption ignores the removal process, which cloud physicists know to be influenced by the aerosol, since the latter primarily controls cloud droplet number and size. Droplet number and size are also influential for shortwave (solar) energy. The reflectance of many thin to moderately thick clouds changes when nuclei concentrations change and make shortwave albedo susceptible to aerosol influence.

  12. A stratospheric aerosol increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large disturbances were noted in the stratospheric aerosol content in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere commencing about 7 months after the eruption of La Soufriere and less than 1 month after the eruption of Sierra Negra. The aerosol was characterized by a very steep size distribution in the 0.15 to 0.25 micron radius range and contained a volatile component. Measurements near the equator and at the South Pole indicate that the disturbance was widespread. These observations were made before the May 18 eruption of Mt. St. Helens.

  13. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  14. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  15. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments

  16. Sensing Aerosol Height in the O2 A and B Bands from Lagrange-1 Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, J.; Torres, O.; Yang, Y.; Marshak, A.; Reid, J. S.; Miller, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol vertical distribution is an important but poorly constrained variable that determines the impacts of aerosols on earth's climate and environment. Detailed aerosol profile can be probed by space-borne Lidar such as the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization), but its spatial coverage is limited as a "curtain" captured along the Lidar's sub-orbital track. Passive techniques, though of less accuracy, can add an important augmentation due to the better spatial coverage. In this study, we present an algorithm for sensing aerosol height and optical depth using radiance measured in the oxygen A and B bands by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC), an instrument aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) residing at Lagrange-1 point. The algorithm was applied to EPIC imagery of dust plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean. Retrieved aerosol heights and optical depths were evaluated against counterparts observed by CALIOP, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The accuracies in EIPC retrieved aerosol heights and optical depths are found better than ±0.5 km and ±(0.1+10%), respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of EPIC measurements for retrieving global aerosol height multiple times daily, which are essential for evaluating aerosol profile simulated in climate models and for better estimating aerosol radiative effects.

  17. Aerosol Activation Properties within and above Mixing Layer in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Ran, L.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol particles, serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may modify the properties of clouds and have an impact on climate. The vertical distribution of aerosols and their activation properties is critical to quantify the effect of aerosols on clouds. An intensive field campaign, Vertical Observations of trace Gases and Aerosols in the North China Plain (VOGA-NCP 2013), was conducted in the North China Plain during the late July and early August 2013 to measure the vertical profiles of atmospheric components in this polluted region and estimate their effects on atmospheric environment and climate. Aerosols were measured with in-situ instruments and Lidar. Particularly, the aerosols were collected at 1000 m height with a 1 m3 bag sampler attached to a tethered balloon, and subsequently measured with combined scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and CCN counter. Comparisons of size-resolved activation ratios at ground level and 1000 m height showed that aerosols in upper atmosphere were not only less concentrated, but also less CCN-active than those at the surface. The difference in aerosol properties between upper atmosphere and the ground indicates that the analysis of impacts of aerosols on cloud might be misleading in heavily polluted region based on the relationship of cloud properties and surface aerosols or column without considering the vertical distribution of aerosol activation abilities.

  18. Aerosol measurements and nuclear accidents: a reconsideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within its radioactivity environmental monitoring programme, the Commission of the European Communities and in particular its Joint Research Centre wants to encourage the qualitative improvement of radioactivity monitoring. On 3 and 4 December 1987 an experts' meeting has been organized by the Ispra Joint Research Centre in collaboration with the Gesellschaft fuer Aerosolforschung, in order to discuss measuring techniques for radioactive aerosols in the environment in case of a nuclear accident. During the workshop, current practices in routine monitoring programmes in the near and far field of nuclear power plants were confronted with the latest developments in the metrology of aerosols and radioactivity. The need and feasibility of implementing advanced aerosol and radioactivity techniques in routine monitoring networks have been discussed. This publication gives the full text of 12 presentations and a report of the roundtable discussion being held afterwards. It does not intend to give a complete picture of all activities going on in the field of radioactive aerosol metrology; it rather collects a number of common statements of people who approach the problem from quite different directions

  19. Atmospheric aerosol system: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospero, J.M.; Charlson, R.J.; Mohnen, V.; Jaenicke, R.; Delany, A.C.; Moyers, J.; Zoller, W.; Rahn, K.

    1983-01-01

    Aerosols could play a critical role in many processes which impact on our lives either indirectly (e.g., climate) or directly (e.g., health). However, our ability to assess these possible impacts is constrained by our limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, both anthropogenic and natural. This deficiency is attributable in part to the fact that aerosols are the end product of a vast array of chemical and physical processes. Consequently, the properties of the aerosol can exhibit a great deal of variability in both time and space. Furthermore, most aerosol studies have focused on measurements of a single aerosol characteristic such as composition or size distribution. Such information is generally not useful for the assessment of impacts because the degree of impact may depend on the integral properties of the aerosol, for example, the aerosol composition as a function of particle size. In this overview we discuss recent work on atmospheric aerosols that illustrates the complex nature of the aerosol chemical and physical system, and we suggest strategies for future research. A major conclusion is that man has had a great impact on the global budgets of certain species, especially sulfur and nitrogen, that play a dominant role in the atmospheric aerosol system. These changes could conceivably affect climate. Large-scale impacts are implied because it has recently been demonstrated that natural and pollutant aerosol episodes can be propagated over great distances. However, at present there is no evidence linking anthropogenic activities with a persistent increase in aerosol concentrations on a global scale. A major problem in assessing man's impact on the atmospheric aerosol system and on global budgets is the absence of aerosol measurements in remote marine and continental areas

  20. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  1. Validity evaluation of internal exposure in nuclear facility decommission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoli; Chen Dahua; You Zeyun

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear facility decommission under construction, it is very important for workers to wear respirator to avoid harm of Am aerosols. So the protection effect of respirator is very important. The protection effect of respirator was calculated and evaluated according to the data achieved from engineering practice. The result shows that the protection effect is better than target management value and the respirator is effective to protect workers from harm of Am aerosols. The respirator is applied to other nuclear facility decommission. (authors)

  2. Transport and characterization of ambient biological aerosol near Laurel, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, J. L.; Cunningham, D.; Gilberry, J.; Kim, S.; Smith, E. E.; Ratnesar-Shumate, S.; Quizon, J.

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fungi, using culture and clinical biochemical tests, and 16S rRNA diversity using Affymetrix PhyloChips. Comparing the culturable fraction and surveying the total 16S rRNA of each sample provides a comprehensive look at the bacterial population studied and allows comparison with previous studies. Thirty-six hour back-trajectories of the air parcels sampled, over the two day period beginning 4 November 2008, provide information on the sources of aerosol sampled on the campus of Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD. This study indicates that back-trajectory modeling of air parcels may provide insights into the observed diversity of biological aerosol.

