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Sample records for entropy marginal stability

  1. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized entropic measure, which is optimized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered and its Lesche stability property (that is different from thermodynamic stability) is examined. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponenti...

  2. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kaniadakis, G [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Scarfone, A M [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2004-11-05

    The generalized entropic measure, which is maximized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered. To examine if it can be of physical relevance, its experimental robustness is discussed. In particular, Lesche's criterion is analysed, which states that an entropic measure is stable if its change under an arbitrary weak deformation of the distribution (representing fluctuations of experimental data) remains small. It is essential to note the difference between this criterion and thermodynamic stability. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponential distribution, the quantum-group entropy and the {kappa}-entropy are discussed.

  3. Numerical Stability of Generalized Entropies

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrecher, György

    2016-01-01

    In many applications, the probability density function is subject to experimental errors. In this work the continuos dependence of a class of generalized entropies on the experimental errors is studied. This class includes the C. Shannon, C. Tsallis, A. R\\'enyi and generalized R\\'enyi entropies. By using the connection between R\\'enyi or Tsallis entropies, and the "distance" in a family of metric functional spaces, family that includes the Lebesgue normed vector spaces, we introduce a further extensive generalizations of the R\\'enyi entropy. In this work we suppose that the experimental error is measured by some $L^{p}$ norm. In line with the methodology normally used for treating the so called "ill-posed problems", auxiliary stabilizing conditions are determined, such that small - in the sense of $L^{p}$ metric - experimental errors provoke small variations of the classical and generalized entropies. These stabilizing conditions are formulated in terms of $L^{p}$ metric in a class of generalized $L^{p}$ spac...

  4. Thermodynamic stabilities of the generalized Boltzmann entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tatsuaki

    2004-09-01

    We consider the thermodynamic stability conditions (TSC) on the Boltzmann entropies generalized by Tsallis’ q- and Kaniadakis’ κ-deformed logarithmic functions. It is shown that the corresponding TSCs are not necessarily equivalent to the concavity of the generalized Boltzmann entropies with respect to internal energy. Nevertheless, both the TSCs are equivalent to the positivity of standard heat capacity.

  5. RELAP-7 Numerical Stabilization: Entropy Viscosity Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Berry; M. O. Delchini; J. Ragusa

    2014-06-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL's modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5's capability and extends the analysis capability for all reactor system simulation scenarios. RELAP-7 utilizes a single phase and a novel seven-equation two-phase flow models as described in the RELAP-7 Theory Manual (INL/EXT-14-31366). The basic equation systems are hyperbolic, which generally require some type of stabilization (or artificial viscosity) to capture nonlinear discontinuities and to suppress advection-caused oscillations. This report documents one of the available options for this stabilization in RELAP-7 -- a new and novel approach known as the entropy viscosity method. Because the code is an ongoing development effort in which the physical sub models, numerics, and coding are evolving, so too must the specific details of the entropy viscosity stabilization method. Here the fundamentals of the method in their current state are presented.

  6. Postural Stability Margins as a Function of Support Surface Slopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviroop Dutt-Mazumder

    Full Text Available This investigation examined the effects of slope of the surface of support (35°, 30°, 20°, 10° Facing(Toe Down, 0° Flat and 10°, 20°, 25° Facing (Toe Up and postural orientation on the margins of postural stability in quiet standing of young adults. The findings showed that the center of pressure-CoP (displacement, area and length had least motion at the baseline (0° Flat platform condition that progressively increased as a function of platform angle in both facing up and down directions. The virtual time to collision (VTC dynamics revealed that the spatio-temporal margins to the functional stability boundary were progressively smaller and the VTC time series also more regular (SampEn-Sample Entropy as slope angle increased. Surface slope induces a restricted stability region with lower dimension VTC dynamics that is more constrained when postural orientation is facing down the slope. These findings provide further evidence that VTC acts as a control variable in standing posture that is influenced by the emergent dynamics of the individual-environment-task interaction.

  7. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  8. First-principles prediction of high-entropy-alloy stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Liaw, Peter K.; Gao, Michael C.; Widom, Michael

    2017-11-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) are multicomponent compounds whose high configurational entropy allows them to solidify into a single phase, with a simple crystal lattice structure. Some HEAs exhibit desirable properties, such as high specific strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, while challenging the scientist to make confident predictions in the face of multiple competing phases. We demonstrate phase stability in the multicomponent alloy system of Cr-Mo-Nb-V, for which some of its binary subsystems are subject to phase separation and complex intermetallic-phase formation. Our first-principles calculation of free energy predicts that the configurational entropy stabilizes a single body-centered cubic (BCC) phase from T = 1700 K up to melting, while precipitation of a complex intermetallic is favored at lower temperatures. We form the compound experimentally and confirm that it develops as a single BCC phase from the melt, but that it transforms reversibly at lower temperatures.

  9. Structural stability of high entropy alloys under pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Azkar S.; Su, Y.; Liu, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is a key issue before their selection for industrial applications. In this study, in-situ high-pressure and high-temperature synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on three typical HEAs Ni20Co20Fe20Mn20Cr20, Hf25Nb25Zr25Ti...

  10. Dyon dynamics near marginal stability and non-BPS states

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Adam

    2008-01-01

    We derive the general form of the moduli-space effective action for the long-range interaction of two BPS dyons in N=2 gauge theories. This action determines the bound state structure of various BPS and non-BPS states near marginal stability curves, and we utilise it to compute the leading correction to the BPS-mass of zero-torsion non-BPS bound states close to marginal stability.

  11. Evidence for Marginal Stability in Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Wyart, Matthieu; Brujic, Jasna

    2016-11-01

    We report the first measurements of the effect of pressure on vibrational modes in emulsions, which serve as a model for soft frictionless spheres at zero temperature. As a function of the applied pressure, we find that the density of states D (ω ) exhibits a low-frequency cutoff ω*, which scales linearly with the number of extra contacts per particle δ z . Moreover, for ω Urbani, and F. Zamponi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14539 (2015)]. Finally, the degree of localization of the softest low frequency modes increases with compression, as shown by the participation ratio as well as their spatial configurations. Overall, our observations show that emulsions are marginally stable and display non-plane-wave modes up to vanishing frequencies.

  12. Entropy Stabilizes Floppy Crystals of Mobile DNA-Coated Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Ruiz, Pablo Sampedro; Ni, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Grafting linkers with open ends of complementary single-stranded DNA makes a flexible tool to tune interactions between colloids, which facilitates the design of complex self-assembly structures. Recently, it has been proposed to coat colloids with mobile DNA linkers, which alleviates kinetic barriers without high-density grafting, and also allows the design of valency without patches. However, the self-assembly mechanism of this novel system is poorly understood. Using a combination of theory and simulation, we obtain phase diagrams for the system in both two and three dimensional spaces, and find stable floppy square and CsCl crystals when the binding strength is strong, even in the infinite binding strength limit. We demonstrate that these floppy phases are stabilized by vibrational entropy, and "floppy" modes play an important role in stabilizing the floppy phases for the infinite binding strength limit. This special entropic effect in the self-assembly of mobile DNA-coated colloids is very different from conventional molecular self-assembly, and it offers a new axis to help design novel functional materials using mobile DNA-coated colloids.

  13. Voltage stability margins assessment for Muscat power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellithy, K.A.; Gastli, A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Muscat (Oman); Al-Khusaibi, T. [Ministry of Housing and Electricity and Water, Muscat (Oman); Irving, M. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Voltage instability problems in power systems today are, in many countries, one of the major concerns in power system planning and operation. This paper presents the assessment of voltage stability margins for Muscat power system under normal operating condition and under contingencies. The modal analysis method is applied to identify the weak buses in the system, which could lead to voltage instability. These weak buses are selected as the best locations for applying remedial actions to enhance the stability margins. The results show that the buses at South Batna load area are the weakest buses in the system. The results also show that an increase in load demand on that area without an adequate increase of reactive power could lead to voltage collapse. Shunt VAR compensations (remedial action) are installed at the weakest buses to enhance the system stability margins. The results presented in this paper are obtained using a MATLAB computer program developed by the authors. (Author)

  14. Vibrational anomalies and marginal stability of glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Marruzzo, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    The experimentally measured vibrational spectrum of glasses strongly deviates from that expected in Debye\\'s elasticity theory: The density of states deviates from Debye\\'s ω2 law ("boson peak"), the sound velocity shows a negative dispersion in the boson-peak frequency regime, and there is a strong increase in the sound attenuation near the boson-peak frequency. A generalized elasticity theory is presented, based on the model assumption that the shear modulus of the disordered medium fluctuates randomly in space. The fluctuations are assumed to be uncorrelated and have a certain distribution (Gaussian or otherwise). Using field-theoretical techniques one is able to derive mean-field theories for the vibrational spectrum of a disordered system. The theory based on a Gaussian distribution uses a self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA),while the theory for non-Gaussian distributions is based on a coherent-potential approximation (CPA). Both approximate theories appear to be saddle-point approximations of effective replica field theories. The theory gives a satisfactory explanation of the vibrational anomalies in glasses. Excellent agreement of the SCBA theory with simulation data on a soft-sphere glass is reached. Since the SCBA is based on a Gaussian distribution of local shear moduli, including negative values, this theory describes a shear instability as a function of the variance of shear fluctuations. In the vicinity of this instability, a fractal frequency dependence of the density of states and the sound attenuation ∝ ω1+a is predicted with a ≲ 1/2. Such a frequency dependence is indeed observed both in simulations and in experimental data. We argue that the observed frequency dependence stems from marginally stable regions in a glass and discuss these findings in terms of rigidity percolation. © 2013 EDP Sciences and Springer.

  15. Dynamical entropy via entropy of non-random matrices: application to stability and complexity in modelling ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, C G; Ghosh, Koyel

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper we have first introduced a measure of dynamical entropy of an ecosystem on the basis of the dynamical model of the system. The dynamical entropy which depends on the eigenvalues of the community matrix of the system leads to a consistent measure of complexity of the ecosystem to characterize the dynamical behaviours such as the stability, instability and periodicity around the stationary states of the system. We have illustrated the theory with some model ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Entropy-based artificial viscosity stabilization for non-equilibrium Grey Radiation-Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchini, Marc O., E-mail: delchinm@email.tamu.edu; Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu; Morel, Jim, E-mail: jim.morel@tamu.edu

    2015-09-01

    The entropy viscosity method is extended to the non-equilibrium Grey Radiation-Hydrodynamic equations. The method employs a viscous regularization to stabilize the numerical solution. The artificial viscosity coefficient is modulated by the entropy production and peaks at shock locations. The added dissipative terms are consistent with the entropy minimum principle. A new functional form of the entropy residual, suitable for the Radiation-Hydrodynamic equations, is derived. We demonstrate that the viscous regularization preserves the equilibrium diffusion limit. The equations are discretized with a standard Continuous Galerkin Finite Element Method and a fully implicit temporal integrator within the MOOSE multiphysics framework. The method of manufactured solutions is employed to demonstrate second-order accuracy in both the equilibrium diffusion and streaming limits. Several typical 1-D radiation-hydrodynamic test cases with shocks (from Mach 1.05 to Mach 50) are presented to establish the ability of the technique to capture and resolve shocks.

  17. Loop Entropy Assists Tertiary Order: Loopy Stabilization of Stacking Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Aalberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The free energy of an RNA fold is a combination of favorable base pairing and stacking interactions competing with entropic costs of forming loops. Here we show how loop entropy, surprisingly, can promote tertiary order. A general formula for the free energy of forming multibranch and other RNA loops is derived with a polymer-physics based theory. We also derive a formula for the free energy of coaxial stacking in the context of a loop. Simulations support the analytic formulas. The effects of stacking of unpaired bases are also studied with simulations.

  18. Binding stability of peptides on major histocompatibility complex class I proteins: role of entropy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ahmet; Erman, Burak

    2018-03-01

    Prediction of peptide binding on specific human leukocyte antigens (HLA) has long been studied with successful results. We herein describe the effects of entropy and dynamics by investigating the binding stabilities of 10 nanopeptides on various HLA Class I alleles using a theoretical model based on molecular dynamics simulations. The fluctuational entropies of the peptides are estimated over a temperature range of 310–460 K. The estimated entropies correlate well with experimental binding affinities of the peptides: peptides that have higher binding affinities have lower entropies compared to non-binders, which have significantly larger entropies. The computation of the entropies is based on a simple model that requires short molecular dynamics trajectories and allows for approximate but rapid determination. The paper draws attention to the long neglected dynamic aspects of peptide binding, and provides a fast computation scheme that allows for rapid scanning of large numbers of peptides on selected HLA antigens, which may be useful in defining the right peptides for personal immunotherapy.

  19. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-10-03

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method is shown to be stable independently of the polynomial degree of the space approximation under the standard CFL condition. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  20. Non-perturbative superpotentials across lines of marginal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki; PH-TH

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the behaviour of non-perturbative superpotentials in 4d N=1 type II compactifications (and orientifolds thereof) near lines of marginal stability, where the spectrum of contributing BPS D-brane instantons changes discontinuously. The superpotential is nevertheless continuous, in agreement with its holomorphic dependence on the closed string moduli. The microscopic mechanism ensuring this continuity involves novel contributions to the superpotential: As an instanton becomes unstable against decay to several instantons, the latter provide a multi-instanton contribution which reconstructs that of the single-instanton before decay. The process can be understood as a non-perturbative lifting of additional fermion zero modes of an instanton by interactions induced by other instantons. These effects provide mechanisms via which instantons with U(1) symmetry can contribute to the superpotential. We provide explicit examples of these effects for non-gauge D-brane instantons, and for D-brane gauge instantons...

  1. Maximum-Entropy Method for Evaluating the Slope Stability of Earth Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The slope stability is a very important problem in geotechnical engineering. This paper presents an approach for slope reliability analysis based on the maximum-entropy method. The key idea is to implement the maximum entropy principle in estimating the probability density function. The performance function is formulated by the Simplified Bishop’s method to estimate the slope failure probability. The maximum-entropy method is used to estimate the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. A numerical example is calculated and compared to the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS and the Advanced First Order Second Moment Method (AFOSM. The results show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. The proposed method should be valuable for performing probabilistic analyses.

  2. Digital Image Stabilization Method Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Hao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cameras mounted on vehicles frequently suffer from image shake due to the vehicles’ motions. To remove jitter motions and preserve intentional motions, a hybrid digital image stabilization method is proposed that uses variational mode decomposition (VMD and relative entropy (RE. In this paper, the global motion vector (GMV is initially decomposed into several narrow-banded modes by VMD. REs, which exhibit the difference of probability distribution between two modes, are then calculated to identify the intentional and jitter motion modes. Finally, the summation of the jitter motion modes constitutes jitter motions, whereas the subtraction of the resulting sum from the GMV represents the intentional motions. The proposed stabilization method is compared with several known methods, namely, medium filter (MF, Kalman filter (KF, wavelet decomposition (MD method, empirical mode decomposition (EMD-based method, and enhanced EMD-based method, to evaluate stabilization performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the other stabilization methods.

  3. An entropy-based stability analysis of extreme fluctuations in a system featuring a 1/ f spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokov, V. N.; Koverda, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    Extreme fluctuations are modeled by a point system of stochastic equations, in which power spectra inversely proportional to the frequency are produced under the effect of white noise. The distribution of extreme fluctuations corresponds to the maximum of statistical entropy, which points to their stability in nature. By calculating the spectral entropy of random processes, it becomes possible to investigate their stability directly from power spectra without the need to calculate the amplitude distribution functions. The spectral entropy as a function of white noise amplitude has a minimum. The position of the spectral entropy minimum corresponds to the critical state of the system in which the spectra of fluctuating quantities are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  4. Rényi entropy and the thermodynamic stability of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czinner, Viktor G., E-mail: czinner.viktor@wigner.mta.hu [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 274-8501 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan); HAS Wigner Research Centre for Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Iguchi, Hideo, E-mail: iguchi.h@phys.ge.cst.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 274-8501 Narashinodai, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-01-10

    Thermodynamic stability of black holes, described by the Rényi formula as equilibrium compatible entropy function, is investigated. It is shown that within this approach, asymptotically flat, Schwarzschild black holes can be in stable equilibrium with thermal radiation at a fixed temperature. This implies that the canonical ensemble exists just like in anti-de Sitter space, and nonextensive effects can stabilize the black holes in a very similar way as it is done by the gravitational potential of an anti-de Sitter space. Furthermore, it is also shown that a Hawking–Page-like black hole phase transition occurs at a critical temperature which depends on the q-parameter of the Rényi formula.

  5. A comparison of pain level and entropy changes following core stability exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taero; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Sung, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    As reported in our previous studies, the complexity of physiologic time series is a sensitive measure of muscle fatigability. This study compared the differences between 2 different analyses following 4 weeks of core stability exercises (CSE) in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). We examined whether the observed Shannon (information) entropy, as compared with median frequency (MF), was able to differentiate fatigability of the thoracic and lumbar parts of the erector spinae (ES) muscles following the intervention. In total, 32 subjects participated in this study. There were 13 subjects in the CSE intervention group (average age 50.4 ± 9.1 years) and 19 subjects in the control group (average age 46.6 ± 9.1 years). The CSE group performed the specific exercise intervention, but the control group was asked to maintain their current activity and/or exercise levels. The endurance of the back muscles was determined by using a modified version of the isometric fatigue test as originally introduced by Sorensen. Pain level decreased significantly for all subjects (F=25.29, p=0.001), but there was no difference between groups (F=0.42, p=0.52). The MF was not different between groups following treatment (F=0.81, p=0.37). Although there was no entropy level changes following treatment (F=0.01, p=0.93), the interactions between muscles and groups following treatment were significant (F=7.25, p=0.01). The entropy level decreased in both thoracic ES muscles following intervention in the exercise group, while remaining the same in the control group. Although the change in pain level was not different between groups, the Shannon entropy measure more sensitively differentiated the exercise intervention than did MF. In addition, the results also suggested that complexity is related to muscle fatigue, which corresponds to the values of entropy between groups. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of nonlinear time series of EMG data for

  6. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides: Explorations of a Novel Class of Multicomponent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Christina Mary

    An ever-present challenge for scientists and engineers is to develop new materials that are innovative enough to set a new technological precedent and maintain application relevance for a substantial timeframe. There are many ways in which materials are exploited for new or improved properties, including but not limited to compositional substitution, doping, strain induction, or synthesis variation. The call for the Materials Genome Initiative has invoked the combined effort between theoreticians, experimentalists and industrialists to explore and apply material systems never before seen. One such strategy for new materials exploration is the development of high entropy alloys (HEAs). In HEAs, the addition of five or more component materials increases configurational entropy such that the resulting system contains fewer phases than traditionally expected, most of which are solid solutions. Research in this field is continuing to find new and exciting properties, with high potential for technological implementation. This thesis extends the idea of HEAs to oxide materials -- that configurational disorder can be compositionally engineered into complex oxide solid solutions. This work narrates a series of exploratory studies intended as gateways to many possible avenues of further research on a new class of materials called Entropy-Stabilized Oxides (ESOs). Chapter one summarizes the inspiration for this work and provides some basic background thermodynamics. The difficult task of materials development and some common approaches to such a task are discussed. Chapter two describes the primary experimental methods used in this work and their generalized parameters. Chapter three contains original work published in Nature Communications. This chapter explains a series of rigorous experiments on a five-component oxide formulation, J14 a rocksalt structure containing equal amounts of Mg, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn randomly distributed among the cation sublattice, and oxygen on the

  7. An Efficient Approach for Fast and Accurate Voltage Stability Margin Computation in Large Power Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-Yi Su

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient approach for the computation of voltage stability margin (VSM) in a large-scale power grid. The objective is to accurately and rapidly determine the load power margin which corresponds to voltage collapse phenomena. The proposed approach is based on the impedance match-based technique and the model-based technique. It combines the Thevenin equivalent (TE) network method with cubic spline extrapolation technique and the continuation technique to achieve fast an...

  8. Matrix Norms, BPS Bounds and Marginal Stability in N=8 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions of marginal stability for two-center extremal black holes in N-extended supergravity in four dimensions, with particular emphasis on the N=8 case. This is achieved by exploiting triangle inequalities satisfied by matrix norms. Using different norms and relative bounds among them, we establish the existence of marginal stability and split attractor flows both for BPS and some non-BPS solutions. Our results are in agreement with previous analysis based on explicit construction of multi-center solutions.

  9. Rotor Design Options for Improving XV-15 Whirl-Flutter Stability Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Peyran, R. J.; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor design changes intended to improve tiltrotor whirl-flutter stability margins were analyzed. A baseline analytical model of the XV-15 was established, and then a thinner, composite wing was designed to be representative of a high-speed tiltrotor. The rotor blade design was modified to increase the stability speed margin for the thin-wing design. Small rearward offsets of the aerodynamic-center locus with respect to the blade elastic axis created large increases in the stability boundary. The effect was strongest for offsets at the outboard part of the blade, where an offset of the aerodynamic center by 10% of tip chord improved the stability margin by over 100 knots. Forward offsets of the blade center of gravity had similar but less pronounced effects. Equivalent results were seen for swept-tip blades. Appropriate combinations of sweep and pitch stiffness completely eliminated whirl flutter within the speed range examined; alternatively, they allowed large increases in pitch-flap coupling (delta-three) for a given stability margin. A limited investigation of the rotor loads in helicopter and airplane configuration showed only minor increases in loads.

  10. Real-Time Stability Margin Measurements for X-38 Robustness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed for real-time stability margin measurement calculations. The method relies on a tailored-forced excitation targeted to a specific frequency range. Computation of the frequency response is matched to the specific frequencies contained in the excitation. A recursive Fourier transformation is used to make the method compatible with real-time calculation. The method was incorporated into the X-38 nonlinear simulation and applied to an X-38 robustness test. X-38 stability margins were calculated for different variations in aerodynamic and mass properties over the vehicle flight trajectory. The new method showed results comparable to more traditional stability analysis techniques, and at the same time, this new method provided coverage that is more complete and increased efficiency.

  11. An Investigation of Rotorcraft Stability-Phase Margin Requirements in Hover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Chris L.; Lusardi, Jeff A.; Ivler, Christina M.; Tischler, Mark B.; Hoefinger, Marc T.; Decker, William A.; Malpica, Carlos A.; Berger, Tom; Tucker, George E.

    2009-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed to investigate the handling quality effects from reduced flight control system stability margins, and the trade-offs with higher disturbance rejection bandwidth (DRB). The piloted simulation study, perform on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, included three classes of rotorcraft in four configurations: a utility-class helicopter; a medium-lift helicopter evaluated with and without an external slung load; and a large (heavy-lift) civil tiltrotor aircraft. This large aircraft also allowed an initial assessment of ADS-33 handling quality requirements for an aircraft of this size. Ten experimental test pilots representing the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, NASA, rotorcraft industry, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), evaluated the four aircraft configurations, for a range of flight control stability-margins and turbulence levels, while primarily performing the ADS-33 Hover and Lateral Reposition MTEs. Pilot comments and aircraft-task performance data were analyzed. The preliminary stability margin results suggest higher DRB and less phase margin cases are preferred as the aircraft increases in size. Extra care will need to be taken to assess the influence of variability when nominal flight control gains start with reduced margins. Phase margins as low as 20-23 degrees resulted in low disturbance-response damping ratios, objectionable oscillations, PIO tendencies, and a perception of an incipient handling qualities cliff. Pilot comments on the disturbance response of the aircraft correlated well to the DRB guidelines provided in the ADS-33 Test Guide. The A D-3S3 mid-term response-to-control damping ratio metrics can be measured and applied to the disturbance-response damping ratio. An initial assessment of LCTR yaw bandwidth shows the current Level 1 boundary needs to be relaxed to help account for a large pilot off-set from the c.g. Future efforts should continue to investigate the applicability/refinement of the current ADS-33

  12. Marginal Stability Boundaries for Infinite-n Ballooning Modes in a Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Hudson; C.C. Hegna

    2003-09-15

    A method for computing the ideal-MHD stability boundaries in three-dimensional equilibria is employed. Following Hegna and Nakajima [Phys. Plasmas 5 (May 1998) 1336], a two-dimensional family of equilibria are constructed by perturbing the pressure and rotational-transform profiles in the vicinity of a flux surface for a given stellarator equilibrium. The perturbations are constrained to preserve the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium condition. For each perturbed equilibrium, the infinite-n ballooning stability is calculated. Marginal stability diagrams are thus constructed that are analogous to (s; a) diagrams for axisymmetric configurations. A quasi-axisymmetric stellarator is considered. Calculations of stability boundaries generally show regions of instability can occur for either sign of the average magnetic shear. Additionally, regions of second-stability are present.

  13. Marginal seal stability of one bottle adhesives in Class V vs. Class I cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Juan R; Gregor, Ladislav; Campos, Edson A; Roig, Miguel; Krejci, Ivo

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of two different cavity configurations on marginal stability of recent one bottle "etch & rinse" and "self-etch" adhesives in Class V vs. Class I cavities, before and after thermo-mechanical loading under simulation of dentinal fluid. Forty human upper molars were selected and assigned to five experimental groups. Intrapulpal pressure was maintained during cavity preparation, restoration placement, finishing and stressing. Standardized Class I and V-Shaped Class V cavities were prepared on each tooth. Half of the margins of Class V cavities were located in enamel and half in dentin. All cavities were restored with different adhesives systems and a nano-hybrid composite. Materials were light-cured using a LED unit. Restored teeth were loaded in a computer-controlled chewing machine with 1.2 million mechanical occlusal cycles simultaneously with 3,000 thermal cycles (5-50-5°C). Impressions were made with polyvinylsiloxane of each restoration before and after loading. Gold-coated epoxy replicas were prepared for SEM examination at ×200 magnification. Significant differences between materials were found both before and after loading (Kruskal-Wallis, Bonferroni, p Class I and V restorations (Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank Test, p < 0.05). Even before thermo-mechanical loading, none of the groups had 100% continuous margin. Marginal seal stability of recent one bottle "etch & rinse" and "self-etch" adhesives are significantly different and susceptible to cavity configuration.

  14. Margins of stability in young adults with traumatic transtibial amputation walking in destabilizing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Eduardo J; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-03-21

    Understanding how lower-limb amputation affects walking stability, specifically in destabilizing environments, is essential for developing effective interventions to prevent falls. This study quantified mediolateral margins of stability (MOS) and MOS sub-components in young individuals with traumatic unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) and young able-bodied individuals (AB). Thirteen AB and nine TTA completed five 3-min walking trials in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN) system under each of three test conditions: no perturbations, pseudo-random mediolateral translations of the platform, and pseudo-random mediolateral translations of the visual field. Compared to the unperturbed trials, TTA exhibited increased mean MOS and MOS variability during platform and visual field perturbations (ptranstibial amputation achieved lateral stability similar to that of their able-bodied counterparts during unperturbed and visually-perturbed walking. However, based on mean and variability of MOS, unilateral transtibial amputation was shown to have affected lateral walking stability during platform perturbations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Margins of stability in young adults with traumatic transtibial amputation walking in destabilizing environments✫

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Eduardo J.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.; Wilken, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how lower-limb amputation affects walking stability, specifically in destabilizing environments, is essential for developing effective interventions to prevent falls. This study quantified mediolateral margins of stability (MOS) and MOS sub-components in young individuals with traumatic unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) and young able-bodied individuals (AB). Thirteen AB and nine TTA completed five 3-minute walking trials in a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation ENvironment (CAREN) system under three each of three test conditions: no perturbations, pseudo-random mediolateral translations of the platform, and pseudo-random mediolateral translations of the visual field. Compared to the unperturbed trials, TTA exhibited increased mean MOS and MOS variability during platform and visual field perturbations (p transtibial amputation achieved stability similar to that of their able-bodied counterparts during unperturbed and visually-perturbed walking. However, based on mean and variability of MOS, unilateral transtibial amputation was shown to have affected walking stability during platform perturbations. PMID:24444777

  16. An Efficient Approach for Fast and Accurate Voltage Stability Margin Computation in Large Power Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Yi Su

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient approach for the computation of voltage stability margin (VSM in a large-scale power grid. The objective is to accurately and rapidly determine the load power margin which corresponds to voltage collapse phenomena. The proposed approach is based on the impedance match-based technique and the model-based technique. It combines the Thevenin equivalent (TE network method with cubic spline extrapolation technique and the continuation technique to achieve fast and accurate VSM computation for a bulk power grid. Moreover, the generator Q limits are taken into account for practical applications. Extensive case studies carried out on Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE benchmark systems and the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, Taipei, Taiwan system are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Defying the activity-stability trade-off in enzymes: taking advantage of entropy to enhance activity and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2017-05-01

    The biotechnological applications of enzymes are limited due to the activity-stability trade-off, which implies that an increase in activity is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in protein stability. This premise is based on thermally adapted homologous enzymes where cold-adapted enzymes show high intrinsic activity linked to enhanced thermolability. In contrast, thermophilic enzymes show low activity around ambient temperatures. Nevertheless, genetically and chemically modified enzymes are beginning to show that the activity-stability trade-off can be overcome. In this review, the origin of the activity-stability trade-off, the thermodynamic basis for enhanced activity and stability, and various approaches for escaping the activity-stability trade-off are discussed. The role of entropy in enhancing both the activity and the stability of enzymes is highlighted with a special emphasis placed on the involvement of solvent water molecules. This review is concluded with suggestions for further research, which underscores the implications of these findings in the context of productivity curves, the Daniel-Danson equilibrium model, catalytic antibodies, and life on cold planets.

  18. Stability of entropy solutions for Levy mixed hyperbolic-parabolic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H. Karlsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze entropy solutions for a class of Levy mixed hyperbolic-parabolic equations containing a non-local (or fractional diffusion operator originating from a pure jump Levy process. For these solutions we establish uniqueness (L^1 contraction property and continuous dependence results.

  19. Relative crystal stability of Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo high entropy alloys from XRD analysis and formation energy calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasiewicz, K.; Cieslak, J.; Kaprzyk, S.; Tobola, J., E-mail: tobola@ftj.agh.edu.pl

    2015-11-05

    Electronic structure of Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo (x ≤ 3) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) was calculated using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA). Total energy minimization was performed for bcc and fcc structures in each alloy composition. The phase stability was investigated from the total energy analysis, which finally allowed to determine the bcc–fcc phase transition for aluminium concentration close to 13 at%. It inspired us to synthesize Al{sub x}FeNiCrCo (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) using two procedures based on arc melting and sintering to allow for observation of entropy effect on phase formation. The XRD measurements evidently proved an occurence of fcc or bcc structure and their coexistence, depending on Al concentration and temperature. This finding remains in good agreement with theoretical results from free energy analysis, when accounting for KKR-CPA total energy as well as entropy terms. Furthermore, the structure preference, from fcc to bcc HEAs, with increasing Al content was discussed in view of total and atomic-dependent density of states computed in non-magnetic and paramagnetic-like states. - Highlights: • Crystal stability and electronic properties of high entropy alloys from KKR-CPA. • Influence of configuration entropy on phase preference (or coexistence). • Effect of configuration entropy on phase stability: arc melting viz. sintering. • Ab initio calculations (accounting for disorder) of phase preference in HEA.

  20. Assessment of stability during gait in patients with spinal deformity-A preliminary analysis using the dynamic stability margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Lugade, Vipul; Bernhardt, Kathie; Larson, A Noelle; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-06-01

    Daily living activities are dynamic, requiring spinal motion through space. Current assessment of spinal deformities is based on static measurements from full-spine standing radiographs. Tools to assess dynamic stability during gait might be useful to enhance the standard evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gait dynamic imbalance in patients with spinal deformity using the dynamic stability margin (DSM). Twelve normal subjects and 17 patients with spinal deformity were prospectively recruited. A kinematic 3D gait analysis was performed for the control group (CG) and the spinal deformity group (SDG). The DSM (distance between the extrapolated center of mass and the base of support) and time-distance parameters were calculated for the right and left side during gait. The relationship between DSM and step length was assessed using three variables: gait stability, symmetry, and consistency. Variables' accuracy was validated by a discriminant analysis. Patients with spinal deformity exhibited gait instability according to the DSM (0.25m versus 0.31m) with decreased velocity (1.1ms-1 versus 1.3ms-1) and decreased step length (0.32m versus 0.38m). According to the discriminant analysis, gait stability was the more accurate variable (area under the curve AUC=0.98) followed by gait symmetry and consistency. However, gait consistency showed 100% of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of precision. The DSM showed that patients with spinal malalignment exhibit decreased gait stability, symmetry, and consistency besides gait time-distance parameter changes. Additional work is required to determine how to apply the DSM for preoperative and postoperative spinal deformity management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Lyapunov's stability and operational margin of grid-connected photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, C.; Amaratunga, G. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Due to better feed-in tariffs or subsidies offered by electricity system operators worldwide, photovoltaic (PV) installations are expected to increase rapidly, especially in Germany, Spain, California, Arizona, Texas, Japan, India, and China. Much research has focused on the development of low-power single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic AC-modules as it has the advantage of being more flexible and scalable, while featuring a low initial investment cost, making it a more compelling option for faster penetration in deregulated electricity supply environments. This paper presented an analysis of photovoltaic power generation based on Lyapunov's theorems. In order to establish energy functions that assess the stability of solutions and define safe regions of operation, the characteristics of the photovoltaic module and the power conditioning unit were analyzed. The paper provided an introduction to photovoltaic installations and then described the power conditioning unit for the AC-module that consisted of a DC-AC-DC converter with a high-frequency transformer and a full-bridge inverter. The control of power transfer was achieved through a current-feedback loop and a current-mode-control voltage source inverter. Stability analyses based on Lyapunov's theorems on stability and the stability margin were also presented. Last, numerical examples were provided in order to illustrate the validity of the theory. It was concluded that the module was capable of retaining stability if the state variables were kept within a region defined by an energy boundary. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Assessment of Global Voltage Stability Margin through Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic operating conditions along with contingencies often present formidable challenges to the power engineers. Decisions pertaining to the control strategies taken by the system operators at energy management centre are based on the information about the system’s behavior. The application of ANN as a tool for voltage stability assessment is empirical because of its ability to do parallel data processing with high accuracy, fast response, and capability to model dynamic, nonlinear, and noisy data. This paper presents an effective methodology based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFN to predict Global Voltage Stability Margin (GVSM, for any unseen loading condition of the system. GVSM is used to assess the overall voltage stability status of the power system. A comparative analysis of different topologies of ANN, namely, Feedforward Backprop (FFBP, Cascade Forward Backprop (CFB, Generalized Regression (GR, Layer Recurrent (LR, Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous (NARX, ELMAN Backprop, and Feedforward Distributed Time Delay Network (FFDTDN, is carried out on the basis of capability of the prediction of GVSM. The efficacy of RBFN is better than other networks, which is validated by taking the predictions of GVSM at different levels of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN in input features. The results obtained from ANNs are validated through the offline Newton Raphson (N-R method. The proposed methodology is tested over IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus, and IEEE 118-bus test systems.

  3. New results on the robust stability of PID controllers with gain and phase margins for UFOPTD processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Q B; Liu, Q; Huang, B

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining all the robust PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers in terms of the gain and phase margins (GPM) for open-loop unstable first order plus time delay (UFOPTD) processes. It is the first time that the feasible ranges of the GPM specifications provided by a PID controller are given for UFOPTD processes. A gain and phase margin tester is used to modify the original model, and the ranges of the margin specifications are derived such that the modified model can be stabilized by a stabilizing PID controller based on Hermite-Biehlers Theorem. Furthermore, we obtain all the controllers satisfying a given margin specification. Simulation studies show how to use the results to design a robust PID controller. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Solidification and Phase Stability of a Co-Cr-Fe-Ni-Ti High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, An-Chou; Chang, Yao-Jen; Tsai, Che-Wei; Wang, Yen-Chun; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Kuo, Chen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 high-entropy alloy has been investigated for its high-temperature microstructural stability. This material is shown to possess mainly a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure; the η phase is present at the interdendritic region in the as-cast condition, and it is stable between 1073 K and 1273 K (800 °C and 1000 °C); γ' particles are found throughout the microstructures below 1073 K (800 °C). Segregation analysis has been conducted on a single crystal sample fabricated by a directional solidification process with a single crystal seed. Results show that Co, Cr, and Fe partition toward the dendritic region, while Ni and Ti partition toward the interdendritic areas. Scheil analysis indicates that the solid-liquid partitioning ratio of each element is very similar to those in typical single crystal superalloys.

  5. Effect of placement of droop based generators in distribution network on small signal stability margin and network loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dheer, D.K.; Doolla, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2017-01-01

    For a utility-connected system, issues related to small signal stability with Distributed Generators (DGs) are insignificant due to the presence of a very strong grid. Optimally placed sources in utility connected microgrid system may not be optimal/stable in islanded condition. Among others issues......, small signal stability margin is on the fore. The present research studied the effect of location of droop-controlled DGs on small signal stability margin and network loss on a modified IEEE 13 bus system, an IEEE 33-bus distribution system and a practical 22-bus radial distribution network. A complete...... dynamic model of an islanded microgrid was developed. From stability analysis, the study reports that both location of DGs and choice of droop coefficient have a significant effect on small signal stability, transient response of the system and network losses. The trade-off associated with the network...

  6. Validity of sound-proof approaches in rapidly-rotating compressible convection: marginal stability versus turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jan; Glatzmaier, Gary A.

