WorldWideScience

Sample records for entropic force viewpoint

  1. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  2. Entropic forces drive contraction of cytoskeletal networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braun, M.; Lánský, Zdeněk; Hilitski, F.; Dogic, Z.; Diez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), s. 474-481 ISSN 0265-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17488S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : cytoskeleton * depletion forces * entropic forces Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.441, year: 2016

  3. Higher derivative corrections to the entropic force from holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Luo, Zhong-jie; Hou, De-fu

    2018-04-01

    The entropic force has been recently argued to be responsible for dissociation of heavy quarkonia. In this paper, we analyze R2 corrections and R4 corrections to the entropic force, respectively. It is shown that for R2 corrections, increasing λGB (Gauss-Bonnet factor) leads to increasing the entropic force. While for R4 corrections, increasing λ ('t Hooft coupling) leads to decreasing the entropic force. Also, we discuss how the entropic force changes with the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, η / s, at strong coupling.

  4. Entropic force, noncommutative gravity, and ungravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, Piero

    2010-01-01

    After recalling the basic concepts of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, we analyze the recent derivation of Newton's law in terms of entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By reviewing some points of the procedure, we extend it to the case of a generic quantum gravity entropic correction to get compelling deviations to the Newton's law. More specifically, we study: (1) noncommutative geometry deviations and (2) ungraviton corrections. As a special result in the noncommutative case, we find that the noncommutative character of the manifold would be equivalent to the temperature of a thermodynamic system. Therefore, in analogy to the zero temperature configuration, the description of spacetime in terms of a differential manifold could be obtained only asymptotically. Finally, we extend the Verlinde's derivation to a general case, which includes all possible effects, noncommutativity, ungravity, asymptotically safe gravity, electrostatic energy, and extra dimensions, showing that the procedure is solid versus such modifications.

  5. On the Humble Origins of the Brownian Entropic Force

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Recognition that certain forces arising from the averaging of the multiple impacts of a solute particle by the surrounding solvent particles undergoing random thermal motion can be of an entropic nature has led to the incorporation of these forces and their related entropies into theoretical protocols ranging from molecular-dynamics simulations to the modeling of quarkonium suppression in particle physics. Here we present a rigorous derivation of this Brownian entropic force by means of the c...

  6. Forces on Architecture Decisions – A Viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, Uwe van; Avgeriou, Paris; Hilliard, Rich

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of forces as influences upon architecture decisions is introduced. To facilitate the documentation of forces as a part of architecture descriptions, we specify a decision forces viewpoint, which extends our existing framework for architecture decisions, following the

  7. Entropic stochastic resonance without external force in oscillatory confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Huai; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai, E-mail: hzhlj@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, iChEM, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-05-21

    We have studied the dynamics of Brownian particles in a confined geometry of dumbbell-shape with periodically oscillating walls. Entropic stochastic resonance (ESR) behavior, characterizing by a maximum value of the coherent factor Q at some optimal level of noise, is observed even without external periodic force in the horizontal direction, which is necessary for conventional ESR where the wall is static and the particle is subjected to the force. Interestingly, the ESR can be remarkably enhanced by the particle gravity G, in contrast to the conventional case. In addition, Q decreases (increases) with G in the small (large) noise limit, respectively, while it non-monotonically changes with G for moderate noise levels. We have applied an effective 1D coarsening description to illustrate such a nontrivial dependence on G, by investigating the property of the 1D effective potential of entropic nature and paying special attention to the excess part resulting from the boundary oscillation. Dependences of the ESR strength with other related parameters are also discussed.

  8. Entropic force, holography and thermodynamics for static space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently Verlinde has suggested a new approach to gravity which interprets gravitational interaction as a kind of entropic force. The new approach uses the holographic principle by stating that the information is kept on the holographic screens which coincide with equipotential surfaces. Motivated by this new interpretation of gravity (but not being limited by it) we study equipotential surfaces, the Unruh-Verlinde temperature, energy and acceleration for various static space-times: generic spherically symmetric solutions, axially symmetric black holes immersed in a magnetic field, traversable spherically symmetric wormholes of an arbitrary shape function, system of two and more extremely charged black holes in equilibrium. In particular, we have shown that the Unruh-Verlinde temperature of the holographic screen reaches absolute zero on the wormhole throat independently of the particular form of the wormhole solution. (orig.)