  3. Measurement of size distribution for 220Rn progeny attached aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Guo Qiuju; Zhuo Weihai

    2008-01-01

    The size distribution of radioactive aerosols is a very important factor for evaluating the inner exposure dose contributed by radon and thoron progeny in environments. In order to measure the size distribution of thoron progeny attached radioactive aerosols, a device was developed using wire screens. The count median diameter (CMD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of attached radioactive aerosols were calculated by collecting ThB and using CR-39 as detector. Field measurement results at Yangjiang City in Guangdong Province show that the CMDs distribute between 30 and 130 nm, and the GSDs are between 1.9 and 3.3. It also shows that the more humid country, the smaller CMDs, and the ventilation has great influence on the size distribution of aerosols. The CMDs of adobe house are smaller than that of the concrete houses. (authors)

  4. Developing an integrated design model incorporating technology philosophy for the design of healthcare environments : a case analysis of facilities for psychogeriatric and psychiatric care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, J.; Verkerk, M.J.

    The design of healthcare facilities is a complex and dynamic process, which involves many stakeholders each with their own set of needs. In the context of healthcare facilities, this complexity exists at the intersection of technology and society because the very design of these buildings forces us

  5. Environment | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Argonne National Laboratory Toggle Navigation Toggle Search Energy Environment Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment National Security User Facilities Science Work with Us Environment Atmospheric and Climate Science Ecological

  6. Organic aerosols from biomass burning in Amazonian rain forest and their impact onto the environment; La combustione di biomassa nella Foresta Amazzonica Aerosoli organici e impatto sull'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecinato, A; Mabilia, R [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Monterotondo Scalo, RM (Italy); De Castro Vasconcellos, P [Sao Paulo Universidad, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Dept. de Engenharia Quimica Ambiental

    2001-03-01

    A field campaign performed in Southern Brazilian Amazonia in 1993 has proved that this region is subjected to fallout of particulated exhausts released by fires of forestal biomass. In fact, organic content of aerosols collected at urban sites located on the border of pluvial forest, about 50 km from fires, was similar to that of biomass burning exhausts. Aerosol composition is indicative of dolous origin of fires. However, organic contents seems to be influenced by two additional sources, i. e. motor vehicle and high vegetation emission. Chemical pattern of organic aerosols released by biomass burning of forest seems to promote occurrence of photochemical smog episodes in that region. [Italian] Una campagna di misura realizzata nella regione amazzonica nel 1993 ha dimostrato la ricaduta sull'area circostante dei prodotti di combustione della biomassa forestale, attraverso la speciazione degli aerosoli atmosferici raccolti in un sito urbano posto ai margini della foresta, tuttavia le poveri sospese rivelano l'origine dolosa degli incendi. La composizione chimica degli aerosoli organici provenienti dalla combustione di biomassa sembra favorire i processi di smog fotochimico nella regione.

  7. Aerosol Size and Chemical Composition in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y. W.; Hayes, P. L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Croft, B.; O'Neill, N. T.; Fogal, P.; Drummond, J. R.; Sloan, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic aerosol have a strong annual cycle, with winter months dominated by long range transport from lower latitudes resulting in high mass loadings. Conversely, local emissions are more prominent in the summer months because of the decreased influence of transported aerosol, allowing us to regularly observe both transported and local aerosol. This study will present observations of aerosol chemical composition and particle number size distribution collected at the Polar Environment Artic Research Laboratory and the Alert Global Atmospheric Watch Observatory at Eureka (80N, 86W) and Alert (82N, 62W), Nunavut, respectively. Summer time observations of the number size distribution reveal a persistent mode of particles centered between 30-50 nm, with occasional bursts of smaller particles. The non-refractory aerosol chemical composition, measured by the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, is primarily organic, with contributions from both aged and fresher organic aerosol. Factor analysis will be conducted to better understand these sources. The site at Eureka is more susceptible to long range transport since it is at the top of a mountain ridge (610 m above sea level) and will be compared to the site at Alert on an elevated plain (200 m above sea level). This will allow us to determine the relative contributions from processes and sources at the sites at different elevations. Comparisons with aerosol optical depth and GEOS-Chem model output will also be presented to put these surface measurements into context with the overlying and regional atmosphere. Results from this study contribute to our knowledge of aerosol in the high Arctic.

  8. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  9. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  10. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  11. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C G; Newland, M S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  12. Aerosol radiative effects over BIMSTEC regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Kar, S. C.; Mupparthy, Raghavendra S.

    Aerosols can have variety of shapes, composition, sizes and other properties that influence their optical characteristics and thus the radiative impact. The visible impact of aerosol is the formation of haze, a layer of particles from vehicular, industrial emissions and biomass burning. The characterization of these fine particles is important for regulators and researchers because of their potential impact on human health, their ability to travel thousands of kilometers crossing international borders, and their influence on climate forcing and global warming. The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) with Member Countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand has emerged as an important regional group for technical and economic Cooperation. Continuing the quest for a deeper understanding of BIMSTEC countries weather and climate, in this paper we focused on aerosols and their direct radiative effects. Because of various contrasts like geophysical, agricultural practices, heterogeneous land/ocean surface, population etc these regions present an excellent natural laboratory for studying aerosol-meteorology interactions in tropical to sub-tropical environments. We exploited data available on multiple platforms (such as MISR, MODIS etc) and models (OPAC, SBDART etc) to compute the results. Ten regions were selected with different surface characteristics, also having considerable differences in the long-term trends and seasonal distribution of aerosols. In a preliminary analysis pertaining to pre-monsoon (March-April-May) of 2013, AOD _{555nm} is found to be maximum over Bangladesh (>0.52) and minimum over Bhutan (0.22), whereas other regions have intermediate values. Concurrent to these variability of AOD we found a strong reduction in incoming flux at surface of all the regions (> -25 Wm (-2) ), except Bhutan and Sri Lanka (< -18Wm (-2) ). The top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing values are

  13. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350 o C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs

  14. A Remote WIRELESS Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Uiterwijk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuing need for available distance learning facilities has led to the development of a remote lab facility focusing on wireless technology. In the field of engineering there is a student need of gaining experience in set-up, monitoring and maintenance of 802.11A/B/G based wireless LAN environments.