    2018-01-01

    The validity of the anelastic approximation has recently been questioned in the regime of rapidly-rotating compressible convection in low Prandtl number fluids (Calkins et al. 2015). Given the broad usage and the high computational efficiency of sound-proof approaches in this astrophysically relevant regime, this paper clarifies the conditions for a safe application. The potential of the alternative pseudo-incompressible approximation is investigated, which in contrast to the anelastic approximation is shown to never break down for predicting the point of marginal stability. Its accuracy, however, decreases close to the parameters corresponding to the failure of the anelastic approach, which is shown to occur when the sound-crossing time of the domain exceeds a rotation time scale, i.e. for rotational Mach numbers greater than one. Concerning the supercritical case, which is naturally characterised by smaller rotational Mach numbers, we find that the anelastic approximation does not show unphysical behaviour. Growth rates computed with the linearised anelastic equations converge toward the corresponding fully compressible values as the Rayleigh number increases. Likewise, our fully nonlinear turbulent simulations, produced with our fully compressible and anelastic models and carried out in a highly supercritical, rotating, compressible, low Prandtl number regime show good agreement. However, this nonlinear test example is for only a moderately low convective Rossby number of 0.14.

  7. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NASA Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  8. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NS Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  9. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  10. Benchmarking and qualification of the NUFREQ-NPW code for best-estimate prediction of multichannel core stability margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.; McFarlane, A.F.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the development, verification, and benchmarking of the NUFREQ-NPW code at Westinghouse for best-estimate prediction of multichannel core stability margins in US boiling water reactors (BWRs). The NUFREQ-NPW code can allow for generalized three-dimensional core analyses of BWRs. The code was modified at Westinghouse to allow for a mixed-fuel-type multichannel core-wide stability analysis. One of the key distinguishing features of NUFREQ-NPW over other stability codes is that the analytical model allows for the system pressure perturbation as an external forcing function. This enables direct comparisons against pressure perturbation test data, instead of inferring equivalent information via curve fitting of other transfer functions. The results of comparisons with experimental data using the Westinghouse methodology, which is based on the NUFREQ-NPW code, demonstrate the best-estimate predictive capability for BWR core stability margins. The methodology is thus suitable for design and licensing applications.

  11. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    predictions4. There are, however, limitations to the predictive power, particularly when factors like partial covalency and heterodesmic bonding are...broad classes of chalcogenides, nitrides and halides; particularly when covalent character is modest. The entropic driving force—engineered by cation...ultimately manifests in image drift. To do so, E1 films were coated with 50 nm of indium tin oxide (ITO) at room temperature using radio frequency

  12. Composition Dependence of Phase Stability, Deformation Mechanisms, and Mechanical Properties of the CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasan, C. C.; Deng, Y.; Pradeep, K. G.; Yao, M. J.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2014-10-01

    The proposal of configurational entropy maximization to produce massive solid-solution (SS)-strengthened, single-phase high-entropy alloy (HEA) systems has gained much scientific interest. Although most of this interest focuses on the basic role of configurational entropy in SS formability, setting future research directions also requires the overall property benefits of massive SS strengthening to be carefully investigated. To this end, taking the most promising CoCrFeMnNi HEA system as the starting point, we investigate SS formability, deformation mechanisms, and the achievable mechanical property ranges of different compositions and microstructural states. A comparative assessment of the results with respect to room temperature behavior of binary Fe-Mn alloys reveals only limited benefits of massive SS formation. Nevertheless, the results also clarify that the compositional requirements in this alloy system to stabilize the face-centered cubic (fcc) SS are sufficiently relaxed to allow considering nonequiatomic compositions and exploring improved strength-ductility combinations at reduced alloying costs.

  13. Benchmarking and qualification of the NUFREQ-NPW code for best estimate prediction of multi-channel core stability margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.; McFarlane, A.F.; Podowski, M.Z.

    1988-01-01

    The NUFREQ-NPW code was modified and set up at Westinghouse, USA for mixed fuel type multi-channel core-wide stability analysis. The resulting code, NUFREQ-NPW, allows for variable axial power profiles between channel groups and can handle mixed fuel types. Various models incorporated into NUFREQ-NPW were systematically compared against the Westinghouse channel stability analysis code MAZDA-NF, for which the mathematical model was developed, in an entirely different manner. Excellent agreement was obtained which verified the thermal-hydraulic modeling and coding aspects. Detailed comparisons were also performed against nuclear-coupled reactor core stability data. All thirteen Peach Bottom-2 EOC-2/3 low flow stability tests were simulated. A key aspect for code qualification involved the development of a physically based empirical algorithm to correct for the effect of core inlet flow development on subcooled boiling. Various other modeling assumptions were tested and sensitivity studies performed. Good agreement was obtained between NUFREQ-NPW predictions and data. Moreover, predictions were generally on the conservative side. The results of detailed direct comparisons with experimental data using the NUFREQ-NPW code; have demonstrated that BWR core stability margins are conservatively predicted, and all data trends are captured with good accuracy. The methodology is thus suitable for BWR design and licensing purposes. 11 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Simple PI/PID Controller Tuning Rules for FOPDT Plants with Guaranteed Closed-Loop Stability Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvejn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present tuning rules for PI and PID controllers and the first order plus dead time (FOPDT process model.The settings respect both performance and stability indices and provide a high degree of robustness for any value of the dead timeparameter. As the performance index we are using the well known modulus optimum criterion, which requires that the amplitudeof the closed-loop frequency response is close to one for low frequencies. This criterion produces simple tuning formulas with veryfavourable properties in time domain. Although optimal values of the parameters are valid for the reference tracking problem, acompensation of the disturbance lag that preserves the stability margin is proposed in the case of the disturbance rejection task.

  15. Marginal stability, characteristic frequencies, and growth rates of gradient drift modes in partially magnetized plasmas with finite electron temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Marusov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The detailed analysis of stability of azimuthal oscillations in partially magnetized plasmas with crossed electric and magnetic fields is presented. The instabilities are driven by the transverse electron current which, in general, is due to a combination of E ×B and electron diamagnetic drifts. Marginal stability boundary is determined for a wide range of the equilibrium plasma parameters. It is shown that in some regimes near the instability threshold, only the low-frequency long-wavelength oscillations are unstable, while the short-wavelength high-frequency modes are stabilized by the finite Larmor radius effects. Without such stabilization, the high-frequency modes have much larger growth rates and dominate. A new regime of the instability driven exclusively by the magnetic field gradient is identified. Such instability takes place in the region of the weak electric field and for relatively large gradients of plasma density ( ρs/ln>1 , where ρs is the ion-sound Larmor radius and ln is the scale length of plasma density inhomogeneity).

  16. Stability and Marginal Bone Level Changes of SLActive Titanium-Zirconium Implants Placed with Flapless Surgery: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinci, Pinar; Can, Gulsen; Gunes, Onur; Ozturk, Caner; Eren, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Immediately-loaded, narrow-diameter implants can be a less invasive alternative for the implant-supported fixed rehabilitation of narrow, posterior crests. To determine the stability and marginal bone level (MBL) changes of narrow-diameter, titanium-zirconium (TiZr) implants placed with flapless surgery and loaded immediately in the posterior region. Thirty-eight TiZr implants (3.3 mm diameter, 10 mm length, Roxolid, Straumann AG) were placed in the posterior crests of 14 patients with computer-guided flapless surgery as a support of 3-unit posterior bridges. Eighteen implants were loaded immediately, and 20 implants were loaded conventionally. The implant stability quotients were determined at the 1, 2, 4, and 8. weeks of healing before conventional loading, and at the 3, 6, and 12. months after loading by resonance frequency analysis. The MBL changes were measured by digital radiography. The surgical protocols were accomplished without any biological complications. There was no significant difference in the stability changes of TiZr implants between the loading groups (p > .05). The MBL changes were -0.18 ± 0.27 mm and -0.24 ± 0.27 mm at the 12. month of immediate and conventional loading, respectively, which was not statistically significant (p > .05). The stability and MBL changes of TiZr implants supporting posterior 3-unit bridges were clinically acceptable at the first year of loading. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  18. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Perez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the resulting multiobjective optimization problem: the sum-weighted Pareto front and an adapted goal programming methodology. With this new methodology, the system operators can consider both the costs and voltage stability. Priority can be assigned to one objective function according...

  19. Exceptionality and Peer Victimization Involvement in Late Childhood: Subtypes, Stability, and Social Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Chih; Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Mehtaji, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This study examined subtypes and stability/change in peer victimization involvement among students with exceptionalities. Data were collected over spring of fifth grade and fall/spring of sixth grade with 1,861 students in 36 rural schools as part of a cluster randomized trial of a context-based intervention (Supporting Early Adolescent Learning…

  20. Comparison of Color Stability and Marginal Fidelity of Labial Partial Veneer Composite Restorations Fabricated by Two Different Techniques: An In Vivo Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rajendiran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Composite labial partial veneers are an economical alternative to porcelain counterparts and also easy to repair. However, color stability and marginal fidelity of labial partial veneer composite restorations were not evaluated adequately under in vivo conditions. Methods: Composite laminate veneer (CLV restorations were done in 6 maxillary anteriors for 14 subjects indicated for laminate veneers but cannot afford porcelain restorations using indirect method on right side and direct method on left side. Color stability was assessed clinically using intra oral digital spectrophotometer and marginal fidelity was assessed on epoxy resin replica of the tooth- restoration interface under scanning electron microscope. The assessments for color stability and marginal fidelity were repeated after 6 months, 9 months and 12 months respectively. Results: Statistically significant color change at cervical (p=0.000 and incisal (p=0.008 regions of direct CLVs and cervical regions of indirect CLVs (p=0.009. Statistically significant change in marginal fidelity was observed in both direct and indirect CLVs (p=0.031. Conclusions: Indirect CLVs performed better with regard to color stability whereas direct CLVs performed better with regards to marginal fidelity. Clinical significance: For patients who cannot afford porcelain restorations, indirect composite resins serve as better material than direct filling composites for anterior partial coverage restorations provided adequate care is taken to ensure marginal fidelity by meticulous adherence to restorative techniques.

  1. Visualizing Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Joseph H.

    1999-10-01

    This report describes two classroom activities that help students visualize the abstract concept of entropy and apply the second law of thermodynamics to real situations. (i) A sealed "rainbow tube" contains six smaller vessels, each filled with a different brightly colored solution (low entropy). When the tube is inverted, the solutions mix together and react to form an amorphous precipitate (high entropy). The change from low entropy to high entropy is irreversible as long as the tube remains sealed. (ii) When U.S. currency is withdrawn from circulation, intact bills (low entropy) are shredded into small fragments (high entropy). Shredding is quick and easy; the reverse process is clearly nonspontaneous. It is theoretically possible, but it is time-consuming and energy-intensive, to reassemble one bill from a pile that contains fragments of hundreds of bills. We calculate the probability P of drawing pieces of only one specific bill from a mixture containing one pound of bills, each shredded into n fragments. This result can be related to Boltzmann's entropy formula S?=klnW.

  2. Frontal plane dynamic margins of stability in individuals with and without transtibial amputation walking on a loose rock surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H; Scott, Shawn J; Wilken, Jason M; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2013-09-01

    Uneven walking surfaces pose challenges to balance, especially in individuals with lower extremity amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if lateral stability of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) is compromised when walking on a loose rock surface. Thirteen TTA and 15 healthy controls walked over level ground and over a loose rock surface at four controlled speeds. Dependent measures, including medial-lateral center of mass (COM) motion, step width variability, lateral arm swing velocity, and mean and variability of the minimum margins of stability (MOSmin), were compared between subject groups and across conditions. TTA had greater average MOSmin than Control subjects (p=0.018). TTA exhibited decreased MOSmin on their prosthetic limbs compared to their intact limbs (p=0.036), while Control subjects did not exhibit side to side differences. Both groups increased MOSmin with increasing walking speed (p≤0.001). There was no difference in the average MOSmin between walking surfaces (p=0.724). However, the variability of MOSmin was greater on the rocks compared to level ground. Both subject groups increased step width, step width variability, COM range of motion and peak COM velocity when walking on the rock surface. TTA exhibited greater variability of both step width and MOSmin, which suggests that they made larger step-to-step corrective responses, more often, to achieve the same average result. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal Plane Dynamic Margins of Stability in Individuals With and Without Transtibial Amputation Walking on a Loose Rock Surface☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Scott, Shawn J.; Wilken, Jason M.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Uneven walking surfaces pose challenges to balance, especially in individuals with lower extremity amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if lateral stability of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) is compromised when walking on a loose rock surface. Thirteen TTA and 15 healthy controls walked over level ground and over a loose rock surface at four controlled speeds. Dependent measures, including medial-lateral center of mass (COM) motion, step width variability, lateral arm swing velocity, and mean and variability of the minimum margins of stability (MOSmin), were compared between subject groups and across conditions. TTA had greater average MOSmin than Control subjects (p = 0.018). TTA exhibited decreased MOSmin on their prosthetic limbs compared to their intact limbs (p = 0.036), while Control subjects did not exhibit side to side differences. Both groups increased MOSmin with increasing walking speed (p ≤ 0.001). There was no difference in the average MOSmin between walking surfaces (p = 0.724). However, the variability of MOSmin was greater on the rocks compared to level ground. Both subject groups increased step width, step width variability, COM range of motion and peak COM velocity when walking on the rock surface. TTA exhibited greater variability of both step width and MOSmin, which suggests that they made larger step-to-step, corrective responses, more often, to achieve the same average result. PMID:23481866

  4. A new technique for marginal linear stability analysis of thermal convection using propagator matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhong, S.

    2011-12-01

    Critical Rayleigh number, Ra_c, is the Rayleigh number at the onset of thermal convection. Classic linear analysis provides a way to solve for Ra_c, but this method is mostly used for incompressible fluid with uniform properties. Here we report a new technique for linear stability analysis using propagator matrix method. This new technique can solve for Ra_c for both incompressible and compressible fluids, with depth dependent viscosity, thermal expansion and thermal diffusivity. This technique determines Ra_c for fundamental mode as well as higher modes. We found that results from this new technique agree well with those from the classic analysis for incompressible fluid with uniform properties. We have compared results of Ra_c from the new method with that of finite element code Citcom( Leng and Zhong, 2008 ). For incompressible fluid, they agree with each other very well, including fundamental and higher modes. For compressible fluid, the agreement is not as good, but relative difference remains less than a couple of percent, especially for fundamental mode at small dissipation number Di (e.g., less than 1). Our results show that Ra_c for compressible fluid are similar to that of incompressible fluid, but are significantly different from that of Jarvis & Mckenzie (1981). Given that much higher Rayleigh number is needed in compressible fluid to generate a given heat flux, our results from the new method have implications for the Nusselt-Rayleigh number relation for compressible thermal convection.

  5. Implant stability and marginal bone level of microgrooved zirconia dental implants: A 3-month experimental study on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Ruíz Rafael Arcesio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The modification of implant surfaces could affect mechanical implant stability as well as dynamics and quality of peri-implant bone healing. The aim of this 3-month experimental study in dogs was to investigate implant stability, marginal bone levels and bone tissue response to zirconia dental implants with two laser-micro-grooved intraosseous surfaces in comparison with nongrooved sandblasted zirconia and sandblasted, high-temperature etched titanium implants. Methods. Implant surface characterization was performed using optical interferometric profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A total of 96 implants (4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were inserted randomly in both sides of the lower jaw of 12 Fox Hound dogs divided into groups of 24 each: the control (titanium, the group A (sandblasted zirconia, the group B (sandblasted zirconia plus microgrooved neck and the group C (sandblasted zirconia plus all microgrooved. All the implants were immediately loaded. Insertion torque, periotest values, radiographic crestal bone level and removal torque were recorded during the 3-month follow-up. Qualitative scanning electon micro-scope (SEM analysis of the bone-implant interfaces of each group was performed. Results. Insertion torque values were higher in the group C and control implants (p the control > the group B > the group A (p the control > the group B > the group A (p < 0.05. SEM showed that implant surfaces of the groups B and C had an extra bone growth inside the microgrooves that corresponded to the shape and direction of the microgrooves. Conclusion. The addition of micro-grooves to the entire intraosseous surface of zirconia dental implants enhances primary and secondary implant stability, promotes bone tissue ingrowth and preserves crestal bone levels.

  6. Cu assisted stabilization and nucleation of L1 2 precipitates in Al 0.3 CuFeCrNi 2 fcc-based high entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwalani, B.; Choudhuri, D.; Soni, V.; Ren, Y.; Styles, M.; Hwang, J. Y.; Nam, S. J.; Ryu, H.; Hong, S. H.; Banerjee, R.

    2017-05-01

    A detailed investigation of precipitation of the ordered L12 (γ’) phase in a Al0.3CrCuFeNi2 high entropy alloy (HEA), more generally referred to as a complex concentrated alloy (CCA), reveals the role of copper (Cu) on stabilization and precipitation of the ordered L12 ( γ’) phase. Detailed characterization via coupling of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography revealed novel insights into Cu clustering within the face-centered cubic matrix of this HEA, leading to heterogeneous nucleation sites for the γ’ precipitates. The subsequent partitioning of Cu into the γ’ precipitates indicates their stabilization is due to Cu addition. The γ’ order-disorder transition temperature was determined to be ~930 _C in this alloy, based on synchrotron diffraction experiments, involving in situ annealing. The growth and high temperature stability of the γ’ precipitates was also confirmed via systematic scanning electron microscopy investigations of samples annealed at temperatures in the range of 700-900 oC. The role of Cu revealed by this study can be employed in the design of precipitation strengthened HEAs, as well as in a more general sense applied to other types of superalloys, with the objective of potentially enhancing their mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures

  7. Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Guey-Shin; Cheng, Bai-You; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tsun-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy. PMID:21695030

  8. A comparative study to evaluate the effect of two different abutment designs on soft tissue healing and stability of mucosal margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; van Brakel, Ralph; Iyer, Kavita; Huddleston Slater, James; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco

    Aim To evaluate the effect of two different abutment designs on soft tissue healing and the stability of the mucosal margin in vivo. Materials and methods Twenty-nine subjects received two, non-adjacent endosseous implants in the esthetic zone. Subsequently, conventional (control) and curved

  9. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Jain

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Significance: Indirect composites should be preferred to direct composites as veneering materials as they have better color stability. Special attention should be given to their marginal adaptation especially in the CE region. Bleaching should be avoided in patients with composite restorations in the mouth.

  10. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  11. Microstructure, phase stability and mechanical properties of Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr and Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr–Hf high entropy alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidong Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Owning to their excellent thermal stability and high strength at elevated temperature, high entropy alloys (HEAs possess great potential for the application in aviation and aerospace fields. In present work, two novel Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr and Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr–Hf HEAs were prepared by arc melting and copper mold suction-casting method. The microstructure, phase stability, mechanical properties at room temperature and elevated temperature of the two HEAs were studied. Both of the HEAs possess high yield stress at room temperature, especially for the Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr (with 2331 Mpa. In addition, the Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr HEA exhibited high yield stress of 564 Mpa at elevated temperature of 800 °C and large compressive plastic strain (more than 50% at 800 °C. Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr–Hf alloy showed new phase precipitation at 800 °C, whereas the structure of Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr was more stable, which is one of the reason why it possesses high strength at room temperature and elevated temperature. The high temperature properties of the Nb–Ni–Ti–Co–Zr HEA make it promising for high temperature application.

  12. Chaos control in an economic model via minimum entropy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salarieh, Hassan [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: salarieh@mech.sharif.edu; Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9567, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Soheil Street, Shirazi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: aalasti@sharif.edu

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, minimum entropy algorithm for controlling chaos, is applied to a Cournot duopoly with different constant marginal costs, as a discrete-time dynamical system which shows chaotic behavior. The ME control is implemented through delayed feedback. It is assumed that the equations of the dynamical system are not known, so the feedback gain cannot be obtained analytically from the system equations. In the ME method the feedback gain is obtained adaptively in such a way that the entropy of the system converges to zero, hence a fixed point of the system will be stabilized. Application of the proposed method with different economic control strategies is numerically investigated. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the ME method for controlling chaos in economic systems with unknown equations.

  13. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex E. Bernardini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  14. Immediately loaded mini dental implants as overdenture retainers: 1-Year cohort study of implant stability and peri-implant marginal bone level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šćepanović, Miodrag; Todorović, Aleksandar; Marković, Aleksa; Patrnogić, Vesna; Miličić, Biljana; Moufti, Adel M; Mišić, Tijana

    2015-05-01

    This 1-year cohort study investigated stability and peri-implant marginal bone level of immediately loaded mini dental implants used to retain overdentures. Each of 30 edentulous patients received 4 mini dental implants (1.8 mm × 13 mm) in the interforaminal mandibular region. The implants were immediately loaded with pre-made overdentures. Outcome measures included implant stability and bone resorption. Implant stability was measured using the Periotest Classic(®) device immediately after placement and on the 3rd and 6th weeks and the 4th, 6th and 12th months postoperatively. The peri-implant marginal bone level (PIBL) was evaluated at the implant's mesial and distal sides from the polished platform to the marginal crest. Radiographs were taken using a tailored film holder to reproducibly position the X-ray tube at the 6th week, 4th and 12th months postoperatively. The primary stability (Periotest value, PTV) measured -0.27 ± 3.41 on a scale of -8 to + 50 (lower PTV reflects higher stability). The secondary stability decreased significantly until week 6 (mean PTV = 7.61 ± 7.05) then increased significantly reaching (PTV = 6.17 ± 6.15) at 12 months. The mean PIBL measured -0.40 mm after 1 year of functional loading, with no statistically significant differences at the various follow-ups (p = 0.218). Mini dental implants placed into the interforaminal region could achieve a favorable primary stability for immediate loading. The follow-up Periotest values fluctuated, apparently reflecting the dynamics of bone remodeling, with the implants remaining clinically stable (98.3%) after 1 year of function. The 1-year bone resorption around immediately loaded MDIs is within the clinically acceptable range for standard implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    the development of natural languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.

  16. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harremoeës, P.; Topsøe, F.

    2001-09-01

    languages. In fact, we are able to relate our theoretical findings to the empirically found Zipf's law which involves statistical aspects of words in a language. The apparent irregularity inherent in models with entropy loss turns out to imply desirable stability properties of languages.

  17. Bubble Entropy: An Entropy Almost Free of Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, George; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto

    Objective: A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy. Bubble Entropy is based on permutation entropy, where the vectors in the embedding space are ranked. We use the bubble sort algorithm for the ordering procedure and count instead the number of swaps performed for each vector. Doing so, we create a more coarse-grained distribution and then compute the entropy of this distribution. Results: Experimental results with both real and synthetic HRV signals showed that bubble entropy presents remarkable stability and exhibits increased descriptive and discriminating power compared to all other definitions, including the most popular ones. Conclusion: The definition proposed is almost free of parameters. The most common ones are the scale factor r and the embedding dimension m . In our definition, the scale factor is totally eliminated and the importance of m is significantly reduced. The proposed method presents increased stability and discriminating power. Significance: After the extensive use of some entropy measures in physiological signals, typical values for their parameters have been suggested, or at least, widely used. However, the parameters are still there, application and dataset dependent, influencing the computed value and affecting the descriptive power. Reducing their significance or eliminating them alleviates the problem, decoupling the method from the data and the application, and eliminating subjective factors.Objective: A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy. Bubble Entropy is based on permutation entropy

  18. Maximum Entropy Discrimination Markov Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jun; Xing, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel and general framework called {\\it Maximum Entropy Discrimination Markov Networks} (MaxEnDNet), which integrates the max-margin structured learning and Bayesian-style estimation and combines and extends their merits. Major innovations of this model include: 1) It generalizes the extant Markov network prediction rule based on a point estimator of weights to a Bayesian-style estimator that integrates over a learned distribution of the weights. 2) It extends the ...

  19. On Thermodynamic Interpretation of Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don C. Price

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a thermodynamic interpretation of transfer entropy near equilibrium, using a specialised Boltzmann’s principle. The approach relates conditional probabilities to the probabilities of the corresponding state transitions. This in turn characterises transfer entropy as a difference of two entropy rates: the rate for a resultant transition and another rate for a possibly irreversible transition within the system affected by an additional source. We then show that this difference, the local transfer entropy, is proportional to the external entropy production, possibly due to irreversibility. Near equilibrium, transfer entropy is also interpreted as the difference in equilibrium stabilities with respect to two scenarios: a default case and the case with an additional source. Finally, we demonstrated that such a thermodynamic treatment is not applicable to information flow, a measure of causal effect.

  20. Entropy via multiplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglikov, Boris; Rypdal, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The topological entropy of piecewise affine maps is studied. It is shown that singularities may contribute to the entropy only if there is angular expansion and we bound the entropy via the expansion rates of the map. As a corollary we deduce that non-expanding conformal piecewise affine maps have zero topological entropy. We estimate the entropy of piecewise affine skew-products. Examples of abnormal entropy growth are provided.

  1. Progress in Preparation and Research of High Entropy Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yong-xing

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current high entropy alloys' studies are most in block, powder, coating, film and other areas. There are few studies of high entropy alloys in other areas and they are lack of unified classification. According to the current high entropy alloys' research situation, The paper has focused on the classification on all kinds of high entropy alloys having been researched, introduced the selecting principle of elements, summarized the preparation methods, reviewed the research institutions, research methods and research contents of high entropy alloys, prospected the application prospect of high entropy alloys, put forward a series of scientific problems of high entropy alloys, including less research on mechanism, incomplete performance research, unsystematic thermal stability study, preparation process parameters to be optimized, lightweight high entropy alloys' design, the expansion on the research field, etc, and the solutions have been given. Those have certain guiding significance for the expansion of the application of high entropy alloys subjects in the future research direction.

  2. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K.; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    stability. Special attention should be given to their marginal adaptation especially in the CE region. Bleaching should be avoided in patients with composite restorations in the mouth. PMID:26929486

  3. Kaniadakis Entropy and Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Entropy has a relevant role in several applications of information theory and in the image processing. Here, we discuss the Kaniadakis entropy for images. An example of bi-level image thresholding obtained by means of this entropy is also given. Keywords: Kaniadakis Entropy, Data Segmentation, Image processing, Thresholding

  4. In search of entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letessier, J.; Tounsi, A. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France); Rafelski, J. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-04-01

    Entropy is a quantity characterizing the arrow of time in the evolution of a physical system - in every irreversible process the entropy increases. In elementary interactions such as relativistic collision of two atomic nuclei there is considerable particle production and hence entropy production. We address here a number of questions which arise naturally in this context. When and how is entropy produced in a quantum process, such as is a nuclear collision? How is the particle production related to entropy production? How does one measure the entropy produced in the reaction? We also consider certain fundamental approaches to the problem of entropy definition in quantum physics. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Methane Gas Hydrate Stability Models on Continental Shelves in Response to Glacio-Eustatic Sea Level Variations: Examples from Canadian Oceanic Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Safanda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We model numerically regions of the Canadian continental shelves during successive glacio-eustatic cycles to illustrate past, current and future marine gas hydrate (GH stability and instability. These models indicated that the marine GH resource has dynamic features and the formation age and resource volumes depend on the dynamics of the ocean-atmosphere system as it responds to both natural (glacial-interglacial and anthropogenic (climate change forcing. Our models focus on the interval beginning three million years ago (i.e., Late Pliocene-Holocene. They continue through the current interglacial and they are projected to its anticipated natural end. During the current interglacial the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ thickness in each region responded uniquely as a function of changes in water depth and sea bottom temperature influenced by ocean currents. In general, the GHSZ in the deeper parts of the Pacific and Atlantic margins (≥1316 m thinned primarily due to increased water bottom temperatures. The GHSZ is highly variable in the shallower settings on the same margins (~400–500 m. On the Pacific Margin shallow GH dissociated completely prior to nine thousand years ago but the effects of subsequent sea level rise reestablished a persistent, thin GHSZ. On the Atlantic Margin Scotian Shelf the warm Gulf Stream caused GHSZ to disappear completely, whereas in shallow water depths offshore Labrador the combination of the cool Labrador Current and sea level rise increased the GHSZ. If future ocean bottom temperatures remain constant, these general characteristics will persist until the current interglacial ends. If the sea bottom warms, possibly in response to global climate change, there could be a significant reduction to complete loss of GH stability, especially on the shallow parts of the continental shelf. The interglacial GH thinning rates constrain rates at which carbon can be transferred between the GH reservoir and the atmosphere

  6. Benchmarking and qualification of the NUFREQ-NPW code for best estimate prediction of multichannel core stability margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P. (Westinghouse Commercial, Nuclear Fuel Division, Pittsburgh, PA 15230 (United States)); McFarlane, A.F. (Westinghouse Commercial, Nuclear Fuel Division, Pittsburgh, PA 15230 (United States)); Lahey, R.T. Jr. (Department of Nuclear, Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12181 (United States)); Podowski, M.Z. (Department of Nuclear, Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12181 (United States))

    1994-11-15

    The NUFREQ-NP (G.C. Park et al. NUREG/CR-3375, 1983; S.J. Peng et al. NUREG/CR-4116, 1984; S.J. Peng et al. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 88 (1988) 404-411) code was modified and set up at Westinghouse, USA, for mixed fuel type multichannel core-wide stability analysis. The resulting code, NUFREQ-NPW, allows for variable axial power profiles between channel groups and can handle mixed fuel types.Various models incorporated into NUFREQ-NPW were systematically compared against the Westinghouse channel stability analysis code MAZDA-NF (R. Taleyarkhan et al. J. Heat Transfer 107 (February 1985) 175-181; NUREG/CR2972, 1983), for which the mathematical model was developed in an entirely different manner. Excellent agreement was obtained which verified the thermal-hydraulic modeling and coding aspects. Detailed comparisons were also performed against nuclear-coupled reactor core stability data. All 13 Peach Bottom-2 EOC-2/3 low flow stability tests (L.A. Carmichael and R.O. Neimi, EPRI NP-564, Project 1020-1, 1978; F.B. Woffinden and R.O. Neimi, EPRI, NP 0972, Project 1020-2, 1981) were simulated. A key aspect for code qualification involved the development of a physically based empirical algorithm to correct for the effect of core inlet flow development on subcooled boiling. Various other modeling assumptions were tested and sensitivity studies performed. Good agreement was obtained between NUFREQ-NPW predictions and data. ((orig.))

  7. Mutual Information and Nonadditive Entropies: A Method for Kaniadakis Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    In [10.18483/ijSci.8451], we have discussed the mutual information of two random variables and how it can be obtained from entropies. We considered the Shannon entropy and the nonadditive Tsallis entropy. Here, following the same approach used in the Tsallis case, we propose a method for discussing the mutual entropy of another nonadditive entropy, the Kaniadakis entropy

  8. Entropy: Order or Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in entropy can "sometimes" be interpreted in terms of changes in disorder. On the other hand, changes in entropy can "always" be interpreted in terms of changes in Shannon's measure of information. Mixing and demixing processes are used to highlight the pitfalls in the association of entropy with disorder. (Contains 3 figures.)

  9. Marginal Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bergsma, Wicher; Hagenaars, Jacques A

    2009-01-01

    Presents an overview of the basic principles of marginal modeling and offers a range of possible applications. This book includes many real world examples, explains the types of research questions for which marginal modeling is useful, and provides a description of how to apply marginal models for a great diversity of research questions.

  10. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  11. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  12. Configurational Entropy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2007-09-01

    Entropy change is categorized in some prominent general chemistry textbooks as being either positional (configurational) or thermal. In those texts, the accompanying emphasis on the dispersal of matter—independent of energy considerations and thus in discord with kinetic molecular theory—is most troubling. This article shows that the variants of entropy can be treated from a unified viewpoint and argues that to decrease students' confusion about the nature of entropy change these variants of entropy should be merged. Molecular energy dispersal in space is implicit but unfortunately tacit in the cell models of statistical mechanics that develop the configurational entropy change in gas expansion, fluids mixing, or the addition of a non-volatile solute to a solvent. Two factors are necessary for entropy change in chemistry. An increase in thermodynamic entropy is enabled in a process by the motional energy of molecules (that, in chemical reactions, can arise from the energy released from a bond energy change). However, entropy increase is only actualized if the process results in a larger number of arrangements for the system's energy, that is, a final state that involves the most probable distribution for that energy under the new constraints. Positional entropy should be eliminated from general chemistry instruction and, especially benefiting "concrete minded" students, it should be replaced by emphasis on the motional energy of molecules as enabling entropy change.

  13. Erosion of seafloor ridges at the top of the gas hydrate stability zone, Hikurangi margin, New Zealand : new insights from research cruises between 2005 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecher, I.A. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering; Henrys, S.A.; Ellis, S. [SNS Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Crutchley, G.; Fohrmann, M.; Gorman, A.R. [Otago Univ., Dunedin (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology; Greinert, J. [Ghent Univ., Ghent (Belgium). Renard Centre of Marine Geology; Chiswell, S.M. [NIWA, Wellington (New Zealand)

    2008-07-01

    Studies have suggested that the erosion of subsea ridges on the Hikurangi margin is related to fluctuating levels of gas hydrate stability in the surrounding ocean. This paper described 3 field studies conducted to examine the region. The studies included a 15-month time series of temperature sensors deployed at 580 meters on the Ritchie Banks. Seismic data showed evidence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). Water temperature fluctuations occurred at lower frequencies and higher amplitudes than previous studies indicated. Data obtained in the studies indicated that changes in temperature are having an impact on the sub-seafloor gas hydrates. Consolidated mudstones were observed in dredge samples obtained during the expeditions. The study indicated that repeated pore volume expansion and contraction caused by the releases of gas during gas hydrate dissociation are contributing to sea floor weakening in the region. It was concluded that gas hydrate freeze-thaw events are contributing to the dilation of fractures in mudstones and weakening the sea floor. However, gas pockets beneath the ridge may also be contributing to fracturing of the sea floor. 35 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  14. Information Entropy of Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, Denis Sh; Ōsawa, Eiji

    2015-08-24

    The reasons for the formation of the highly symmetric C60 molecule under nonequilibrium conditions are widely discussed as it dominates over numerous similar fullerene structures. In such conditions, evolution of structure rather than energy defines the processes. We have first studied the diversity of fullerenes in terms of information entropy. Sorting 2079 structures from An Atlas of Fullerenes [ Fowler , P. W. ; Manolopoulos , D. E. An Atlas of Fullerenes ; Oxford : Clarendon , 1995 . ], we have found that the information entropies of only 14 fullerenes (fullerenes. Interestingly, buckminsterfullerene is the only fullerene with zero information entropy, i.e., an exclusive compound among the other members of the fullerene family. Such an efficient sorting demonstrates possible relevance of information entropy to chemical processes. For this reason, we have introduced an algorithm for calculating changes in information entropy at chemical transformations. The preliminary calculations of changes in information entropy at the selected fullerene reactions show good agreement with thermochemical data.

  15. Generalized quantum entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.P., E-mail: alysonpaulo@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Silva, R., E-mail: raimundosilva@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Universidade do Estado Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Mossoro, RN 59610-210 (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Anselmo, D.H.A.L., E-mail: doryh@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts. -- Highlights: → Derivation of generalized quantum entropies. → Generalized combinatorial method. → Non-Gaussian quantum statistics.

  16. Some Relations Among Entropy Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Several entropies are generalizing the Shannon entropy and have it as their limit as entropic indices approach specific values. Here we discuss some relations existing among Rényi, Tsallis and Kaniadakis entropies and show how the Shannon entropy becomes the limit of Kaniadakis entropy

  17. Microstructure and thermal stability of a Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V-Al high-entropy alloy coating by laser surface alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaobing; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo; Liu, Zhe; Zheng, Wei; Li, Yang; Wang, Liquan

    2017-09-01

    A Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V-Al high-entropy alloy (HEA) coating with a BCC phase and (Ni, Co)Ti2 compounds was synthesized successfully by laser surface alloying on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The microstructure of as-synthesized coatings is typical, namely, the microstructure from the coating to the substrate changes from equiaxed grains to columnar grains. After remaining at 900 °C for 8 h, the constituent phases remain unchanged. However, owing to the unceasing dissolution of the Ti element, the lattice parameter of the BCC HEA phase changes from 3.06 Å to 3.16 Å. The thermoanalysis results show that the oxidation film on the Ni-Cr-Co-Ti-V-Al HEA coating is mainly composed of TiO2, V2O5, and NiO. The oxidation resistance of this HEA coating may be due to the existence of NiO and the alloying elements Al, Cr, and Co; the oxidation phenomenon should be responsible for the mass increase in the thermogravimetry process. The differential scanning calorimetry and the dynamic differential scanning calorimetry curves show that the synthesized HEA coating is stable below 1005 °C.

  18. Entropy Stable Spectral Collocation Schemes for the Navier-Stokes Equations: Discontinuous Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive provably stable, polynomial-based spectral collocation methods of arbitrary order. The new methods are closely related to discontinuous Galerkin spectral collocation methods commonly known as DGFEM, but exhibit a more general entropy stability property. Although the new schemes are applicable to a broad class of linear and nonlinear conservation laws, emphasis herein is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  19. Ludwig Boltzmann and Entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lay in uncovering the microscopic meaning of entropy, in answering the ... mann's life and work. More on the subject can be found in the various 'entropy articles' in this special issue dedicated to him, as well as in others to which I refer at the end. Ludwig Eduard .... to suicide partly because of a fear that his ideas were not ...