  9. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum, and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole are investigated. Then, according to Verlinde’s theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes but also to the Planck length and the dimensionless constants α0 and β0. Moreover, based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein’s field equation (EFE and the modified Friedmann equation.

  10. Entropic elasticity in the generation of muscle Force - A theoretical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    A novel simplified structural model of sarcomeric force production in striate muscle is presented. Using some simple assumptions regarding the distribution of myosin spring lengths at different sliding velocities it is possible to derive a very simple expression showing the main components...... of the experimentally observed force-velocity relationship of muscle: nonlinearity during contraction (Hill, 1938), maximal force production during stretching equal to two times the isometric force (Katz, 1939), yielding at high stretching velocity, slightly concave force-extension relationship during sudden length......-bridges are explored [linear, power function and worm-like chain (WLC) model based], and it is shown that the best results are obtained if the individual myosin-spring forces are modelled using a WLC model, thus hinting that entropic elasticity could be the main source of force in myosin undergoing the conformational...

  11. Entropic solvation force between surfaces modified by grafted chains: a density functional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pizio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of a hard sphere fluid in slit-like pores with walls modified by grafted chain molecules composed of hard sphere segments is studied using density functional theory. The chains are grafted to opposite walls via terminating segments forming pillars. The effects of confinement and of "chemical" modification of pore walls on the entropic solvation force are investigated in detail. We observe that in the absence of adsorbed fluid the solvation force is strongly repulsive for narrow pores and attractive for wide pores. In the presence of adsorbed fluid both parts of the curve of the solvation force may develop oscillatory behavior dependent on the density of pillars, the number of segments and adsorption conditions. Also, the size ratio between adsorbed fluid species and chain segments is of importance for the development of oscillations. The choice of these parameters is crucial for efficient manipulation of the solvation force as desired for pores of different width.

  12. Crowding, Entropic Forces, and Confinement: Crucial Factors for Structures and Functions in the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, R

    2018-04-01

    The view of the cell nucleus as a crowded system of colloid particles and that chromosomes are giant self-avoiding polymers is stimulating rapid advances in our understanding of its structure and activities, thanks to concepts and experimental methods from colloid, polymer, soft matter, and nano sciences and to increased computational power for simulating macromolecules and polymers. This review summarizes current understanding of some characteristics of the molecular environment in the nucleus, of how intranuclear compartments are formed, and of how the genome is highly but precisely compacted, and underlines the crucial, subtle, and sometimes unintuitive effects on structures and reactions of entropic forces caused by the high concentration of macromolecules in the nucleus.

  13. First law of thermodynamics on holographic screens in entropic force frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixin; Li Jianlong

    2011-01-01

    Imposing a mathematical definition of holographic screen, in the spirit of Verlinde's entropic force proposal (E.P. Verlinde, (arXiv:1001.0785)), we give the differential and integral form of the first law of thermodynamics on the holographic screen enclosing a spherical symmetric black hole. It is consistent with equipartition principle and the form of Komar mass. There are also other version of first law, which are equivalent up to a Legendre transformation. The holographic screen thermodynamics is defined in a quasi-local form, which is the main difference to black hole thermodynamics. Thus, the physical interpretation of holographic screen thermodynamics might be different from black hole thermodynamics. We argue that the entropy of the holographic screen determines its area, i.e. S=A/4 . And the metric can be expressed by thermodynamics variables, which is an illustration of how the space is foliated by the thermodynamical potentials.