  15. The COLIMA experiment on aerosol retention in containment leak paths under severe nuclear accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parozzi, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.parozzi@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Department, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Caracciolo, Eduardo D.J., E-mail: eduardo.caracciolo@rse-web.it [RSE, Power Generation Department, via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Journeau, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.journeau@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache (France); Piluso, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.piluso@cea.fr [CEA Cadarache (France)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Experiment investigating aerosol retention within concrete containment cracks under nuclear severe accident conditions. ► Provided representative conditions of the aerosols suspended inside the containment of PWRs under a severe accident. ► Prototypical aerosol particles generated with a thermite reaction and transported through the crack sample reproducing surface characteristics, temperature, pressure drop and gas leakage. ► The results indicate the significant retention due to zig-zag path. -- Abstract: CEA and RSE managed an experimental research concerning the investigation of aerosol retention within concrete containment cracks under severe accident conditions. The main experiment was carried out in November 2008 with aerosol generated from the COLIMA facility and a sample of cracked concrete with defined geometric characteristics manufactured by RSE. The facility provided representative conditions of the aerosols suspended inside the containment of PWRs under a severe accident. Prototypical aerosol particles were generated with a thermite reaction and transported through the crack sample, where surface characteristics, temperature, pressure drop and gas leakage were properly reproduced. The paper describes the approach adopted for the preparation of the cracked concrete sample and the dimensioning of the experimental apparatus, the test procedure and the measured parameters. The preliminary results, obtained from this single test, are also discussed in the light of the present knowledge about aerosol phenomena and the theoretical analyses of particle behaviour with the crack path.

  16. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  17. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  18. Aircraft Test & Evaluation Facility (Hush House)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Test and Evaluation Facility (ATEF), or Hush House, is a noise-abated ground test sub-facility. The facility's controlled environment provides 24-hour...

  19. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  20. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  1. Size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles in intense radiation fields using wire screens and imaging plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yuichi; Tanaka, Toru; Takamiya, Koichi; Ishi, Yoshihiro; UesugI, Tomonori; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nitta, Shinnosuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Osada, Naoyuki [Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    Very fine radiation-induced aerosol particles are produced in intense radiation fields, such as high-intensity accelerator rooms and containment vessels such as those in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP). Size measurement of the aerosol particles is very important for understanding the behavior of radioactive aerosols released in the FDNPP accident and radiation safety in high-energy accelerators. A combined technique using wire screens and imaging plates was developed for size measurement of fine radioactive aerosol particles smaller than 100 nm in diameter. This technique was applied to the radiation field of a proton accelerator room, in which radioactive atoms produced in air during machine operation are incorporated into radiation-induced aerosol particles. The size of 11C-bearing aerosol particles was analyzed using the wire screen technique in distinction from other positron emitters in combination with a radioactive decay analysis. The size distribution for 11C-bearing aerosol particles was found to be ca. 70 μm in geometric mean diameter. The size was similar to that for 7Be-bearing particles obtained by a Ge detector measurement, and was slightly larger than the number-based size distribution measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. The particle size measuring method using wire screens and imaging plates was successfully applied to the fine aerosol particles produced in an intense radiation field of a proton accelerator. This technique is applicable to size measurement of radioactive aerosol particles produced in the intense radiation fields of radiation facilities.

  2. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  3. The PSI Artist Project: Aerosol Retention and Accident Management Issues Following a Steam Generator Tube Rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guntay, Salih; Dehbi, Abdel; Suckow, Detlef; Birchley, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) incidents, such as those, which occurred in various operating pressurized, water reactors in the past, are serious operational concerns and remain among the most risk-dominant events. Although considerable efforts have been spent to understand tube degradation processes, develop improved modes of operation, and take preventative and corrective measures, SGTR incidents cannot be completely ruled out. Under certain conditions, high releases of radionuclides to the environment are possible during design basis accidents (DBA) and severe accidents. The severe accident codes' models for aerosol retention in the secondary side of a steam generator (SG) have not been assessed against any experimental data, which means that the uncertainties in the source term following an un-isolated SGTR concurrent with a severe accident are not currently quantified. The accident management (AM) procedures aim at avoiding or minimizing the release of fission products from the SG. The enhanced retention of activity within the SG defines the effectiveness of the accident management actions for the specific hardware characteristics and accident conditions of concern. A sound database on aerosol retention due to natural processes in the SG is not available, nor is an assessment of the effect of management actions on these processes. Hence, the effectiveness of the AM in SGTR events is not presently known. To help reduce uncertainties relating to SGTR issues, an experimental project, ARTIST (Aerosol Trapping In a Steam generator), has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institut to address aerosol and droplet retention in the various parts of the SG. The test section is comprised of a scaled-down tube bundle, a full-size separator and a full-size dryer unit. The project will study phenomena at the separate effect and integral levels and address AM issues in seven distinct phases: Aerosol retention in 1) the broken tube under dry secondary side conditions, 2

  4. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author)

  5. Special aerosol sources for certification and test of aerosol radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Y.E.; Kuznetsov, Y.V.; Rizin, A.I.; Fertman, D.E. (Union Research Institute of Instrumentation, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the development and practical application of new radionuclide source types (Special Aerosol Sources (SAS)), that meet the international standard recommendations, which are used for certification and test of aerosol radiometers (monitors) using model aerosols of plutonium-239, strontium-yttrium-90 or uranium of natural isotope composition and certified against Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR national radioactive aerosol standard or by means of a reference radiometer. The original technology for source production allows the particular features of sampling to be taken into account as well as geometry and conditions of radionuclides radiation registration in the sample for the given type of radiometer. (author).

  6. Mexico City aerosol study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon, Y.I.; Ramirez, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    A major task in the field of air pollution monitoring is the development of devices for determining the mass and composition of airborne particulate matter as a function of size - and time. The sample collection device must be designed giving consideration to the nature of the aerosol and to the effects of the aerosol on human health. It has been established that particles smaller than 3.5 μm in diameter can penetrate deeply into the human respiratory system, and that larger particles are trapped in the upper respiratory passages. For these reasons, it is desirable to use a dichotomous sampler to collect particles in two size ranges, rather than to collect total particulates on a single filter. The authors discuss a study in Mexico City using a dichotomous sampler

  7. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  8. Development and first application of an Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) for quasi online compound specific aerosol measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Thorsten; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Trimborn, Dagmar; Jayne, John; Wahner, Andreas; Worsnop, Doug