  20. Gravitational Entropy and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Elgarøy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is a description of the generation of entropy at the end of the inflationary era. As a generalization of the present standard model of the Universe dominated by pressureless dust and a Lorentz invariant vacuum energy (LIVE, we first present a flat Friedmann universe model, where the dust is replaced with an ideal gas. It is shown that the pressure of the gas is inversely proportional to the fifth power of the scale factor and that the entropy in a comoving volume does not change during the expansion. We then review different measures of gravitational entropy related to the Weyl curvature conjecture and calculate the time evolution of two proposed measures of gravitational entropy in a LIVE-dominated Bianchi type I universe, and a Lemaitre-Bondi-Tolman universe with LIVE. Finally, we elaborate upon a model of energy transition from vacuum energy to radiation energy, that of Bonanno and Reuter, and calculate the time evolution of the entropies of vacuum energy and radiation energy. We also calculate the evolution of the maximal entropy according to some recipes and demonstrate how a gap between the maximal entropy and the actual entropy opens up at the end of the inflationary era.

  1. Generalized quantum entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2011-08-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts.

  2. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  3. Rapid rates of aerobic methane oxidation at the feather edge of gas hydrate stability in the waters of Hudson Canyon, US Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonte, Mihai; Kessler, John D.; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Arrington, Eleanor C.; Valentine, David L.; Sylva, Sean P.

    2017-05-01

    Aerobic oxidation is an important methane sink in seawater overlying gas seeps. Recent surveys have identified active methane seeps in the waters of Hudson Canyon, US Atlantic Margin near the updip limit of methane clathrate hydrate stability. The close proximity of these seeps to the upper stability limit of methane hydrates suggests that changing bottom water temperatures may influence the release rate of methane into the overlying water column. In order to assess the significance of aerobic methane oxidation in limiting the atmospheric expression of methane released from Hudson Canyon, the total extent of methane oxidized along with integrated oxidation rates were quantified. These calculations were performed by combining the measurements of the natural levels of methane concentrations, stable carbon isotopes, and water current velocities into kinetic isotope models yielding rates ranging from 22.8 ± 17 to 116 ± 76 nM/day with an average of 62.7 ± 37 nM/day. Furthermore, an average of 63% of methane released into the water column from an average depth of 515 m was oxidized before leaving this relatively small study area (6.5 km2). Results from the kinetic isotope model were compared to previously-published but concurrently-sampled ex situ measurements of oxidation potential performed using 13C-labeled methane. Ex situ rates were substantially lower, ranging from 0.1 to 22.5 nM/day with an average of 5.6 ± 2.3 nM/day, the discrepancy likely due to the inherent differences between these two techniques. Collectively, the results reveal exceptionally-rapid methane oxidation, with turnover times for methane as low as 0.3-3.7 days, indicating that methane released to the water column is removed quantitatively within the greater extent of Hudson Canyon. The red line represents the original Rayleigh model output, Eq. (1), detailed in the text. The red line represents the original Rayleigh model output, Eq. (1), detailed in the text.

  4. Polymorphism in a high-entropy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Wu, Yuan; Lou, Hongbo; Zeng, Zhidan; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Greenberg, Eran; Ren, Yang; Yan, Jinyuan; Okasinski, John S.; Liu, Xiongjun; Liu, Yong; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Lu, Zhaoping

    2017-06-01

    Polymorphism, which describes the occurrence of different lattice structures in a crystalline material, is a critical phenomenon in materials science and condensed matter physics. Recently, configuration disorder was compositionally engineered into single lattices, leading to the discovery of high-entropy alloys and high-entropy oxides. For these novel entropy-stabilized forms of crystalline matter with extremely high structural stability, is polymorphism still possible? Here by employing in situ high-pressure synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, we reveal a polymorphic transition from face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure to hexagonal-close-packing (hcp) structure in the prototype CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy. The transition is irreversible, and our in situ high-temperature synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction experiments at different pressures of the retained hcp high-entropy alloy reveal that the fcc phase is a stable polymorph at high temperatures, while the hcp structure is more thermodynamically favourable at lower temperatures. As pressure is increased, the critical temperature for the hcp-to-fcc transformation also rises.

  5. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  6. Conditional Kaniadakis Entropy: a Preliminary Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Conditional entropies are fundamental for evaluating the mutual information of random variables. These entropies must be properly defined in the case of nonadditive entropies. Here, we propose the conditional entropy for one of them, the Kaniadakis entropy

  7. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex

  8. Entropy of the Mixture of Sources and Entropy Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Smieja, Marek; Tabor, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the entropy of the mixture of sources. There is given an estimation of the entropy and entropy dimension of convex combination of measures. The proof is based on our alternative definition of the entropy based on measures instead of partitions.

  9. Entropy Coherent and Entropy Convex Measures of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. We prove that convex, entropy convex and entropy coherent measures of risk emerge as certainty equivalents under variational, homothetic and multiple priors preferences,

  10. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  11. Comparative evaluation of effects of bleaching on color stability and marginal adaptation of discolored direct and indirect composite laminate veneers under in vivo conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Veena; Das, Taposh K; Pruthi, Gunjan; Shah, Naseem; Rajendiran, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    .... Bleaching is commonly used for treating discolored teeth. However, the literature is scanty regarding its effect on color and marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite laminate veneers (CLVs...

  12. A New Generalization of von Neumann Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cao, Huaixin

    2017-11-01

    In quantum information, von Neumann relative entropy has a great applications and operational interpretations in diverse fields, and von Neumann entropy is an important tool for describing the uncertainty of a quantum state. In this paper, we generalize the classical von Neumann relative entropy S( ρ|| σ) and von Neumann entropy S( ρ) to f-von Neumann relative entropy \\widetilde {S}f(ρ ||σ ) and f-von Neumann entropy \\widetilde {S}f(ρ ) induced by a logarithm-like function f, respectively, and explore their properties. We prove that \\widetilde {S}f(ρ ||σ ) is nonnegative and then prove that \\widetilde {S}f(ρ ) has nonnegativity, boundedness, concavity, subadditivity and so on. Later, we show the stability and continuity of the \\widetilde {S}f(ρ ) with respect to the trace distance. In the case that f( x) = -log x, the resulted entropies reduce the classical von Neumann relative entropy and von Neumann entropy, respectively. This means that our results extend the usual results to a more general setting and then have some potential applications in quantum information.

  13. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  14. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  15. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  16. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-10-01

    Qualitatively, entropy is simple. What it is, why it is useful in understanding the behavior of macro systems or of molecular systems is easy to state: Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. The conventional q in qrev/T is the energy dispersed to or from a substance or a system. On a molecular basis, entropy increase means that a system changes from having fewer accessible microstates to having a larger number of accessible microstates. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. The foregoing in no way denies the subtlety or the difficulty presented by entropy in thermodynamics—to first-year students or to professionals. However, as an aid to beginners in their quantitative study of thermodynamics, the qualitative conclusions in this article give students the advantage of a clear bird’s-eye view of why entropy increases in a wide variety of basic cases: a substance going from 0 K to T, phase change, gas expansion, mixing of ideal gases or liquids, colligative effects, and the Gibbs equation. See Letter re: this article.

  17. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  18. An entropy-assisted musculoskeletal shoulder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W

    2017-04-01

    Optimization combined with a musculoskeletal shoulder model has been used to estimate mechanical loading of musculoskeletal elements around the shoulder. Traditionally, the objective function is to minimize the summation of the total activities of the muscles with forces, moments, and stability constraints. Such an objective function, however, tends to neglect the antagonist muscle co-contraction. In this study, an objective function including an entropy term is proposed to address muscle co-contractions. A musculoskeletal shoulder model is developed to apply the proposed objective function. To find the optimal weight for the entropy term, an experiment was conducted. In the experiment, participants generated various 3-D shoulder moments in six shoulder postures. The surface EMG of 8 shoulder muscles was measured and compared with the predicted muscle activities based on the proposed objective function using Bhattacharyya distance and concordance ratio under different weight of the entropy term. The results show that a small weight of the entropy term can improve the predictability of the model in terms of muscle activities. Such a result suggests that the concept of entropy could be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of muscle co-contractions as well as developing a shoulder biomechanical model with greater validity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Masoud; Himo, Fahmi; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction in water, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution.

  20. On the Conditional Rényi Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fehr (Serge); S. Berens (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Rényi entropy of general order unifies the well-known Shannon entropy with several other entropy notions, like the min-entropy or the collision entropy. In contrast to the Shannon entropy, there seems to be no commonly accepted definition for the conditional Rényi entropy: several

  1. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhu eLiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs’ effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of twelve entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP, in anesthesia induced by GA-BAergic agents.Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE and State entropy (SE, three wavelet entropy (WE measures (Shannon WE (SWE, Tsallis WE (TWE and Renyi WE (RWE, Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE, approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE measures (Shannon PE (SPE, Tsallis PE (TPE and Renyi PE (RPE. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflu-rane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, phar-macokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA as a non-entropy measure was compared.Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline vari-ability, higher coefficient of determination and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an ad-vantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA.Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure.Significance: Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA.

  2. Alternative methodology for the margin determination of voltage stability in electrical power systems. Economical and technical impacts; Metodologia alternativa para a determinacao da margem de estabilidade de tensao em sistemas eletricos de potencia - impactos tecnicos e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Anderson Neves [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: anderson@cemig.com.br

    2001-07-01

    This article presents an alternative methodology of voltage stability determination of Electrical Power System (EPS), focusing technical and economical aspects. In this direction, it presents relative aspects to mathematical modelling to analyse the phenomenon and also the influence from the most important dynamics to be taken into consideration. It is inquired the participation of generators in the rearrangement of the adopted active power in the current criteria of margin determination. A real system is analyzed, under this aspect, indicating significant variations in the calculated values for the margins, resulting in improper investments of significant values. The proposed methodology by this article seeks to contribute to minimize such mistakes, this is done by means of focusing the long duration dynamics of generators, what constitutes an important progress in relation to the researches about them.

  3. On Entropy Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Saeed; Taghavi, Ray; Keshmiri, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Stealth technology is developed for military aircraft to minimize their signatures. The primary attention was focused on radar signature, followed by the thermal and noise signatures of the vehicle. For radar evasion, advanced configuration designs, extensive use of carbon composites and radar-absorbing material, are developed. On thermal signature, mainly in the infra-red (IR) bandwidth, the solution was found in blended rectangular nozzles of high aspect ratio that are shielded from ground detectors. For noise, quiet and calm jets are integrated into vehicles with low-turbulence configuration design. However, these technologies are totally incapable of detecting new generation of revolutionary aircraft. These shall use all electric, distributed, propulsion system that are thermally transparent. In addition, composite skin and non-emitting sensors onboard the aircraft will lead to low signature. However, based on the second-law of thermodynamics, there is no air vehicle that can escape from leaving an entropy trail. Entropy is thus the only inevitable signature of any system, that once measured, can detect the source. By characterizing the entropy field based on its statistical properties, the source may be recognized, akin to face recognition technology. Direct measurement of entropy is cumbersome, however as a derived property, it can be easily measured. The measurement accuracy depends on the probe design and the sensors onboard. One novel air data sensor suite is introduced with promising potential to capture the entropy trail.

  4. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  5. Marginal Bone Stability Around Tapered, Platform-Shifted Implants Placed with an Immediately Loaded Four-Implant-Supported Fixed Prosthetic Concept: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbush, Charles A; Kanawati, Ali; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2016-01-01

    To longitudinally evaluate marginal bone remodeling around tapered, platform-shifted implants placed for total arch rehabilitation with fixed hybrid prostheses. A retrospective cohort study was designed that evaluated radiographic data from patients undergoing implant surgical procedures with an immediately loaded four-implant-supported fixed prosthetic concept in a single clinic setting during a 36-month period. The primary outcome variable was the change in marginal bone levels during a 12- to 36-month follow-up postloading with the definitive prosthesis. All measurements were performed on matched and calibrated periapical radiographs obtained at: (1) the time of placement of the definitive prosthesis (baseline) versus (2) 12 to 36 months following definitive loading (follow-up). Other study variables, including duration of follow-up, implant position, maximum insertion torque, implant angulation, and implant diameter, were assessed for their association with changes in marginal bone levels. One hundred sixty-nine patients (n = 856 implants) with a mean age of 59.5 ± 10.5 years were included in this study. Two implants failed, resulting in a 99.8% overall survival rate (mean follow-up: 15.2 ± 4.8 months, range: 12 to 36 months). The radiographic mean bone levels at baseline and follow-up were 1.16 ± 0.71 mm (n = 805) and 1.31 ± 0.93 mm (n = 805), respectively. The mean marginal bone loss from baseline to follow-up was 0.14 ± 0.59 mm (n = 805). The duration of follow-up had no effect on the extent of marginal bone loss (P = .154). Within the limitations of this large-scale retrospective cohort study, it was concluded that the use of tapered, platform-shifted implants for total arch rehabilitation with the use of the All-on-Four protocol yields very favorable radiographic outcomes, at least after a minimum of 12 months in function.

  6. Causality & holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headrick, Matthew [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Hubeny, Veronika E. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Albion [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS 057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences,Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-29

    We identify conditions for the entanglement entropy as a function of spatial region to be compatible with causality in an arbitrary relativistic quantum field theory. We then prove that the covariant holographic entanglement entropy prescription (which relates entanglement entropy of a given spatial region on the boundary to the area of a certain extremal surface in the bulk) obeys these conditions, as long as the bulk obeys the null energy condition. While necessary for the validity of the prescription, this consistency requirement is quite nontrivial from the bulk standpoint, and therefore provides important additional evidence for the prescription. In the process, we introduce a codimension-zero bulk region, named the entanglement wedge, naturally associated with the given boundary spatial region. We propose that the entanglement wedge is the most natural bulk region corresponding to the boundary reduced density matrix.

  7. Classifying Entropy Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes some aspects of Uncertainty Measures. We need to obtain new ways to model adequate conditions or restrictions, constructed from vague pieces of information. The classical entropy measure originates from scientific fields; more specifically, from Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics. With time it was adapted by Claude Shannon, creating the current expanding Information Theory. However, the Hungarian mathematician, Alfred Rényi, proves that different and valid entropy measures exist in accordance with the purpose and/or need of application. Accordingly, it is essential to clarify the different types of measures and their mutual relationships. For these reasons, we attempt here to obtain an adequate revision of such fuzzy entropy measures from a mathematical point of view.

  8. Entropy in Pynchon's "Entropy" and Lefebvre's The Production of Space

    OpenAIRE

    Snart, Jason

    2001-01-01

    In his paper, "Entropy in Pynchon's 'Entropy' and Lefebvre's The Production of Space," Jason Snart examines Thomas Pynchon's short story "Entropy" for the ways in which it deals with the kinds of disorder(s) associated with entropy as a thermodynamic and informational concept. Those concepts are installed as a framework within which to consider cultural studies work like Henri Lefebfre's thought in his The Production of Space and Ludwig von Bertalanffy's general systems theory and themodynami...

  9. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J; Sleigh, Jamie W; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R (2)) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA. Each

  10. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  11. Entropy model of dissipative structure on corporate social responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuozhi; Jiang, Jie

    2017-06-01

    Enterprise is prompted to fulfill the social responsibility requirement by the internal and external environment. In this complex system, some studies suggest that firms have an orderly or chaotic entropy exchange behavior. Based on the theory of dissipative structure, this paper constructs the entropy index system of corporate social responsibility(CSR) and explores the dissipative structure of CSR through Brusselator model criterion. Picking up listed companies of the equipment manufacturing, the research shows that CSR has positive incentive to negative entropy and promotes the stability of dissipative structure. In short, the dissipative structure of CSR has a positive impact on the interests of stakeholders and corporate social images.

  12. Entropy, materials, and posterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, P.

    1977-01-01

    Materials and energy are the interdependent feedstocks of economic systems, and thermodynamics is their moderator. It costs energy to transform the dispersed minerals of Earth's crust into ordered materials and structures. And it costs materials to collect and focus the energy to perform work - be it from solar, fossil fuel, nuclear, or other sources. The greater the dispersal of minerals sought, the more energy is required to collect them into ordered states. But available energy can be used once only. And the ordered materials of industrial economies become disordered with time. They may be partially reordered and recycled, but only at further costs in energy. Available energy everywhere degrades to bound states and order to disorder - for though entropy may be juggled it always increases. Yet industry is utterly dependent on low entropy states of matter and energy, while decreasing grades of ore require ever higher inputs of energy to convert them to metals, with ever increasing growth both of entropy and environmental hazard. Except as we may prize a thing for its intrinsic qualities - beauty, leisure, love, or gold - low-entropy is the only thing of real value. It is worth whatever the market will bear, and it becomes more valuable as entropy increases. It would be foolish of suppliers to sell it more cheaply or in larger amounts than their own enjoyment of life requires, whatever form it may take. For this reason, and because of physical constraints on the availability of all low-entropy states, the recent energy crises is only the first of a sequence of crises to be expected in energy and materials as long as current trends continue. The apportioning of low-entropy states in a modern industrial society is achieved more or less according to the theory of competitive markets. But the rational powers of this theory suffer as the world grows increasingly polarized into rich, over-industrialized nations with diminishing resource bases and poor, supplier nations

  13. Calibrated entanglement entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmatov, I.; Deger, N. S.; Gutowski, J.; Colgáin, E. Ó.; Yavartanoo, H.

    2017-07-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi prescription reduces the problem of calculating entanglement entropy in CFTs to the determination of minimal surfaces in a dual anti-de Sitter geometry. For 3D gravity theories and BTZ black holes, we identify the minimal surfaces as special Lagrangian cycles calibrated by the real part of the holomorphic one-form of a spacelike hypersurface. We show that (generalised) calibrations provide a unified way to determine holographic entanglement entropy from minimal surfaces, which is applicable to warped AdS3 geometries. We briefly discuss generalisations to higher dimensions.

  14. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  15. Combinatorial Image Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuri, Shtarkov; Justesen, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions.......The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions....

  16. Statistical distributions and the entropy considerations in genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Lukierska-Walasek, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Zipf's law implies the statistical distributions of hyperbolic type, which can describe the properties of stability and entropy loss in linguistics. We present the information theory from which follows that if the system is described by distributions of hyperbolic type it leads to the possibility of entropy loss. We try to find the correspondence between the histograms of gene lengths and the distributions of hyperbolic type for some bacteria, as {\\em Borelia burgdorferi}, {\\em Escherichia coli} and {\\em Saccharomyces cerevisiae}.

  17. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  18. Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Al-Malack

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel oil flyash (FFA produced in power and water desalination plants firing crude oils in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is being disposed in landfills, which increases the burden on the environment, therefore, FFA utilization must be encouraged. In the current research, the effect of adding FFA on the engineering properties of two indigenous soils, namely sand and marl, was investigated. FFA was added at concentrations of 5%, 10% and 15% to both soils with and without the addition of Portland cement. Mixtures of the stabilized soils were thoroughly evaluated using compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compressive strength (USC and durability tests. Results of these tests indicated that stabilized sand mixtures could not attain the ACI strength requirements. However, marl was found to satisfy the ACI strength requirement when only 5% of FFA was added together with 5% of cement. When the FFA was increased to 10% and 15%, the mixture’s strength was found to decrease to values below the ACI requirements. Results of the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP, which was performed on samples that passed the ACI requirements, indicated that FFA must be cautiously used in soil stabilization.

  19. Entropy is a Mathematical Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    The microscopic explanation of entropy has been challenged from both experimental and theoretical point of view. The expression of entropy is derived from the first law of thermodynamics indicating that entropy or the second law of thermodynamics is not an independent law.

  20. Entropy of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Humitaka

    2010-06-01

    Charles Darwin's calculation of a life of Earth had ignited Kelvin's insight on a life of Sun, which had eventually inherited to the physical study of stellar structure and energy source. Nuclear energy had secured a longevity of the universe and the goal of the cosmic evolution has been secured by the entropy of black holes.

  1. Entropy a la Boltzmann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy à la Boltzmann. Jayanta K Bhattacharjee. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 19-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0019-0034. Author Affiliations.

  2. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  3. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy in Biology. Jayant B Udgaonkar. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0061-0066. Author Affiliations.

  4. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  5. Projective Power Entropy and Maximum Tsallis Entropy Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinto Eguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a one-parameter family of generalized cross entropy between two distributions with the power index, called the projective power entropy. The cross entropy is essentially reduced to the Tsallis entropy if two distributions are taken to be equal. Statistical and probabilistic properties associated with the projective power entropy are extensively investigated including a characterization problem of which conditions uniquely determine the projective power entropy up to the power index. A close relation of the entropy with the Lebesgue space Lp and the dual Lq is explored, in which the escort distribution associates with an interesting property. When we consider maximum Tsallis entropy distributions under the constraints of the mean vector and variance matrix, the model becomes a multivariate q-Gaussian model with elliptical contours, including a Gaussian and t-distribution model. We discuss the statistical estimation by minimization of the empirical loss associated with the projective power entropy. It is shown that the minimum loss estimator for the mean vector and variance matrix under the maximum entropy model are the sample mean vector and the sample variance matrix. The escort distribution of the maximum entropy distribution plays the key role for the derivation.

  6. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Patrascu, Vasile

    2017-01-01

    This approach presents a multi-valued representation of the neutrosophic information. It highlights the link between the bifuzzy information and neutrosophic one. The constructed deca-valued structure shows the neutrosophic information complexity. This deca-valued structure led to construction of two new concepts for the neutrosophic information: neutro-entropy and anti-entropy. These two concepts are added to the two existing: entropy and non-entropy. Thus, we obtained the following triad: e...

  7. Quantum entanglement and Kaniadakis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourabah, Kamel; Hiba Hamici-Bendimerad, Amel; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2015-04-01

    A first use of Kaniadakis entropy in the context of quantum information is presented. First we show that (as all smooth and concave trace-form entropies) it exhibits some properties allowing it to be a possible candidate for a generalized quantum information theory. We then use it to determine the degree of entanglement. The influence of the parameter κ, that underpins Kaniadakis entropy, on the mutual information measure is then highlighted. It is shown that Kaniadakis entropy reduces the mutual information, which is always smaller than its usual von Neumann counterpart. Our results may contribute to the ongoing investigation involving generalized entropies in the context of quantum information.

  8. Avoiding the entropy trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1982-10-01

    Utopians who use entropy to warn of a vast deterioration of energy and mineral resources seek a self-fulfilling prophesy when they work to deny society access to new energy sources, particularly nuclear power. While theoretically correct, entropy is not the relevant factor for the rest of this century. The more extreme entropists call for a return to an eotechnic society based on decentralized, renewable energy technologies, which rests on the assumptions of a loss in Gibbs Free Energy, a mineral depletion that will lead to OPEC-like manipulation, and a current technology that is destroying the environment. The author challenges these assumptions and calls for an exorcism of public fears over reactor accidents. He foresees a resurgence in public confidence in nuclear power by 1990 that will resolve Western dependence on foreign oil. (DCK)

  9. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  10. Holographic entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the field of holographic entanglement entropy. Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, it is shown how quantum entanglement is computed by the area of certain extremal surfaces. The general lessons one can learn from this connection are drawn out for quantum field theories, many-body physics, and quantum gravity. An overview of the necessary background material is provided together with a flavor of the exciting open questions that are currently being discussed. The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part f...

  11. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  12. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  13. Entropy in probability and statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolke, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    The author develops a theory of entropy, where entropy is defined as the Legendre-Fenchel transform of the logarithmic moment generating function of a probability measure on a Banach space. A variety of properties relating the probability measure and its entropy are proven. It is shown that the entropy of a large class of stochastic processes can be approximated by the entropies of the finite-dimensional distributions of the process. For several types of measures the author finds explicit formulas for the entropy, for example for stochastic processes with independent increments and for Gaussian processes. For the entropy of Markov chains, evaluated at the observations of the process, the author proves a central limit theorem. Theorems relating weak convergence of probability measures on a finite dimensional space and pointwise convergence of their entropies are developed and then used to give a new proof of Donsker's theorem. Finally the use of entropy in statistics is discussed. The author shows the connection between entropy and Kullback's minimum discrimination information. A central limit theorem yields a test for the independence of a sequence of observations.

  14. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Three-Dimensional Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators on unstructured grids are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite difference, finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction/correction procedure via reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  15. Entropy Stable Wall Boundary Conditions for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsani, Matteo; Carpenter, Mark H.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-linear entropy stability and a summation-by-parts framework are used to derive entropy stable wall boundary conditions for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-discrete entropy estimate for the entire domain is achieved when the new boundary conditions are coupled with an entropy stable discrete interior operator. The data at the boundary are weakly imposed using a penalty flux approach and a simultaneous-approximation-term penalty technique. Although discontinuous spectral collocation operators are used herein for the purpose of demonstrating their robustness and efficacy, the new boundary conditions are compatible with any diagonal norm summation-by-parts spatial operator, including finite element, finite volume, finite difference, discontinuous Galerkin, and flux reconstruction schemes. The proposed boundary treatment is tested for three-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flows. The numerical computations corroborate the non-linear stability (entropy stability) and accuracy of the boundary conditions.

  16. Entanglement entropies of the quarter filled Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Läuchli, Andreas M.

    2014-09-01

    We study Rényi and von Neumann entanglement entropies in the ground state of the one dimensional quarter-filled Hubbard model with periodic boundary conditions. We show that they exhibit an unexpected dependence on system size: for L = 4mod 8 the results are in agreement with expectations based on conformal field theory, while for L = 0mod 8 additional contributions arise. We show that these can be understood in terms of a ‘shell-filling’ effect and we develop a conformal field theory approach to calculate the additional contributions to the entropies. These analytic results are found to be in excellent agreement with density matrix renormalization group computations for weak Hubbard interactions. We argue that for larger interactions the presence of a marginal irrelevant operator in the spin sector strongly affects the entropies at the finite sizes accessible numerically and we present an effective way to take them into account.

  17. On quantum Rényi entropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    in information theory and beyond. Various generalizations of Rényi entropies to the quantum setting have been proposed, most prominently Petz's quasi-entropies and Renner's conditional min-, max-, and collision entropy. However, these quantum extensions are incompatible and thus unsatisfactory. We propose a new...... quantum generalization of the family of Rényi entropies that contains the von Neumann entropy, min-entropy, collision entropy, and the max-entropy as special cases, thus encompassing most quantum entropies in use today. We show several natural properties for this definition, including data...

  18. Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Solodukhin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.

  19. Stability Analysis of a High-Speed Seal Test Rotor With Marginal and Extended Squeeze-Film Dampers: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Gunter, Edgar J.

    2007-01-01

    A case study of a high-speed seal test rotor shows how rotor dynamic analysis can be used to diagnose the source of high vibrations and evaluate a proposed remedy. Experimental results are compared with the synchronous and non-synchronous whirl response analysis of a double overhung, high-speed seal test rotor with ball bearings supported in 5.84- and 12.7-mm-long, un-centered squeeze-film oil dampers. Test performance with the original damper of length 5.84 mm was marginal. Non-synchronous whirling occurred at the overhung seal test disk and there was a high amplitude synchronous response near the drive spline above 32,000 rpm. Nonlinear synchronous unbalance and time transient whirl studies were conducted on the seal test rotor with the original and extended damper lengths. With the original damper design, the nonlinear synchronous response showed that unbalance could cause damper lockup at 33,000 rpm. Alford cross-coupling forces were also included at the overhung seal test disk for the whirl analysis. Sub-synchronous whirling at the seal test disk was observed in the nonlinear time transient analysis. With the extended damper length of 12.7 mm, the sub-synchronous motion was eliminated and the rotor unbalance response was acceptable to 45,000 rpm with moderate rotor unbalance. Seal test rotor orbits and vibration levels with the extended squeeze film dampers showed smooth operation to 40,444 rpm.

  20. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  1. Entropy of Causal Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    We analyze spacetimes with horizons and study the thermodynamic aspects of causal horizons, suggesting that the resemblance between gravitational and thermodynamic systems has a deeper quantum mechanical origin. We find that the observer dependence of such horizons is a direct consequence of associating a temperature and entropy to a spacetime. The geometrical picture of a horizon acting as a one-way membrane for information flow can be accepted as a natural interpretation of assigning a quantum field theory to a spacetime with boundary, ultimately leading to a close connection with thermodynamics.

  2. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  3. Monitoring the depth of anesthesia from rat EEG using modified Shannon entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Gyu; Kim, Tae-Ho; Jeong, Dae-Woong; Park, Sang-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an entropy based method for quantifying the depth of anesthesia from rat EEG is presented. The proposed index for the depth of anesthesia called modified Shannon entropy (MShEn) is based on Shannon entropy (ShEn) and spectral entropy (SpEn) which are widely used for analyzing non-stationary signals. Discrimination power (DP), as a performance indicator for indexes, is defined and used to derive the final index for the depth of anesthesia. For experiment, EEG from anesthetized rats are measured and analyzed by using MShEn. MShEn shows both high stability and high correlation with other indexes for depth of anesthesia.

  4. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  5. On the Calculation of System Entropy in Nonlinear Stochastic Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological networks are open systems that can utilize nutrients and energy from their environment for use in their metabolic processes, and produce metabolic products. System entropy is defined as the difference between input and output signal entropy, i.e., the net signal entropy of the biological system. System entropy is an important indicator for living or non-living biological systems, as biological systems can maintain or decrease their system entropy. In this study, system entropy is determined for the first time for stochastic biological networks, and a computation method is proposed to measure the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic biological networks that are subject to intrinsic random fluctuations and environmental disturbances. We find that intrinsic random fluctuations could increase the system entropy, and that the system entropy is inversely proportional to the robustness and stability of the biological networks. It is also determined that adding feedback loops to shift all eigenvalues to the farther left-hand plane of the complex s-domain could decrease the system entropy of a biological network.

  6. Approximate entropy of network parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James; Lacasa, Lucas; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    We study the notion of approximate entropy within the framework of network theory. Approximate entropy is an uncertainty measure originally proposed in the context of dynamical systems and time series. We first define a purely structural entropy obtained by computing the approximate entropy of the so-called slide sequence. This is a surrogate of the degree sequence and it is suggested by the frequency partition of a graph. We examine this quantity for standard scale-free and Erdös-Rényi networks. By using classical results of Pincus, we show that our entropy measure often converges with network size to a certain binary Shannon entropy. As a second step, with specific attention to networks generated by dynamical processes, we investigate approximate entropy of horizontal visibility graphs. Visibility graphs allow us to naturally associate with a network the notion of temporal correlations, therefore providing the measure a dynamical garment. We show that approximate entropy distinguishes visibility graphs generated by processes with different complexity. The result probes to a greater extent these networks for the study of dynamical systems. Applications to certain biological data arising in cancer genomics are finally considered in the light of both approaches.

  7. Entropy, Age and Time Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Gialampoukidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The time operator and internal age are intrinsic features of entropy producing innovation processes. The innovation spaces at each stage are the eigenspaces of the time operator. The internal age is the average innovation time, analogous to lifetime computation. Time operators were originally introduced for quantum systems and highly unstable dynamical systems. Extending the time operator theory to regular Markov chains allows one to relate internal age with norm distances from equilibrium. The goal of this work is to express the evolution of internal age in terms of Lyapunov functionals constructed from entropies. We selected the Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon entropy and more general entropy functions, namely the Tsallis entropies and the Kaniadakis entropies. Moreover, we compare the evolution of the distance of initial distributions from equilibrium to the evolution of the Lyapunov functionals constructed from norms with the evolution of Lyapunov functionals constructed from entropies. It is remarkable that the entropy functionals evolve, violating the second law of thermodynamics, while the norm functionals evolve thermodynamically.

  8. Entropy and Galilean invariance of lattice Boltzmann theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatamarla, Shyam S; Karlin, Iliya V

    2006-11-10

    A theory of lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for hydrodynamic simulation is developed upon a novel relation between entropy construction and roots of Hermite polynomials. A systematic procedure is described for constructing numerically stable and complete Galilean invariant LB models. The stability of the new LB models is illustrated with a shock tube simulation.

  9. Carbocation lifetimes and entropy of water addition to carbocations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Carbocation lifetimes and entropy of water addition to carbocations dependent on their stability. V JAGANNADHAM. Department of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India e-mail: jvandanapu@hotmail.com. MS received 11 January 2002. Abstract. Iminodiazonium ions (α-azidobenzyl carbocations) were ...

  10. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  11. Configurational entropy of anti-de Sitter black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R.F. Braga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the configurational entropy is an useful tool to investigate the stability and (or the relative dominance of states for diverse physical systems. Recent examples comprise the connection between the variation of this quantity and the relative fraction of light mesons and glueballs observed in hadronic processes. Here we develop a technique for defining a configurational entropy for an AdS-Schwarzschild black hole. The achieved result corroborates consistency with the Hawking–Page phase transition. Namely, the dominance of the black hole configurational entropy will be shown to increase with the temperature. In order to verify the consistency of the new procedure developed here, we also consider the case of black holes in flat space-time. For such a black hole, it is known that evaporation leads to instability. The configurational entropy obtained for the flat space case is thoroughly consistent with the physical expectation. In fact, we show that the smaller the black holes, the more unstable they are. So, the configurational entropy furnishes a reliable measure for stability of black holes.

  12. Configurational entropy of anti-de Sitter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC – UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-04-10

    Recent studies indicate that the configurational entropy is an useful tool to investigate the stability and (or) the relative dominance of states for diverse physical systems. Recent examples comprise the connection between the variation of this quantity and the relative fraction of light mesons and glueballs observed in hadronic processes. Here we develop a technique for defining a configurational entropy for an AdS-Schwarzschild black hole. The achieved result corroborates consistency with the Hawking–Page phase transition. Namely, the dominance of the black hole configurational entropy will be shown to increase with the temperature. In order to verify the consistency of the new procedure developed here, we also consider the case of black holes in flat space-time. For such a black hole, it is known that evaporation leads to instability. The configurational entropy obtained for the flat space case is thoroughly consistent with the physical expectation. In fact, we show that the smaller the black holes, the more unstable they are. So, the configurational entropy furnishes a reliable measure for stability of black holes.

  13. Entropy and equilibrium via games of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2004-09-01

    It is suggested that thermodynamical equilibrium equals game theoretical equilibrium. Aspects of this thesis are discussed. The philosophy is consistent with maximum entropy thinking of Jaynes, but goes one step deeper by deriving the maximum entropy principle from an underlying game theoretical principle. The games introduced are based on measures of complexity. Entropy is viewed as minimal complexity. It is demonstrated that Tsallis entropy ( q-entropy) and Kaniadakis entropy ( κ-entropy) can be obtained in this way, based on suitable complexity measures. A certain unifying effect is obtained by embedding these measures in a two-parameter family of entropy functions.

  14. n-Order and maximum fuzzy similarity entropy for discrimination of signals of different complexity: Application to fetal heart rate signals

    OpenAIRE

    Zaylaa, Amira,; Oudjemia, Souad; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents two new concepts for discrimination of signals of different complexity. The first focused initially on solving the problem of setting entropy descriptors by varying the pattern size instead of the tolerance. This led to the search for the optimal pattern size that maximized the similarity entropy. The second paradigm was based on the n-order similarity entropy that encompasses the 1-order similarity entropy. To improve the statistical stability, n-o...

  15. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... the eect: the isothermal magnetic entropy change and the adiabatic temperature change. Some of the manifestations and utilizations of the MCE will be touched upon in a general way and nally I will talk about the results I have obtained on a sample of Gadolinium Iron Garnet (GdIG, Gd3Fe5O12), which...

  16. Population entropies estimates of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wai Yee

    2017-05-01

    The Shannon entropy equation provides a way to estimate variability of amino acids sequences in a multiple sequence alignment of proteins. Knowledge of protein variability is useful in many areas such as vaccine design, identification of antibody binding sites, and exploration of protein 3D structural properties. In cases where the population entropies of a protein are of interest but only a small sample size can be obtained, a method based on linear regression and random subsampling can be used to estimate the population entropy. This method is useful for comparisons of entropies where the actual sequence counts differ and thus, correction for alignment size bias is needed. In the current work, an R based package named EntropyCorrect that enables estimation of population entropy is presented and an empirical study on how well this new algorithm performs on simulated dataset of various combinations of population and sample sizes is discussed. The package is available at https://github.com/lloydlow/EntropyCorrect. This article, which was originally published online on 12 May 2017, contained an error in Eq. (1), where the summation sign was missing. The corrected equation appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  17. The concept of entropy. Relation between action and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P.Badiali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Boltzmann expression for entropy represents the traditional link between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. New theoretical developments like the Unruh effect or the black hole theory suggest a new definition of entropy. In this paper we consider the thermodynamics of black holes as seriously founded and we try to see what we can learn from it in the case of ordinary systems for which a pre-relativistic description is sufficient. We introduce a space-time model and a new definition of entropy considering the thermal equilibrium from a dynamic point of view. Then we show that for black hole and ordinary systems we have the same relation relating a change of entropy to a change of action.

  18. Entanglement entropy converges to classical entropy around periodic orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, Curtis T., E-mail: ca2621@columbia.edu [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Berenstein, David, E-mail: dberens@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    We consider oscillators evolving subject to a periodic driving force that dynamically entangles them, and argue that this gives the linearized evolution around periodic orbits in a general chaotic Hamiltonian dynamical system. We show that the entanglement entropy, after tracing over half of the oscillators, generically asymptotes to linear growth at a rate given by the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents of the system. These exponents give a classical entropy growth rate, in the sense of Kolmogorov, Sinai and Pesin. We also calculate the dependence of this entropy on linear mixtures of the oscillator Hilbert-space factors, to investigate the dependence of the entanglement entropy on the choice of coarse graining. We find that for almost all choices the asymptotic growth rate is the same.

  19. Interval Entropy and Informative Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhroddin Misagh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Shannon interval entropy function as a useful dynamic measure of uncertainty for two sided truncated random variables has been proposed in the literature of reliability. In this paper, we show that interval entropy can uniquely determine the distribution function. Furthermore, we propose a measure of discrepancy between two lifetime distributions at the interval of time in base of Kullback-Leibler discrimination information. We study various properties of this measure, including its connection with residual and past measures of discrepancy and interval entropy, and we obtain its upper and lower bounds.