  14. Entropic transport without external force in confined channel with oscillatory boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Huai; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai, E-mail: hzhlj@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics & Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-12-28

    The dynamics of point-like Brownian particles in a periodic confined channel with oscillating boundaries has been studied. Directional transport (DT) behavior, characterized by net displacement along the horizontal direction, is observed even without external force which is necessary for the conventional DT where the boundaries are static. For typical parameter values, the average velocity V{sub t} of DT reaches a maximum with the variation of the noise intensity D, being alike to the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Interestingly, we find that V{sub t} shows nontrivial dependences on the particle gravity G depending on the noise level. When the noise is large, V{sub t} increases monotonically with G indicating that heavier particle moves faster, while for small noise, V{sub t} shows a bell-shape dependence on G, suggesting that a particle with an intermediate weight may move the fastest. Such results were not observed for DT in a channel with static boundaries. To understand these findings, we have adopted an effective one-dimensional coarsening description, which facilitates us to introduce an effective entropic force along the horizontal direction. The average force is apparently nonzero due to the oscillatory boundary, hence leading to the net transport, and it shows similar dependences as V{sub t} on the noise intensity D and particle gravity G. The dependences of the DT behavior on other parameters describing the oscillatory channel have also been investigated, showing that DT is more pronounced for larger oscillation amplitude and frequency, and asymmetric geometry within a channel period and phase difference between neighboring periods are both necessary for the occurrence of DT.

  15. Unruh-Verlinde temperature and energy of (2+1)-dimensional matter coupled black hole via entropic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yiwen; Hong Yun; Bao Zhiqing

    2011-01-01

    Verlinde's recent work, which shows that gravity may be explained as an entropic force caused by the changes in information associated with the positions of material bodies, is extended to study the Unruh-Verlinde temperature and energy of a static spherically symmetric charged black hole. The results indicate that the Unruh-Verlinde temperature is equal to the Hawking temperature at the event horizon. The energy is dependent on the radius of the screen, which is also a consequence of the Gauss' laws of gravity and electrostatics. (authors)

  16. Segment-scale, force-level theory of mesoscopic dynamic localization and entropic elasticity in entangled chain polymer liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Zachary E.; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2017-04-01

    We develop a segment-scale, force-based theory for the breakdown of the unentangled Rouse model and subsequent emergence of isotropic mesoscopic localization and entropic elasticity in chain polymer liquids in the absence of ergodicity-restoring anisotropic reptation or activated hopping motion. The theory is formulated in terms of a conformational N-dynamic-order-parameter generalized Langevin equation approach. It is implemented using a universal field-theoretic Gaussian thread model of polymer structure and closed at the level of the chain dynamic second moment matrix. The physical idea is that the isotropic Rouse model fails due to the dynamical emergence, with increasing chain length, of time-persistent intermolecular contacts determined by the combined influence of local uncrossability, long range polymer connectivity, and a self-consistent treatment of chain motion and the dynamic forces that hinder it. For long chain melts, the mesoscopic localization length (identified as the tube diameter) and emergent entropic elasticity predictions are in near quantitative agreement with experiment. Moreover, the onset chain length scales with the semi-dilute crossover concentration with a realistic numerical prefactor. Distinctive novel predictions are made for various off-diagonal correlation functions that quantify the full spatial structure of the dynamically localized polymer conformation. As the local excluded volume constraint and/or intrachain bonding spring are softened to allow chain crossability, the tube diameter is predicted to swell until it reaches the radius-of-gyration at which point mesoscopic localization vanishes in a discontinuous manner. A dynamic phase diagram for such a delocalization transition is constructed, which is qualitatively consistent with simulations and the classical concept of a critical entanglement degree of polymerization.

  17. Hydrodynamically enforced entropic current of Brownian particles with a transverse gravitational force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-guo; Ai, Bao-quan

    2014-04-01

    Transport of overdamped Brownian particles in a periodic hydrodynamical channel is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased force, a transverse gravitational force, and a pressure-driven flow. With the help of the generalized Fick-Jacobs approach, we obtain an analytical expression for the directed current and the generalized potential of mean force. It is found that, when the transverse gravitational force is larger than a certain value, the current is suppressed. Moreover, when the temporal asymmetry parameter of the unbiased force is negative, the current is always negative. However, when the temporal asymmetry parameter is positive, the transverse gravitational force and the pressure drop not only determine the direction of the current but also affect its amplitude. In particular, the competition between the asymmetric unbiased force and the pressure drop can result in multiple current reversals.