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate and human health on regional and global scales (IPCC, 2007). In many environments organics are a major fraction of the aerosol influencing its properties. Due to the huge variety of organic compounds present in atmospheric aerosol current measurement techniques are far from providing a full speciation of organic aerosol (Hallquist et al., 2009). The development of new techniques for compound specific measurements with high time resolution is a timely issue in organic aerosol research. Here we present first laboratory characterisations of an aerosol collection module (ACM) which was developed to allow for the sampling and transfer of atmospheric PM1 aerosol. The system consists of an aerodynamic lens system focussing particles on a beam. This beam is directed to a 3.4 mm in diameter surface which is cooled to -30 °C with liquid nitrogen. After collection the aerosol sample can be evaporated from the surface by heating it to up to 270 °C. The sample is transferred through a 60cm long line with a carrier gas. In order to test the ACM for linearity and sensitivity we combined it with a GC-MS system. The tests were performed with octadecane aerosol. The octadecane mass as measured with the ACM-GC-MS was compared versus the mass as calculated from SMPS derived total volume. The data correlate well (R2 0.99, slope of linear fit 1.1) indicating 100 % collection efficiency. From 150 °C to 270 °C no effect of desorption temperature on transfer efficiency could be observed. The ACM-GC-MS system was proven to be linear over the mass range 2-100 ng and has a detection limit of ~ 2 ng. First experiments applying the ACM-GC-MS system were conducted at the Jülich Aerosol Chamber. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was formed from ozonolysis of 600 ppbv of b-pinene. The major oxidation product nopinone was detected in the aerosol and could be shown to decrease from 2 % of the total aerosol to 0.5 % of the aerosol over the 48 hours of

  9. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  10. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D.E.; Hopkins, A.R.; Paladino, J.D.; Whitefield, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H.V. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  11. Aerosol characterization during project POLINAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, D E; Hopkins, A R; Paladino, J D; Whitefield, P D [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab.; Lilenfeld, H V [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-East, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the aerosol/particulate characterization measurements of project POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor) are: to search for aerosol/particulate signatures of air traffic emissions in the region of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor; to search for the aerosol/particulate component of large scale enhancement (`corridor effects`) of air traffic related species in the North Atlantic region; to determine the effective emission indices for the aerosol/particulate component of engine exhaust in both the near and far field of aircraft exhaust plumes; to measure the dispersion and transformation of the aerosol/particulate component of aircraft emissions as a function of ambient condition; to characterize background levels of aerosol/particulate concentrations in the North Atlantic Region; and to determine effective emission indices for engine exhaust particulates for regimes beyond the jet phase of plume expansion. (author) 10 refs.

  12. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  13. Aerosol concentration measurements and correlations with air mass trajectories at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, M. I.; Louedec, K.; Freire, M.; Vitale, P.; Piacentini, R. D.

    2017-06-01

    Aerosols play an important role in radiative transfer processes involved in different fields of study. In particular, their influence is crucial in the attenuation of light at astronomical and astrophysical observatories, and has to be taken into account in light transfer models employed to reconstruct the signals. The Andean Argentinean region is increasingly being considered as a good candidate to host such facilities, as well as the ones for solar-energy resources, and an adequate knowledge of aerosols characteristics there is needed, but it is not always possible due to the vast area involved and the scarce atmospheric data at ground. The aim of this work is to find correlations between aerosol data and particle trajectories that can give an insight into the origin and behaviour of aerosols in this zone and can be employed in situations in which one does not have local aerosol measurements. For this purpose, an aerosol spectrometer and dust monitor (Grimm 1.109) was installed at the Pierre Auger Observatory of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, to record aerosol concentrations in different size intervals, at surface level. These measurements are analysed and correlated with air mass trajectories obtained from HYSPLIT (NOAA) model calculations. High aerosol concentrations are registered predominantly when air masses have travelled mostly over continental areas, mainly from the NE direction, while low aerosol concentrations are found in correspondence with air masses coming from the Pacific Ocean, from the NW direction. Different size distribution patterns were found for the aerosols depending on their origin: marine or continental. This work shows for the first time the size distribution of aerosols registered at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The correlations found between mass and particle concentrations (total and for different size ranges) and HYSPLIT air mass trajectories, confirm that the latter can be employed as a useful tool to infer the sources, evolution

  14. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Triggered by Strong Aerosol Emissions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Previous process-oriented modeling studies have highlighted the dependence of effectiveness of cloud brightening by aerosols on cloud regimes in warm marine boundary layer. Cloud microphysical processes in clouds that contain ice, and hence the mechanisms that drive aerosol-cloud interactions, are more complicated than in warm clouds. Interactions between ice particles and liquid drops add additional levels of complexity to aerosol effects. A cloud-resolving model is used to study aerosol-cloud interactions in the Arctic triggered by strong aerosol emissions, through either geoengineering injection or concentrated sources such as shipping and fires. An updated cloud microphysical scheme with prognostic aerosol and cloud particle numbers is employed. Model simulations are performed in pure super-cooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds, separately, with or without an injection of aerosols into either a clean or a more polluted Arctic boundary layer. Vertical mixing and cloud scavenging of particles injected from the surface is still quite efficient in the less turbulent cold environment. Overall, the injection of aerosols into the Arctic boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. The pure liquid clouds are more susceptible to the increase in aerosol number concentration than the mixed-phase clouds. Rain production processes are more effectively suppressed by aerosol injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. Aerosol injection into a clean boundary layer results in a greater cloud albedo increase than injection into a polluted one, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, the impact of dynamical feedback due to precipitation changes is small. According to these results, which are dependent upon the representation of ice nucleation

  15. Photothermal spectroscopy of aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Lin, H.B.

    1981-04-01

    In situ aerosol absorption spectroscopy was performed using two novel photothermal detection schemes. The first, based on a photorefractive effect and coherent detection, called phase fluctuation optical heterodyne (PFLOH) spectroscopy, could, depending on the geometry employed, yield particle specific or particle and gas absorption data. Single particles of graphite as small as 1 μm were detected in the particle specific mode. In another geometrical configuration, the total absorption (both gas and particle) of submicron sized aerosols of ammonium sulfate particles in equilibrium with gaseous ammonia and water vapor were measured at varying CO 2 laser frequencies. The specific absorption coefficient for the sulfate ion was measured to be 0.5 m 2 /g at 1087 cm -1 . The absorption coefficient sensitivity of this scheme was less than or equal to 10 -8 cm -1 . The second scheme is a hybrid visible Mie scattering scheme incorporating photothermal modulation. Particle specific data on ammonium sulfate droplets were obtained. For chemically identical species, the relative absorption spectrum versus laser frequency can be obtained for polydisperse aerosol distributions directly from the data without the need for complex inverse scattering calculations

  16. Assessment of Aerosol Optical Property and Radiative Effect for the Layer Decoupling Cases over the Northern South China Sea During the 7-SEAS Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantau Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (omega) approx. = 0.92 at 440nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the omega (approx. = 0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6W/sq m2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  17. Assessment of aerosol optical property and radiative effect for the layer decoupling cases over the northern South China Sea during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lolli, Simone; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chantara, Somporn; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The aerosol radiative effect can be modulated by the vertical distribution and optical properties of aerosols, particularly when aerosol layers are decoupled. Direct aerosol radiative effects over the northern South China Sea (SCS) were assessed by incorporating an observed data set of aerosol optical properties obtained from the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS)/Dongsha Experiment into a radiative transfer model. Aerosol optical properties for a two-layer structure of aerosol transport were estimated. In the radiative transfer calculations, aerosol variability (i.e., diversity of source region, aerosol type, and vertical distribution) for the complex aerosol environment was also carefully quantified. The column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 nm was 0.1-0.3 for near-surface aerosols and increased 1-5 times in presence of upper layer biomass-burning aerosols. A case study showed the strong aerosol absorption (single-scattering albedo (ω) ≈ 0.92 at 440 nm wavelength) exhibited by the upper layer when associated with predominantly biomass-burning aerosols, and the ω (≈0.95) of near-surface aerosols was greater than that of the upper layer aerosols because of the presence of mixed type aerosols. The presence of upper level aerosol transport could enhance the radiative efficiency at the surface (i.e., cooling) and lower atmosphere (i.e., heating) by up to -13.7 and +9.6 W m-2 per AOD, respectively. Such enhancement could potentially modify atmospheric stability, can influence atmospheric circulation, as well as the hydrological cycle over the tropical and low-latitude marginal northern SCS.