  20. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  1. Gravitational entropy of cosmic expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2014-01-01

    We apply a recent proposal to define "gravitational entropy" to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of non-perturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully non-linear regime described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a $\\Lambda$-CDM background model. However, the $\\Lambda$ term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate.

  2. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan

    2017-02-06

    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein's inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change.

  3. Quantile based Tsallis entropy in residual lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammar, A. H.; Jahanshahi, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Tsallis entropy is a generalization of type α of the Shannon entropy, that is a nonadditive entropy unlike the Shannon entropy. Shannon entropy may be negative for some distributions, but Tsallis entropy can always be made nonnegative by choosing appropriate value of α. In this paper, we derive the quantile form of this nonadditive's entropy function in the residual lifetime, namely the residual quantile Tsallis entropy (RQTE) and get the bounds for it, depending on the Renyi's residual quantile entropy. Also, we obtain relationship between RQTE and concept of proportional hazards model in the quantile setup. Based on the new measure, we propose a stochastic order and aging classes, and study its properties. Finally, we prove characterizations theorems for some well known lifetime distributions. It is shown that RQTE uniquely determines the parent distribution unlike the residual Tsallis entropy.

  4. Marginalization and health geomatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Kinman, Edward L; Miller, Louise C; Patrick, Timothy B

    2003-01-01

    Marginalized groups have been defined as groups that have been peripheralized from the center of society. Increasing nursing knowledge of marginalized groups and the dynamics of population diversity will enable nurses to better recognize shifting health patterns, plan for utilization of health services, and determine ethnic and cultural differences that exist in marginalized populations. The authors of this article review theoretical models responsible for defining the concept marginalization, describe geographical information systems as a recommended tool to evaluate marginalized groups, and provide a case study utilizing tools and maps as a means of assessing marginal situations.

  5. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Swingle, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula...

  6. Scaling behaviour of entropy estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürmann, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Entropy estimation of information sources is highly non-trivial for symbol sequences with strong long-range correlations. The rabbit sequence, related to the symbolic dynamics of the nonlinear circle map at the critical point as well as the logistic map at the Feigenbaum point, is known to produce long memory tails. For both dynamical systems the scaling behaviour of the block entropy of order n has been shown to increase ∝log n. In contrast to such probabilistic concepts, we investigate the scaling behaviour of certain non-probabilistic entropy estimation schemes suggested by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) in the context of algorithmic complexity and data compression. These are applied in a sequential manner with the scaling variable being the length N of the sequence. We determine the scaling law for the LZ entropy estimate applied to the case of the critical circle map and the logistic map at the Feigenbaum point in a binary partition.

  7. 475 OR Entropy.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    RE3 and SE3 respectively). Surgery was then allowed to proceed and sevoflurane concentrations and fresh gas flows were adjusted as necessary. The following calculations were performed: • The absolute changes in entropy ...

  8. Entanglement entropy in flat holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongliang; Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    BMS symmetry, which is the asymptotic symmetry at null infinity of flat spacetime, is an important input for flat holography. In this paper, we give a holographic calculation of entanglement entropy and Rényi entropy in three dimensional Einstein gravity and Topologically Massive Gravity. The geometric picture for the entanglement entropy is the length of a spacelike geodesic which is connected to the interval at null infinity by two null geodesics. The spacelike geodesic is the fixed points of replica symmetry, and the null geodesics are along the modular flow. Our strategy is to first reformulate the Rindler method for calculating entanglement entropy in a general setup, and apply it for BMS invariant field theories, and finally extend the calculation to the bulk.

  9. Quantum entropy and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher; Scudo, Petra F; Terno, Daniel R

    2002-06-10

    We consider a single free spin- 1 / 2 particle. The reduced density matrix for its spin is not covariant under Lorentz transformations. The spin entropy is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning.

  10. Holographic avatars of entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbon, J.L.F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT UAM/CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    This is a rendering of the blackboard lectures at the 2008 Cargese summer school, discussing some elementary facts regarding the application of AdS/CFT techniques to the computation of entanglement entropy in strongly coupled systems. We emphasize the situations where extensivity of the entanglement entropy can be used as a crucial criterion to characterize either nontrivial dynamical phenomena at large length scales, or nonlocality in the short-distance realm.

  11. Entropy Production in Chemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián C.

    2017-06-01

    We have analyzed entropy production in chemically reacting systems and extended previous results to the two limiting cases of ideal reactors, namely continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR). We have found upper and lower bounds for the entropy production in isothermal systems and given expressions for non-isothermal operation and analyzed the influence of pressure and temperature in entropy generation minimization in reactors with a fixed volume and production. We also give a graphical picture of entropy production in chemical reactions subject to constant volume, which allows us to easily assess different options. We show that by dividing a reactor into two smaller ones, operating at different temperatures, the entropy production is lowered, going as near as 48 % less in the case of a CSTR and PFR in series, and reaching 58 % with two CSTR. Finally, we study the optimal pressure and temperature for a single isothermal PFR, taking into account the irreversibility introduced by a compressor and a heat exchanger, decreasing the entropy generation by as much as 30 %.

  12. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  13. Holographic entanglement entropy in superconductor phase transition with dark matter sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the holographic phase transition with dark matter sector in the AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We discuss the properties of phases mostly from the holographic topological entanglement entropy of the system. We find the entanglement entropy is a good probe to the critical temperature and the order of the phase transition in the general model. The behaviors of entanglement entropy at large strip size suggest that the area law still holds when including dark matter sector. We also conclude that the holographic topological entanglement entropy is useful in detecting the stability of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we derive the complete diagram of the effects of coupled parameters on the critical temperature through the entanglement entropy and analytical methods.

  14. Metastable high-entropy dual-phase alloys overcome the strength-ductility trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiming; Pradeep, Konda Gokuldoss; Deng, Yun; Raabe, Dierk; Tasan, Cemal Cem

    2016-06-01

    Metals have been mankind’s most essential materials for thousands of years; however, their use is affected by ecological and economical concerns. Alloys with higher strength and ductility could alleviate some of these concerns by reducing weight and improving energy efficiency. However, most metallurgical mechanisms for increasing strength lead to ductility loss, an effect referred to as the strength-ductility trade-off. Here we present a metastability-engineering strategy in which we design nanostructured, bulk high-entropy alloys with multiple compositionally equivalent high-entropy phases. High-entropy alloys were originally proposed to benefit from phase stabilization through entropy maximization. Yet here, motivated by recent work that relaxes the strict restrictions on high-entropy alloy compositions by demonstrating the weakness of this connection, the concept is overturned. We decrease phase stability to achieve two key benefits: interface hardening due to a dual-phase microstructure (resulting from reduced thermal stability of the high-temperature phase); and transformation-induced hardening (resulting from the reduced mechanical stability of the room-temperature phase). This combines the best of two worlds: extensive hardening due to the decreased phase stability known from advanced steels and massive solid-solution strengthening of high-entropy alloys. In our transformation-induced plasticity-assisted, dual-phase high-entropy alloy (TRIP-DP-HEA), these two contributions lead respectively to enhanced trans-grain and inter-grain slip resistance, and hence, increased strength. Moreover, the increased strain hardening capacity that is enabled by dislocation hardening of the stable phase and transformation-induced hardening of the metastable phase produces increased ductility. This combined increase in strength and ductility distinguishes the TRIP-DP-HEA alloy from other recently developed structural materials. This metastability-engineering strategy should

  15. Noise and complexity in human postural control: interpreting the different estimations of entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Christopher K; Silver, Tobin A; Hong, S Lee; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Studenka, Breanna E; Hughes, Charmayne M L; Haddad, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-17

    Over the last two decades, various measures of entropy have been used to examine the complexity of human postural control. In general, entropy measures provide information regarding the health, stability and adaptability of the postural system that is not captured when using more traditional analytical techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine how noise, sampling frequency and time series length influence various measures of entropy when applied to human center of pressure (CoP) data, as well as in synthetic signals with known properties. Such a comparison is necessary to interpret data between and within studies that use different entropy measures, equipment, sampling frequencies or data collection durations. The complexity of synthetic signals with known properties and standing CoP data was calculated using Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis Entropy (RQAEn). All signals were examined at varying sampling frequencies and with varying amounts of added noise. Additionally, an increment time series of the original CoP data was examined to remove long-range correlations. Of the three measures examined, ApEn was the least robust to sampling frequency and noise manipulations. Additionally, increased noise led to an increase in SampEn, but a decrease in RQAEn. Thus, noise can yield inconsistent results between the various entropy measures. Finally, the differences between the entropy measures were minimized in the increment CoP data, suggesting that long-range correlations should be removed from CoP data prior to calculating entropy. The various algorithms typically used to quantify the complexity (entropy) of CoP may yield very different results, particularly when sampling frequency and noise are different. The results of this study are discussed within the context of the neural noise and loss of complexity hypotheses.

  16. Noise and complexity in human postural control: interpreting the different estimations of entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Rhea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, various measures of entropy have been used to examine the complexity of human postural control. In general, entropy measures provide information regarding the health, stability and adaptability of the postural system that is not captured when using more traditional analytical techniques. The purpose of this study was to examine how noise, sampling frequency and time series length influence various measures of entropy when applied to human center of pressure (CoP data, as well as in synthetic signals with known properties. Such a comparison is necessary to interpret data between and within studies that use different entropy measures, equipment, sampling frequencies or data collection durations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The complexity of synthetic signals with known properties and standing CoP data was calculated using Approximate Entropy (ApEn, Sample Entropy (SampEn and Recurrence Quantification Analysis Entropy (RQAEn. All signals were examined at varying sampling frequencies and with varying amounts of added noise. Additionally, an increment time series of the original CoP data was examined to remove long-range correlations. Of the three measures examined, ApEn was the least robust to sampling frequency and noise manipulations. Additionally, increased noise led to an increase in SampEn, but a decrease in RQAEn. Thus, noise can yield inconsistent results between the various entropy measures. Finally, the differences between the entropy measures were minimized in the increment CoP data, suggesting that long-range correlations should be removed from CoP data prior to calculating entropy. CONCLUSIONS: The various algorithms typically used to quantify the complexity (entropy of CoP may yield very different results, particularly when sampling frequency and noise are different. The results of this study are discussed within the context of the neural noise and loss of complexity hypotheses.

  17. Effect of extreme data loss on heart rate signals quantified by entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Wang, Jun; Li, Jin; Liu, Dazhao

    2015-02-01

    The phenomenon of data loss always occurs in the analysis of large databases. Maintaining the stability of analysis results in the event of data loss is very important. In this paper, we used a segmentation approach to generate a synthetic signal that is randomly wiped from data according to the Gaussian distribution and the exponential distribution of the original signal. Then, the logistic map is used as verification. Finally, two methods of measuring entropy-base-scale entropy and approximate entropy-are comparatively analyzed. Our results show the following: (1) Two key parameters-the percentage and the average length of removed data segments-can change the sequence complexity according to logistic map testing. (2) The calculation results have preferable stability for base-scale entropy analysis, which is not sensitive to data loss. (3) The loss percentage of HRV signals should be controlled below the range (p = 30 %), which can provide useful information in clinical applications.

  18. Quantum geometry and gravitational entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joan; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Czech, Bart Iomiej; Larjo, Klaus; Marolf, Donald; Simon, Joan

    2007-05-29

    Most quantum states have wavefunctions that are widely spread over the accessible Hilbert space and hence do not have a good description in terms of a single classical geometry. In order to understand when geometric descriptions are possible, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence in the half-BPS sector of asymptotically AdS_5 x S5 universes. In this sector we devise a"coarse-grained metric operator" whose eigenstates are well described by a single spacetime topology and geometry. We show that such half-BPS universes have a non-vanishing entropy if and only if the metric is singular, and that the entropy arises from coarse-graining the geometry. Finally, we use our entropy formula to find the most entropic spacetimes with fixed asymptotic moments beyond the global charges.

  19. A student's guide to entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Striving to explore the subject in as simple a manner as possible, this book helps readers understand the elusive concept of entropy. Innovative aspects of the book include the construction of statistical entropy, the derivation of the entropy of classical systems from purely classical assumptions, and a statistical thermodynamics approach to the ideal Fermi and ideal Bose gases. Derivations are worked through step-by-step and important applications are highlighted in over 20 worked examples. Nearly 50 end-of-chapter exercises test readers' understanding. The book also features a glossary giving definitions for all essential terms, a time line showing important developments, and list of books for further study. It is an ideal supplement to undergraduate courses in physics, engineering, chemistry and mathematics.

  20. Entropy Stable Summation-by-Parts Formulations for Compressible Computational Fluid Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Carpenter, M.H.

    2016-11-09

    A systematic approach based on a diagonal-norm summation-by-parts (SBP) framework is presented for implementing entropy stable (SS) formulations of any order for the compressible Navier–Stokes equations (NSE). These SS formulations discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy equality for smooth problems. They are also valid for discontinuous flows provided sufficient dissipation is added at shocks and discontinuities to satisfy an entropy inequality. Admissible SBP operators include all centred diagonal-norm finite-difference (FD) operators and Legendre spectral collocation-finite element methods (LSC-FEM). Entropy stable multiblock FD and FEM operators follows immediately via nonlinear coupling operators that ensure conservation, accuracy and preserve the interior entropy estimates. Nonlinearly stable solid wall boundary conditions are also available. Existing SBP operators that lack a stability proof (e.g. weighted essentially nonoscillatory) may be combined with an entropy stable operator using a comparison technique to guarantee nonlinear stability of the pair. All capabilities extend naturally to a curvilinear form of the NSE provided that the coordinate mappings satisfy a geometric conservation law constraint. Examples are presented that demonstrate the robustness of current state-of-the-art entropy stable SBP formulations.

  1. Construction of microcanonical entropy on thermodynamic pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele

    2015-05-01

    A question that is currently highly debated is whether the microcanonical entropy should be expressed as the logarithm of the phase volume (volume entropy, also known as the Gibbs entropy) or as the logarithm of the density of states (surface entropy, also known as the Boltzmann entropy). Rather than postulating them and investigating the consequence of each definition, as is customary, here we adopt a bottom-up approach and construct the entropy expression within the microcanonical formalism upon two fundamental thermodynamic pillars: (i) The second law of thermodynamics as formulated for quasistatic processes: δ Q /T is an exact differential, and (ii) the law of ideal gases: P V =kBN T . The first pillar implies that entropy must be some function of the phase volume Ω . The second pillar singles out the logarithmic function among all possible functions. Hence the construction leads uniquely to the expression S =kBlnΩ , that is, the volume entropy. As a consequence any entropy expression other than that of Gibbs, e.g., the Boltzmann entropy, can lead to inconsistencies with the two thermodynamic pillars. We illustrate this with the prototypical example of a macroscopic collection of noninteracting spins in a magnetic field, and show that the Boltzmann entropy severely fails to predict the magnetization, even in the thermodynamic limit. The uniqueness of the Gibbs entropy, as well as the demonstrated potential harm of the Boltzmann entropy, provide compelling reasons for discarding the latter at once.

  2. Solvation theory to provide a molecular interpretation of the hydrophobic entropy loss of noble-gas hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irudayam, Sheeba Jem; Henchman, Richard H

    2010-07-21

    An equation for the chemical potential of a dilute aqueous solution of noble gases is derived in terms of energies, force and torque magnitudes, and solute and water coordination numbers, quantities which are all measured from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Also derived are equations for the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of hydration for the Henry's law process, the Ostwald process, and a third proposed process going from an arbitrary concentration in the gas phase to the equivalent mole fraction in aqueous solution which has simpler expressions for the enthalpy and entropy changes. Good agreement with experimental hydration free energies is obtained in the TIP4P and SPC/E water models although the solute's force field appears to affect the enthalpies and entropies obtained. In contrast to other methods, the approach gives a complete breakdown of the entropy for every degree of freedom and makes possible a direct structural interpretation of the well-known entropy loss accompanying the hydrophobic hydration of small non-polar molecules under ambient conditions. The noble-gas solutes experience only a small reduction in their vibrational entropy, with larger solutes experiencing a greater loss. The vibrational and librational entropy components of water actually increase but only marginally, negating any idea of water confinement. The term that contributes the most to the hydrophobic entropy loss is found to be water's orientational term which quantifies the number of orientational minima per water molecule and how many ways the whole hydrogen-bond network can form. These findings help resolve contradictory deductions from experiments that water structure around non-polar solutes is similar to bulk water in some ways but different in others. That the entropy loss lies in water's rotational entropy contrasts with other claims that it largely lies in water's translational entropy, but this apparent discrepancy arises because of different

  3. Entanglement entropy: a perturbative calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhaus, Vladimir; Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-31

    We provide a framework for a perturbative evaluation of the reduced density matrix. The method is based on a path integral in the analytically continued spacetime. It suggests an alternative to the holographic and ‘standard’ replica trick calculations of entanglement entropy. We implement this method within solvable field theory examples to evaluate leading order corrections induced by small perturbations in the geometry of the background and entangling surface. Our findings are in accord with Solodukhin’s formula for the universal term of entanglement entropy for four dimensional CFTs.

  4. Catching homologies by geometric entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Franzosi, Roberto; Mancini, Stefano; Pettini, Marco

    2018-02-01

    A geometric entropy is defined in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. As such it can be a good candidate for measuring networks complexity. Here we investigate its ability to single out topological features of networks proceeding in a bottom-up manner: first we consider small size networks by analytical methods and then large size networks by numerical techniques. Two different classes of networks, the random graphs and the scale-free networks, are investigated computing their Betti numbers and then showing the capability of geometric entropy of detecting homologies.

  5. Text mining by Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaati, Maryam; Mehri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Long-range correlations between the elements of natural languages enable them to convey very complex information. Complex structure of human language, as a manifestation of natural languages, motivates us to apply nonextensive statistical mechanics in text mining. Tsallis entropy appropriately ranks the terms' relevance to document subject, taking advantage of their spatial correlation length. We apply this statistical concept as a new powerful word ranking metric in order to extract keywords of a single document. We carry out an experimental evaluation, which shows capability of the presented method in keyword extraction. We find that, Tsallis entropy has reliable word ranking performance, at the same level of the best previous ranking methods.

  6. Constructing space difference schemes which satisfy a cell entropy inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Marshal L.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical methodology for solving convection problems is presented, using finite difference schemes which satisfy the second law of thermodynamics on a cell-by-cell basis in addition to the usual conservation laws. It is shown that satisfaction of a cell entropy inequality is sufficient, in some cases, to guarantee nonlinear stability. Some details are given for several one-dimensional problems, including the quasi-one-dimensional Euler equations applied to flow in a nozzle.

  7. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  8. Entropy Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0337 Entropy Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity Jean-Luc Guermond TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY 750... Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0358 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...conservation equations can be stabilized by using the so-called entropy viscosity method and we proposed to to investigate this new technique. We

  9. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne, E-mail: anne.humeau@univ-angers.fr

    2016-04-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  10. The entropy principle thermodynamics for the unsatisfied

    CERN Document Server

    Thess, André

    2011-01-01

    Entropy is the most important and the most difficult to understand term of thermodynamics. This book helps make this key concept understandable. It includes seven illustrative examples of applications of entropy, which are presented step by step.

  11. On thermodynamic limits of entropy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriya, H; Van Enter, A

    We give some sufficient conditions which guarantee that the entropy density in the thermodynamic limit is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the entropy densities of finite-volume (local) Gibbs states.

  12. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinto Eguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  13. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  14. Marginalization of the Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2009-01-01

    The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization.......The article is based on a key note speach in Bielefeld on the subject "welfare state and marginalized youth", focusing upon the high ambition of expanding schooling in Denmark from 9 to 12 years. The unintended effect may be a new kind of marginalization....

  15. Generic Properties of Stochastic Entropy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Neri, Izaak; Roldán, Édgar; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-10-01

    We derive an Itô stochastic differential equation for entropy production in nonequilibrium Langevin processes. Introducing a random-time transformation, entropy production obeys a one-dimensional drift-diffusion equation, independent of the underlying physical model. This transformation allows us to identify generic properties of entropy production. It also leads to an exact uncertainty equality relating the Fano factor of entropy production and the Fano factor of the random time, which we also generalize to non-steady-state conditions.

  16. Entropy production in continuous phase space systems

    OpenAIRE

    Luposchainsky, David; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2013-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to compute the entropy production of a classical underdamped nonequilibrium system in a continuous phase space. This approach has the advantage that it is not necessary to distinguish between even and odd-parity variables. We show that the method leads to the same local entropy production as in previous studies while the differential entropy production along a stochastic trajectory turns out to be different. This demonstrates that the differential entropy prod...

  17. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  18. [Maximum entropy principle and population genetic equilibrium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Long; Yuan, Zhi-Fa; Guo, Man-Cai; Song, Shi-De; Zhang, Quan-Qi; Bao, Zhen-Min

    2002-06-01

    A general mathematic model of population genetic equilibrium was constructed based on the maximum entropy principle. We proved that the maximum entropy probability distribution was equivalent to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law. A population reached genetic equilibrium when the genotype entropy of the population reached the maximal possible value. In information theory, the entropy or the information content is used to measure the uncertainty of a system. In population genetics, we can use entropy to measure the uncertainty of the genotype of a population. The agreement of the maximum entropy principle and the hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law indicated that random crossing is an irreversible process, which increases the genotype entropy of the population, while inbreeding and selection decrease the genotype entropy of the population. In animal or plant breeding, we often use selection and/or inbreeding to decrease the entropy of a population, and use intercrossing to increase the entropy of the population. In this point of view, breeding is actually regulating the entropy of population. By applying the basic principle of informatics in population genetics, we revealed the biological significance of the genotype entropy and demonstrated that we can work over population genetic problems with the principles and methods of informatics and cybernetics.

  19. Topological Entropy of Cournot-Puu Duopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose S. Cánovas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze a classical duopoly model introduced by Tönu Puu in 1991. For that, we compute the topological entropy of the model and characterize those parameter values with positive entropy. Although topological entropy is a measure of the dynamical complexity of the model, we will show that such complexity could not be observed.

  20. The Entropy of Morbidity Trauma and Mortality

    CERN Document Server

    Neal-Sturgess, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that statistical mechanics in the form of thermodynamic entropy can be used as a measure of the severity of individual injuries (AIS), and that the correct way to account for multiple injuries is to sum the entropies. It is further shown that summing entropies according to the Planck-Boltzmann (P-B) definition of entropy is formally the same as ISS, which is why ISS works. Approximate values of the probabilities of fatality are used to calculate the Gibb's entropy, which is more accurate than the P-B entropy far from equilibrium, and are shown to be again proportional to ISS. For the categorisation of injury using entropies it is necessary to consider the underlying entropy of the individuals morbidity to which is added the entropy of trauma, which then may result in death. Adding in the underlying entropy and summing entropies of all AIS3+ values gives a more extended scale than ISS, and so entropy is considered the preferred measure. A small scale trial is conducted of these concep...

  1. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  2. Quantum Kaniadakis entropy under projective measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourabah, Kamel; Hamici-Bendimerad, Amel Hiba; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that the von Neumann entropy of a quantum state does not decrease with a projective measurement. This property holds for Tsallis and Rényi entropies as well. We show that the recently introduced quantum version of the Kaniadakis entropy preserves this property.

  3. On The Generalized Additivity Of Kaniadakis Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Since entropy has several applications in the information theory, such as, for example, in bi-level or multi-level thresholding of images, it is interesting to investigate the generalized additivity of Kaniadakis entropy for more than two systems. Here we consider the additivity for three, four and five systems, because we aim applying Kaniadakis entropy to such multi-level analyses

  4. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  5. Origin of the 'Extra Entropy'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R.

    2008-01-01

    I will discuss how one can determine the origin of the 'extra entropy' in groups and clusters and the feedback needed in models of galaxy formation. I will stress the use of x-ray spectroscopy and imaging and the critical value that Con-X has in this regard.

  6. Biosemiotic Entropy: Concluding the Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Oller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concludes the special issue on Biosemiotic Entropy looking toward the future on the basis of current and prior results. It highlights certain aspects of the series, concerning factors that damage and degenerate biosignaling systems. As in ordinary linguistic discourse, well-formedness (coherence in biological signaling systems depends on valid representations correctly construed: a series of proofs are presented and generalized to all meaningful sign systems. The proofs show why infants must (as empirical evidence shows they do proceed through a strict sequence of formal steps in acquiring any language. Classical and contemporary conceptions of entropy and information are deployed showing why factors that interfere with coherence in biological signaling systems are necessary and sufficient causes of disorders, diseases, and mortality. Known sources of such formal degeneracy in living organisms (here termed, biosemiotic entropy include: (a toxicants, (b pathogens; (c excessive exposures to radiant energy and/or sufficiently powerful electromagnetic fields; (d traumatic injuries; and (e interactions between the foregoing factors. Just as Jaynes proved that irreversible changes invariably increase entropy, the theory of true narrative representations (TNR theory demonstrates that factors disrupting the well-formedness (coherence of valid representations, all else being held equal, must increase biosemiotic entropy—the kind impacting biosignaling systems.

  7. Entanglement Entropy of Black Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, J Robel; 10.1393/ncb/i2010-10922-3

    2011-01-01

    We present a coherent account of how the entanglement interpretation, thermofield dynamical description and the brick wall formulations (with the ground state correctly identified) fit into a connected and self-consistent explanation of what Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is, and where it is located.

  8. Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bezryadin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.

  9. Evolutionary entropy determines invasion success in emergent epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Rhodes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Standard epidemiological theory claims that in structured populations competition between multiple pathogen strains is a deterministic process which is mediated by the basic reproduction number (R0 of the individual strains. A new theory based on analysis, simulation and empirical study challenges this predictor of success. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the quantity R0 is a valid predictor in structured populations only when size is infinite. In this article we show that when population size is finite the dynamics of infection by multi-strain pathogens is a stochastic process whose outcome can be predicted by evolutionary entropy, S, an information theoretic measure which describes the uncertainty in the infectious age of an infected parent of a randomly chosen new infective. Evolutionary entropy characterises the demographic stability or robustness of the population of infectives. This statistical parameter determines the duration of infection and thus provides a quantitative index of the pathogenicity of a strain. Standard epidemiological theory based on R0 as a measure of selective advantage is the limit as the population size tends to infinity of the entropic selection theory. The standard model is an approximation to the entropic selection theory whose validity increases with population size. CONCLUSION: An epidemiological analysis based on entropy is shown to explain empirical observations regarding the emergence of less pathogenic strains of human influenza during the antigenic drift phase. Furthermore, we exploit the entropy perspective to discuss certain epidemiological patterns of the current H1N1 swine flu outbreak.

  10. Maximum Entropy and Probability Kinematics Constrained by Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lukits

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two open questions of inductive reasoning are solved: (1 does the principle of maximum entropy (PME give a solution to the obverse Majerník problem; and (2 isWagner correct when he claims that Jeffrey’s updating principle (JUP contradicts PME? Majerník shows that PME provides unique and plausible marginal probabilities, given conditional probabilities. The obverse problem posed here is whether PME also provides such conditional probabilities, given certain marginal probabilities. The theorem developed to solve the obverse Majerník problem demonstrates that in the special case introduced by Wagner PME does not contradict JUP, but elegantly generalizes it and offers a more integrated approach to probability updating.

  11. Practical Marginalized Multilevel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michael E.; Swihart, Bruce J.; Caffo, Brian S.; Zeger, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Clustered data analysis is characterized by the need to describe both systematic variation in a mean model and cluster-dependent random variation in an association model. Marginalized multilevel models embrace the robustness and interpretations of a marginal mean model, while retaining the likelihood inference capabilities and flexible dependence structures of a conditional association model. Although there has been increasing recognition of the attractiveness of marginalized multilevel models, there has been a gap in their practical application arising from a lack of readily available estimation procedures. We extend the marginalized multilevel model to allow for nonlinear functions in both the mean and association aspects. We then formulate marginal models through conditional specifications to facilitate estimation with mixed model computational solutions already in place. We illustrate the MMM and approximate MMM approaches on a cerebrovascular deficiency crossover trial using SAS and an epidemiological study on race and visual impairment using R. Datasets, SAS and R code are included as supplemental materials. PMID:24357884

  12. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

  13. Controlling the shannon entropy of quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.

  14. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.

  15. Towards information inequalities for generalized graph entropies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Sivakumar

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the problem of establishing relations between information measures for network structures. Two types of entropy based measures namely, the Shannon entropy and its generalization, the Rényi entropy have been considered for this study. Our main results involve establishing formal relationships, by means of inequalities, between these two kinds of measures. Further, we also state and prove inequalities connecting the classical partition-based graph entropies and partition-independent entropy measures. In addition, several explicit inequalities are derived for special classes of graphs.

  16. Generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Miao, Rong-Xin [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute),Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2015-12-16

    We investigate the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivative terms in the gravitational action. Following the method of Lewkowycz and Maldacena, we find that the generalized gravitational entropy from total derivatives vanishes. We compare our results with the work of Astaneh, Patrushev, and Solodukhin. We find that if total derivatives produced nonzero entropy, the holographic and the field-theoretic universal terms of entanglement entropy would not match. Furthermore, the second law of thermodynamics could be violated if the entropy of total derivatives did not vanish.

  17. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Ormos

    Full Text Available We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  18. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  19. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  20. Towards an Entropy Stable Spectral Element Framework for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Carpenter, Mark H.

    2016-01-04

    Nonlinearly stable finite element methods of arbitrary type and order, are currently unavailable for discretizations of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Summation-by-parts (SBP) entropy stability analysis provides a means of constructing nonlinearly stable discrete operators of arbitrary order, but is currently limited to simple element types. Herein, recent progress is reported, on developing entropy-stable (SS) discontinuous spectral collocation formulations for hexahedral elements. Two complementary efforts are discussed. The first effort generalizes previous SS spectral collocation work to extend the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) points. The LG and LGL point formulations are compared on a series of test problems. Both the LGL and LG operators are of comparable efficiency and robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems for which conventional FEM techniques suffer instability. The second effort extends previous work on entropy stability to include p-refinement at nonconforming interfaces. A generalization of existing entropy stability theory is required to accommodate the nuances of fully multidimensional SBP operators. The entropy stability of the compressible Euler equations on nonconforming interfaces is demonstrated using the newly developed LG operators and multidimensional interface interpolation operators. Preliminary studies suggest design order accuracy at nonconforming interfaces.

  1. Conservative models: parametric entropy vs. temporal entropy in outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lumeng; Ritzi, Robert W; Ramanathan, Ramya

    2012-01-01

    The geologic architecture in aquifer systems affects the behavior of fluid flow and the dispersion of mass. The spatial distribution and connectivity of higher-permeability facies play an important role. Models that represent this geologic structure have reduced entropy in the spatial distribution of permeability relative to models without structure. The literature shows that the stochastic model with the greatest variance in the distribution of predictions (i.e., the most conservative model) will not simply be the model representing maximum disorder in the permeability field. This principle is further explored using the Shannon entropy as a single metric to quantify and compare model parametric spatial disorder to the temporal distribution of mass residence times in model predictions. The principle is most pronounced when geologic structure manifests as preferential-flow pathways through the system via connected high-permeability sediments. As per percolation theory, at certain volume fractions the full connectivity of the high-permeability sediments will not be represented unless the model is three-dimensional. At these volume fractions, two-dimensional models can profoundly underrepresent the entropy in the real, three-dimensional, aquifer system. Thus to be conservative, stochastic models must be three-dimensional and include geologic structure. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  3. "We call ourselves marginalized"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, indigenous knowledge has been added to the environmental education agenda in an attempt to address the marginalization of non-western perspectives. While these efforts are necessary, the debate is often framed in terms of a discourse of victimization that overlooks the agency...... argue that researchers not only need to pay attention to how certain voices are marginalized in Environmental Education research and practice, but also to how learners as agents respond to, use and negotiate the marginalization of their perspectives....

  4. Modular invariance and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, Sagar Fakirchand; Mukhi, Sunil [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Homi Bhabha Rd, Pashan, Pune 411 008 (India)

    2015-06-17

    We study the Rényi and entanglement entropies for free 2d CFT’s at finite temperature and finite size, with emphasis on their properties under modular transformations of the torus. We address the issue of summing over fermion spin structures in the replica trick, and show that the relation between entanglement and thermal entropy determines two different ways to perform this sum in the limits of small and large interval. Both answers are modular covariant, rather than invariant. Our results are compared with those for a free boson at unit radius in the two limits and complete agreement is found, supporting the view that entanglement respects Bose-Fermi duality. We extend our computations to multiple free Dirac fermions having correlated spin structures, dual to free bosons on the Spin(2d) weight lattice.

  5. An instructive model of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Seth

    2010-09-01

    This article first notes the misinterpretation of a common thought experiment, and the misleading comment that 'systems tend to flow from less probable to more probable macrostates'. It analyses the experiment, generalizes it and introduces a new tool of investigation, the simplectic structure. A time-symmetric model is built upon this structure, yielding several non-intuitive results. The approach is combinatorial rather than statistical, and assumes that entropy is equivalent to 'missing information'. The intention of this article is not only to present interesting results, but also, by deliberately starting with a simple example and developing it through proof and computer simulation, to clarify the often confusing subject of entropy. The article should be particularly stimulating to students and instructors of discrete mathematics or undergraduate physics.

  6. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  8. Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Humeau-Heurtier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.

  9. A maximum-entropy model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entropy of the S-matrix statistical distribution is maximized, with the constraint TrSS† αn: n is the dimensionality of S, and 0 α. 1. For α. 1 the S-matrix distribution concentrates on the unitarity sphere and we have no absorption; for α. 0 the distribution becomes a ... light of a central-limit theorem. For weak absorption, some ...

  10. The Homological Nature of Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Baudot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose that entropy is a universal co-homological class in a theory associated to a family of observable quantities and a family of probability distributions. Three cases are presented: (1 classical probabilities and random variables; (2 quantum probabilities and observable operators; (3 dynamic probabilities and observation trees. This gives rise to a new kind of topology for information processes, that accounts for the main information functions: entropy, mutual-informations at all orders, and Kullback–Leibler divergence and generalizes them in several ways. The article is divided into two parts, that can be read independently. In the first part, the introduction, we provide an overview of the results, some open questions, future results and lines of research, and discuss briefly the application to complex data. In the second part we give the complete definitions and proofs of the theorems A, C and E in the introduction, which show why entropy is the first homological invariant of a structure of information in four contexts: static classical or quantum probability, dynamics of classical or quantum strategies of observation of a finite system.

  11. Indian Ocean margins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    The most important biogeochemical transformations and boundary exchanges in the Indian Ocean seem to occur in the northern region, where the processes originating at the land-ocean boundary extend far beyond the continental margins. Exchanges across...

  12. Thermodynamic studies of different black holes with modifications of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Amritendu; Biswas, Ritabrata

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the thermodynamic properties of black holes are topics of interests. We investigate the thermodynamic properties like surface gravity and Hawking temperature on event horizon of regular black holes viz. Hayward Class and asymptotically AdS (Anti-de Sitter) black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamic volume and naive geometric volume of asymptotically AdS black holes and show that the entropy of these black holes is simply the ratio of the naive geometric volume to thermodynamic volume. We plot the different graphs and interpret them physically. We derive the `cosmic-Censorship-Inequality' for both type of black holes. Moreover, we calculate the thermal heat capacity of aforesaid black holes and study their stabilities in different regimes. Finally, we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy for both the black holes considering the quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and study the corresponding thermodynamics.

  13. Approximation of entropy solutions to degenerate nonlinear parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Eduardo; Colombeau, Mathilde; Panov, Evgeny Yu

    2017-12-01

    We approximate the unique entropy solutions to general multidimensional degenerate parabolic equations with BV continuous flux and continuous nondecreasing diffusion function (including scalar conservation laws with BV continuous flux) in the periodic case. The approximation procedure reduces, by means of specific formulas, a system of PDEs to a family of systems of the same number of ODEs in the Banach space L^∞, whose solutions constitute a weak asymptotic solution of the original system of PDEs. We establish well posedness, monotonicity and L^1-stability. We prove that the sequence of approximate solutions is strongly L^1-precompact and that it converges to an entropy solution of the original equation in the sense of Carrillo. This result contributes to justify the use of this original method for the Cauchy problem to standard multidimensional systems of fluid dynamics for which a uniqueness result is lacking.

  14. Marginal AMP chain graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new family of models that is based on graphs that may have undirected, directed and bidirected edges. We name these new models marginal AMP (MAMP) chain graphs because each of them is Markov equivalent to some AMP chain graph under marginalization of some of its nodes. However, MAMP chain graphs do not only subsume AMP chain graphs but also multivariate regression chain graphs. We describe global and pairwise Markov properties for MAMP chain graphs and prove their equivalence for...

  15. SOCIAL MARGINALIZATION AND HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Bogdanović

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was characterized by special improvement in health. The aim of WHO’s policy EQUITY IN HEALTH is to enable equal accessibility and equal high quality of health care for all citizens. More or less some social groups have stayed out of many social systems even out of health care system in the condition of social marginalization. Phenomenon of social marginalization is characterized by dynamics. Marginalized persons have lack of control over their life and available resources. Social marginalization stands for a stroke on health and makes the health status worse. Low socio-economic level dramatically influences people’s health status, therefore, poverty and illness work together. Characteristic marginalized groups are: Roma people, people with AIDS, prisoners, persons with development disorders, persons with mental health disorders, refugees, homosexual people, delinquents, prostitutes, drug consumers, homeless…There is a mutual responsibility of community and marginalized individuals in trying to resolve the problem. Health and other problems could be solved only by multisector approach to well-designed programs.