  18. Hydrodynamically enforced entropic current of Brownian particles with a transverse gravitational force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Feng-guo; Ai, Bao-quan

    2014-01-01

    Transport of overdamped Brownian particles in a periodic hydrodynamical channel is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased force, a transverse gravitational force, and a pressure-driven flow. With the help of the generalized Fick–Jacobs approach, we obtain an analytical expression for the directed current and the generalized potential of mean force. It is found that, when the transverse gravitational force is larger than a certain value, the current is suppressed. Moreover, when the temporal asymmetry parameter of the unbiased force is negative, the current is always negative. However, when the temporal asymmetry parameter is positive, the transverse gravitational force and the pressure drop not only determine the direction of the current but also affect its amplitude. In particular, the competition between the asymmetric unbiased force and the pressure drop can result in multiple current reversals. (paper)

  19. Entropic Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Caticha, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial we review the essential arguments behing entropic inference. We focus on the epistemological notion of information and its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of rational agents. The problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), includes as special cases both MaxEn...

  20. Entropic transport of active particles driven by a transverse ac force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian-chun, E-mail: wjchun2010@163.com; Chen, Qun; Ai, Bao-quan, E-mail: aibq@scnu.edu.cn

    2015-12-18

    Transport of active particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional period channel. In the presence of a transverse ac force, the directed transport of active particles demonstrates striking behaviors. By adjusting the amplitude and the frequency of the transverse ac force, the average velocity will be influenced significantly and the direction of the transport can be reversed several times. Remarkably, it is also found that the direction of the transport varies with different self-propelled speeds. Therefore, particles with different self-propelled speeds will move to the different directions, which is able to separate particles of different self-propelled speeds. - Highlights: • A transverse ac force strongly influence the transport of active particles. • The direction of the transport can be reversed several times. • Active particles with different self-propelled speeds can be separated.

  1. Entropic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2011-03-01

    In this tutorial we review the essential arguments behing entropic inference. We focus on the epistemological notion of information and its relation to the Bayesian beliefs of rational agents. The problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), includes as special cases both MaxEnt and Bayes' rule, and therefore unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme.

  2. Entropic Nonsignaling Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Rafael; Budroni, Costantino

    2016-06-17

    We introduce the concept of entropic nonsignaling correlations, i.e., entropies arising from probabilistic theories that are compatible with the fact that we cannot transmit information instantaneously. We characterize and show the relevance of these entropic correlations in a variety of different scenarios, ranging from typical Bell experiments to more refined descriptions such as bilocality and information causality. In particular, we apply the framework to derive the first entropic inequality testing genuine tripartite nonlocality in quantum systems of arbitrary dimension and also prove the first known monogamy relation for entropic Bell inequalities. Further, within the context of complex Bell networks, we show that entropic nonlocal correlations can be activated.

  3. Direction-dependent force-induced dissociation dynamics of an entropic-driven lock-and-key assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2017-09-01

    The unbinding dynamics of a nanosized sphere-and-cavity assembly under the pulling of constant force and constant loading rate is explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The formation of this matched lock-and-key pair in a polymer solution is driven by the depletion attraction. The two-dimensional free energy landscape U(x,z) associated with this assembly is constructed. Our results indicate that the unbinding pathway along the orientation of the assembly is unfavorable due to the relatively high energy barrier compared to that along the tortuous minimum path whose energy barrier is not high. It is also found that the dissociation rate depends on the direction of the external force (θ) with respect to the assembly orientation. The presence of the force component perpendicular to the assembly orientation can reduce the bond lifetime significantly by driving the key particle to approach the minimum path. Moreover, the dissociation dynamics can be facilitated even by a pushing force compared to the spontaneous dissociation (without forces). To elucidate the effective pathway under pulling, the escaping position is analyzed and its mean direction with respect to the assembly orientation rises generally with increasing θ, revealing that the presence of the force component along the minimum pathway is helpful. The importance of the direction of the external pulling has been demonstrated in our simple system. Therefore, this effect should be considered in more complicated unbinding experiments.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations shed light on the enthalpic and entropic driving forces that govern the sequence specific recognition between netropsin and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Gerster, Sarah; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-09-02