  18. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  19. Size Resolved Measurements of Springtime Aerosol Particles over the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Samuel A.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Cliff, Stephen S.; Zhao, Yongjing; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chu, Yu-Chi; Westphal, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Large sources of aerosol particles and their precursors are ubiquitous in East Asia. Such sources are known to impact the South China Sea (henceforth SCS), a sometimes heavily polluted region that has been suggested as particularly vulnerable to climate change. To help elucidate springtime aerosol transport into the SCS, an intensive study was performed on the remote Dongsha (aka Pratas) Islands Atoll in spring 2010. As part of this deployment, a Davis Rotating-drum Uniform size-cut Monitor (DRUM) cascade impactor was deployed to collect size-resolved aerosol samples at the surface that were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for concentrations of selected elements. HYSPLIT backtrajectories indicated that the transport of aerosol observed at the surface at Dongsha was occurring primarily from regions generally to the north and east. This observation was consistent with the apparent persistence of pollution and dust aerosol, along with sea salt, in the ground-based dataset. In contrast to the sea-level observations, modeled aerosol transport suggested that the westerly flow aloft (w700 hPa) transported smoke-laden air toward the site from regions from the south and west. Measured aerosol optical depth at the site was highest during time periods of modeled heavy smoke loadings aloft. These periods did not coincide with elevated aerosol concentrations at the surface, although the model suggested sporadic mixing of this free-tropospheric aerosol to the surface over the SCS. A biomass burning signature was not clearly identified in the surface aerosol composition data, consistent with this aerosol type remaining primarily aloft and not mixing strongly to the surface during the study. Significant vertical wind shear in the region also supports the idea that different source regions lead to varying aerosol impacts in different vertical layers, and suggests the potential for considerable vertical inhomogeneity in the SCS aerosol environment.

  20. Chemical Thermodynamics of Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols: Modeling and Microfluidic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, L.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate predictions of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium phase partitioning of atmospheric aerosols by thermodynamic modeling and measurements is critical for determining particle composition and internal structure at conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Organic acids that originate from biomass burning, and direct biogenic emission make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. In addition, inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate and sea salt also exist in atmospheric aerosols, that results in a mixture of single, double or triple charged ions, and non-dissociated and partially dissociated organic acids. Statistical mechanics based on a multilayer adsorption isotherm model can be applied to these complex aqueous environments for predictions of thermodynamic properties. In this work, thermodynamic analytic predictive models are developed for multicomponent aqueous solutions (consisting of partially dissociating organic and inorganic acids, fully dissociating symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes, and neutral organic compounds) over the entire relative humidity range, that represent a significant advancement towards a fully predictive model. The model is also developed at varied temperatures for electrolytes and organic compounds the data for which are available at different temperatures. In addition to the modeling approach, water loss of multicomponent aerosol particles is measured by microfluidic experiments to parameterize and validate the model. In the experimental microfluidic measurements, atmospheric aerosol droplet chemical mimics (organic acids and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples) are generated in microfluidic channels and stored and imaged in passive traps until dehydration to study the influence of relative humidity and water loss on phase behavior.

  1. Water content of aged aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

  2. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  3. Fission product vapour - aerosol interactions in the containment: simulant fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Falcon facility to study the interaction of fission product vapours released from simulant fuel samples with control rod aerosols. The aerosols generated from both the control rod and fuel sample were chemically distinct and had different deposition characteristics. Extensive interaction was observed between the fission product vapours and the control rod aerosol. The two dominant mechanisms were condensation of the vapours onto the aerosol, and chemical reactions between the two components; sorption phenomena were believed to be only of secondary importance. The interaction of fission product vapours and reactor materials aerosols could have a major impact on the transport characteristics of the radioactive emission from a degrading core. (author)

  4. Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogan, Michael J.; Boutet, Sebastien; Chapman, Henry N.; Marchesini, Stefano; Barty, Anton; Benner, W. Henry; Rohner, Urs; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Bajt, Sasa; Woods, Bruce; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; Schulz, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10 12 photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.

  5. Performance of multiple HEPA filters against plutonium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Elder, J.; Ettinger, H.

    1975-01-01

    Performance of multiple stages of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters against aerosols similar to those produced by plutonium processing facilities has been verified as part of an experimental program. A system of three HEPA filters in series was tested against 238 PuO 2 aerosol concentrations as high as 3.3 x 10 10 d/s-m 3 . An air nebulization aerosol generation system, using ball milled plutonium oxide suspended in water, provided test aerosols with size characteristics similar to those defined by a field sampling program at several different AEC plutonium processing facilities. Aerosols have been produced ranging from 0.22 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter (amad) to 1.6 μm amad. The smaller size distributions yield 10 to 30 percent of the total activity in the less than 0.22 μm size range allowing efficiency measurement as a function of size for the first two HEPA filters in series. The low level of activity on the sampler downstream of the third HEPA filter (approximately 0.01 c/s) precludes aerosol size characterization downstream of this filter. For the first two HEPA filters, overall efficiency, and efficiency as a function of size, exceeds 99.98 percent including the <0.12 μm and the 0.12 to 0.22 μm size intervals. Efficiency of the third HEPA filter is somewhat lower with an overall average efficiency of 99.8 percent and an apparent minimum efficiency of 99.5 percent. This apparently lower efficiency is an artifact due to the low level of activity on the sampler downstream of HEPA No. 3 and the variations due to counting statistics. Recent runs with higher concentrations, thereby improving statistical variations, show efficiencies well within minimum requirements. (U.S.)