  16. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urien, C.M. [Buenos Aires Technological Institute Petroleum School, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  17. Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Charles A.; Shastry, Abhay

    2017-03-01

    The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical potential can only be expressed in terms of derivatives of the local entropy for linear deviations from local equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics is shown to lead to an inequality, not equality, for the change in the local entropy as the nonequilibrium state of the system is changed. The maximum entropy principle (second law of thermodynamics) is proven: a nonequilibrium distribution has a local entropy less than or equal to a local equilibrium distribution satisfying the same constraints. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the local temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

  18. Choosing a Definition of Entropy that Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2012-04-01

    Disagreements over the meaning of the thermodynamic entropy and how it should be defined in statistical mechanics have endured for well over a century. In an earlier paper, I showed that there were at least nine essential properties of entropy that are still under dispute among experts. In this paper, I examine the consequences of differing definitions of the thermodynamic entropy of macroscopic systems. Two proposed definitions of entropy in classical statistical mechanics are (1) defining entropy on the basis of probability theory (first suggested by Boltzmann in 1877), and (2) the traditional textbook definition in terms of a volume in phase space (also attributed to Boltzmann). The present paper demonstrates the consequences of each of these proposed definitions of entropy and argues in favor of a definition based on probabilities.

  19. Effect of electron count and chemical complexity in the Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti high-entropy alloy superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohr, Fabian; Winiarski, Michał J; Tao, Jing; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Cava, Robert Joseph

    2016-11-15

    High-entropy alloys are made from random mixtures of principal elements on simple lattices, stabilized by a high mixing entropy. The recently discovered body-centered cubic (BCC) Ta-Nb-Hf-Zr-Ti high-entropy alloy superconductor appears to display properties of both simple crystalline intermetallics and amorphous materials; e.g., it has a well-defined superconducting transition along with an exceptional robustness against disorder. Here we show that the valence electron count dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the high-entropy alloy falls between those of analogous simple solid solutions and amorphous materials and test the effect of alloy complexity on the superconductivity. We propose high-entropy alloys as excellent intermediate systems for studying superconductivity as it evolves between crystalline and amorphous materials.

  20. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    While emission and absorption entropy generation is well known in black bodies, it has not previously been studied in semiconductors, even though semiconductors are widely used for solar light absorption in modern solar cells [1]. We present an analysis of the entropy generation in semiconductor materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconduc...

  1. Entropy jump across an inviscid shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Manuel D.; Iollo, Angelo

    1995-01-01

    The shock jump conditions for the Euler equations in their primitive form are derived by using generalized functions. The shock profiles for specific volume, speed, and pressure are shown to be the same, however density has a different shock profile. Careful study of the equations that govern the entropy shows that the inviscid entropy profile has a local maximum within the shock layer. We demonstrate that because of this phenomenon, the entropy, propagation equation cannot be used as a conservation law.

  2. Entropy In the Universe: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alfonso-Faus

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We propose a new definition of entropy for any mass m, based on gravitation and through the concept of a gravitational cross section. It turns out to be proportional to mass, and therefore extensive, and to the age of the Universe. It is a Machian approach. It is also the number of gravity quanta the mass has emitted through its age. The entropy of the Uni-verse is so determined and the cosmological entropy problem solved.

  3. On Gravitational Entropy of de Sitter Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ulhoa, S C

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the calculation of the gravitational entropy in the context of teleparallel gravity for de Sitter space-time. In such a theory it is possible to define gravitational energy and pressure, thus we use those expressions to construct the gravitational entropy. We interpret the cosmological constant as the temperature and write the first law of thermodynamics. In the limit $\\Lambda\\ll 1$ we find that the entropy is proportional to volume and $\\Delta S\\geq 0$.

  4. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  5. Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I M

    2016-01-01

    Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1+1+2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole endstate to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.

  6. Constructing black hole entropy from gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Giovanni; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I M

    2014-01-01

    Based on a recent proposal for the gravitational entropy of free gravitational fields, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole formation through gravitational collapse in the framework of the semitetrad 1+1+2 covariant formalism. In the simplest case of an Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt collapse we prove that the change in gravitational entropy outside a collapsing body is related to the variation of the surface area of the body itself, even before the formation of horizons. As a result, we are able to relate the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole endstate to the variation of the vacuum gravitational entropy outside the collapsing body.

  7. Polynomial entropies for Bott nondegenerate Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Labrousse, Clémence; Marco, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the entropy of a Hamiltonian flow in restriction to an enregy level where it admits a first integral which is nondegenerate in the Bott sense. It is easy to see that for such a flow, the topological entropy vanishes. We focus on the polynomial and the weak polynomial entropies. We prove that, under conditions on the critical level of the Bott first integral and dynamical conditions on the hamiltonian function, the weak polynomial entropy belongs to {0,1} and the polyno...

  8. Entanglement entropy for nonzero genus topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Ghosh, Suman; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last three decades, entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in Genus-0 topologies (spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years, nontrivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it is then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the Genus-1 geometry.

  9. Three faces of entropy for complex systems: Information, thermodynamics, and the maximum entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Stefan; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf

    2017-09-01

    There are at least three distinct ways to conceptualize entropy: entropy as an extensive thermodynamic quantity of physical systems (Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs), entropy as a measure for information production of ergodic sources (Shannon), and entropy as a means for statistical inference on multinomial processes (Jaynes maximum entropy principle). Even though these notions represent fundamentally different concepts, the functional form of the entropy for thermodynamic systems in equilibrium, for ergodic sources in information theory, and for independent sampling processes in statistical systems, is degenerate, H (p ) =-∑ipilogpi . For many complex systems, which are typically history-dependent, nonergodic, and nonmultinomial, this is no longer the case. Here we show that for such processes, the three entropy concepts lead to different functional forms of entropy, which we will refer to as SEXT for extensive entropy, SIT for the source information rate in information theory, and SMEP for the entropy functional that appears in the so-called maximum entropy principle, which characterizes the most likely observable distribution functions of a system. We explicitly compute these three entropy functionals for three concrete examples: for Pólya urn processes, which are simple self-reinforcing processes, for sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes, which are simple history dependent processes that are associated with power-law statistics, and finally for multinomial mixture processes.

  10. Risk Contagion in Chinese Banking Industry: A Transfer Entropy-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What is the impact of a bank failure on the whole banking industry? To resolve this issue, the paper develops a transfer entropy-based method to determine the interbank exposure matrix between banks. This method constructs the interbank market structure by calculating the transfer entropy matrix using bank stock price sequences. This paper also evaluates the stability of Chinese banking system by simulating the risk contagion process. This paper contributes to the literature on interbank contagion mainly in two ways: it establishes a convincing connection between interbank market and transfer entropy, and exploits the market information (stock price rather than presumptions to determine the interbank exposure matrix. Second, the empirical analysis provides an in depth understanding of the stability of the current Chinese banking system.

  11. Engineering Entropy for Colloidal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yina; Anders, Greg Van; Dodd, Paul M.; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Glotzer group Collaboration

    The inverse design of target material structures is a fundamental challenge. Here, we demonstrate the direct inverse design of soft materials for target crystal structures using entropy alone. Our approach does not require any geometric ansatz. Instead, it efficiently samples 92- or 188-dimensional building-block parameter spaces to determine thermodynamically optimal shapes. We present detailed data for optimal particle characteristics and parameter tolerances for six target structures. Our results demonstrate a general, rational, and precise method for engineering new colloidal materials, and will guide nanoparticle synthesis to realize these materials.

  12. Topological entropy of autonomous flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badii, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    When studying fluid dynamics, especially in a turbulent regime, it is crucial to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom or of localized structures in the system. The topological entropy quantifies the exponential growth of the number of `distinct` orbits in a dynamical system as a function of their length, in the infinite spatial resolution limit. Here, I illustrate a novel method for its evaluation, which extends beyond maps and is applicable to any system, including autonomous flows: these are characterized by lack of a definite absolute time scale for the orbit lengths. (author) 8 refs.

  13. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  14. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...... of entities that are ever open to identity shifts.  The concept of the margin possesses a much wider reach than borders, and focuses continual attention on the meetings and interactions between a range of indeterminate entities whose interactions may determine both themselves and the types of entity...

  15. Clausius entropy for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2014-02-01

    Jacobson’s thermodynamic derivation of the Einstein equations was originally applied only to local Rindler horizons. But at least some parts of that construction can usefully be extended to give meaningful results for arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces. As presaged in Jacobson’s original article, this more general construction sharply brings into focus the questions: is entropy objectively ‘real’? Or is entropy in some sense subjective and observer-dependent? These innocent questions open a Pandora’s box of often inconclusive debate. A consensus opinion, though certainly not universally held, seems to be that Clausius entropy (thermodynamic entropy, defined via a Clausius relation {\\rm{d}}S = \\unicode{x111} Q/T) should be objectively real, but that the ontological status of statistical entropy (Shannon or von Neumann entropy) is much more ambiguous, and much more likely to be observer-dependent. This question is particularly pressing when it comes to understanding Bekenstein entropy (black hole entropy). To perhaps further add to the confusion, we shall argue that even the Clausius entropy can often be observer-dependent. In the current article we shall conclusively demonstrate that one can meaningfully assign a notion of Clausius entropy to arbitrary bifurcate null surfaces—effectively defining a ‘virtual Clausius entropy’ for arbitrary ‘virtual (local) causal horizons’. As an application, we see that we can implement a version of the generalized second law (GSL) for this virtual Clausius entropy. This version of GSL can be related to certain (nonstandard) integral variants of the null energy condition. Because the concepts involved are rather subtle, we take some effort in being careful and explicit in developing our framework. In future work we will apply this construction to generalize Jacobson’s derivation of the Einstein equations.

  16. Exact Probability Distribution versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Andersson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem  addressed concerns the determination of the average number of successive attempts  of guessing  a word of a certain  length consisting of letters with given probabilities of occurrence. Both first- and second-order approximations  to a natural language are considered.  The guessing strategy used is guessing words in decreasing order of probability. When word and alphabet sizes are large, approximations  are necessary in order to estimate the number of guesses.  Several  kinds of approximations  are discussed demonstrating moderate requirements regarding both memory and central processing unit (CPU time. When considering realistic  sizes of alphabets and words (100, the number of guesses can be estimated  within minutes with reasonable accuracy (a few percent and may therefore constitute an alternative to, e.g., various entropy expressions.  For many probability  distributions,  the density of the logarithm of probability products is close to a normal distribution. For those cases, it is possible to derive an analytical expression for the average number of guesses. The proportion  of guesses needed on average compared to the total number  decreases almost exponentially with the word length. The leading term in an asymptotic  expansion can be used to estimate the number of guesses for large word lengths. Comparisons with analytical lower bounds and entropy expressions are also provided.

  17. Weighted entropy for segmentation evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin F.; Bhuiyan, Sharif M.

    2014-04-01

    In many image, video and computer vision systems the image segmentation is an essential part. Significant research has been done in image segmentation and a number of quantitative evaluation methods have already been proposed in the literature. However, often the segmentation evaluation is subjective that means it has been done visually or qualitatively. A segmentation evaluation method based on entropy is proposed in this work which is objective and simple to implement. A weighted self and mutual entropy are proposed to measure the dissimilarity of the pixels among the segmented regions and the similarity within a region. This evaluation technique gives a score that can be used to compare different segmentation algorithms for the same image, or to compare the segmentation results of a given algorithm with different images, or to find the best suited values of the parameters of a segmentation algorithm for a given image. The simulation results show that the proposed method can identify over-segmentation, under-segmentation, and the good segmentation.

  18. Quantum information entropies for position-dependent mass Schrödinger problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yañez-Navarro, G. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, UPALM, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico); Sun, Guo-Hua, E-mail: sunghdb@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de México, 56615 (Mexico); Dytrych, T., E-mail: tdytrych@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Launey, K.D., E-mail: kristina@baton.phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, UPALM, Mexico D. F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Draayer, J.P., E-mail: draayer@sura.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The Shannon entropy for the position-dependent Schrödinger equation for a particle with a nonuniform solitonic mass density is evaluated in the case of a trivial null potential. The position S{sub x} and momentum S{sub p} information entropies for the three lowest-lying states are calculated. In particular, for these states, we are able to derive analytical solutions for the S{sub x} entropy as well as for the Fourier transformed wave functions, while the S{sub p} quantity is calculated numerically. We notice the behavior of the S{sub x} entropy, namely, it decreases as the mass barrier width narrows and becomes negative beyond a particular width. The negative Shannon entropy exists for the probability densities that are highly localized. The mass barrier determines the stability of the system. The dependence of S{sub p} on the width is contrary to the one for S{sub x}. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρ{sub s}(x) and ρ{sub s}(p) are demonstrated. In addition, the Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is tested for a number of states and found to hold for all the cases.

  19. Microstructure and magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed FeSiBAlNi (Nb) high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhou; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of milling duration and composition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of equi-atomic FeSiBAlNi and FeSiBAlNiNb high entropy alloys during mechanical alloying have been investigated using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and alternating gradient magnetometry. The amorphous high entropy alloys have been successfully fabricated using the mechanical alloying method. The results show that the Nb addition prolongs the milling time for the formation of the fully FeSiBAlNi amorphous phase and decreases the glass forming ability. However, FeSiBAlNiNb amorphous high entropy alloy has the higher thermal stability and heat resisting properties. Moreover, the as-milled FeSiBAlNi(Nb) powders are soft-magnetic materials indicated by their low coercivity. The saturation magnetization of the as-milled FeSiBAlNi(Nb) powders decreases with prolonging of the milling time and shows the lowest value when the amorphous high entropy alloys are formed. It suggests that the as-milled products with solid solution phases show the better soft-magnetic properties than those with fully amorphous phases. The Nb addition does not improve the soft-magnetic properties of the FeSiBAlNi high entropy alloys. Rather, both amorphous high entropy alloys have similar soft-magnetic properties after a long milling time.

  20. Using Link Disconnection Entropy Disorder to Detect Fast Moving Nodes in MANETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Alvarez

    Full Text Available Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs are dynamic by nature; this dynamism comes from node mobility, traffic congestion, and other transmission conditions. Metrics to evaluate the effects of those conditions shine a light on node's behavior in an ad-hoc network, helping to identify the node or nodes with better conditions of connection. In this paper, we propose a relative index to evaluate a single node reliability, based on the link disconnection entropy disorder using neighboring nodes as reference. Link disconnection entropy disorder is best used to identify fast moving nodes or nodes with unstable communications, this without the need of specialized sensors such as GPS. Several scenarios were studied to verify the index, measuring the effects of Speed and traffic density on the link disconnection entropy disorder. Packet delivery ratio is associated to the metric detecting a strong relationship, enabling the use of the link disconnection entropy disorder to evaluate the stability of a node to communicate with other nodes. To expand the utilization of the link entropy disorder, we identified nodes with higher speeds in network simulations just by using the link entropy disorder.

  1. Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza [Theoretical Physics Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.

  2. Variational Algorithms for Marginal MAP

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q; Ihler, A

    2013-01-01

    The marginal maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimation problem, which calculates the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of a subset of variables with the remaining variables marginalized, is an important inference problem in many models, such as those with hidden variables or uncertain parameters. Unfortunately, marginal MAP can be NP-hard even on trees, and has attracted less attention in the literature compared to the joint MAP (maximization) and marginalization problems. W...

  3. Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Based on Symmetric Fuzzy Relative Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y F; He, L.H.; Chen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on fuzzy similarity degree, entropy, relative entropy and fuzzy entropy, the symmetric fuzzy relative entropy is presented, which not only has a full physical meaning, but also has succinct practicability. The symmetric fuzzy relative entropy can be used to measure the divergence between different fuzzy patterns. The example demonstrates that the symmetric fuzzy relative entropy is valid and reliable for fuzzy pattern recognition and classification, and its classification precision is v...

  4. Nonextensive random-matrix theory based on Kaniadakis entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Abul-Magd, A. Y.

    2006-01-01

    The joint eigenvalue distributions of random-matrix ensembles are derived by applying the principle maximum entropy to the Renyi, Abe and Kaniadakis entropies. While the Renyi entropy produces essentially the same matrix-element distributions as the previously obtained expression by using the Tsallis entropy, and the Abe entropy does not lead to a closed form expression, the Kaniadakis entropy leads to a new generalized form of the Wigner surmise that describes a transition of the spacing dis...

  5. Masculinity at the margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses how young marginalized ethnic minority men in Denmark react to the othering they are subject to in the media as well as in the social arenas of every day life. The article is based on theoretically informed ethnographic fieldwork among such young men as well as interviews an...

  6. Marginally Deformed Starobinsky Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Joergensen, J.; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We show that quantum-induced marginal deformations of the Starobinsky gravitational action of the form $R^{2(1 -\\alpha)}$, with $R$ the Ricci scalar and $\\alpha$ a positive parameter, smaller than one half, can account for the recent experimental observations by BICEP2 of primordial tensor modes....

  7. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    The North Indian Ocean consists of three marginal seas; The Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the west and the Andaman Sea in the east. Oceanographic features of these semi-enclosed basins have been discussed in this article. While circulation...

  8. Marginalization and School Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia Ann

    2004-01-01

    The concept of marginalization was first analyzed by nursing researchers Hall, Stevens, and Meleis. Although nursing literature frequently refers to this concept when addressing "at risk" groups such as the homeless, gays and lesbians, and those infected with HIV/AIDS, the concept can also be applied to nursing. Analysis of current school nursing…

  9. Generalized entropy production fluctuation theorems for quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 2. Generalized entropy ... Based on trajectory-dependent path probability formalism in state space, we derive generalized entropy production fluctuation relations for a quantum system in the presence of measurement and feedback. We have obtained these ...

  10. Entropy and Certainty in Lossless Data Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James Jay

    2009-01-01

    Data compression is the art of using encoding techniques to represent data symbols using less storage space compared to the original data representation. The encoding process builds a relationship between the entropy of the data and the certainty of the system. The theoretical limits of this relationship are defined by the theory of entropy in…

  11. Entropy Generation in a Chemical Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    Entropy generation in a chemical reaction is analysed without using the general formalism of non-equilibrium thermodynamics at a level adequate for advanced undergraduates. In a first approach to the problem, the phenomenological kinetic equation of an elementary first-order reaction is used to show that entropy production is always positive. A…

  12. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the microcanonical entropy also has universal logarithmic corrections to the area law (from quantum space-time fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption ...

  13. Entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buividovich, . P. V.

    We report on the recent progress in theoretical and numerical studies of entanglement entropy in lattice gauge theories. It is shown that the concept of quantum entanglement between gauge fields in two complementary regions of space can only be introduced if the Hilbert space of physical states is extended in a certain way. In the extended Hilbert space, the entanglement entropy can be partially interpreted as the classical Shannon entropy of the flux of the gauge fields through the boundary between the two regions. Such an extension leads to a reduction procedure which can be easily implemented in lattice simulations by constructing lattices with special topology. This enables us to measure the entanglement entropy in lattice Monte-Carlo simulations. On the simplest example of Z2 lattice gauge theory in (2 + 1) dimensions we demonstrate the relation between entanglement entropy and the classical entropy of the field flux. For SU (2) lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, we find a signature of non-analytic dependence of the entanglement entropy on the size of the region. We also comment on the holographic interpretation of the entanglement entropy.

  14. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramification for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black ...

  15. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–. Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail.

  16. Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas of Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Andersson, Staffan; Elmgren, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamics, and in particular entropy, has been found to be challenging for students, not least due to its abstract character. Comparisons with more familiar and concrete domains, by means of analogy and metaphor, are commonly used in thermodynamics teaching, in particular the metaphor "entropy is disorder." However, this particular…

  17. Entropy estimation of very short symbolic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesne, Annick; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Pezard, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    While entropy per unit time is a meaningful index to quantify the dynamic features of experimental time series, its estimation is often hampered in practice by the finite length of the data. We here investigate the performance of entropy estimation procedures, relying either on block entropies or Lempel-Ziv complexity, when only very short symbolic sequences are available. Heuristic analytical arguments point at the influence of temporal correlations on the bias and statistical fluctuations, and put forward a reduced effective sequence length suitable for error estimation. Numerical studies are conducted using, as benchmarks, the wealth of different dynamic regimes generated by the family of logistic maps and stochastic evolutions generated by a Markov chain of tunable correlation time. Practical guidelines and validity criteria are proposed. For instance, block entropy leads to a dramatic overestimation for sequences of low entropy, whereas it outperforms Lempel-Ziv complexity at high entropy. As a general result, the quality of entropy estimation is sensitive to the sequence temporal correlation hence self-consistently depends on the entropy value itself, thus promoting a two-step procedure. Lempel-Ziv complexity is to be preferred in the first step and remains the best estimator for highly correlated sequences.

  18. Progress in High-Entropy Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Michael C

    2013-12-01

    Strictly speaking, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) refer to single-phase, solid-solution alloys with multiprincipal elements in an equal or a near-equal molar ratio whose configurational entropy is tremendously high. This special topic was organized to reflect the focus and diversity of HEA research topics in the community.

  19. Entanglement Entropy in Warped Conformal Field Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Hofman, D.M.; Iqbal, N.

    We present a detailed discussion of entanglement entropy in (1+1)-dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs). We implement the Rindler method to evaluate entanglement and Renyi entropies for a single interval and along the way we interpret our results in terms of twist field correlation

  20. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  1. The Thermal Entropy Density of Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the notion of thermal entropy density via the first law of thermodynamics and assuming the Einstein equation as an equation of thermal state, we obtain the thermal entropy density of any arbitrary spacetime without assuming a temperature or a horizon. The results confirm that there is a profound connection between gravity and thermodynamics.

  2. Delay Margin in Controlling a Furuta Pendulum

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Díez, José-Enrique; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian; Méndez-Barrios, César-Fernando; González-Galván, Emilio-Jorge; Loredo-Flores, Ambrocio; Escareno, Juan-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper focuses on the design of an LQR based control scheme for the stabilization of the Furuta Pendulum in its unstable equilibrium point at the upright position. More precisely, we are interested in characterizing the corresponding delay margin under the assumption that the feedback loop includes time-delay. The paper provides an explicit tool to compute the critical delay value in the state feedback loop and a delicate tuning to reach larger delay values. In ord...

  3. Entropy generation across Earth's collisionless bow shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G K; Lee, E; McCarthy, M; Goldstein, M; Fu, S Y; Cao, J B; Canu, P; Lin, N; Wilber, M; Dandouras, I; Réme, H; Fazakerley, A

    2012-02-10

    Earth's bow shock is a collisionless shock wave but entropy has never been directly measured across it. The plasma experiments on Cluster and Double Star measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock allowing calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H theorem, dH/dt≤0. The collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation predicts that the total entropy does not change if the distribution function across the shock becomes nonthermal, but it allows changes in the entropy density. Here, we present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock and show that the results generally support the model of the Vlasov analysis. These observations are a starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes 3D computer modeling of collisionless shocks with input from observed particles, waves, and turbulences.

  4. What is the entropy of the universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Paul H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hsu, Stephen D H; Reeb, David [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Kephart, Thomas W, E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed, E-mail: hsu@uoregon.ed, E-mail: tom.kephart@gmail.co, E-mail: dreeb@uoregon.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2009-07-21

    Standard calculations suggest that the entropy of our universe is dominated by black holes, whose entropy is of order their area in Planck units, although they comprise only a tiny fraction of its total energy. Statistical entropy is the logarithm of the number of microstates consistent with the observed macroscopic properties of a system, hence a measure of uncertainty about its precise state. Therefore, assuming unitarity in black hole evaporation, the standard results suggest that the largest uncertainty in the future quantum state of the universe is due to the Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes. However, the entropy of the matter precursors to astrophysical black holes is enormously less than that given by area entropy. If unitarity relates the future radiation states to the black hole precursor states, then the standard results are highly misleading, at least for an observer that can differentiate the individual states of the Hawking radiation.

  5. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Singular perturbation margin and generalised gain margin for linear time-invariant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhu, J. Jim; Scottedward Hodel, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a singular perturbation margin (SPM) and a generalised gain margin (GGM) as stability metrics for single input-single output (SISO) linear time-invariant (LTI) systems from the view of singular perturbations and regular perturbations, which have bijective correspondences with the classical phase margin (PM) and the gain margin (GM), respectively. Both of the numerical and analytical time-domain SPM and GGM assessment methods are provided, and relationships between the singular perturbation parameter, PM of the perturbed system, PM and SPM of the nominal system, and the (monotonically increasing) phase of the fast system are also revealed. These results make it possible to assess the PM of the nominal system in the time domain for SISO LTI systems using the SPM with a standardised testing system called 'PM-gauge,' as demonstrated by examples. The concepts of SPM and GGM can be used as metrics of stability margins for linear time-varying systems and nonlinear systems.

  7. Maximum Entropy: Clearing up Mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Grendár

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are several mystifications and a couple of mysteries pertinent to MaxEnt. The mystifications, pitfalls and traps are set up mainly by an unfortunate formulation of Jaynes' die problem, the cause célèbre of MaxEnt. After discussing the mystifications a new formulation of the problem is proposed. Then we turn to the mysteries. An answer to the recurring question 'Just what are we accomplishing when we maximize entropy?' [8], based on MaxProb rationale of MaxEnt [6], is recalled. A brief view on the other mystery: 'What is the relation between MaxEnt and the Bayesian method?' [9], in light of the MaxProb rationale of MaxEnt suggests that there is not and cannot be a conflict between MaxEnt and Bayes Theorem.

  8. Marginal deformations & rotating horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the near-horizon geometry of four-dimensional extremal black holes, we study a disordered quantum mechanical system invariant under a global SU(2) symmetry. As in the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, this system exhibits an approximate SL(2, ℝ) symmetry at low energies, but also allows for a continuous family of SU(2) breaking marginal deformations. Beyond a certain critical value for the marginal coupling, the model exhibits a quantum phase transition from the gapless phase to a gapped one and we calculate the critical exponents of this transition. We also show that charged, rotating extremal black holes exhibit a transition when the angular velocity of the horizon is tuned to a certain critical value. Where possible we draw parallels between the disordered quantum mechanics and charged, rotating black holes.

  9. How multiplicity determines entropy and the derivation of the maximum entropy principle for complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan; Gell-Mann, Murray

    2014-05-13

    The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is a method for obtaining the most likely distribution functions of observables from statistical systems by maximizing entropy under constraints. The MEP has found hundreds of applications in ergodic and Markovian systems in statistical mechanics, information theory, and statistics. For several decades there has been an ongoing controversy over whether the notion of the maximum entropy principle can be extended in a meaningful way to nonextensive, nonergodic, and complex statistical systems and processes. In this paper we start by reviewing how Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is related to multiplicities of independent random processes. We then show how the relaxation of independence naturally leads to the most general entropies that are compatible with the first three Shannon-Khinchin axioms, the (c,d)-entropies. We demonstrate that the MEP is a perfectly consistent concept for nonergodic and complex statistical systems if their relative entropy can be factored into a generalized multiplicity and a constraint term. The problem of finding such a factorization reduces to finding an appropriate representation of relative entropy in a linear basis. In a particular example we show that path-dependent random processes with memory naturally require specific generalized entropies. The example is to our knowledge the first exact derivation of a generalized entropy from the microscopic properties of a path-dependent random process.

  10. On entropy, financial markets and minority games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapart, Christopher A.

    2009-04-01

    The paper builds upon an earlier statistical analysis of financial time series with Shannon information entropy, published in [L. Molgedey, W. Ebeling, Local order, entropy and predictability of financial time series, European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 15/4 (2000) 733-737]. A novel generic procedure is proposed for making multistep-ahead predictions of time series by building a statistical model of entropy. The approach is first demonstrated on the chaotic Mackey-Glass time series and later applied to Japanese Yen/US dollar intraday currency data. The paper also reinterprets Minority Games [E. Moro, The minority game: An introductory guide, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics (2004)] within the context of physical entropy, and uses models derived from minority game theory as a tool for measuring the entropy of a model in response to time series. This entropy conditional upon a model is subsequently used in place of information-theoretic entropy in the proposed multistep prediction algorithm.

  11. Information, Entropy, and the Classical Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David; Dunning-Davies, Jeremy

    2013-09-01

    The physical basis of the canonical and grand canonical distributions is questioned. In particular, we question the usual methods by which these distributions are derived, namely that fluctuations in entropy around energy and particle number are assumed to occur when the entropy depends only on variables which cannot themselves fluctuate. We show, starting from the Maxwellian velocity distribution, that the probability that a classical ideal gas at a fixed temperature occupies a given energy state corresponds not to the canonical ensemble of classical statistical mechanics but to the Gamma distribution. Computer simulations of a hard-sphere fluid demonstrate the principles. The analysis is extended to open systems in which the number of particles fluctuates and we show that for a system connected to a particle reservoir the Poisson distribution governs the probability of finding a given number of particles. The resulting probability distributions are used to calculate the Shannon information entropy which is then compared with the thermodynamic entropy. We argue that information theoretic entropy and thermodynamic entropy, whilst related, are not necessarily identical and that the information entropy contains non-thermodynamic components.

  12. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  13. Feedback cooling, measurement errors, and entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, T.; Rosinberg, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    The efficiency of a feedback mechanism depends on the precision of the measurement outcomes obtained from the controlled system. Accordingly, measurement errors affect the entropy production in the system. We explore this issue in the context of active feedback cooling by modeling a typical cold damping setup as a harmonic oscillator in contact with a heat reservoir and subjected to a velocity-dependent feedback force that reduces the random motion. We consider two models that distinguish whether the sensor continuously measures the position of the resonator or directly its velocity (in practice, an electric current). Adopting the standpoint of the controlled system, we identify the ‘entropy pumping’ contribution that describes the entropy reduction due to the feedback control and that modifies the second law of thermodynamics. We also assign a relaxation dynamics to the feedback mechanism and compare the apparent entropy production in the system and the heat bath (under the influence of the controller) to the total entropy production in the super-system that includes the controller. In this context, entropy pumping reflects the existence of hidden degrees of freedom and the apparent entropy production satisfies fluctuation theorems associated with an effective Langevin dynamics.

  14. On the Interplay between Entropy and Robustness of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between entropy and robustness of gene network is a core mechanism of systems biology. The entropy is a measure of randomness or disorder of a physical system due to random parameter fluctuation and environmental noises in gene regulatory networks. The robustness of a gene regulatory network, which can be measured as the ability to tolerate the random parameter fluctuation and to attenuate the effect of environmental noise, will be discussed from the robust H∞ stabilization and filtering perspective. In this review, we will also discuss their balancing roles in evolution and potential applications in systems and synthetic biology.

  15. Quantum Entanglement and Shannon Information Entropy for the Doubly Excited Resonance State in Positronium Negative Ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hao Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report an investigation on quantum entanglement in the doubly excited 2s2 1Se resonance state of the positronium negative ion by using highly correlated Hylleraas type wave functions, determined by calculation of the density of resonance states with the stabilization method. Once the resonance wave function is obtained, the spatial (electron-electron orbital entanglement entropies (von Neumann and linear can be quantified using the Schmidt decomposition method. Furthermore, Shannon entropy in position space, a measure for localization (or delocalization for such a doubly excited state, is also calculated.

  16. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  17. Entropy generation: Minimum inside and maximum outside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-02-01

    The extremum of entropy generation is evaluated for both maximum and minimum cases using a thermodynamic approach which is usually applied in engineering to design energy transduction systems. A new result in the thermodynamic analysis of the entropy generation extremum theorem is proved by the engineering approach. It follows from the proof that the entropy generation results as a maximum when it is evaluated by the exterior surroundings of the system and a minimum when it is evaluated within the system. The Bernoulli equation is analyzed as an example in order to evaluate the internal and external dissipations, in accordance with the theoretical results obtained.

  18. Entropy in Kerr-Newman-Kasuya spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Chang Jun

    2002-01-01

    The entropy of a rotating Kerr-Newman-Kasuya black hole due to massive charged fields (bosons and fermions) is calculated using an improved brick-wall model. The result shows that the entropy depends not on the mass and charge but the spin of the fields. Considering statistical physics, we do not propose to consider the superradiant modes for bosons (fermion fields do not display superradiance). In fact, the non-superradiant mode contributes exactly the area entropy for both bosons and fermions.

  19. Entropy viscosity method for nonlinear conservation laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2011-05-01

    A new class of high-order numerical methods for approximating nonlinear conservation laws is described (entropy viscosity method). The novelty is that a nonlinear viscosity based on the local size of an entropy production is added to the numerical discretization at hand. This new approach does not use any flux or slope limiters, applies to equations or systems supplemented with one or more entropy inequalities and does not depend on the mesh type and polynomial approximation. Various benchmark problems are solved with finite elements, spectral elements and Fourier series to illustrate the capability of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Entropy/information flux in Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Blackbody radiation contains (on average) an entropy of 3.9 ± 2.5 bits per photon. If the emission process is unitary, then this entropy is exactly compensated by "hidden information" in the correlations. We extend this argument to the Hawking radiation from GR black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget. The key technical aspect of our calculation is a variant of the "average subsystem" approach developed by Page, which we extend beyond bipartite pure systems, to a tripartite pure system that considers the influence of the environment.

  1. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  2. Density estimation by maximum quantum entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N.; Wallstrom, T.; Martz, H.F.

    1993-11-01

    A new Bayesian method for non-parametric density estimation is proposed, based on a mathematical analogy to quantum statistical physics. The mathematical procedure is related to maximum entropy methods for inverse problems and image reconstruction. The information divergence enforces global smoothing toward default models, convexity, positivity, extensivity and normalization. The novel feature is the replacement of classical entropy by quantum entropy, so that local smoothing is enforced by constraints on differential operators. The linear response of the estimate is proportional to the covariance. The hyperparameters are estimated by type-II maximum likelihood (evidence). The method is demonstrated on textbook data sets.

  3. Configurational Information as Potentially Negative Entropy: The Triple Helix Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loet Leydesdorff

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Configurational information is generated when three or more sources of variance interact. The variations not only disturb each other relationally, but by selecting upon each other, they are also positioned in a configuration. A configuration can be stabilized and/or globalized. Different stabilizations can be considered as second-order variation, and globalization as a second-order selection. The positive manifestations and the negative selections operate upon one another by adding and reducing uncertainty, respectively. Reduction of uncertainty in a configuration can be measured in bits of information. The variables can also be considered as dimensions of the probabilistic entropy in the system(s under study. The configurational information then provides us with a measure of synergy within a complex system. For example, the knowledge base of an economy can be considered as such a synergy in the otherwise virtual (that is, fourth dimension of a regime

  4. Unusual Thermal Stability of High-Entropy Alloy Amorphous Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    microanalyzer ( EPMA , JEOL JAX-8800). The crystallographic structures of as-deposited and annealed metallic films were characterized utilizing a glancing...alloy thin films were investigated with transmission electron microscope (JEM-2100F). 5    III. Results and Discussion 1. EPMA and XRD analyses...analyzed by EPMA , as listed in Table 1. It confirms that compositions of NbSiTaTiZr alloy films under various states are very close to our

  5. Small Levitating Ordered Droplet Clusters: Stability, Symmetry, and Voronoi Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorets, Alexander A; Frenkel, Mark; Bormashenko, Edward; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2017-11-16

    A method to generate levitating monodisperse microdroplet clusters with an arbitrary number of identical droplets is presented. Clusters with 1-28 droplets levitate over a locally heated water layer in an ascending vapor-air jet. Due to the attraction to the center of the heated area combined with aerodynamic repulsion between the droplets, the clusters form structures that are quite diverse and different from densest packing of hard spheres. The clusters self-organize into stable and reproducible configurations dependent on the number of droplets while independent of the droplets' size. The central parts of larger clusters reproduce the shape of smaller clusters. The ability to synthesize stable clusters with a given number of droplets is important for tracing droplets, which is crucial for potential applications such as microreactors and for chemical analysis of small volumes of liquid.

  6. An Entropy Stable h/p Non-Conforming Discontinuous Galerkin Method with the Summation-by-Parts Property

    KAUST Repository

    Friedrich, Lucas

    2017-12-29

    This work presents an entropy stable discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spectral element approximation for systems of non-linear conservation laws with general geometric (h) and polynomial order (p) non-conforming rectangular meshes. The crux of the proofs presented is that the nodal DG method is constructed with the collocated Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto nodes. This choice ensures that the derivative/mass matrix pair is a summation-by-parts (SBP) operator such that entropy stability proofs from the continuous analysis are discretely mimicked. Special attention is given to the coupling between nonconforming elements as we demonstrate that the standard mortar approach for DG methods does not guarantee entropy stability for non-linear problems, which can lead to instabilities. As such, we describe a precise procedure and modify the mortar method to guarantee entropy stability for general non-linear hyperbolic systems on h/p non-conforming meshes. We verify the high-order accuracy and the entropy conservation/stability of fully non-conforming approximation with numerical examples.

  7. Cyclicity of stability in economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the science problem of identification of a life cycle of an economic agent in particular and of organizational-economic system in general. As an alternative solution of this problem the author proposes to use an universal index – stability index, which is directly linked with measure of uncertainty (entropy) and certainty (negentropy). Differentiated life cycle of stability allows us to approach the question of deliberate adaptation to ongoing changes, when control and r...