    With the aim to gain a better understanding of the various driving forces that govern sequence specific DNA minor groove binding, we performed a thermodynamic analysis of netropsin binding to an AT-containing and to a set of six mixed AT/GC-containing binding sequences in the DNA minor groove. The relative binding free energies obtained using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations show significant variations with the binding sequence. While the introduction of a GC base pair in the middle or close to the middle of the binding site is unfavorable for netropsin binding, a GC base pair at the end of the binding site appears to have no negative influence on the binding. The results of the structural and energetic analyses of the netropsin-DNA complexes reveal that the differences in the calculated binding affinities cannot be explained solely in terms of netropsin-DNA hydrogen-bonding or interaction energies. In addition, solvation effects and entropic contributions to the relative binding free energy provide a more complete picture of the various factors determining binding. Analysis of the relative binding entropy indicates that its magnitude is highly sequence-dependent, with the ratio |TDeltaDeltaS|/|DeltaDeltaH| ranging from 0.07 for the AAAGA to 1.7 for the AAGAG binding sequence, respectively.

  5. Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Clovis Jacinto de

    2012-01-01

    Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde’s derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor’s quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.

  6. Task force's viewpoint of the current BRH Program. Gonad shield, Part F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, A.

    1975-01-01

    A previous report on radiation protection during diagnostic exposure is reviewed. Some topics discussed are: Task Force regulations for the model by which routine use of patient shielding or gonad shielding would be required; shielding in relation to collimation, scatter radiation, and enforcement of regulations; and proposed regulations for reduction of unnecessary radiation

  7. Response to nuclear and radiological terrorism - the viewpoint from the security forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A threat of a malevolent act may be deemed to exist when information has been received that terrorists, criminals or other persons intend to: manufacture, use, transport, dispose radioactive materials in order to hide the nature of material; perpetrate a deliberate act to irradiate a person or persons; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate food or water supplies with radioactive materials; create and deploy a radiation dispersal device; perpetrate a deliberate act to contaminate a site or the environment with radioactive materials; or mount a sabotage attack upon a nuclear facility aimed at causing an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Security forces will be involved in all aspects of the response: at the scene, to lead, to control the crime scene and preserve evidence; at the hospitals, to identify and manage witnesses who may assist in the ensuing investigation, and to protect emergency medical personnel if perpetrators are part of the casualties; and at the regional and national coordination level, to manage the overall criminal investigation; to take under physical protection the seized materials. Law enforcement response: key considerations to all police (security and investigating) personnel at the scene of a terrorist act will include the following: do not approach the scene without proper radiological support; be aware of the possible presence of other radiological hazards; the radiological team will seek the removal of safety hazards. Work with that team to minimize hazards while not compromising the investigation. Minimize traffic through the scene: this will help reduce the spread of radioactive contamination, if present; people present at the scene need to be held for questioning. However, they will also have fears due to the presence of radiation. Work with the radiological team to minimize radiological hazards and fears while not compromising the investigation procedure. (author)

  8. Entropic quantization of scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation

  9. Entropic quantization of scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipek, Selman; Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Entropic Dynamics is an information-based framework that seeks to derive the laws of physics as an application of the methods of entropic inference. The dynamics is derived by maximizing an entropy subject to constraints that represent the physically relevant information that the motion is continuous and non-dissipative. Here we focus on the quantum theory of scalar fields. We provide an entropic derivation of Hamiltonian dynamics and using concepts from information geometry derive the standard quantum field theory in the Schrödinger representation.

  10. ATP-induced conformational changes of nucleotide-binding domains in an ABC transporter. Importance of the water-mediated entropic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomohiko; Chiba, Shuntaro; Kaneta, Yusuke; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2014-11-06

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins belong to a superfamily of active transporters. Recent experimental and computational studies have shown that binding of ATP to the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of ABC proteins drives the dimerization of NBDs, which, in turn, causes large conformational changes within the transmembrane domains (TMDs). To elucidate the active substrate transport mechanism of ABC proteins, it is first necessary to understand how the NBD dimerization is driven by ATP binding. In this study, we selected MalKs (NBDs of a maltose transporter) as a representative NBD and calculated the free-energy change upon dimerization using molecular mechanics calculations combined with a statistical thermodynamic theory of liquids, as well as a method to calculate the translational, rotational, and vibrational entropy change. This combined method is applied to a large number of snapshot structures obtained from molecular dynamics simulations containing explicit water molecules. The results suggest that the NBD dimerization proceeds with a large gain of water entropy when ATP molecules bind to the NBDs. The energetic gain arising from direct NBD-NBD interactions is canceled by the dehydration penalty and the configurational-entropy loss. ATP hydrolysis induces a loss of the shape complementarity between the NBDs, which leads to the dissociation of the dimer, due to a decrease in the water-entropy gain and an increase in the configurational-entropy loss. This interpretation of the NBD dimerization mechanism in concert with ATP, especially focused on the water-mediated entropy force, is potentially applicable to a wide variety of the ABC transporters.