  6. Occupational health and environment research 1983: Health, Safety, and Environment Division. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1985-05-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide comprehensive occupational health and safety programs, waste processing, and environmental protection. These activities are designed to protect the workers, the public, and the environment. Evaluation of respiratory protective equipment included the XM-30 and M17A1 military masks, use of MAG-1 spectacles in respirators, and eight self-contained units. The latter units were used in an evaluation of test procedures used for Bureau of Mines approval of breathing apparatuses. Analyses of air samples from field studies of a modified in situ oil shale retorting facility were performed for total cyclohexane extractables and selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Aerosols generation and characterization of effluents from oil shale processing were continued as part of an inhalation toxicology study. Additional data on plutonium excretion in urine are presented and point up problems in using the Langham equation to predict plutonium deposition in the body from long-term excretion data. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983 showed the highest estimated radiation dose from Laboratory operations to be about 26% of the natural background radiation dose. Several studies on radionuclides and their transport in the Los Alamos environment are described. The chemical quality of surface and ground water near the geothermal hot dry rock facility is described. Short- and long-term consequences to man from releases of radionuclides into the environment can be simulated by the BIOTRAN computer model, which is discussed brirfly

  7. A comparison of MCNP6-1.0 and GEANT 4-10.1 when evaluating the neutron output of a complex real world nuclear environment: The thermal neutron facility at the Tri Universities Meson facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monk, S.D., E-mail: s.monk@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Shippen, B.A. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Colling, B.R. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cheneler, D.; Al Hamrashdi, H.; Alton, T. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of the use of MCNP6 and GEANT4 Monte Carlo software when large distances and thicknesses are considered. • The Thermal Neutron Facility (TNF) at TRIUMF used as an example real life example location. • The effects of water, aluminium, iron and lead considered over various thicknesses up to 3 m. - Abstract: A comparison of the Monte Carlo based simulation codes MCNP6-1.0 and GEANT4-10.1 as used for modelling large scale structures is presented here. The high-energy neutron field at the Tri Universities Meson Facility (TRIUMF) in Vancouver, British Columbia is the structure modelled in this work. Work with the emphasis on the modelling of the facility and comparing with experimental results has been published previously, whereas this work is focussed on comparing the performance of the codes over relatively high depths of material rather than the accuracy of the results themselves in comparison to experimental data. Comparisons of three different locations within the neutron facility are modelled and presented using both codes as well as analysis of the transport of typical neutrons fields through large blocks of iron, water, lead and aluminium in order to determine where any deviations are likely to have occurred. Results indicate that over short distances, results from the two codes are in broad agreement – although over greater distances and within more complex geometries, deviation increases dramatically. The conclusions reached are that it is likely the deviations between the codes is caused by both the compounding effect of slight differences between the cross section files used by the two codes to determine the neutron transport through iron, and differences in the processes used by both codes.

  8. Disposal facilities on land for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: draft principles for the protection of the human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document gives the views of the authorising [United Kingdom] Departments under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 about the principles which those Departments should follow in assessing proposals for land disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. It is based on relevant research findings and reports by international bodies; but has been prepared at this stage as a draft on which outside comments are sought, and is subject to revision in the light of those comments. That process of review will lead to the preparation and publication of a definitive statement of principles, which will be an important background document for public inquiries into proposals to develop sites for land disposal facilities. Headings are: authorisation of disposal; other legislation governing new disposal facilities; basic radiological requirements; general principles; information requirements. (author)

  9. Aerosol sampler for analysis of fine and ultrafine aerosols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Čapka, Lukáš; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1020 (2018), s. 123-133 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25558S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : atmospheric aerosols * aerosol collection * chemical composition Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  10. Hot cell verification facility update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titzler, P.A.; Moffett, S.D.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) provides a prototypic hot cell mockup to check equipment for functional and remote operation, and provides actual hands-on training for operators. The facility arrangement is flexible and assists in solving potential problems in a nonradioactive environment. HCVF has been in operation for six years, and the facility is a part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  11. Eighth experts meeting on environmental radioactivity monitoring: Technical and organisational means for an optimised measurement of ambient radioactivity in the environment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The plant-specific emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are part of the items of the agreement between the EC and the IAEA, for mutual rapid information in the case of accidents. The lectures presented to the technical discussion meeting deal with the legal and technical aspects involved. Dispersion models, computer-aided dispersion models, computer-aided information systems and advanced programs as well as measuring techniques and results of the emission monitoring and environmental monitoring near nuclear facilities are the aspects of main interest discussed at the meeting. (DG) [de

  12. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  13. Novel Measurements of Aerosol Particle Interfaces Using Biphasic Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, A. R.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are nearly ubiquitous in the atmosphere and yet there remains large uncertainties in their formation processes and ambient properties. These particles are complex microenvironments, which can contain multiple interfaces due to internal aqueous-organic phase partitioning and to the external liquid-vapor surface. These aerosol interfaces can profoundly affect the fate of condensable organic compounds emitted into the atmosphere by altering the way in which organic vapors interact with the ambient aerosol. Aerosol interfaces affect particle internal structure, species uptake, equilibrium partitioning, activation to cloud condensation or ice nuclei, and optical properties. For example, organic thin films can shield the core of the aerosol from the ambient environment, which may disrupt equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer. To improve our ability to accurately predict the fate of SOA in the atmosphere, we must improve our knowledge of aerosol interfaces and their interactions with the ambient environment. Few technologies exist to accurately probe aerosol interfaces at atmospherically-relevant conditions. In this talk, a novel method using biphasic microscale flows will be introduced for generating, trapping, and perturbing complex interfaces at atmospherically relevant conditions. These microfluidic experiments utilize high-speed imaging to monitor interfacial phenomena at the microscale and are performed with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy on a temperature-controlled inverted microscope stage. From these experiments, interfacial thermodynamic properties such as surface tension, rheological properties such as interfacial moduli, and kinetic properties such as mass transfer coefficients can be measured or inferred. Chemical compositions of the liquid phases studied here span a range of viscosities and include electrolyte and water soluble organic acid species often observed in the atmosphere, such as mixtures

  14. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  15. Dance Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Dudley, Ed.; Irey, Charlotte, Ed.

    This booklet represents an effort to assist teachers and administrators in the professional planning of dance facilities and equipment. Three chapters present the history of dance facilities, provide recommended dance facilities and equipment, and offer some adaptations of dance facilities and equipment, for elementary, secondary and college level…

  16. Underground measurements of aerosol in radon and thoron progeny activity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Bandi, F.; Phillips, C.R.; Duport, P.