  8. Decomposition Bounds for Marginal MAP

    OpenAIRE

    PING, WEI; Liu,Qiang; Ihler, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Marginal MAP inference involves making MAP predictions in systems defined with latent variables or missing information. It is significantly more difficult than pure marginalization and MAP tasks, for which a large class of efficient and convergent variational algorithms, such as dual decomposition, exist. In this work, we generalize dual decomposition to a generic power sum inference task, which includes marginal MAP, along with pure marginalization and MAP, as special cases. Our method is ba...

  9. Discovery of a Superconducting High-Entropy Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželj, P.; Vrtnik, S.; Jelen, A.; Jazbec, S.; Jagličić, Z.; Maiti, S.; Feuerbacher, M.; Steurer, W.; Dolinšek, J.

    2014-09-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are multicomponent mixtures of elements in similar concentrations, where the high entropy of mixing can stabilize disordered solid-solution phases with simple structures like a body-centered cubic or a face-centered cubic, in competition with ordered crystalline intermetallic phases. We have synthesized an HEA with the composition Ta34Nb33Hf8Zr14Ti11 (in at. %), which possesses an average body-centered cubic structure of lattice parameter a =3.36 Å. The measurements of the electrical resistivity, the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, and the specific heat revealed that the Ta34Nb33Hf8Zr14Ti11 HEA is a type II superconductor with a transition temperature Tc≈7.3 K, an upper critical field μ0Hc2≈8.2 T, a lower critical field μ0Hc1≈32 mT, and an energy gap in the electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level of 2Δ ≈2.2 meV. The investigated HEA is close to a BCS-type phonon-mediated superconductor in the weak electron-phonon coupling limit, classifying it as a "dirty" superconductor. We show that the lattice degrees of freedom obey Vegard's rule of mixtures, indicating completely random mixing of the elements on the HEA lattice, whereas the electronic degrees of freedom do not obey this rule even approximately so that the electronic properties of a HEA are not a "cocktail" of properties of the constituent elements. The formation of a superconducting gap contributes to the electronic stabilization of the HEA state at low temperatures, where the entropic stabilization is ineffective, but the electronic energy gain due to the superconducting transition is too small for the global stabilization of the disordered state, which remains metastable.

  10. Nonextensive random-matrix theory based on Kaniadakis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abul-Magd, A. Y.

    2007-02-01

    The joint eigenvalue distributions of random-matrix ensembles are derived by applying the principle maximum entropy to the Rényi, Abe and Kaniadakis entropies. While the Rényi entropy produces essentially the same matrix-element distributions as the previously obtained expression by using the Tsallis entropy, and the Abe entropy does not lead to a closed form expression, the Kaniadakis entropy leads to a new generalized form of the Wigner surmise that describes a transition of the spacing distribution from chaos to order. This expression is compared with the corresponding expression obtained by assuming Tsallis' entropy as well as the results of a previous numerical experiment.

  11. Nonextensive random-matrix theory based on Kaniadakis entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abul-Magd, A.Y. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: a_y_abul_magd@hotmail.com

    2007-02-12

    The joint eigenvalue distributions of random-matrix ensembles are derived by applying the principle maximum entropy to the Renyi, Abe and Kaniadakis entropies. While the Renyi entropy produces essentially the same matrix-element distributions as the previously obtained expression by using the Tsallis entropy, and the Abe entropy does not lead to a closed form expression, the Kaniadakis entropy leads to a new generalized form of the Wigner surmise that describes a transition of the spacing distribution from chaos to order. This expression is compared with the corresponding expression obtained by assuming Tsallis' entropy as well as the results of a previous numerical experiment.

  12. On statistical properties of Jizba-Arimitsu hybrid entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Mehmet Niyazi; Korbel, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Jizba-Arimitsu entropy (also called hybrid entropy) combines axiomatics of Rényi and Tsallis entropy. It has many common properties with them, on the other hand, some aspects as e.g., MaxEnt distributions, are different. In this paper, we discuss statistical properties of hybrid entropy. We define hybrid entropy for continuous distributions and its relation to discrete entropy. Additionally, definition of hybrid divergence and its connection to Fisher metric is also presented. Interestingly, Fisher metric connected to hybrid entropy differs from corresponding Fisher metrics of Rényi and Tsallis entropy. This motivates us to introduce average hybrid entropy, which can be understood as an average between Tsallis and Rényi entropy.

  13. A Politics of Marginability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    2015-01-01

    hostile towards them. I argue that this migrant group is unique being marginalized and strong at the same time, and I explain this uniqueness by several features in the Indian migrants’ cultural and religious background, in colonial and post-colonial Tanzania, and in the Indians’ role as middlemen between......In the end of the 19th century, Indians began settling in East Africa. Most of them left Gujarat because of drought and famine, and they were in search for business opportunities and a more comfortable life. Within the following decades, many of them went from being small-scale entrepreneurs to big...

  14. Amphetamine margin in sports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  15. Extropy: a complementary dual of entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Lad, Frank; Agrò, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    This article resolves a longstanding question in the axiomatisation of entropy as proposed by Shannon and highlighted in renewed concerns expressed by Jaynes. We introduce a companion measure of a probability distribution that we suggest be called the extropy of the distribution. The entropy and the extropy of an event distribution are identical. However, this identical measure bifurcates into distinct measures for any quantity that is not merely an event indicator. As for entropy, the maximum extropy distribution is also the uniform distribution. We display several theoretical and geometrical properties of the proposed extropy measure, discussing in detail the difference between its assessment of a refined probability distribution and the axiom that characterises the Shannon entropy in this regard. This is what resolves the concerns of Shannon and Jaynes. In a discrete context, the extropy measure is approximated by a variant of Gini's index of heterogeneity when the maximum probability mass is small. This i...

  16. Multi-Granulation Entropy and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the view of granular computing, some general uncertainty measures are proposed through single-granulation by generalizing Shannon’s entropy. However, in the practical environment we need to describe concurrently a target concept through multiple binary relations. In this paper, we extend the classical information entropy model to a multi-granulation entropy model (MGE by using a series of general binary relations. Two types of MGE are discussed. Moreover, a number of theorems are obtained. It can be concluded that the single-granulation entropy is the special instance of MGE. We employ the proposed model to evaluate the significance of the attributes for classification. A forward greedy search algorithm for feature selection is constructed. The experimental results show that the proposed method presents an effective solution for feature analysis.

  17. Topological entropy for induced hyperspace maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canovas Pena, Jose S. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: Jose.canovas@upct.es; Lopez, Gabriel Soler [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: Gabriel.soler@upct.es

    2006-05-15

    Let (X,d) be a compact metric space and let f:X->X be continuous. Let K(X) be the family of compact subsets of X endowed with the Hausdorff metric and define the extension f-bar :K(X)->K(X) by f-bar (K)=f(K) for any K-bar K(X). We prove that the topological entropy of f-bar is greater or equal than the topological entropy of f, and this inequality can be strict. On the other hand, we prove that the topological entropy of f is positive if and only if the topological entropy of f-bar is also positive.

  18. On Gravitational Entropy of de Sitter Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Ulhoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the calculation of the gravitational entropy in the context of teleparallel gravity for de Sitter space-time. In such a theory it is possible to define gravitational energy and pressure; thus we use those expressions to construct the gravitational entropy. We use the temperature as a function of the cosmological constant and write the first law of thermodynamics from which we obtain the entropy. In the limit Λ≪1 we find that the entropy is proportional to volume, for a specific temperature’s choice; we find that ΔS≥0 as well. We also identify a phase transition in de Sitter space-time by analyzing the specific heat.

  19. Multidimensional entropy landscape of quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, K.; Zaum, S.; Stockert, O.; Si, Q.; Löhneysen, H. V.

    2017-08-01

    The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any system in equilibrium has to vanish at absolute zero temperature. At nonzero temperatures, on the other hand, matter is expected to accumulate entropy near a quantum critical point, where it undergoes a continuous transition from one ground state to another. Here, we determine, based on general thermodynamic principles, the spatial-dimensional profile of the entropy S near a quantum critical point and its steepest descent in the corresponding multidimensional stress space. We demonstrate this approach for the canonical quantum critical compound CeCu 6-xAux near its onset of antiferromagnetic order. We are able to link the directional stress dependence of S to the previously determined geometry of quantum critical fluctuations. Our demonstration of the multidimensional entropy landscape provides the foundation to understand how quantum criticality nucleates novel phases such as high-temperature superconductivity.

  20. Holographic equipartition and the maximization of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, P. B.; Mathew, Titus K.

    2017-09-01

    The accelerated expansion of the Universe can be interpreted as a tendency to satisfy holographic equipartition. It can be expressed by a simple law, Δ V =Δ t (Nsurf-ɛ Nbulk) , where V is the Hubble volume in Planck units, t is the cosmic time in Planck units, and Nsurf /bulk is the number of degrees of freedom on the horizon/bulk of the Universe. We show that this holographic equipartition law effectively implies the maximization of entropy. In the cosmological context, a system that obeys the holographic equipartition law behaves as an ordinary macroscopic system that proceeds to an equilibrium state of maximum entropy. We consider the standard Λ CDM model of the Universe and show that it is consistent with the holographic equipartition law. Analyzing the entropy evolution, we find that it also proceeds to an equilibrium state of maximum entropy.

  1. Independent Component Analysis by Entropy Maximization (INFOMAX)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, Jennie H

    2007-01-01

    ... (BSS). The Infomax method separates unknown source signals from a number of signal mixtures by maximizing the entropy of a transformed set of signal mixtures and is accomplished by performing gradient ascent in MATLAB...

  2. Entropy Generation Analysis of Wildfire Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Guelpa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Entropy generation is commonly applied to describe the evolution of irreversible processes, such as heat transfer and turbulence. These are both dominating phenomena in fire propagation. In this paper, entropy generation analysis is applied to a grassland fire event, with the aim of finding possible links between entropy generation and propagation directions. The ultimate goal of such analysis consists in helping one to overcome possible limitations of the models usually applied to the prediction of wildfire propagation. These models are based on the application of the superimposition of the effects due to wind and slope, which has proven to fail in various cases. The analysis presented here shows that entropy generation allows a detailed analysis of the landscape propagation of a fire and can be thus applied to its quantitative description.

  3. Entropy Approximation in Lossy Source Coding Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Śmieja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate a lossy source coding problem, where an upper limit on the permitted distortion is defined for every dataset element. It can be seen as an alternative approach to rate distortion theory where a bound on the allowed average error is specified. In order to find the entropy, which gives a statistical length of source code compatible with a fixed distortion bound, a corresponding optimization problem has to be solved. First, we show how to simplify this general optimization by reducing the number of coding partitions, which are irrelevant for the entropy calculation. In our main result, we present a fast and feasible for implementation greedy algorithm, which allows one to approximate the entropy within an additive error term of log2 e. The proof is based on the minimum entropy set cover problem, for which a similar bound was obtained.

  4. Group entropies, correlation laws, and zeta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    2011-08-01

    The notion of group entropy is proposed. It enables the unification and generaliztion of many different definitions of entropy known in the literature, such as those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis. Other entropic functionals are introduced, related to nontrivial correlation laws characterizing universality classes of systems out of equilibrium when the dynamics is weakly chaotic. The associated thermostatistics are discussed. The mathematical structure underlying our construction is that of formal group theory, which provides the general structure of the correlations among particles and dictates the associated entropic functionals. As an example of application, the role of group entropies in information theory is illustrated and generalizations of the Kullback-Leibler divergence are proposed. A new connection between statistical mechanics and zeta functions is established. In particular, Tsallis entropy is related to the classical Riemann zeta function.

  5. New entropy formula for Kerr black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Hernan; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Wutte, Raphaela

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new entropy formula for Kerr black holes inspired by recent results for 3-dimensional black holes and cosmologies with soft Heisenberg hair. We show that also Kerr-Taub-NUT black holes obey the same formula.

  6. Generalized Entropies and the Similarity of Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Gerlach, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs-Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen-Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the Google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  7. Distribution entropy analysis of epileptic EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yan, Chang; Karmakar, Chandan; Liu, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    It is an open-ended challenge to accurately detect the epileptic seizures through electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Recently published studies have made elaborate attempts to distinguish between the normal and epileptic EEG signals by advanced nonlinear entropy methods, such as the approximate entropy, sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, and permutation entropy, etc. Most recently, a novel distribution entropy (DistEn) has been reported to have superior performance compared with the conventional entropy methods for especially short length data. We thus aimed, in the present study, to show the potential of DistEn in the analysis of epileptic EEG signals. The publicly-accessible Bonn database which consisted of normal, interictal, and ictal EEG signals was used in this study. Three different measurement protocols were set for better understanding the performance of DistEn, which are: i) calculate the DistEn of a specific EEG signal using the full recording; ii) calculate the DistEn by averaging the results for all its possible non-overlapped 5 second segments; and iii) calculate it by averaging the DistEn values for all the possible non-overlapped segments of 1 second length, respectively. Results for all three protocols indicated a statistically significantly increased DistEn for the ictal class compared with both the normal and interictal classes. Besides, the results obtained under the third protocol, which only used very short segments (1 s) of EEG recordings showed a significantly (p entropy algorithm. The capability of discriminating between the normal and interictal EEG signals is of great clinical relevance since it may provide helpful tools for the detection of a seizure onset. Therefore, our study suggests that the DistEn analysis of EEG signals is very promising for clinical and even portable EEG monitoring.

  8. Entropy estimates for simple random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of determining the maximum entropy of a discrete random field on a lattice subject to certain local constraints on symbol configurations. The results are expected to be of interest in the analysis of digitized images and two dimensional codes. We shall present some examples...... of binary and ternary fields with simple constraints. Exact results on the entropies are known only in a few cases, but we shall present close bounds and estimates that are computationally efficient...

  9. A Remark on Topological Sequence Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxing

    2017-06-01

    Let h∞(T) be the supremum of all topological sequence entropies of a dynamical system (X,T). This paper obtains the iteration invariance and commutativity of h∞(T) and proves that if T is a multisensitive transformation defined on a locally connected space, then h∞(T) = +∞. As an application, it is shown that a Cournot map is Li-Yorke chaotic if and only if its topological sequence entropy relative to a suitable sequence is positive.

  10. Entropy, geometry, and the quantum potential

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We sketch and emphasize the automatic emergence of a quantum potential Q in e.g. classical WDW type equations upon inserting a (Bohmian) complex wave function. The interpretation of Q in terms of momentum fluctuations via Fisher information and entropy ideas is discussed along with the essentially forced role of the amplitude squared as a probability density. We also review the constructions of Padmanabhan connecting entropy and the Einstein equations.

  11. Non-Gaussian effects on quantum entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2012-03-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the non-Gaussian frameworks, Tsallis and Kaniadakis, is derived using a generalized combinatorial method and the so-called q and κ calculus. In agreement with previous results, we also show that for the Tsallis formulation the q-quantum entropy is well-defined for values of the nonextensive parameter q lying in the interval [0,2].

  12. Entropy and the Magic Flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowitz, Harold J.

    1996-10-01

    Harold Morowitz has long been highly regarded both as an eminent scientist and as an accomplished science writer. The essays in The Wine of Life , his first collection, were hailed by C.P. Snow as "some of the wisest, wittiest and best informed I have ever read," and Carl Sagan called them "a delight to read." In later volumes he established a reputation for a wide-ranging intellect, an ability to see unexpected connections and draw striking parallels, and a talent for communicating scientific ideas with optimism and wit. With Entropy and the Magic Flute , Morowitz once again offers an appealing mix of brief reflections on everything from litmus paper to the hippopotamus to the sociology of Palo Alto coffee shops. Many of these pieces are appreciations of scientists that Morowitz holds in high regard, while others focus on health issues, such as America's obsession with cheese toppings. There is also a fascinating piece on the American Type Culture Collection, a zoo or warehouse for microbes that houses some 11,800 strains of bacteria, and over 3,000 specimens of protozoa, algae, plasmids, and oncogenes. Here then are over forty light, graceful essays in which one of our wisest experimental biologists comments on issues of science, technology, society, philosophy, and the arts.

  13. Entropy as a collective variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Michele

    Sampling complex free energy surfaces that exhibit long lived metastable states separated by kinetic bottlenecks is one of the most pressing issues in the atomistic simulations of matter. Not surprisingly many solutions to this problem have been suggested. Many of them are based on the identification of appropriate collective variables that span the manifold of the slow varying modes of the system. While much effort has been put in devising and even constructing on the fly appropriate collective variables there is still a cogent need of introducing simple, generic, physically transparent, and yet effective collective variables. Motivated by the physical observation that in many case transitions between one metastable state and another result from a trade off between enthalpy and entropy we introduce appropriate collective variables that are able to represent in a simple way these two physical properties. We use these variables in the context of the recently introduced variationally enhanced sampling and apply it them with success to the simulation of crystallization from the liquid and to conformational transitions in protein. Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, and Facolta' di Informatica, Istituto di Scienze Computazionali, Universita' della Svizzera Italiana, Via G. Buffi 13, 6900 Lugano, Switzerland.

  14. Mechanical Entropy and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharis E. Williams

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: It is shown that the classical laws of thermodynamics require that mechanical systems must exhibit energy that becomes unavailable to do useful work. In thermodynamics, this type of energy is called entropy. It is further shown that these laws require two metrical manifolds, equations of motion, field equations, and Weyl's quantum principles. Weyl's quantum principle requires quantization of the electrostatic potential of a particle and that this potential be non-singular. The interactions of particles through these non-singular electrostatic potentials are analyzed in the low velocity limit and in the relativistic limit. It is shown that writing the two particle interactions for unlike particles allows an examination in two limiting cases: large and small separations. These limits are shown to have the limiting motions of: all motions are ABOUT the center of mass or all motion is OF the center of mass. The first limit leads to the standard Dirac equation. The second limit is shown to have equations of which the electroweak theory is a subset. An extension of the gauge principle into a five-dimensional manifold, then restricting the generality of the five-dimensional manifold by using the conservation principle, shows that the four-dimensional hypersurface that is embedded within the 5-D manifold is required to obey Einstein's field equations. The 5-D gravitational quantum equations of the solar system are presented.

  15. On variational expressions for quantum relative entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Mario; Fawzi, Omar; Tomamichel, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Distance measures between quantum states like the trace distance and the fidelity can naturally be defined by optimizing a classical distance measure over all measurement statistics that can be obtained from the respective quantum states. In contrast, Petz showed that the measured relative entropy, defined as a maximization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence over projective measurement statistics, is strictly smaller than Umegaki's quantum relative entropy whenever the states do not commute. We extend this result in two ways. First, we show that Petz' conclusion remains true if we allow general positive operator-valued measures. Second, we extend the result to Rényi relative entropies and show that for non-commuting states the sandwiched Rényi relative entropy is strictly larger than the measured Rényi relative entropy for α \\in (1/2, \\infty ) and strictly smaller for α \\in [0,1/2). The latter statement provides counterexamples for the data processing inequality of the sandwiched Rényi relative entropy for α quantum conditional mutual information are superadditive.

  16. A review of entropy generation in microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M Awad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a critical review of thermodynamic optimum of microchannels based on entropy generation analysis is presented. Using entropy generation analysis as evaluation parameter of microchannels has been reported by many studies in the literature. In these studies, different working fluids such as nanofluids, air, water, engine oil, aniline, ethylene glycol, and non-Newtonian fluids have been used. For the case of nanofluids, “nanoparticles” has been used in various kinds such as Al2O3 and Cu, and “base fluid” has been used in various kinds such as water and ethylene glycol. Furthermore, studies on thermodynamic optimum of microchannels based on entropy generation analysis are summarized in a table. At the end, recommendations of future work for thermodynamic optimum of microchannels based on entropy generation analysis are given. As a result, this article can not only be used as the starting point for the researcher interested in entropy generation in microchannels, but it also includes recommendations for future studies on entropy generation in microchannels.

  17. Trajectories entropy in dynamical graphs with memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eCaravelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the application of non-local graph entropy to evolving and dynamical graphs. The measure is based upon the notion of Markov diffusion on a graph, and relies on the entropy applied to trajectories originating at a specific node. In particular, we study the model of reinforcement-decay graph dynamics, which leads to scale free graphs. We find that the node entropy characterizes the structure of the network in the two parameter phase-space describing the dynamical evolution of the weighted graph. We then apply an adapted version of the entropy measure to purely memristive circuits. We provide evidence that meanwhile in the case of DC voltage the entropy based on the forward probability is enough to characterize the graph properties, in the case of AC voltage generators one needs to consider both forward and backward based transition probabilities. We provide also evidence that the entropy highlights the self-organizing properties of memristive circuits, which re-organizes itself to satisfy the symmetries of the underlying graph.

  18. Maximum Entropy Approaches to Living Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Beggs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how ensembles of neurons collectively interact will be a key step in developing a mechanistic theory of cognitive processes. Recent progress in multineuron recording and analysis techniques has generated tremendous excitement over the physiology of living neural networks. One of the key developments driving this interest is a new class of models based on the principle of maximum entropy. Maximum entropy models have been reported to account for spatial correlation structure in ensembles of neurons recorded from several different types of data. Importantly, these models require only information about the firing rates of individual neurons and their pairwise correlations. If this approach is generally applicable, it would drastically simplify the problem of understanding how neural networks behave. Given the interest in this method, several groups now have worked to extend maximum entropy models to account for temporal correlations. Here, we review how maximum entropy models have been applied to neuronal ensemble data to account for spatial and temporal correlations. We also discuss criticisms of the maximum entropy approach that argue that it is not generally applicable to larger ensembles of neurons. We conclude that future maximum entropy models will need to address three issues: temporal correlations, higher-order correlations, and larger ensemble sizes. Finally, we provide a brief list of topics for future research.

  19. Conspiratorial Beliefs Observed through Entropy Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Golo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach framed in terms of information theory and entropy to tackle the issue of the propagation of conspiracy theories. We represent the initial report of an event (such as the 9/11 terroristic attack as a series of strings of information, each string classified by a two-state variable Ei = ±1, i = 1, …, N. If the values of the Ei are set to −1 for all strings, a state of minimum entropy is achieved. Comments on the report, focusing repeatedly on several strings Ek, might alternate their meaning (from −1 to +1. The representation of the event is turned fuzzy with an increased entropy value. Beyond some threshold value of entropy, chosen by simplicity to its maximum value, meaning N/2 variables with Ei = 1, the chance is created that a conspiracy theory might be initiated/propagated. Therefore, the evolution of the associated entropy is a way to measure the degree of penetration of a conspiracy theory. Our general framework relies on online content made voluntarily available by crowds of people, in response to some news or blog articles published by official news agencies. We apply different aggregation levels (comment, person, discussion thread and discuss the associated patterns of entropy change.

  20. POLA KEBERAGAMAAN MASYARAKAT MARGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muttaqin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on sociology of religion, focusing on the issue of religious practices in a local community. Kampung Laut was chosen as the setting of this research for two reasons. First, the rituals of religion practices in the region are different from mainstream practices, which result in label and justification that their religiosity is not a part of or only a fragment of the mainstream religion and tend to be the target of correction. Second, this region raises conflicts among government institutions in relation to the rights of natural resources possession and utilization. The bad image built through this marginalization has formed Kampung Laut community as the one that is resistant and latent. This research used descriptive qualitative method with sociological approach. Rituals of religious practices that are different from the mainstream are explained on the basis of Weber’s theory of behavior categorized into value-oriented rationality. This kind of practices is considered to be more beneficial in the context of struggling for identity among the practices of marginalization experienced by Kampung Laut community. This condition gives a description to public that Kampung Laut community receives unfair treatments for their natural resources. Religious issues is made an entry for its massive, communal, and related to transcendental values.

  1. Assessing the complexity of short-term heartbeat interval series by distribution entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Liu, Chengyu; Li, Ke; Zheng, Dingchang; Liu, Changchun; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-01-01

    Complexity of heartbeat interval series is typically measured by entropy. Recent studies have found that sample entropy (SampEn) or fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) quantifies essentially the randomness, which may not be uniformly identical to complexity. Additionally, these entropy measures are heavily dependent on the predetermined parameters and confined to data length. Aiming at improving the robustness of complexity assessment for short-term RR interval series, this study developed a novel measure--distribution entropy (DistEn). The DistEn took full advantage of the inherent information underlying the vector-to-vector distances in the state space by probability density estimation. Performances of DistEn were examined by theoretical data and experimental short-term RR interval series. Results showed that DistEn correctly ranked the complexity of simulated chaotic series and Gaussian noise series. The DistEn had relatively lower sensitivity to the predetermined parameters and showed stability even for quantifying the complexity of extremely short series. Analysis further showed that the DistEn indicated the loss of complexity in both healthy aging and heart failure patients (both p < 0.01), whereas neither the SampEn nor the FuzzyEn achieved comparable results (all p ≥ 0.05). This study suggested that the DistEn would be a promising measure for prompt clinical examination of cardiovascular function.

  2. Entropy, Function and Evolution: Naturalizing Peircian Semiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Herrmann-Pillath

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biosemiotic literature there is a tension between the naturalistic reference to biological processes and the category of ‘meaning’ which is central in the concept of semiosis. A crucial term bridging the two dimensions is ‘information’. I argue that the tension can be resolved if we reconsider the relation between information and entropy and downgrade the conceptual centrality of Shannon information in the standard approach to entropy and information. Entropy comes into full play if semiosis is seen as a physical process involving causal interactions between physical systems with functions. Functions emerge from evolutionary processes, as conceived in recent philosophical contributions to teleosemantics. In this context, causal interactions can be interpreted in a dual mode, namely as standard causation and as an observation. Thus, a function appears to be the interpretant in the Peircian triadic notion of the sign. Recognizing this duality, the Gibbs/Jaynes notion of entropy is added to the picture, which shares an essential conceptual feature with the notion of function: Both concepts are part of a physicalist ontology, but are observer relative at the same time. Thus, it is possible to give an account of semiosis within the entropy framework without limiting the notion of entropy to the Shannon measure, but taking full account of the thermodynamic definition. A central feature of this approach is the conceptual linkage between the evolution of functions and maximum entropy production. I show how we can conceive of the semiosphere as a fundamental physical phenomenon. Following an early contribution by Hayek, in conclusion I argue that the category of ‘meaning’ supervenes on nested functions in semiosis, and has a function itself, namely to enable functional self-reference, which otherwise mainfests functional break-down because of standard set-theoretic paradoxes.

  3. Entropy of balance - some recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxåback Gerd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entropy when applied to biological signals is expected to reflect the state of the biological system. However the physiological interpretation of the entropy is not always straightforward. When should high entropy be interpreted as a healthy sign, and when as marker of deteriorating health? We address this question for the particular case of human standing balance and the Center of Pressure data. Methods We have measured and analyzed balance data of 136 participants (young, n = 45; elderly, n = 91 comprising in all 1085 trials, and calculated the Sample Entropy (SampEn for medio-lateral (M/L and anterior-posterior (A/P Center of Pressure (COP together with the Hurst self-similariy (ss exponent α using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. The COP was measured with a force plate in eight 30 seconds trials with eyes closed, eyes open, foam, self-perturbation and nudge conditions. Results 1 There is a significant difference in SampEn for the A/P-direction between the elderly and the younger groups Old > young. 2 For the elderly we have in general A/P > M/L. 3 For the younger group there was no significant A/P-M/L difference with the exception for the nudge trials where we had the reverse situation, A/P Eyes Open. 5 In case of the Hurst ss-exponent we have for the elderly, M/L > A/P. Conclusions These results seem to be require some modifications of the more or less established attention-constraint interpretation of entropy. This holds that higher entropy correlates with a more automatic and a less constrained mode of balance control, and that a higher entropy reflects, in this sense, a more efficient balancing.

  4. Double symbolic joint entropy in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenpo; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Symbolizations, the base of symbolic dynamic analysis, are classified as global static and local dynamic approaches which are combined by joint entropy in our works for nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis. Two global static methods, symbolic transformations of Wessel N. symbolic entropy and base-scale entropy, and two local ones, namely symbolizations of permutation and differential entropy, constitute four double symbolic joint entropies that have accurate complexity detections in chaotic models, logistic and Henon map series. In nonlinear dynamical analysis of different kinds of heart rate variability, heartbeats of healthy young have higher complexity than those of the healthy elderly, and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients are lowest in heartbeats' joint entropy values. Each individual symbolic entropy is improved by double symbolic joint entropy among which the combination of base-scale and differential symbolizations have best complexity analysis. Test results prove that double symbolic joint entropy is feasible in nonlinear dynamic complexity analysis.

  5. Weighted fractional permutation entropy and fractional sample entropy for nonlinear Potts financial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaixuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, recently introduced permutation entropy and sample entropy are further developed to the fractional cases, weighted fractional permutation entropy (WFPE) and fractional sample entropy (FSE). The fractional order generalization of information entropy is utilized in the above two complexity approaches, to detect the statistical characteristics of fractional order information in complex systems. The effectiveness analysis of proposed methods on the synthetic data and the real-world data reveals that tuning the fractional order allows a high sensitivity and more accurate characterization to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. Moreover, the numerical research on nonlinear complexity behaviors is compared between the returns series of Potts financial model and the actual stock markets. And the empirical results confirm the feasibility of the proposed model.

  6. Analyzing bin-width effect on the computed entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwani, Sri; Nahar, Julita; Twining, Carole

    2017-08-01

    The Shannon entropy is a mathematical expression for quantifying the amount of randomness which can be used to measure information content. It is used in objective function. Mutual Information (MI) uses Shannon entropy in order to determine shared information content of two images. The Shannon entropy, which was originally derived by Shannon in the context of lossless encoding of messages, is also used to define an optimum message length used in the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle for groupwise registration. Majority of papers used histogram for computing MI, and hence the entropy. We therefore, aim to analyze the effect of bin-width on the computed entropy. We first derived the Shannon entropy from the integral of probability density function (pdf), and found that Gaussian has maximum entropy over all possible distribution. We also show that the entropy of the flat distribution is less than the entropy of the Gaussian distribution with the same variance. We then investigated the bin-width effect on the computed entropy, and analyzed the relationship between the computed entropy and the integral entropy when we vary bin-width, but fix variance and the number of samples. We then found that the value of the computed entropy lies within the theoretical predictions at small and large bin-widths. We also show two types of bias in entropy estimator.

  7. Properties of Risk Measures of Generalized Entropy in Portfolio Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxi Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper systematically investigates the properties of six kinds of entropy-based risk measures: Information Entropy and Cumulative Residual Entropy in the probability space, Fuzzy Entropy, Credibility Entropy and Sine Entropy in the fuzzy space, and Hybrid Entropy in the hybridized uncertainty of both fuzziness and randomness. We discover that none of the risk measures satisfy all six of the following properties, which various scholars have associated with effective risk measures: Monotonicity, Translation Invariance, Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, Consistency and Convexity. Measures based on Fuzzy Entropy, Credibility Entropy, and Sine Entropy all exhibit the same properties: Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, Consistency, and Convexity. These measures based on Information Entropy and Hybrid Entropy, meanwhile, only exhibit Sub-additivity and Consistency. Cumulative Residual Entropy satisfies just Sub-additivity, Positive Homogeneity, and Convexity. After identifying these properties, we develop seven portfolio models based on different risk measures and made empirical comparisons using samples from both the Shenzhen Stock Exchange of China and the New York Stock Exchange of America. The comparisons show that the Mean Fuzzy Entropy Model performs the best among the seven models with respect to both daily returns and relative cumulative returns. Overall, these results could provide an important reference for both constructing effective risk measures and rationally selecting the appropriate risk measure under different portfolio selection conditions.

  8. Comparison of bispectral index and entropy monitoring in patients undergoing internalisation of deep brain stimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Bharadwaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depth of anaesthesia (DOA monitors are shown to reduce the intra-operative dose of anaesthetic agents, provide haemodynamic stability and shorten emergence times. Electroencephalography (EEG based DOA monitors such as bispectral index (BIS and entropy have been calibrated and validated in healthy subjects. Hence the clinical effectiveness of these monitors may be affected when monitoring patients with neurological disorders (e.g., epilepsy, dystonia, dementia and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether BIS and entropy correlate with each other and with clinical indices of DOA in patients with movement disorders under general anaesthesia (GA. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study in patients with movement disorders undergoing internalization of deep brain stimulators. All patients received standard GA with age-adjusted mean alveolar concentration (aaMAC of an inhalational agent between 0.7 and 1.1. BIS and entropy sensors were applied on the patient's left forehead. Data collected included clinical parameters and EEG-based DOA indices. Correlation analysis was performed between entropy, BIS and the clinical indices of DOA. Bland Altman analysis was performed to determine the agreement between BIS and entropy. Results: Thirty patients were studied (mean age was 58.4 ± 11 years, male: female 18:12 and weight 79.2 ± 17 kg. Indications for deep brain stimulation were Parkinson's disease (n = 25, essential tremors (n = 2 and dystonia (n = 3. There was a very strong positive correlation between BIS and response entropy (RE (r = 0.932 and BIS and state entropy (SE (r = 0.950 and a strong negative correlation among aaMAC and BIS, RE and SE with r values of −0.686, −0.788 and −0.732, respectively. However, there was no correlation between BIS, RE, SE and haemodynamic values. Conclusion: Our study showed that BIS and entropy perform well in patients with movement disorders

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Sears, John S.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion, usually of equal atomic percent, they have high configurational entropy, and thus, they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and alloy stability. The present study investigates the mechanical behavior, fracture characteristics, and microstructure of two single-phase FCC HEAs CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn with some detailed attention given to melting, homogenization, and thermo-mechanical processing. Ingots approaching 8 kg in mass were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent to small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was given to both alloys in order to eliminate any solidification segregation. The alloys were then fabricated in the usual way (forging, followed by hot rolling) with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters employed. Transmission electron microscopy was subsequently used to assess the single-phase nature of the alloys prior to mechanical testing. Tensile specimens (ASTM E8) were prepared with tensile mechanical properties obtained from room temperature through 800 °C. Material from the gage section of selected tensile specimens was extracted to document room and elevated temperature deformation within the HEAs. Fracture surfaces were also examined to note fracture failure modes. The tensile behavior and selected tensile properties were compared with results in the literature for similar alloys.

  10. Entropy and Energy, - a Universal Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ingo

    2008-12-01

    When a body approaches equilibrium, energy tends to a minimum and entropy tends to a maximum. Often, or usually, the two tendencies favour different configurations of the body. Thus energy is deterministic in the sense that it favours fixed positions for the atoms, while entropy randomizes the positions. Both may exert considerable forces in the attempt to reach their objectives. Therefore they have to compromise; indeed, under most circumstances it is the available free energy which achieves a minimum. For low temperatures that free energy is energy itself, while for high temperatures it is determined by entropy. Several examples are provided for the roles of energy and entropy as competitors: - Planetary atmospheres; - osmosis; - phase transitions in gases and liquids and in shape memory alloys, and - chemical reactions, viz. the Haber Bosch synthesis of ammonia and photosynthesis. Some historical remarks are strewn through the text to make the reader appreciate the difficulties encountered by the pioneers in understanding the subtlety of the concept of entropy, and in convincing others of the validity and relevance of their arguments.

  11. Information entropies of many-electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, R.J.; Angulo, J.C.; Dehesa, J.S. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    1995-12-05

    The Boltzmann-Shannon (BS) information entropy S{sub {rho}} = - {integral} {rho}(r)log {rho}(r) dr measures the spread or extent of the one-electron density {rho}(r), which is the basic variable of the density function theory of the many electron systems. This quantity cannot be analytically computed, not even for simple quantum mechanical systems such as, e.g., the harmonic oscillator (HO) and the hydrogen atom (HA) in arbitrary excited states. Here, we first review (i) the present knowledge and open problems in the analytical determination of the BS entropies for the HO and HA systems in both position and momentum spaces and (ii) the known rigorous lower and upper bounds to the position and momentum BS entropies of many-electron systems in terms of the radial expectation values in the corresponding space. Then, we find general inequalities which relate the BS entropies and various density functionals. Particular cases of these results are rigorous relationships of the BS entropies and some relevant density functionals (e.g., the Thomas-Fermi kinetic energy, the Dirac-Slater exchange energy, the average electron density) for finite many-electron systems. 28 refs.

  12. Relativistic entropy and related Boltzmann kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaniadakis, G. [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica

    2009-06-15

    It is well known that the particular form of the two-particle correlation function, in the collisional integral of the classical Boltzmann equation, fixes univocally the entropy of the system, which turns out to be the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. In the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation, some standard generalizations, with respect to its classical version, imposed by the special relativity, are customarily performed. The only ingredient of the equation, which tacitly remains in its original classical form, is the two-particle correlation function, and this fact imposes that also the relativistic kinetics is governed by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. Indeed the ordinary relativistic Boltzmann equation admits as stationary stable distribution, the exponential Juttner distribution. Here, we show that the special relativity laws and the maximum entropy principle suggest a relativistic generalization also of the two-particle correlation function and then of the entropy. The so obtained, fully relativistic Boltzmann equation, obeys the H-theorem and predicts a stationary stable distribution, presenting power law tails in the high-energy region. The ensued relativistic kinetic theory preserves the main features of the classical kinetics, which recovers in the c{yields}{infinity} limit. (orig.)

  13. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  14. Responding to Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Y. Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an analysis of how refugee youths from Africa used and shifted languages and discourses in the United States. Drawing on sociocultural theories of language and utilizing ethnographic discourse and classroom observation data, the author illustrates the varied ways in which three high school–aged refugee youths used languages to make sense of who and where they are; respond to social, religious, and linguistic marginalization in the United States; and challenge narrow perceptions of African Muslims. This article brings to fore a group that, although facing a unique set of challenges in the United States, is rarely included in research on youth language practices and im/migration. Attention to their multilingual practices and the multilayered nature of their identity is central to understanding how refugee youths experience school in their new land, and how they see themselves and others. This understanding can guide school personnel, educational researchers, and community-based youth workers in their respective work with refugee students.