    1990-01-01

    Aerosol and activity distributions of 218 Polonium, 214 Lead, 214 Bismuth, and 212 Lead were determined in two different underground mining environments by means of an optimized time-delay counting scheme and diffusion batteries. In one environment, diesel equipment was operating; and in the other, electrically powered equipment. The two environments differed significantly in total aerosol concentration. In the diesel environment, in particular, aerosol concentrations were unsteady, and fluctuated with vehicular traffic and mining activities. As measured by radon progeny disequilibrium, the age of the air ranged from about 25 to 60 minutes. Thoron working levels were of the same order as radon working levels. In this paper, comparisons are made between the aerosol and activity size distributions in both the diesel and electric mine

  17. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile

  18. Infection of phytoplankton by aerosolized marine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Shlomit; Trainic, Miri; Schatz, Daniella; Lehahn, Yoav; Flores, Michel J.; Bidle, Kay D.; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rudich, Yinon; Vardi, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Marine viruses constitute a major ecological and evolutionary driving force in the marine ecosystems. However, their dispersal mechanisms remain underexplored. Here we follow the dynamics of Emiliania huxleyi viruses (EhV) that infect the ubiquitous, bloom-forming phytoplankton E. huxleyi and show that EhV are emitted to the atmosphere as primary marine aerosols. Using a laboratory-based setup, we showed that the dynamic of EhV aerial emission is strongly coupled to the host–virus dynamic in the culture media. In addition, we recovered EhV DNA from atmospheric samples collected over an E. huxleyi bloom in the North Atlantic, providing evidence for aerosolization of marine viruses in their natural environment. Decay rate analysis in the laboratory revealed that aerosolized viruses can remain infective under meteorological conditions prevailing during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean, allowing potential dispersal and infectivity over hundreds of kilometers. Based on the combined laboratory and in situ findings, we propose that atmospheric transport of EhV is an effective transmission mechanism for spreading viral infection over large areas in the ocean. This transmission mechanism may also have an important ecological impact on the large-scale host–virus “arms race” during bloom succession and consequently the turnover of carbon in the ocean. PMID:25964340

  19. Experimental study of the processes of aerosol production for technical oil cleanup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev Gennadiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experimental study of mechanism of fine mist formation in oil-flooded screw compressor it has been drawn the conclusion on evaporation of fine aerosol of mineral oil that has been obtained in two ways: on the basis of oil spray with mechanical burner and on the basis of volume condensation of oil vapour in air. The given paper presents experimental facility for the production of mineral oil aerosol and also comparison of the experimentation results with calculations.

  20. Simulation of International Standard Problem No. 44 'KAEVER' experiments on aerosol behaviour with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in a vapor-saturated atmosphere, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations are presented and analyzed.(author)

  1. Report to the Minister of Environment Affairs on an environmental impact assessment of a proposed emergency landing facility on Marion Island - 1987

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heymann, G

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available of the Islands, with emphasis on the area of Marion Island which would be most seriously influenced, are described in some detail and mitigating measures discussed. The report concludes that the facility should not be constructed and so recommends...

  2. Regional variation of carbonaceous aerosols from space and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Nakata, Makiko; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    effect on carbonaceous aerosols. And then the selected data observed by ADEOS-2/GLI and POLDER in 2003 are treated by using Vector form Method of Successive Order of Scattering (VMSOS) for radiative transfer simulations in the semi-infinite atmosphere [2]. Finally the obtained optical properties of the carbonaceous aerosols are investigated in comparison with the numerical model simulations of SPRINTARS. In spite of the limited case studies, it has been pointed out that NUV-channel data are effective for retrieval of the carbonaceous aerosol properties. Therefore we have to treat with this issue for not only detection of biomass burning plume but also retrieval itself. If that happens, synthetic analysis based on multi-channel and/or polarization measurements become practical, and the proposed procedure and results are available for a feasibility study of coming space missions. [1] Sano, I., Y. Okada, M. Mukai and S. Mukai, "Retrieval algorithm based on combined use of POLDER and GLI data for biomass aerosols," J. RSSJ, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 54-59, doi:10.11440/rssj.29.54, 2009. [2] Mukai, S., M. Nakata, M. Yasumoto, I. Sano and A. Kokhanovsky, "A study of aerosol pollution episode due to agriculture biomass burning in the east-central China using satellite data," Front. Environ. Sci., vol. 3:57, doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2015.00057, 2015.

  3. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 controlled organic plume emitted from the R/V Point Sur. Under sunny conditions, nucleated particles composed

  4. Seasonal variability in aerosol optical and physical characteristics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu 175 126, India. 2G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan ... ing and transport which result in a large variability in their size distribution (Meszaros 1981; ... dust aerosol due to its transport from the western deserts. The understanding of the ...

  5. Sodium aerosols and vapour trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien-Dolias, M.; Pradel, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of the parameters influencing aerosols behaviour in argon cover gas, production and evolution. A comparison is given between experimental results obtained on large pools and theoretical calculations obtained with the code ''Aerosols A2'' in the field of separation in a pipe and deposit on cold surfaces

  6. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  7. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  8. AEROSOL VARIABILITY OBSERVED WITH RPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Altstädter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To observe the origin, vertical and horizontal distribution and variability of aerosol particles, and especially ultrafine particles recently formed, we plan to employ the remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS Carolo-P360 "ALADINA" of TU Braunschweig. The goal of the presented project is to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution, transport and small-scale variability of aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer using RPAS. Two additional RPAS of type MASC of Tübingen University equipped with turbulence instrumentation add the opportunity to study the interaction of the aerosol concentration with turbulent transport and exchange processes of the surface and the atmosphere. The combination of different flight patterns of the three RPAS allows new insights in atmospheric boundary layer processes. Currently, the different aerosol sensors are miniaturized at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig and together with the TU Braunschweig adapted to fit into the RPAS. Moreover, an additional meteorological payload for measuring temperature, humidity and turbulence properties is constructed by Tübingen University. Two condensation particle counters determine the total aerosol number with a different lower detection threshold in order to investigate the horizontal and vertical aerosol variability and new particle formation (aerosol particles of some nm diameter. Further the aerosol size distribution in the range from about 0.300 to ~5 μm is given by an optical particle counter.

  9. Annual public information report about the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favor of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  10. Annual public information report about the nuclear facilities of EDF's Tricastin NPP - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Tricastin nuclear power plant (INB 87 and 88, Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favor of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  11. Annual public information report about the Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities - 2015. This report is written in compliance with articles L. 125-15 and L125-16 of the French environment code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2015, if any, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  12. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  13. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  14. Results and code prediction comparisons of lithium-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1986-03-01

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) Fusion Safety Support Studies include evaluation of potential safety and environmental concerns associated with the use of liquid lithium as a breeder and coolant for fusion reactors. Potential mechanisms for volatilization and transport of radioactive metallic species associated with breeder materials are of particular interest. Liquid lithium pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior tests were conducted with lithium masses up to 100 kg within the 850-m 3 containment vessel in the Containment Systems Test Facility. Lithium-air reaction rates, aerosol generation rates, aerosol behavior and characterization, as well as containment atmosphere temperature and pressure responses were determined. Pool-air reaction and aerosol behavior test results were compared with computer code calculations for reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol behavior. The volatility of potentially radioactive metallic species from a lithium pool-air reaction was measured. The response of various aerosol detectors to the aerosol generated was determined. Liquid lithium spray tests in air and in nitrogen atmospheres were conducted with lithium temperatures of about 427 0 and 650 0 C. Lithium reaction rates, containment atmosphere response, and aerosol generation and characterization were determined for these spray tests

  15. Proceedings of the 1998 Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coverstone, Amy

    1999-01-01

    ...: Aerosol Particle Generation and Dynamics, Aerosol Characterization Methods-Aerosol Samplers and Collectors, Preparing, Aerosolizing and Characterizing Erwinia Herbicola, and Optical Properties of Aerosols...