  15. Differential network entropy reveals cancer system hallmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, James; Bianconi, Ginestra; Severini, Simone; Teschendorff, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular phenotype is described by a complex network of molecular interactions. Elucidating network properties that distinguish disease from the healthy cellular state is therefore of critical importance for gaining systems-level insights into disease mechanisms and ultimately for developing improved therapies. By integrating gene expression data with a protein interaction network we here demonstrate that cancer cells are characterised by an increase in network entropy. In addition, we formally demonstrate that gene expression differences between normal and cancer tissue are anticorrelated with local network entropy changes, thus providing a systemic link between gene expression changes at the nodes and their local correlation patterns. In particular, we find that genes which drive cell-proliferation in cancer cells and which often encode oncogenes are associated with reductions in network entropy. These findings may have potential implications for identifying novel drug targets. PMID:23150773

  16. Transfer entropy and transient limits of computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopenko, Mikhail; Lizier, Joseph T

    2014-06-23

    Transfer entropy is a recently introduced information-theoretic measure quantifying directed statistical coherence between spatiotemporal processes, and is widely used in diverse fields ranging from finance to neuroscience. However, its relationships to fundamental limits of computation, such as Landauer's limit, remain unknown. Here we show that in order to increase transfer entropy (predictability) by one bit, heat flow must match or exceed Landauer's limit. Importantly, we generalise Landauer's limit to bi-directional information dynamics for non-equilibrium processes, revealing that the limit applies to prediction, in addition to retrodiction (information erasure). Furthermore, the results are related to negentropy, and to Bremermann's limit and the Bekenstein bound, producing, perhaps surprisingly, lower bounds on the computational deceleration and information loss incurred during an increase in predictability about the process. The identified relationships set new computational limits in terms of fundamental physical quantities, and establish transfer entropy as a central measure connecting information theory, thermodynamics and theory of computation.

  17. Large Field Inflation and Gravitational Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Kleban, Matthew; Lawrence, Albion

    2016-01-01

    Large field inflation can be sensitive to perturbative and nonperturbative quantum corrections that spoil slow roll. A large number $N$ of light species in the theory, which occur in many string constructions, can amplify these problems. One might even worry that in a de Sitter background, light...... species will lead to a violation of the covariant entropy bound at large $N$. If so, requiring the validity of the covariant entropy bound could limit the number of light species and their couplings, which in turn could severely constrain axion-driven inflation. Here we show that there is no such problem...... in this light, and show that they are perfectly consistent with the covariant entropy bound. Thus, while quantum gravity might yet spoil large field inflation, holographic considerations in the semiclassical theory do not obstruct it....

  18. Clausius versus Sackur-Tetrode entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Thomas; Baris Bagci, G.

    2013-05-01

    Based on the property of extensivity (mathematically, homogeneity of first degree), we derive in a mathematically consistent manner the explicit expressions of the chemical potential μ and the Clausius entropy S for the case of monoatomic ideal gases in open systems within phenomenological thermodynamics. Neither information theoretic nor quantum mechanical statistical concepts are invoked in this derivation. Considering a specific expression of the constant term of S, the derived entropy coincides with the Sackur-Tetrode entropy in the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate, however, that the former limit is not contained in the classical thermodynamic relations, implying that the usual resolutions of Gibbs paradox do not succeed in bridging the gap between the thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. We finally consider the volume of the phase space as an entropic measure, albeit, without invoking the thermodynamic limit to investigate its relation to the thermodynamic equation of state and observables.

  19. Anyonic entanglement and topological entanglement entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonderson, Parsa; Knapp, Christina; Patel, Kaushal

    2017-10-01

    We study the properties of entanglement in two-dimensional topologically ordered phases of matter. Such phases support anyons, quasiparticles with exotic exchange statistics. The emergent nonlocal state spaces of anyonic systems admit a particular form of entanglement that does not exist in conventional quantum mechanical systems. We study this entanglement by adapting standard notions of entropy to anyonic systems. We use the algebraic theory of anyon models (modular tensor categories) to illustrate the nonlocal entanglement structure of anyonic systems. Using this formalism, we present a general method of deriving the universal topological contributions to the entanglement entropy for general system configurations of a topological phase, including surfaces of arbitrary genus, punctures, and quasiparticle content. We analyze a number of examples in detail. Our results recover and extend prior results for anyonic entanglement and the topological entanglement entropy.

  20. An entropy model for artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pothos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed to characterize the type of knowledge acquired in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL. In particular, Shannon entropy is employed to compute the complexity of different test items in an AGL task, relative to the training items. According to this model, the more predictable a test item is from the training items, the more likely it is that this item should be selected as compatible with the training items. The predictions of the entropy model are explored in relation to the results from several previous AGL datasets and compared to other AGL measures. This particular approach in AGL resonates well with similar models in categorization and reasoning which also postulate that cognitive processing is geared towards the reduction of entropy.

  1. Multipartite analysis of average-subsystem entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; Visser, Matt

    2017-11-01

    So-called average subsystem entropies are defined by first taking partial traces over some pure state to define density matrices, then calculating the subsystem entropies, and finally averaging over the pure states to define the average subsystem entropies. These quantities are standard tools in quantum information theory, most typically applied in bipartite systems. We shall first present some extensions to the usual bipartite analysis (including a calculation of the average tangle and a bound on the average concurrence), follow this with some useful results for tripartite systems, and finally extend the discussion to arbitrary multipartite systems. A particularly nice feature of tripartite and multipartite analyses is that this framework allows one to introduce an "environment" to which small subsystems can couple.

  2. Entropy Concept for Paramacrosystems with Complex States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri S. Popkov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Consideration is given to macrosystems called paramacrosystems with states of finite capacity and distinguishable and undistinguishable elements with stochastic behavior. The paramacrosystems fill a gap between Fermi and Einstein macrosystems. Using the method of the generating functions, we have obtained expressions for probabilistic characteristics (distribution of the macrostate probabilities, physical and information entropies of the paramacrosystems. The cases with equal and unequal prior probabilities for elements to occupy the states with finite capacities are considered. The unequal prior probabilities influence the morphological properties of the entropy functions and the functions of the macrostate probabilities, transforming them in the multimodal functions. The examples of the paramacrosystems with two-modal functions of the entropy and distribution of the macrostate probabilities are presented. The variation principle does not work for such cases.

  3. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  4. Entanglement entropy of critical spin liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Grover, Tarun; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2011-08-05

    Quantum spin liquids are phases of matter whose internal structure is not captured by a local order parameter. Particularly intriguing are critical spin liquids, where strongly interacting excitations control low energy properties. Here we calculate their bipartite entanglement entropy that characterizes their quantum structure. In particular we calculate the Renyi entropy S(2) on model wave functions obtained by Gutzwiller projection of a Fermi sea. Although the wave functions are not sign positive, S(2) can be calculated on relatively large systems (>324 spins) using the variational Monte Carlo technique. On the triangular lattice we find that entanglement entropy of the projected Fermi sea state violates the boundary law, with S(2) enhanced by a logarithmic factor. This is an unusual result for a bosonic wave function reflecting the presence of emergent fermions. These techniques can be extended to study a wide class of other phases.

  5. Spatial-dependence recurrence sample entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan D.; Yan, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Measuring complexity in terms of the predictability of time series is a major area of research in science and engineering, and its applications are spreading throughout many scientific disciplines, where the analysis of physiological signals is perhaps the most widely reported in literature. Sample entropy is a popular measure for quantifying signal irregularity. However, the sample entropy does not take sequential information, which is inherently useful, into its calculation of sample similarity. Here, we develop a method that is based on the mathematical principle of the sample entropy and enables the capture of sequential information of a time series in the context of spatial dependence provided by the binary-level co-occurrence matrix of a recurrence plot. Experimental results on time-series data of the Lorenz system, physiological signals of gait maturation in healthy children, and gait dynamics in Huntington's disease show the potential of the proposed method.

  6. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heydarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  7. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Hadi, H.; Corda, C.; Darabi, F.

    2018-01-01

    The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  8. Entropy Bounds, Holographic Principle and Uncertainty Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volovich

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A simple derivation of the bound on entropy is given and the holographic principle is discussed. We estimate the number of quantum states inside space region on the base of uncertainty relation. The result is compared with the Bekenstein formula for entropy bound, which was initially derived from the generalized second law of thermodynamics for black holes. The holographic principle states that the entropy inside a region is bounded by the area of the boundary of that region. This principle can be called the kinematical holographic principle. We argue that it can be derived from the dynamical holographic principle which states that the dynamics of a system in a region should be described by a system which lives on the boundary of the region. This last principle can be valid in general relativity because the ADM hamiltonian reduces to the surface term.

  9. Maximum Relative Entropy of Coherence: An Operational Coherence Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Fei, Shao-Ming; Pati, Arun Kumar; Wu, Junde

    2017-10-01

    The operational characterization of quantum coherence is the cornerstone in the development of the resource theory of coherence. We introduce a new coherence quantifier based on maximum relative entropy. We prove that the maximum relative entropy of coherence is directly related to the maximum overlap with maximally coherent states under a particular class of operations, which provides an operational interpretation of the maximum relative entropy of coherence. Moreover, we show that, for any coherent state, there are examples of subchannel discrimination problems such that this coherent state allows for a higher probability of successfully discriminating subchannels than that of all incoherent states. This advantage of coherent states in subchannel discrimination can be exactly characterized by the maximum relative entropy of coherence. By introducing a suitable smooth maximum relative entropy of coherence, we prove that the smooth maximum relative entropy of coherence provides a lower bound of one-shot coherence cost, and the maximum relative entropy of coherence is equivalent to the relative entropy of coherence in the asymptotic limit. Similar to the maximum relative entropy of coherence, the minimum relative entropy of coherence has also been investigated. We show that the minimum relative entropy of coherence provides an upper bound of one-shot coherence distillation, and in the asymptotic limit the minimum relative entropy of coherence is equivalent to the relative entropy of coherence.

  10. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  11. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years. From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  12. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  13. Enhancements of the memory margin and the stability of an organic bistable device due to a graphene oxide:mica nanocomposite sandwiched between two polymer (9-vinylcarbazole) buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyum; Wu, Chaoxing; Lee, Dea Uk; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/polymer (9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK)/graphene oxide (GO):mica/PVK/indium-tin oxide (ITO) devices at 300 K showed a current bistability with a maximum high conductivity (ON)/low conductivity (OFF) ratio of 2 × 104, which was approximately 10 times larger than that of the device without a PVK layer. The endurance number of ON/OFF switchings for the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO device was 1 × 102 cycles, which was 20 times larger than that for the Al/GO:mica/ITO device. The ;erase; voltages were distributed between 2.3 and 3 V, and the ;write; voltages were distributed between -1.2 and -0.5 V. The retention time for the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO device was above 1 × 104 s, indicative of the memory stability of the device. The carrier transport mechanisms occurring in the Al/PVK/GO:mica/PVK/ITO and the Al/GO:mica/ITO devices are described on the basis of the I-V results and the energy band diagrams.

  14. Maximum Entropy Learning with Deep Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, the maximum likelihood (ML criterion is applied to train a deep belief network (DBN. We present a maximum entropy (ME learning algorithm for DBNs, designed specifically to handle limited training data. Maximizing only the entropy of parameters in the DBN allows more effective generalization capability, less bias towards data distributions, and robustness to over-fitting compared to ML learning. Results of text classification and object recognition tasks demonstrate ME-trained DBN outperforms ML-trained DBN when training data is limited.

  15. Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David

    2015-07-17

    We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.

  16. An entropy model with variable target

    OpenAIRE

    K O Jörnsten; Larsson, T; J T Lundgren; Migdalas, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an entropy model with variable target is presented, in which target values are assumed to belong to a specified convex set, so that multiple base-year information and forecasts of future trends can be handled without prior aggregation of such information into one fixed target. Three solution methods for such a model are presented -- one cutting-plane and two search methods -- all of which utilize the fact that entropy models with fixed targets can be solved efficiently. Some com...

  17. Holographic entanglement entropy on generic time slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuki, Yuya; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Umemoto, Koji

    2017-06-01

    We study the holographic entanglement entropy and mutual information for Lorentz boosted subsystems. In holographic CFTs at zero and finite temperature, we find that the mutual information gets divergent in a universal way when the end points of two subsystems are light-like separated. In Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating geometries dual to non-relativistic theories, we show that the holographic entanglement entropy is not well-defined for Lorentz boosted subsystems in general. This strongly suggests that in non-relativistic theories, we cannot make a real space factorization of the Hilbert space on a generic time slice except the constant time slice, as opposed to relativistic field theories.

  18. Workers' marginal costs of commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommeren, Jos; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour of ...

  19. The application of an entropy maximising model for understanding the rise of urbanism

    OpenAIRE

    Altaweel, M.

    2013-01-01

    The chapter presents a spatial interaction entropy model that addresses the dynamics of urban growth using sites from the Late Uruk period in southern Mesopotamia as examples. The model addresses to what extent geography, transportation, and factors that make locations attractive for trade and settlement affect why some settlements grow while others stabilize or diminish in size through time. The results show that geographic and transport factors can enable some regions, such as the northern ...

  20. Newtonian black holes: Particle production, "Hawking" temperature, entropies and entropy field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Ryan, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Newtonian gravitation with some slight modifications, along with some highly simplified ideas from quantum field theory allow us to reproduce, at least at the level of back-of-the-envelope calculations, many results of black hole physics. We consider particle production by a black hole, the Newtonian equivalent of the Hawking temperature, and the Bekenstein entropy. Also, we are able to deduce Newtonian field equations from entropy. We finally study higher-order Newtonian theories under the same assumptions used for ordinary Newtonian theory. In a companion article we will look at entropic forces for various entropies and make contact with our analysis of higher-order Newtonian theories.

  1. Monotonicity, thinning and discrete versions of the Entropy Power Inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    We consider the entropy of sums of independent discrete random variables, in analogy with Shannon's Entropy Power Inequality, where equality holds for normals. In our case, infinite divisibility suggests that equality should hold for Poisson variables. We show that some natural analogues of the Entropy Power Inequality do not in fact hold, but propose an alternative formulation which does always hold. The key to many proofs of Shannon's Entropy Power Inequality is the behaviour of entropy on scaling of continuous random variables. We believe that R\\'{e}nyi's operation of thinning discrete random variables plays a similar role to scaling, and give a sharp bound on how the entropy of ultra log-concave random variables behaves on thinning. In the spirit of the monotonicity results established by Artstein, Ball, Barthe and Naor, we prove a stronger version of concavity of entropy, which implies a strengthened form of our discrete Entropy Power Inequality.

  2. Entropy analysis in foreign exchange markets and economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin-Gi; Yim, Kyubin; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in 11 foreign exchange markets by using the Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity algorithm and several entropy values such as the Shannon entropy, the approximate entropy, and the sample entropy. With daily data in 11 foreign exchange markets from Jan. 2000 to Sep. 2011, we observe that mature markets have higher LZ complexities and entropy values than emerging markets. Furthermore, with sliding time windows, we also investigate the temporal evolutions of those entropies from Jan. 1994 to Sep. 2011, and we find that, after an economic crisis, the approximate entropy and the sample entropy of mature markets such as Japan, Europe and the United Kingdom suddenly become lower.

  3. Phase Change Enthalpies and Entropies of Liquid Crystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acree, William E; Chickos, James S

    2006-01-01

    .... A group additivity approach used to estimate total phase change entropies of organic molecules applied to 627 of these liquid crystals is found to significantly overestimate their total phase change entropies...

  4. Black holes, entropies, and semiclassical spacetime in quantum gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomura, Yasunori; Weinberg, Sean J

    2014-01-01

    .... We identify the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy as the entropy associated with coarse-graining performed to obtain semiclassical field theory from a fundamental microscopic theory of quantum gravity...

  5. Bioeconomic Sustainability of Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    The use of marginal land (ML) for lignocellulosic biofuel production is examined for system stability, resilience, and eco-social sustainability. A North American prairie grass system and its industrialization for maximum biomass production using biotechnology and agro-technical inputs is the focus of the analysis. Demographic models of ML biomass…

  6. Precipitation behavior of AlxCoCrFeNi high entropy alloys under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tengfei; Xia, Songqin; Liu, Shi; Wang, Chenxu; Liu, Shaoshuai; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Yong; Xue, Jianming; Yan, Sha; Wang, Yugang

    2016-08-01

    Materials performance is central to the satisfactory operation of current and future nuclear energy systems due to the severe irradiation environment in reactors. Searching for structural materials with excellent irradiation tolerance is crucial for developing the next generation nuclear reactors. Here, we report the irradiation responses of a novel multi-component alloy system, high entropy alloy (HEA) AlxCoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5), focusing on their precipitation behavior. It is found that the single phase system, Al0.1CoCrFeNi, exhibits a great phase stability against ion irradiation. No precipitate is observed even at the highest fluence. In contrast, numerous coherent precipitates are present in both multi-phase HEAs. Based on the irradiation-induced/enhanced precipitation theory, the excellent structural stability against precipitation of Al0.1CoCrFeNi is attributed to the high configurational entropy and low atomic diffusion, which reduces the thermodynamic driving force and kinetically restrains the formation of precipitate, respectively. For the multiphase HEAs, the phase separations and formation of ordered phases reduce the system configurational entropy, resulting in the similar precipitation behavior with corresponding binary or ternary conventional alloys. This study demonstrates the structural stability of single-phase HEAs under irradiation and provides important implications for searching for HEAs with higher irradiation tolerance.

  7. Quantitative evaluation method of arc sound spectrum based on sample entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Zhou, Kang; Zhu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Arc sound analysis is an effective way to evaluate the stability of the arc welding process. Current methods cannot effectively quantify the disorder of the process. By studying the characteristics of the arc sound signal, we found that low frequency random mutation of arc sound power resulted from unstable factors, such as splashes or short circuits, increased the complexity and randomness of the arc sound signals. Then the arc sound signals were visualized on time-frequency interface by means of spectrogram, and it was found that the max power spectral density (PSD) distribution of spectrogram was closely related to the stability of arc welding process. Moreover, a method based on sample entropy was proposed to further quantify the relation. Finally, considering the factors such as averages of max PSD and the standard deviations of sample entropy, a compound quantitative evaluation indicator, arc sound sample entropy (ASSE), which can avoid the influence of different parameters on the quantitative results, was proposed, so that the stability of arc welding process can be quantitatively presented. Testing results showed that the accuracy rate of the method was more than 90 percent.

  8. The entropy gain of infinite-dimensional quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we study the entropy gain $H(\\Phi [\\rho])-H(\\rho)$ for infinite-dimensional channels $\\Phi$. We show that unlike finite-dimensional case where the minimal entropy gain is always nonpositive \\cite{al}, there is a plenty of channels with positive minimal entropy gain. We obtain the new lower bound and compute the minimal entropy gain for a broad class of Bosonic Gaussian channels by proving that the infimum is attained on the Gaussian states.

  9. Entropy generation of micropolar fluid flow in an inclined porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Srinivasacharya

    collectors and geothermal energy systems depend on entropy generation. The concept of entropy generation rate in flow and thermal systems was introduced by Bejan [1]. It is observed that the thermal system efficiency is enhanced by minimizing the entropy generation of the system [2–4]. The flow through ducts or pipes is ...

  10. MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD-ESTIMATION OF THE ENTROPY OF AN ATTRACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUTEN, JC; TAKENS, F; VANDENBLEEK, CM

    In this paper, a maximum-likelihood estimate of the (Kolmogorov) entropy of an attractor is proposed that can be obtained directly from a time series. Also, the relative standard deviation of the entropy estimate is derived; it is dependent on the entropy and on the number of samples used in the

  11. Psychological Entropy: A Framework for Understanding Uncertainty-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B.; Mar, Raymond A.; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Entropy, a concept derived from thermodynamics and information theory, describes the amount of uncertainty and disorder within a system. Self-organizing systems engage in a continual dialogue with the environment and must adapt themselves to changing circumstances to keep internal entropy at a manageable level. We propose the entropy model of…

  12. The Entropy Theoretic Measure for Manpower Systems in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... propose the use of transition probabilities of the imbedded Markov chain for manpower systems as inputs in the entropy statistic. The proposal is illustrated by refining the basic Shannon entropy rate and implemented in Matlab computing environment. Keywords: entropy, manpower system, Markov chain, Matlab package.

  13. Malleability of the blockchain’s entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Pierrot (Cécile); W. Wesolowski (Benjamin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTrustworthy generation of public random numbers is necessary for the security of a number of cryptographic applications. It was suggested to use the inherent unpredictability of blockchains as a source of public randomness. Entropy from the Bitcoin blockchain in particular has been used

  14. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  15. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  16. The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmberlake, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system can increase but will not decrease, is a cornerstone of modern physics. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that the second law arises from the motion of the atoms that compose the system. Boltzmann's statistical mechanics provides deep insight into the…

  17. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  18. Texture analysis using Renyi's generalized entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, SE; Petkov, N

    2003-01-01

    We propose a texture analysis method based on Renyi's generalized entropies. The method aims at identifying texels in regular textures by searching for the smallest window through which the minimum number of different visual patterns is observed when moving the window over a given texture. The

  19. Flows of Rényi entropies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarov, Y.V.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the condensed matter quantum systems encompassing two reservoirs connected by a junction permit a natural definition of flows of conserved measures, i.e., Rényi entropies. Such flows are similar to the flows of physical conserved quantities such as charge and energy. We develop a

  20. Information, entropy and fidelity in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of visual communication that integrates the critical limiting factors of image gathering and display with the digital processing that is used to code and restore images. The approach focuses on two mathematical criteria, information and fidelity, and on their relationships to the entropy of the encoded data and to the visual quality of the restored image.

  1. On Using Entropy for Enhancing Handwriting Preprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Peischl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Handwriting is an important modality for Human-Computer Interaction. For medical professionals, handwriting is (still the preferred natural method of documentation. Handwriting recognition has long been a primary research area in Computer Science. With the tremendous ubiquity of smartphones, along with the renaissance of the stylus, handwriting recognition has become a new impetus. However, recognition rates are still not 100% perfect, and researchers still are constantly improving handwriting algorithms. In this paper we evaluate the performance of entropy based slant- and skew-correction, and compare the results to other methods. We selected 3700 words of 23 writers out of the Unipen-ICROW-03 benchmark set, which we annotated with their associated error angles by hand. Our results show that the entropy-based slant correction method outperforms a window based approach with an average precision of 6:02 for the entropy-based method, compared with the 7:85 for the alternative. On the other hand, the entropy-based skew correction yields a lower average precision of 2:86, compared with the average precision of 2:13 for the alternative LSM based approach.

  2. Quantum dynamical entropies in discrete classical chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benatti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Cappellini, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Zertuche, Federico [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Unidad Cuernavaca, AP 273-3, Admon. 3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-01-09

    We discuss certain analogies between quantization and discretization of classical systems on manifolds. In particular, we will apply the quantum dynamical entropy of Alicki and Fannes to numerically study the footprints of chaos in discretized versions of hyperbolic maps on the torus.

  3. Entropy based fingerprint for local crystalline order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggi, Pablo M.; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprint that allows distinguishing between liquid-like and solid-like atomic environments. This fingerprint is based on an approximate expression for the entropy projected on individual atoms. When combined with local enthalpy, this fingerprint acquires an even finer resolution and it is capable of discriminating between different crystal structures.

  4. Emission and Absorption Entropy Generation in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Varpula, Aapo; Prunnila, Mika

    2013-01-01

    materials due to emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. It is shown that the emission and absorption entropy generation reduces the fundamental limit on the efficiency of any semiconductor solar cell even further than the Landsberg limit. The results are derived from purely thermodynamical...

  5. The Optimal Use of Entropy and Enthalpy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. The Optimal Use of Entropy and Enthalpy. M S Ananth R Ravi. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 ... Author Affiliations. M S Ananth1 R Ravi1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India.

  6. Generalization of Gibbs Entropy and Thermodynamic Relation

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jun Chul

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we extend Gibbs's approach of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic processes, and calculate the microscopic expression of entropy for general non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes. Also, we analyze the formal structure of thermodynamic relation in non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes.

  7. Comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decision making for water resource planning is often related to social, economic and environmental factors. There are various methods for making decisions about water resource planning alternatives and measures with various shortcomings. A comprehensive entropy weight observability-controllability risk analysis ...

  8. The Entropy-Based Quantum Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Balian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The von Neumann entropy S( D ^ generates in the space of quantum density matrices  D ^ the Riemannian metric ds2 = −d2S( D ^ , which is physically founded and which characterises the amount of quantum information lost by mixing  D ^ and  D ^ + d D ^ . A rich geometric structure is thereby implemented in quantum mechanics. It includes a canonical mapping between the spaces of states and of observables, which involves the Legendre transform of S( D ^ . The Kubo scalar product is recovered within the space of observables. Applications are given to equilibrium and non equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. There the formalism is specialised to the relevant space of observables and to the associated reduced states issued from the maximum entropy criterion, which result from the exact states through an orthogonal projection. Von Neumann’s entropy specialises into a relevant entropy. Comparison is made with other metrics. The Riemannian properties of the metric ds2 = −d2S( D ^ are derived. The curvature arises from the non-Abelian nature of quantum mechanics; its general expression and its explicit form for q-bits are given, as well as geodesics.

  9. Geometric Entropy of Self-Gravitating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Mercadante

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We shall review different approaches to the entropy of self-gravitating systems inGeneral Relativity. Then we shall discuss in detail the macroscopic approach based on a la `Clausius point of view. Recent developments will be reviewed discussing the aims as well asthe assumptions which the framework is based on.

  10. Stochastic stability of traffic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Michael

    2012-12-01

    We study the ergodic properties of a family of traffic maps acting in the space of bi-infinite sequences of real numbers. The corresponding dynamics mimics the motion of vehicles in a simple traffic flow, which explains the name. Using connections to topological Markov chains we obtain nontrivial invariant measures, prove their stochastic stability and calculate the topological entropy. Technically these results in the deterministic setting are related to the construction of measures of maximal entropy via measures uniformly distributed on periodic points of a given period, while in the random setting we construct (spatially) Markov invariant measures directly. In distinction to conventional results the limiting measures in the non-lattice case are non-ergodic. The average velocity of individual ‘vehicles’ as a function of their density and its stochastic stability is studied as well.

  11. Electrostatic stabilization of a thermophilic cold shock protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, D; Schmid, F X

    2001-10-19

    The cold shock protein Bc-Csp from the thermophile Bacillus caldolyticus differs from its mesophilic homolog Bs-CspB from Bacillus subtilis by 15.8 kJ mol(-1) in the Gibbs free energy of denaturation (DeltaG(D)). The two proteins vary in sequence at 12 positions but only two of them, Arg3 and Leu66 of Bc-Csp, which replace Glu3 and Glu66 of Bs-CspB, are responsible for the additional stability of Bc-Csp. These two positions are near the ends of the protein chain, but close to each other in the three-dimensional structure. The Glu3Arg exchange alone changed the stability by more than 11 kJ mol(-1). Here, we elucidated the molecular origins of the stability difference between the two proteins by a mutational analysis. Electrostatic contributions to stability were characterized by measuring the thermodynamic stabilities of many variants as a function of salt concentration. Double and triple mutant analyses indicate that the stabilization by the Glu3Arg exchange originates from three sources. Improved hydrophobic interactions of the aliphatic moiety of Arg3 contribute about 4 kJ mol(-1). Another 4 kJ mol(-1) is gained from the relief of a pairwise electrostatic repulsion between Glu3 and Glu66, as in the mesophilic protein, and 3 kJ mol(-1) originate from a general electrostatic stabilization by the positive charge of Arg3, which is not caused by a pairwise interaction. Mutations of all potential partners for an ion pair within a radius of 10 A around Arg3 had only marginal effects on stability. The Glu3-->Arg3 charge reversal thus optimizes ionic interactions at the protein surface by both local and global effects. However, it cannot convert the coulombic repulsion with another Glu residue into a corresponding attraction. Avoidance of unfavorable coulombic repulsions is probably a much simpler route to thermostability than the creation of stabilizing surface ion pairs, which can form only at the expense of conformational entropy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate

  13. A Discrete Constraint for Entropy Conservation and Sound Waves in Cloud-Resolving Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Ideal cloud-resolving models contain little-accumulative errors. When their domain is so large that synoptic large-scale circulations are accommodated, they can be used for the simulation of the interaction between convective clouds and the large-scale circulations. This paper sets up a framework for the models, using moist entropy as a prognostic variable and employing conservative numerical schemes. The models possess no accumulative errors of thermodynamic variables when they comply with a discrete constraint on entropy conservation and sound waves. Alternatively speaking, the discrete constraint is related to the correct representation of the large-scale convergence and advection of moist entropy. Since air density is involved in entropy conservation and sound waves, the challenge is how to compute sound waves efficiently under the constraint. To address the challenge, a compensation method is introduced on the basis of a reference isothermal atmosphere whose governing equations are solved analytically. Stability analysis and numerical experiments show that the method allows the models to integrate efficiently with a large time step.

  14. NOTE: Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comani, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Alleva, G.; Romani, G. L.

    2007-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from multi-channel fMCG recordings by means of independent component analysis (ICA). However, the identification of the separated components is usually accomplished by visual inspection. This paper discusses a novel automated system based on entropy estimators, namely approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn), for the classification of independent components (ICs). The system was validated on 40 fMCG datasets of normal fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 22 to 37 weeks. Both ApEn and SampEn were able to measure the stability and predictability of the physiological signals separated with ICA, and the entropy values of the three categories were significantly different at p gestation, with an overall ICs detection rate of 98.75% and 97.92% for ApEn and SampEn respectively, as against a value of 94.50% obtained with the time-frequency-based system.

  15. The nuclear configurational entropy impact parameter dependence in the Color-Glass Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, G.

    2017-05-01

    The impact parameter (b) dependence on the saturation scale, in the framework of the Color-Glass Condensate (b-CGC) dipole model, is investigated from the configurational point of view. During the calculations and analysis of the quantum nuclear states, the critical points of stability in the configurational entropy setup are computed, matching the experimental parameters that define the onset of the quantum regime in the b-CGC in the literature with very good accuracy. This new approach is crucial and important for understanding the stability of quantum systems in the study of deep inelastic scattering processes.

  16. High strain rate sensitivity of hardness in quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high entropy metallic glass thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaofan; Wang, Haibin; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Nan; Zhao, Delin; Yao, Kefu; Chen, Na

    2017-10-01

    Quinary Ti-Zr-Hf-Cu-Ni high-entropy metallic glass thin films were produced by magnetron sputter deposition. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the deposited film exhibits a relatively large hardness of 10.4±0.6 GPa and a high elastic modulus of 131±11 GPa under the strain rate of 0.5 s-1. Specifically, the strain rate sensitivity of hardness measured for the thin film is 0.05, the highest value reported for metallic glasses so far. Such high strain rate sensitivity of hardness is likely due to the high-entropy effect which stabilizes the amorphous structure with enhanced homogeneity.

  17. Lyapunov Functions and Solutions of the Lyapunov Matrix Equation for Marginally Stable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian

    2000-01-01

    of the Lyapunov matrix equation and characterize the set of matrices $(B, C)$ which guarantees marginal stability. The theory is applied to gyroscopic systems, to indefinite damped systems, and to circulatory systems, showing how to choose certain parameter matrices to get sufficient conditions for marginal...

  18. Maximum Entropy-Copula Method for Hydrological Risk Analysis under Uncertainty: A Case Study on the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Copula functions have been extensively used to describe the joint behaviors of extreme hydrological events and to analyze hydrological risk. Advanced marginal distribution inference, for example, the maximum entropy theory, is particularly beneficial for improving the performance of the copulas. The goal of this paper, therefore, is twofold; first, to develop a coupled maximum entropy-copula method for hydrological risk analysis through deriving the bivariate return periods, risk, reliability and bivariate design events; and second, to reveal the impact of marginal distribution selection uncertainty and sampling uncertainty on bivariate design event identification. Particularly, the uncertainties involved in the second goal have not yet received significant consideration. The designed framework for hydrological risk analysis related to flood and extreme precipitation events is exemplarily applied in two catchments of the Loess plateau, China. Results show that (1 distribution derived by the maximum entropy principle outperforms the conventional distributions for the probabilistic modeling of flood and extreme precipitation events; (2 the bivariate return periods, risk, reliability and bivariate design events are able to be derived using the coupled entropy-copula method; (3 uncertainty analysis highlights the fact that appropriate performance of marginal distribution is closely related to bivariate design event identification. Most importantly, sampling uncertainty causes the confidence regions of bivariate design events with return periods of 30 years to be very large, overlapping with the values of flood and extreme precipitation, which have return periods of 10 and 50 years, respectively. The large confidence regions of bivariate design events greatly challenge its application in practical engineering design.

  19. Pseudo-Marginal Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Iain; Graham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods asymptotically sample from complex probability distributions. The pseudo-marginal MCMC framework only requires an unbiased estimator of the unnormalized probability distribution function to construct a Markov chain. However, the resulting chains are harder to tune to a target distribution than conventional MCMC, and the types of updates available are limited. We describe a general way to clamp and update the random numbers used in a pseudo-marginal meth...

  20. Standard gross margin for poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Chetroiu, Rodica; Iurchevici, Lidia

    2012-01-01

    The standard gross margin (SGM) is the difference between the gross product (GP) of a product and the direct proportional expenditures (DPE). The standard gross margin shall be calculated on one activity unit: surface (1 ha) or per head: SGM = GP - DPE The standard gross product at poultry is calculated per kg of meat and per 1000 eggs and includes the total output value plus the supplied subsidy. Direct proportional expenditures (DPE) are expenditures that vary directly with the changes in t...

  1. Quench action and Rényi entropies in integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2017-09-01

    Entropy is a fundamental concept in equilibrium statistical mechanics, yet its origin in the nonequilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum systems is not fully understood. A strong consensus is emerging around the idea that the stationary thermodynamic entropy is the von Neumann entanglement entropy of a large subsystem embedded in an infinite system. Also motivated by cold-atom experiments, here we consider the generalization to Rényi entropies. We develop a new technique to calculate the diagonal Rényi entropy in the quench action formalism. In the spirit of the replica treatment for the entanglement entropy, the diagonal Rényi entropies are generalized free energies evaluated over a thermodynamic macrostate which depends on the Rényi index and, in particular, is not the same state describing von Neumann entropy. The technical reason for this perhaps surprising result is that the evaluation of the moments of the diagonal density matrix shifts the saddle point of the quench action. An interesting consequence is that different Rényi entropies encode information about different regions of the spectrum of the postquench Hamiltonian. Our approach provides a very simple proof of the long-standing issue that, for integrable systems, the diagonal entropy is half of the thermodynamic one and it allows us to generalize this result to the case of arbitrary Rényi entropy.

  2. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  3. Quantum information entropies for a squared tangent potential well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shishan [Information and Engineering College, DaLian University, 116622 (China); Sun, Guo-Hua, E-mail: sunghdb@yahoo.com [Centro Universitario Valle de Chalco, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de México, 56615 (Mexico); Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Edificio 9, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Draayer, J.P., E-mail: draayer@sura.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The particle in a symmetrical squared tangent potential well is studied by examining its Shannon information entropy and standard deviations. The position and momentum information entropy densities ρ{sub s}(x), ρ{sub s}(p) and probability densities ρ(x), ρ(p) are illustrated with different potential range L and potential depth U. We present analytical position information entropies S{sub x} for the lowest two states. We observe that the sum of position and momentum entropies S{sub x} and S{sub p} expressed by Bialynicki-Birula–Mycielski (BBM) inequality is satisfied. Some eigenstates exhibit entropy squeezing in the position. The entropy squeezing in position will be compensated by an increase in momentum entropy. We also note that the S{sub x} increases with the potential range L, while decreases with the potential depth U. The variation of S{sub p} is contrary to that of S{sub x}.

  4. Spatial Entropy and Fractal Dimension of Urban Form

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang; Feng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Entropy is an important concept in the studies on complex systems such as cities. Spatial patterns and processes can be described with varied entropy functions. However, spatial entropy always depends on the scale of measurement, and we cannot find a characteristic value for it. In contrast, entropy-based fractal parameters can be employed to characterize scale-free phenomena. This paper is devoted to exploring the similarities and differences between spatial entropy and fractal dimension in urban description. Drawing an analogy between cities and growing fractals, we illustrate the definitions of fractal dimension based on several entropy formulae. Three representative fractal dimensions in the multifractal dimension set, capacity dimension, information dimension, and correlation dimension, are utilized to make an empirical analysis of Beijing's and Hangzhou's urban form using functional box-counting method. The results show that the entropy values are not determinate, but the fractal dimension value is cert...

  5. Single water entropy: hydrophobic crossover and application to drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2014-09-11

    Entropy of water plays an important role in both chemical and biological processes e.g. hydrophobic effect, molecular recognition etc. Here we use a new approach to calculate translational and rotational entropy of the individual water molecules around different hydrophobic and charged solutes. We show that for small hydrophobic solutes, the translational and rotational entropies of each water molecule increase as a function of its distance from the solute reaching finally to a constant bulk value. As the size of the solute increases (0.746 nm), the behavior of the translational entropy is opposite; water molecules closest to the solute have higher entropy that reduces with distance from the solute. This indicates that there is a crossover in translational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes from negative to positive values as the size of the solute is increased. Rotational entropy of water molecules around hydrophobic solutes for all sizes increases with distance from the solute, indicating the absence of crossover in rotational entropy. This makes the crossover in total entropy (translation + rotation) of water molecule happen at much larger size (>1.5 nm) for hydrophobic solutes. Translational entropy of single water molecule scales logarithmically (Str(QH) = C + kB ln V), with the volume V obtained from the ellipsoid of inertia. We further discuss the origin of higher entropy of water around water and show the possibility of recovering the entropy loss of some hypothetical solutes. The results obtained are helpful to understand water entropy behavior around various hydrophobic and charged environments within biomolecules. Finally, we show how our approach can be used to calculate the entropy of the individual water molecules in a protein cavity that may be replaced during ligand binding.

  6. Passive margins through earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2008-12-01

    Passive margins have existed somewhere on Earth almost continually since 2740 Ma. They were abundant at 1900-1890, 610-520, and 150-0 Ma, scarce at ca. 2445-2300, 1600-1000, and 300-275 Ma, and absent before ca. 3000 Ma and at 1740-1600. The fluctuations in abundance of passive margins track the first-order fluctuations of the independently derived seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr secular curve, and the compilation thus appears to be robust. The 76 ancient passive margins for which lifespans could be measured have a mean lifespan of 181 m.y. The world-record holder, with a lifespan of 590 m.y., is the Mesoproterozoic eastern margin of the Siberian craton. Subdivided into natural age groups, mean lifespans are 186 m.y. for the Archean to Paleoproterozoic, 394 m.y. for the Mesoproterozoic, 180 m.y. for the Neoproterozoic, 137 m.y. for the Cambrian to Carboniferous, and 130 m.y. for the Permian to Neogene. The present-day passive margins, which are not yet finished with their lifespans, have a mean age of 104 m.y. and a maximum age of 180 m.y. On average, Precambrian margins thus had longer, not shorter, lifespans than Phanerozoic ones—and this remains the case even discounting all post-300 Ma margins, most of which have time left. Longer lifespans deeper in the past is at odds with the widely held notion that the tempo of plate tectonics was faster in the Precambrian than at present. It is entirely consistent, however, with recent modeling by Korenaga [Korenaga, J., 2004. Archean geodynamics and thermal evolution of Earth. Archean Geodynamics and Environments, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 164, 7-32], which showed that plate tectonics was more sluggish in the Precambrian. The abundance of passive margins clearly tracks the assembly, tenure, and breakup of Pangea. Earlier parts of the hypothesized supercontinent cycle, however, are only partly consistent with the documented abundance of passive margins. The passive-margin record is not obviously consistent with the proposed

  7. Entropy measures, entropy estimators, and their performance in quantifying complex dynamics: Effects of artifacts, nonstationarity, and long-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wanting; Faes, Luca; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2017-06-01

    Entropy measures are widely applied to quantify the complexity of dynamical systems in diverse fields. However, the practical application of entropy methods is challenging, due to the variety of entropy measures and estimators and the complexity of real-world time series, including nonstationarities and long-range correlations (LRC). We conduct a systematic study on the performance, bias, and limitations of three basic measures (entropy, conditional entropy, information storage) and three traditionally used estimators (linear, kernel, nearest neighbor). We investigate the dependence of entropy measures on estimator- and process-specific parameters, and we show the effects of three types of nonstationarities due to artifacts (trends, spikes, local variance change) in simulations of stochastic autoregressive processes. We also analyze the impact of LRC on the theoretical and estimated values of entropy measures. Finally, we apply entropy methods on heart rate variability data from subjects in different physiological states and clinical conditions. We find that entropy measures can only differentiate changes of specific types in cardiac dynamics and that appropriate preprocessing is vital for correct estimation and interpretation. Demonstrating the limitations of entropy methods and shedding light on how to mitigate bias and provide correct interpretations of results, this work can serve as a comprehensive reference for the application of entropy methods and the evaluation of existing studies.

  8. [Sinaloa: the geography of marginalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1993-01-01

    Sinaloa's State Population Program for 1993-98 contains the objective of promoting integration of demographic criteria into the planning process. The action program calls for establishing indicators of economic and social inequality so that conditions of poverty and margination can be identified. To further these goals, the State Population Council used data from the National Population Council project on regional inequality and municipal margination in Mexico to analyze margination at the state level. Nine indicators of educational status, housing conditions, spatial distribution, and income provide information that allows the definition of municipios and regions that should receive priority in economic and social development programs. The index of municipal margination (IMM) is a statistical summary of the nine indicators, which are based on information in the 1990 census. As of March 1990, 9.9% of Sinaloa's population over age 15 was illiterate and 37.4% had incomplete primary education. 91.0% had electricity, but 18.7% lacked indoor toilet facilities and 19.4% had no piped water. 23.7% of houses had dirt floors. 60% of households were crowded, defined as having more than two persons per bedroom. 43.5% of the state population lived in localities with fewer than 5000 inhabitants, where service delivery is difficult and costly. 55.6% of the economically active population was judged to earn less than the amount needed to satisfy essential needs. All except one municipio bordering the Pacific ocean had low or very low indicators of margination, while all those in the sierra had a medium or high degree of margination. Sinaloa's statewide IMM was eighteenth among Mexico's 32 federal entities, with Chiapas showing the highest degree of margination and the Federal District the lowest.

  9. Applying wavelet entropy principle in fault classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Safty, S.; El-Zonkoly, A. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Miami, Alexandria, P.O.1029 (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The ability to detect and classify the type of fault plays a great role in the protection of power system. This procedure is required to be precise with no time consumption. In this paper detection of fault type has been implemented using wavelet analysis together with wavelet entropy principle. The simulation of power system is carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC. Different types of faults were studied obtaining various current waveforms. These current waveforms were decomposed using wavelet analysis into different approximation and details. The wavelet entropies of such decompositions are analyzed reaching a successful methodology for fault classification. The suggested approach is tested using different fault types and proven successful identification for the type of fault. (author)

  10. Twinning of Polymer Crystals Suppressed by Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Ch. Karayiannis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose an entropic argument as partial explanation of the observed scarcity of twinned structures in crystalline samples of synthetic organic polymeric materials. Polymeric molecules possess a much larger number of conformational degrees of freedom than low molecular weight substances. The preferred conformations of polymer chains in the bulk of a single crystal are often incompatible with the conformations imposed by the symmetry of a growth twin, both at the composition surfaces and in the twin axis. We calculate the differences in conformational entropy between chains in single crystals and chains in twinned crystals, and find that the reduction in chain conformational entropy in the twin is sufficient to make the single crystal the stable thermodynamic phase. The formation of cyclic twins in molecular dynamics simulations of chains of hard spheres must thus be attributed to kinetic factors. In more realistic polymers this entropic contribution to the free energy can be canceled or dominated by nonbonded and torsional energetics.

  11. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  12. Black hole entropy calculations based on symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, O; Wísniewski, J A; Dreyer, Olaf; Ghosh, Amit; Wisniewski, Jacek

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry based approaches to the black hole entropy problem have a number of attractive features; in particular they are very general and do not depend on the details of the quantization method. However we point out that, of the two available approaches, one faces conceptual problems (also emphasized by others), while the second contains certain technical flaws. We correct these errors and, within the new, improved scheme, calculate the entropy of 3-dimensional black holes. We find that, while the new symmetry vector fields are well-defined on the ``stretched horizon,'' and lead to well-defined Hamiltonians satisfying the expected Lie algebra, they fail to admit a well-defined limit to the horizon. This suggests that, although the formal calculation can be carried out at the classical level, its real, conceptual origin probably lies in the quantum theory.

  13. Entanglement entropy in three dimensional gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Henry [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-07

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) and covariant Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) proposals relate entanglement entropy in CFTs with holographic duals to the areas of minimal or extremal surfaces in the bulk geometry. We show how, in three dimensional pure gravity, the relevant regulated geodesic lengths can be obtained by writing a spacetime as a quotient of AdS{sub 3}, with the problem reduced to a simple purely algebraic calculation. We explain how this works in both Lorentzian and Euclidean formalisms, before illustrating its use to obtain novel results in a number of examples, including rotating BTZ, the ℝℙ{sup 2} geon, and several wormhole geometries. This includes spatial and temporal dependence of single-interval entanglement entropy, despite these symmetries being broken only behind an event horizon. We also discuss considerations allowing HRT to be derived from analytic continuation of Euclidean computations in certain contexts, and a related class of complexified extremal surfaces.

  14. Entropy methods for diffusive partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a range of entropy methods for diffusive PDEs devised by many researchers in the course of the past few decades, which allow us to understand the qualitative behavior of solutions to diffusive equations (and Markov diffusion processes). Applications include the large-time asymptotics of solutions, the derivation of convex Sobolev inequalities, the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions, and the analysis of discrete and geometric structures of the PDEs. The purpose of the book is to provide readers an introduction to selected entropy methods that can be found in the research literature. In order to highlight the core concepts, the results are not stated in the widest generality and most of the arguments are only formal (in the sense that the functional setting is not specified or sufficient regularity is supposed). The text is also suitable for advanced master and PhD students and could serve as a textbook for special courses and seminars.

  15. Mixing, entropy and reactive solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Hochstetler, David L.; Bellin, Alberto; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Rolle, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    Mixing processes significantly affect reactive solute transport in fluids. For example, contaminant degradation in environmental aquatic systems can be limited either by the availability of one or more reactants, brought into contact by physical mixing, or by the kinetics of the (bio)chemical transformations. Appropriate metrics are needed to accurately quantify the interplay between mixing and reactive processes. The exponential of the Shannon entropy of the concentration probability distribution has been proposed and applied to quantify the dilution of conservative solutes either in a given volume (dilution index) or in a given water flux (flux-related dilution index). In this work we derive the transport equation for the entropy of a reactive solute. Adopting a flux-related framework, we show that the degree of uniformity of the solute mass flux distribution for a reactive species and its rate of change are informative measures of physical and (bio)chemical processes and their complex interaction.

  16. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated 'total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  17. Entropy generation analysis of magnetohydrodynamic induction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Hugo [UAEMor., Facultad de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Cuevas, Sergio; Haro, Mariano Lopez de [UNAM, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Temixco (Mexico)

    1999-10-21

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) induction devices such as electromagnetic pumps or electric generators are analysed within the approach of entropy generation. The flow of an electrically-conducting incompressible fluid in an MHD induction machine is described through the well known Hartmann model. Irreversibilities in the system due to ohmic dissipation, flow friction and heat flow are included in the entropy-generation rate. This quantity is used to define an overall efficiency for the induction machine that considers the total loss caused by process irreversibility. For an MHD generator working at maximum power output with walls at constant temperature, an optimum magnetic field strength (i.e., Hartmann number) is found based on the maximum overall efficiency. (Author)

  18. Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmai, T., E-mail: palmai@phy.bme.hu

    2016-08-10

    A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.

  19. Entanglement entropy from the truncated conformal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Palmai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical approach to entanglement entropies of the Rényi type is proposed for one-dimensional quantum field theories. The method extends the truncated conformal spectrum approach and we will demonstrate that it is especially suited to study the crossover from massless to massive behavior when the subsystem size is comparable to the correlation length. We apply it to different deformations of massless free fermions, corresponding to the scaling limit of the Ising model in transverse and longitudinal fields. For massive free fermions the exactly known crossover function is reproduced already in very small system sizes. The new method treats ground states and excited states on the same footing, and the applicability for excited states is illustrated by reproducing Rényi entropies of low-lying states in the transverse field Ising model.

  20. Gravitational surface Hamiltonian and entropy quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bakshi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface Hamiltonian corresponding to the surface part of a gravitational action has xp structure where p is conjugate momentum of x. Moreover, it leads to TS on the horizon of a black hole. Here T and S are temperature and entropy of the horizon. Imposing the hermiticity condition we quantize this Hamiltonian. This leads to an equidistant spectrum of its eigenvalues. Using this we show that the entropy of the horizon is quantized. This analysis holds for any order of Lanczos–Lovelock gravity. For general relativity, the area spectrum is consistent with Bekenstein's observation. This provides a more robust confirmation of this earlier result as the calculation is based on the direct quantization of the Hamiltonian in the sense of usual quantum mechanics.

  1. NUCLEATION AND ENTROPY COMPENSATION IN BIOLOGICAL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Ferrone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The assembly of molecules from solution into larger aggregates de-activates their independent rotational and translational motion, which would represent an insuperable penalty in free energy without a compensatory mechanism for regaining at least some of the lost entropy. Such compensation is provided by the internal rigidbody motion of molecules in protein aggregates such as polymers and crystals. While the concepts behind the contributions of these entropic elements, known as vibrational entropy, are not new, the magnitude of the effects is little appreciated. Based on extensive experiments on sickle cell hemoglobin polymerization, we present examples showing the magnitude of the effects and the role they play in explaining such things as the rapid assembly of fibers compared with crystals. While the example will be drawn from sickle hemoglobin, the principles and applications of the concepts are quite general.

  2. Waveform information from quantum mechanical entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Scott; Suski, William; Winn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although the entropy of a given signal-type waveform is technically zero, it is nonetheless desirable to use entropic measures to quantify the associated information. Several such prescriptions have been advanced in the literature but none are generally successful. Here, we report that the Fourier-conjugated `total entropy' associated with quantum-mechanical probabilistic amplitude functions (PAFs) is a meaningful measure of information in non-probabilistic real waveforms, with either the waveform itself or its (normalized) analytic representation acting in the role of the PAF. Detailed numerical calculations are presented for both adaptations, showing the expected informatic behaviours in a variety of rudimentary scenarios. Particularly noteworthy are the sensitivity to the degree of randomness in a sequence of pulses and potential for detection of weak signals.

  3. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, R. A. C.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-11-01

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  4. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.A.C. [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldao da [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy. (orig.)

  5. Configurational entropy in brane-world models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R. A. C., E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-02

    In this work we investigate the entropic information on thick brane-world scenarios and its consequences. The brane-world entropic information is studied for the sine-Gordon model and hence the brane-world entropic information measure is shown to be an accurate way for providing the most suitable range for the bulk AdS curvature, in particular from the informational content of physical solutions. Besides, the brane-world configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configuration of the system, for large values of a parameter of the sine-Gordon model but the one related to the AdS curvature. The Gleiser and Stamatopoulos procedure is finally applied in order to achieve a precise correlation between the energy of the system and the brane-world configurational entropy.

  6. Gravitational surface Hamiltonian and entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Bakshi, Ashish; Samanta, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    The surface Hamiltonian corresponding to the surface part of a gravitational action has $xp$ structure where $p$ is conjugate momentum of $x$. Moreover, it leads to $TS$ on the horizon of a black hole. Here $T$ and $S$ are temperature and entropy of the horizon. Imposing the hermiticity condition we quantize this Hamiltonian. This leads to an equidistant spectrum of its eigenvalues. Using this we show that the entropy of the horizon is quantized. This analysis holds for any order of Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. For general relativity, the area spectrum is consistent with Bekenstein's observation. This provides a more robust confirmation of this earlier result as the calculation is based on the direct quantization of the Hamiltonian in the sense of usual quantum mechanics.

  7. Gravitational surface Hamiltonian and entropy quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshi, Ashish, E-mail: ashishbakshi@outlook.com [Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata-700108 (India); Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan, E-mail: bibhas.majhi@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Samanta, Saurav, E-mail: srvsmnt@gmail.com [Narasinha Dutt College, 129, Belilious Road, Howrah-711101 (India)

    2017-02-10

    The surface Hamiltonian corresponding to the surface part of a gravitational action has xp structure where p is conjugate momentum of x. Moreover, it leads to TS on the horizon of a black hole. Here T and S are temperature and entropy of the horizon. Imposing the hermiticity condition we quantize this Hamiltonian. This leads to an equidistant spectrum of its eigenvalues. Using this we show that the entropy of the horizon is quantized. This analysis holds for any order of Lanczos–Lovelock gravity. For general relativity, the area spectrum is consistent with Bekenstein's observation. This provides a more robust confirmation of this earlier result as the calculation is based on the direct quantization of the Hamiltonian in the sense of usual quantum mechanics.

  8. Quantum thermodynamics: Microscopic foundations of entropy and of entropy generation by irreversibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the physical significance of entropy? What is the physical origin of irreversibility? Do entropy and irreversibility exist only for complex and macroscopic systems? Most physicists still accept and teach that the rationalization of these fundamental questions is given by Statistical Mechanics. Indeed, for everyday laboratory physics, the mathematical formalism of Statistical Mechanics (canonical and grand-canonical, Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions allows a successful description of the thermodynamic equilibrium properties of matter, including entropy values. However, as already recognized by Schrodinger in 1936, Statistical Mechanics is impaired by conceptual ambiguities and logical inconsistencies, both in its explanation of the meaning of entropy and in its implications on the concept of state of a system. An alternative theory has been developed by Gyftopoulos, Hatsopoulos and the present author to eliminate these stumbling conceptual blocks while maintaining the mathematical formalism so successful in applications. To resolve both the problem of the meaning of entropy and that of the origin of irreversibility we have built entropy and irreversibility into the laws of microscopic physics. The result is a theory, that we call Quantum Thermodynamics, that has all the necessary features to combine Mechanics and Thermodynamics uniting all the successful results of both theories, eliminating the logical inconsistencies of Statistical Mechanics and the paradoxes on irreversibility, and providing an entirely new perspective on the microscopic origin of irreversibility, nonlinearity (therefore including chaotic behavior and maximal-entropy-generation nonequilibrium dynamics. In this paper we discuss the background and formalism of Quantum Thermodynamics including its nonlinear equation of motion and the main general results. Our objective is to show in a not-too-technical manner that this theory provides indeed a

  9. Mammographic image restoration using maximum entropy deconvolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jannetta, Adrian; Jackson, John; Birch, Ian; Kotre, John; Robson, Kevin; Padgett, Rod

    2004-01-01

    An image restoration approach based on a Bayesian maximum entropy method (MEM) has been applied to a radiological image deconvolution problem, that of reduction of geometric blurring in magnification mammography. The aim of the work is to demonstrate an improvement in image spatial resolution in realistic noisy radiological images with no associated penalty in terms of reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio perceived by the observer. Images of the TORMAM mammographic image quality phantom wer...

  10. Entropy, Topological Theories and Emergent Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabrera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The classical thermostatics of equilibrium processes is shown to possess a quantum mechanical dual theory with a finite dimensional Hilbert space of quantum states. Specifically, the kernel of a certain Hamiltonian operator becomes the Hilbert space of quasistatic quantum mechanics. The relation of thermostatics to topological field theory is also discussed in the context of the approach of the emergence of quantum theory, where the concept of entropy plays a key role.

  11. The Role of Entropy in Nanoparticle Agglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätelhön, Enno; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Bartlett, Thomas R; Compton, Richard G

    2017-01-04

    Agglomeration processes in non-interacting particle systems can be understood from a thermodynamic point of view. If the enthalpy of agglomeration is negligible, the distribution of agglomeration states adopts the state of highest entropy. Herein, we provide the exact analytical solution to the mole fractions of agglomerates comprising i monomers, xi =2-i . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Duality, Entropy and ADM Mass in Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cerchiai, Bianca L; Marrani, Alessio; Zumino, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula in four dimensional extended ungauged supergravity and its electric-magnetic duality property. Symmetries of both "large" and "small" extremal black holes are considered, as well as the ADM mass formula for N=4 and N=8 supergravity, preserving different fraction of supersymmetry. The interplay between BPS conditions and duality properties is an important aspect of this investigation.

  13. Entropy and initial conditions in cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, T.

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the Boltzmann-Penrose question of why the initial conditions for cosmology have low entropy. The modern version of Boltzmann's answer to this question, due to Dyson, Kleban and Susskind, seems to imply that the typical intelligent observer arises through thermal fluctuation, rather than cosmology and evolution. I investigate whether this can be resolved within the string landscape. I end with a review of the suggestion that Holographic Cosmology provides a simpler answer to the prob...

  14. Maximum Entropy Moment Systems and Galilean Invariance

    OpenAIRE

    Junk, Michael; Unterreiter, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment syst...

  15. Metric entropy in linear inverse scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maisto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of multiple views and/or multiple frequencies on the achievable performance in linear inverse scattering problems is addressed. To this end, the impact of views and frequencies on the Kolmogorov entropy measure is studied. This way the metric information that can be conveyed back from data to the unknown can be estimated. For the sake of simplicity, the study deals with strip scatterers and the cases of discrete angles of incidence and/or frequencies.

  16. Entropy Characterization of Random Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Zufiria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the Random Network Model (RNM as a mathematical framework for modelling and analyzing the generation of complex networks. Such framework allows the analysis of the relationship between several network characterizing features (link density, clustering coefficient, degree distribution, connectivity, etc. and entropy-based complexity measures, providing new insight on the generation and characterization of random networks. Some theoretical and computational results illustrate the utility of the proposed framework.

  17. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  18. Entropy Production in the Inflationary Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, M.; Sasaki, M.

    1984-10-01

    Entropy production mechanism during the vacuum energy dominated stage of the inflationary universe is considered. We propose and thermalization mechanism of vacuum energy due to Higgs particles produced by the temporal change of the backgraound classical Higgs field which subsequently decay into other particles. Then the dissipation coefficient associated with the classical Higgs field is evaluated for an specific decay process and implications of the result are discussed.

  19. Bispectral index and spectral entropy in neuroanesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Martorano, Pietro; Falzetti, Gabriele; Pelaia, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    Spectral Entropy (SpEn) is an alternative tool to the bispectral index (BIS) for monitoring depth of hypnosis. SpEn measures response entropy (RE) and state entropy (SE). This open-label prospective study was designed to evaluate SpEn and BIS in 20 patients undergoing elective supratentorial neurosurgery with craniotomy and resection of brain tumors. SpEn and BIS were obtained continuously by Datex Ohmeda M-entropy module S/5 (Helsinki, Finland) and Aspect Medical System BIS (Newton), respectively. Total intravenous anesthesia was performed in all patients by Fresenius Vial infusion system (Brezins, France) to maintain a plasma concentration of propofol of 2.5 to 5 microg mL(-1) and sufentanil of 0.2 to 0.4 etag mL(-1). SpEn, BIS, the estimated propofol effect-site concentrations (Ce), the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and the heart rate (HR) were recorded during 12 specific events: induction of anesthesia, patient stop counting, loss of blinking reflex, intubation, mayfield pinning, craniotomy, termination of propofol infusion, recovery of blinking reflex, coughing, limb movement, order execution, and extubation. Stated that prediction probability or P(K) represents an indicator probability to predict correctly the rank order of an arbitrary pair of distinct observed indices of depth of hypnosis (ie, clinical settings and SpEn indices, or BIS, Ce, MAP, HR), PK of BIS, SE, RE, and Ce provided a better depth of hypnosis than MAP and HR; RE being the best for rapidity, SE for sensitivity, and BIS for specificity. There is good correlation between the 3 hypnosis indices and Ce. This study demonstrates that SpEn provides a reproducible hypnosis index for patients undergoing supratentorial neurosurgical procedures.

  20. NUCLEATION AND ENTROPY COMPENSATION IN BIOLOGICAL ASSEMBLY

    OpenAIRE

    Frank A. Ferrone

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of molecules from solution into larger aggregates de-activates their independent rotational and translational motion, which would represent an insuperable penalty in free energy without a compensatory mechanism for regaining at least some of the lost entropy. Such compensation is provided by the internal rigidbody motion of molecules in protein aggregates such as polymers and crystals. While the concepts behind the contributions of these entropic elements, known as vi...

  1. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  2. Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Carlip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.

  3. Configurational Entropy in Chiral Solutions—Negative Entropy of Solvent Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Shinitzky

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous solution of a chiral substance is acquired with an overall asymmetry which is expressed by a specific rotation of a linearly polarized light. Such a solution, despite being at a complete equilibrium, stores configurational entropy in a form of negative entropy which can be nullified by mixing with a solution of the opposite enantiomer. This abundant, yet quite a specific case of inherent negative entropy, resides predominantly in the chiral configuration of the solvent envelopes surrounding the chiral centers. Heat release, amounting to several cal/mol, associated with the annulment of negative entropy in aqueous solutions of D- and L-amino acids, was recently documented by Shinitzky et al. [1]. This heat corresponds almost exclusively to TΔS stored in the solvent envelope upon adoption of a chiral configuration. Simple fundamental expressions which combine configurational entropy and information capacity in chiral solutions have been developed and were found to comply well with the observed heat release upon intermolecular racemization.

  4. The Entropy of Laughter: Discriminative Power of Laughter’s Entropy in the Diagnosis of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laughter is increasingly present in biomedical literature, both in analytical neurological aspects and in applied therapeutic fields. The present paper, bridging between the analytical and the applied, explores the potential of a relevant variable of laughter’s acoustic signature—entropy—in the detection of a widespread mental disorder, depression, as well as in gauging the severity of its diagnostic. In laughter, the Shannon–Wiener entropy of the distribution of sound frequencies, which is one of the key features distinguishing its acoustic signal from the utterances of spoken language, has not been a specific focus of research yet, although the studies of human language and of animal communication have pointed out that entropy is a very important factor regarding the vocal/acoustic expression of emotions. As the experimental survey of laughter in depression herein undertaken shows, it was possible to discriminate between patients and controls with an 82.1% accuracy just by using laughter’s entropy and by applying the decision tree procedure. These experimental results, discussed in the light of the current research on laughter, point to the relevance of entropy in the spontaneous bona fide extroversion of mental states toward other individuals, as the signal of laughter seems to imply. This is in line with recent theoretical approaches that rely on the optimization of a neuro-informational free energy (and associated entropy as the main “stuff” of brain processing.

  5. Linear response of entanglement entropy from holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, Sagar F.; Oling, Gerben W. J.; Pedraza, Juan F.

    2017-10-01

    For time-independent excited states in conformal field theories, the entanglement entropy of small subsystems satisfies a `first law'-like relation, in which the change in entanglement is proportional to the energy within the entangling region. Such a law holds for time-dependent scenarios as long as the state is perturbatively close to the vacuum, but is not expected otherwise. In this paper we use holography to investigate the spread of entanglement entropy for unitary evolutions of special physical interest, the so-called global quenches. We model these using AdS-Vaidya geometries. We find that the first law of entanglement is replaced by a linear response relation, in which the energy density takes the role of the source and is integrated against a time-dependent kernel with compact support. For adiabatic quenches the standard first law is recovered, while for rapid quenches the linear response includes an extra term that encodes the process of thermalization. This extra term has properties that resemble a time-dependent `relative entropy'. We propose that this quantity serves as a useful order parameter to characterize far-from-equilibrium excited states. We illustrate our findings with concrete examples, including generic power-law and periodically driven quenches.

  6. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharan, Kumar; Wei, Dennis; Hero, Alfred O

    2013-07-01

    The problem of estimation of density functionals like entropy and mutual information has received much attention in the statistics and information theory communities. A large class of estimators of functionals of the probability density suffer from the curse of dimensionality, wherein the mean squared error (MSE) decays increasingly slowly as a function of the sample size T as the dimension d of the samples increases. In particular, the rate is often glacially slow of order O(T(-)(γ)(/)(d) ), where γ > 0 is a rate parameter. Examples of such estimators include kernel density estimators, k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) density estimators, k-NN entropy estimators, intrinsic dimension estimators and other examples. In this paper, we propose a weighted affine combination of an ensemble of such estimators, where optimal weights can be chosen such that the weighted estimator converges at a much faster dimension invariant rate of O(T(-1)). Furthermore, we show that these optimal weights can be determined by solving a convex optimization problem which can be performed offline and does not require training data. We illustrate the superior performance of our weighted estimator for two important applications: (i) estimating the Panter-Dite distortion-rate factor and (ii) estimating the Shannon entropy for testing the probability distribution of a random sample.

  7. Multivariate multiscale entropy of financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunfan; Wang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    In current process of quantifying the dynamical properties of the complex phenomena in financial market system, the multivariate financial time series are widely concerned. In this work, considering the shortcomings and limitations of univariate multiscale entropy in analyzing the multivariate time series, the multivariate multiscale sample entropy (MMSE), which can evaluate the complexity in multiple data channels over different timescales, is applied to quantify the complexity of financial markets. Its effectiveness and advantages have been detected with numerical simulations with two well-known synthetic noise signals. For the first time, the complexity of four generated trivariate return series for each stock trading hour in China stock markets is quantified thanks to the interdisciplinary application of this method. We find that the complexity of trivariate return series in each hour show a significant decreasing trend with the stock trading time progressing. Further, the shuffled multivariate return series and the absolute multivariate return series are also analyzed. As another new attempt, quantifying the complexity of global stock markets (Asia, Europe and America) is carried out by analyzing the multivariate returns from them. Finally we utilize the multivariate multiscale entropy to assess the relative complexity of normalized multivariate return volatility series with different degrees.

  8. Minimum Entropy Rate Simplification of Stochastic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henter, Gustav Eje; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2016-12-01

    We propose minimum entropy rate simplification (MERS), an information-theoretic, parameterization-independent framework for simplifying generative models of stochastic processes. Applications include improving model quality for sampling tasks by concentrating the probability mass on the most characteristic and accurately described behaviors while de-emphasizing the tails, and obtaining clean models from corrupted data (nonparametric denoising). This is the opposite of the smoothing step commonly applied to classification models. Drawing on rate-distortion theory, MERS seeks the minimum entropy-rate process under a constraint on the dissimilarity between the original and simplified processes. We particularly investigate the Kullback-Leibler divergence rate as a dissimilarity measure, where, compatible with our assumption that the starting model is disturbed or inaccurate, the simplification rather than the starting model is used for the reference distribution of the divergence. This leads to analytic solutions for stationary and ergodic Gaussian processes and Markov chains. The same formulas are also valid for maximum-entropy smoothing under the same divergence constraint. In experiments, MERS successfully simplifies and denoises models from audio, text, speech, and meteorology.

  9. Continuity of the Maximum-Entropy Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Weis

    2014-09-01

    We study the inverse problem of inferring the state of a finite-level quantum system from expected values of a fixed set of observables, by maximizing a continuous ranking function. We have proved earlier that the maximum-entropy inference can be a discontinuous map from the convex set of expected values to the convex set of states because the image contains states of reduced support, while this map restricts to a smooth parametrization of a Gibbsian family of fully supported states. Here we prove for arbitrary ranking functions that the inference is continuous up to boundary points. This follows from a continuity condition in terms of the openness of the restricted linear map from states to their expected values. The openness condition shows also that ranking functions with a discontinuous inference are typical. Moreover it shows that the inference is continuous in the restriction to any polytope which implies that a discontinuity belongs to the quantum domain of non-commutative observables and that a geodesic closure of a Gibbsian family equals the set of maximum-entropy states. We discuss eight descriptions of the set of maximum-entropy states with proofs of accuracy and an analysis of deviations.

  10. Multiscale permutation entropy analysis of electrocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiebing; Yao, Wenpo; Wu, Min; Shi, Zhaorong; Wang, Jun; Ning, Xinbao

    2017-04-01

    To make a comprehensive nonlinear analysis to ECG, multiscale permutation entropy (MPE) was applied to ECG characteristics extraction to make a comprehensive nonlinear analysis of ECG. Three kinds of ECG from PhysioNet database, congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, healthy young and elderly subjects, are applied in this paper. We set embedding dimension to 4 and adjust scale factor from 2 to 100 with a step size of 2, and compare MPE with multiscale entropy (MSE). As increase of scale factor, MPE complexity of the three ECG signals are showing first-decrease and last-increase trends. When scale factor is between 10 and 32, complexities of the three ECG had biggest difference, entropy of the elderly is 0.146 less than the CHF patients and 0.025 larger than the healthy young in average, in line with normal physiological characteristics. Test results showed that MPE can effectively apply in ECG nonlinear analysis, and can effectively distinguish different ECG signals.

  11. Maximum entropy principle based estimation of performance distribution in queueing theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayi He

    Full Text Available In related research on queuing systems, in order to determine the system state, there is a widespread practice to assume that the system is stable and that distributions of the customer arrival ratio and service ratio are known information. In this study, the queuing system is looked at as a black box without any assumptions on the distribution of the arrival and service ratios and only keeping the assumption on the stability of the queuing system. By applying the principle of maximum entropy, the performance distribution of queuing systems is derived from some easily accessible indexes, such as the capacity of the system, the mean number of customers in the system, and the mean utilization of the servers. Some special cases are modeled and their performance distributions are derived. Using the chi-square goodness of fit test, the accuracy and generality for practical purposes of the principle of maximum entropy approach is demonstrated.

  12. The Conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Bosonic Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario

    2018-01-01

    We prove the conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Gaussian quantum systems. This fundamental inequality determines the minimum quantum conditional von Neumann entropy of the output of the beam-splitter or of the squeezing among all the input states where the two inputs are conditionally independent given the memory and have given quantum conditional entropies. We also prove that, for any couple of values of the quantum conditional entropies of the two inputs, the minimum of the quantum conditional entropy of the output given by the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is asymptotically achieved by a suitable sequence of quantum Gaussian input states. Our proof of the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is based on a new Stam inequality for the quantum conditional Fisher information and on the determination of the universal asymptotic behaviour of the quantum conditional entropy under the heat semigroup evolution. The beam-splitter and the squeezing are the central elements of quantum optics, and can model the attenuation, the amplification and the noise of electromagnetic signals. This conditional Entropy Power Inequality will have a strong impact in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Among its many possible applications there is the proof of a new uncertainty relation for the conditional Wehrl entropy.

  13. Photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n double-heterostructure nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2017-04-17

    The photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n nanowires was investigated using temperature-dependent (6–290 K) photoluminescence. We also analyzed the photocarrier dynamics in the InGaN active regions using time-resolved photoluminescence. An increasing trend in the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system above 250 K was observed, while we observed an oscillatory trend in the generated entropy of the system below 250 K that stabilizes between 200 and 250 K. Strong exciton localization in indium-rich clusters, carrier trapping by surface defect states, and thermodynamic entropy effects were examined and related to the photocarrier dynamics. We conjecture that the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system increases as more non-radiative channels become activated and more shallowly localized carriers settle into deeply localized states; thereby, additional degrees of uncertainty related to the energy of states involved in thermionic transitions are attained.

  14. Anomalous normal stress controlled by marginal stability in fiber networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shivers, Jordan; Feng, Jingchen; Sharma, Abhinav; MacKintosh, Fred C.

    2017-01-01

    As first identified by Poynting, typical elastic solids exhibit axial extension under torsion. Along with related normal stress effects such as rod climbing of non-Newtonian fluids, this depends on the first normal stress difference $N_1$, which is of fundamental importance for a variety of nonlinear deformation and flow phenomena, especially in soft matter. This stress difference is almost always positive for elastic solids and viscoelastic polymer materials. Recent work has shown that biopo...

  15. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K.; Giuliani, C.; Marshall, S.; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  16. Entropy, temperature and internal energy of trapped gravitons and corrections to the Black Hole entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggiu, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we study the proposal present in Viaggiu (2017) concerning the statistical description of trapped gravitons and applied to derive the semi-classical black hole (BH) entropy SBH. We study the possible configurations depending on physically reasonable expressions for the internal energy U. In particular, we show that expressions for U ∼Rk , k ≥ 1, with R the radius of the confining spherical box, can have a semi-classical description, while behaviors with k physically motivated expression for U(R) , we obtain the well known logarithmic corrections to the BH entropy, with the usual behaviors present in the literature of BH entropy. Moreover, a phase transition emerges with a positive specific heat C at Planckian lengths instead of the usual negative one at non-Planckian scales, in agreement with results present in the literature. Finally, we show that evaporation stops at a radius R of the order of the Planck length.

  17. Entropy of orthogonal polynomials with Freud weights and information entropies of the harmonic oscillator potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, W.; Yáñez, R. J.; Dehesa, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    The information entropy of the harmonic oscillator potential V(x)=1/2λx2 in both position and momentum spaces can be expressed in terms of the so-called ``entropy of Hermite polynomials,'' i.e., the quantity Sn(H):= -∫-∞+∞H2n(x)log H2n(x) e-x2dx. These polynomials are instances of the polynomials orthogonal with respect to the Freud weights w(x)=exp(-||x||m), m≳0. Here, a very precise and general result of the entropy of Freud polynomials recently established by Aptekarev et al. [J. Math. Phys. 35, 4423-4428 (1994)], specialized to the Hermite kernel (case m=2), leads to an important refined asymptotic expression for the information entropies of very excited states (i.e., for large n) in both position and momentum spaces, to be denoted by Sρ and Sγ, respectively. Briefly, it is shown that, for large values of n, Sρ+1/2logλ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1) and Sγ-1/2log λ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1), so that Sρ+Sγ≂log(2π2n/e2)+o(1) in agreement with the generalized indetermination relation of Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski [Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129-132 (1975)]. Finally, the rate of convergence of these two information entropies is numerically analyzed. In addition, using a Rakhmanov result, we describe a totally new proof of the leading term of the entropy of Freud polynomials which, naturally, is just a weak version of the aforementioned general result.

  18. 17 CFR 41.45 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 41.45 Section... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.45 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures intermediary shall determine the required margin for the security futures and related...

  19. 12 CFR 220.4 - Margin account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Margin account. 220.4 Section 220.4 Banks and... BROKERS AND DEALERS (REGULATION T) § 220.4 Margin account. (a) Margin transactions. (1) All transactions not specifically authorized for inclusion in another account shall be recorded in the margin account...

  20. 17 CFR 242.403 - Required margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required margin. 242.403...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.403 Required margin. (a) Applicability. Each security futures...