  16. Atmospheric aerosol in an urban area: Comparison of measurement instruments and methodologies and pulmonary deposition assessment; Aerosol atmosferico in area urbanae di misura e valutazione di deposizione polmonare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M; Luciani, A; Formignani, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-07-01

    In March 1995 a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in the Bologna urban area (Italy) was carried out. A transportable laboratory, set up by ENEA (Italian national Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) Environmental Department (Bologna), was utilized with instruments for measurement of atmospheric aerosol and meteorological parameters. The aim of this campaign was of dual purpose: to characterize aerosol in urban area and to compare different instruments and methodologies of measurements. Mass concentrations measurements, evaluated on a 23-hour period with total filter, PM10 dichotomous sampler and low pressure impactor (LPI Berner), have provided information respectively about total suspended particles, respirable fraction and granulometric parameters of aerosol. Eight meteorologic parameters, number concentration of submicromic fraction of aerosol and mass concentration of micromic fraction have been continually measured. Then, in a daytime period, several number granulometries of atmospheric aerosol have also been estimated by means of diffusion battery system. Results related to different measurement methodologies and granulometric characteristics of aerosol are presented here. Pulmonary deposition of atmospheric aerosol is finally calculated, using granulometries provided by LPI Brener and ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model.

  17. Facility planning and site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, R.C.; Handmaker, H.

    1986-01-01

    Planning for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facility should provide for the efficient operation of current and future MRI devices and must also take into consideration a broad range of general planning principles. Control of budgeted facility costs and construction schedules is of increasing importance due to the magnitude of expense of MRI facility development as well as the need to protect institutional or entrepreneurial investment. In a competitive environment facility costs may be the determining factor in a project's success

  18. Development of artificial radioactivity in the French environment during the past 50 years and related doses; effect of the current operation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Roussel-Debet, S.

    2010-01-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in the environment have being strongly decreasing since 50 years. Nowadays the activities of 3 H and 14 C widely predominate, but they cannot be still considered as artificial radionuclides, except nearby the nuclear installations where they constitute the most abundant radioactive releases. In terrestrial environment this influence is limited to the surroundings of 5 sites, although most of nuclear sites and nuclear medical centers are involved in the contamination of the aquatic environment downstream the releases and in the Channel. Since 1987 the doses to the French population have been mainly induced by 14 C and 137 Cs. (author)

  19. Computational modeling and experimental characterization of indoor aerosol transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecni, Snezana; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Martin, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    When a hazardous aerosol or gas is inadvertently or deliberately released in an occupied facility, the airborne material presents a hazard to people. Inadvertent accidents and exposures continue to occur in Los Alamos and other nuclear facilities despite state-of-art engineering and administrative controls, and heightened diligence. Despite the obvious need in occupational settings and for homeland defense, the body of research in hazardous aerosol dispersion and control in large, complex, ventilated enclosures is extremely limited. The science governing generation, transport, inhalation, and detection of airborne hazards is lacking and must be developed to where it can be used by engineers or safety professionals in the prediction of worker exposure, in the prevention of accidents, or in the mitigation of terrorist actions. In this study, a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CFX5.4, and experiments were used to assess flow field characteristics, and to investigate aerosol release and transport in a large, ventilated workroom in a facility at Savannah River Site. Steady state CFD results illustrating a complex, ventilation-induced, flow field with vortices, velocity gradients, and quiet zones are presented, as are time-dependent CFD and experimental aerosol dispersion results. The comparison of response times between CFD and experimental results was favorable. It is believed that future applications of CFD and experiments can have a favorable impact on the design of ventilation (HVAC) systems and worker safety with consideration to facility costs. Ultimately, statistical methods will be used in conjunction with CFD calculations to determine the optimal number and location of detectors, as well as optimal egress routes in event of a release.

  20. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, V. Faye [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ariya, Parisa A. (ed.) [McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

    2014-09-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  1. Atmospheric and aerosol chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Ariya, Parisa A.; McGill Univ. Montreal, QC

    2014-01-01

    This series presents critical reviews of the present position and future trends in modern chemical research. Short and concise reports on chemistry, each written by the world renowned experts. Still valid and useful after 5 or 10 years. More information as well as the electronic version of the whole content available at: springerlink.com. Christian George, Barbara D'Anna, Hartmut Herrmann, Christian Weller, Veronica Vaida, D. J. Donaldson, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch, Markus Ammann Emerging Areas in Atmospheric Photochemistry. Lisa Whalley, Daniel Stone, Dwayne Heard New Insights into the Tropospheric Oxidation of Isoprene: Combining Field Measurements, Laboratory Studies, Chemical Modelling and Quantum Theory. Neil M. Donahue, Allen L. Robinson, Erica R. Trump, Ilona Riipinen, Jesse H. Kroll Volatility and Aging of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol. P. A. Ariya, G. Kos, R. Mortazavi, E. D. Hudson, V. Kanthasamy, N. Eltouny, J. Sun, C. Wilde Bio-Organic Materials in the Atmosphere and Snow: Measurement and Characterization V. Faye McNeill, Neha Sareen, Allison N. Schwier Surface-Active Organics in Atmospheric Aerosols.

  2. [Interventions based on exercise and physical environment for preventing falls in cognitively impaired older people living in long-term care facilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Román, Loreto; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Urrútia-Cuchí, Gerard; Garrido-Pedrosa, Jèssica

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aims to report the effectiveness of interventions based on exercise and/or physical environment for reducing falls in cognitively impaired older adults living in long-term care facilities. In July 2014, a literature search was conducted using main databases and specialised sources. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions, which used exercise or physical environment among elderly people with cognitive impairment living in long-term care facilities, were selected. Two independent reviewers checked the eligibility of the studies, and evaluated their methodological quality. If it was adequate, data were gathered. Fourteen studies with 3,539 participants using exercise and/or physical environment by a single or combined approach were included. The data gathered from studies that used both interventions showed a significant reduction in fall rate. Further research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of those interventions for preventing falls in the elderly with cognitive impairment living in long-term care establishments. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The Development of the Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (MCTMA): Traffic Flow Management Research in a Multi-