  11. Entropic uncertainty relations-a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Winter, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty relations play a central role in quantum mechanics. Entropic uncertainty relations in particular have gained significant importance within quantum information, providing the foundation for the security of many quantum cryptographic protocols. Yet, little is known about entropic uncertainty relations with more than two measurement settings. In the present survey, we review known results and open questions.

  12. Essentially Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Mohammad; Kolluru, Praveen Kumar; Thantanapally, Chakradhar; Ansumali, Santosh

    2017-12-01

    The entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM), a discrete space-time kinetic theory for hydrodynamics, ensures nonlinear stability via the discrete time version of the second law of thermodynamics (the H theorem). Compliance with the H theorem is numerically enforced in this methodology and involves a search for the maximal discrete path length corresponding to the zero dissipation state by iteratively solving a nonlinear equation. We demonstrate that an exact solution for the path length can be obtained by assuming a natural criterion of negative entropy change, thereby reducing the problem to solving an inequality. This inequality is solved by creating a new framework for construction of Padé approximants via quadrature on appropriate convex function. This exact solution also resolves the issue of indeterminacy in case of nonexistence of the entropic involution step. Since our formulation is devoid of complex mathematical library functions, the computational cost is drastically reduced. To illustrate this, we have simulated a model setup of flow over the NACA-0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 2.88 ×106.

  13. Entropic noises-induced resonance in a geometrically confined system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Chunhua; Gong, Ailing; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We consider the motion of Brownian particles through a narrow tube of varying cross-section in a geometrically confined system subjected to a sinusoidal oscillating force. The varying cross-section of the confinement results in an effective purely entropic potential in reduced dimension. Besides an additive Langevin force, one external additive and another multiplicative noise are acting along the x-direction. We demonstrate that the presence of a periodic input may give rise to a maximum and a minimum of the spectral amplification at corresponding optimal values of the noise strength, and therefore to the appearance of the purely entropic stochastic resonance and reverse-resonance phenomena. Furthermore, we show that the cross-correlation between two noises leads to a decrease of the spectral amplification, i.e., we observe the cross-correlation between two noises weakening the resonance. Mechanisms for the cross-correlation weakening the resonance are explained from the point of view of the effective purely entropic potential. (paper)

  14. Additivity of entropic uncertainty relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schwonnek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uncertainty between two pairs of local projective measurements performed on a multipartite system. We show that the optimal bound in any linear uncertainty relation, formulated in terms of the Shannon entropy, is additive. This directly implies, against naive intuition, that the minimal entropic uncertainty can always be realized by fully separable states. Hence, in contradiction to proposals by other authors, no entanglement witness can be constructed solely by comparing the attainable uncertainties of entangled and separable states. However, our result gives rise to a huge simplification for computing global uncertainty bounds as they now can be deduced from local ones. Furthermore, we provide the natural generalization of the Maassen and Uffink inequality for linear uncertainty relations with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  15. Greenhouse impact due to the use of combustible fuels: life cycle viewpoint and relative radiative forcing commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkinen, Johanna; Palosuo, Taru; Holmgren, Kristina; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2008-09-01

    Extensive information on the greenhouse impacts of various human actions is important in developing effective climate change mitigation strategies. The greenhouse impacts of combustible fuels consist not only of combustion emissions but also of emissions from the fuel production chain and possible effects on the ecosystem carbon storages. It is important to be able to assess the combined, total effect of these different emissions and to express the results in a comprehensive way. In this study, a new concept called relative radiative forcing commitment (RRFC) is presented and applied to depict the greenhouse impact of some combustible fuels currently used in Finland. RRFC is a ratio that accounts for the energy absorbed in the Earth system due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations (production and combustion of fuel) compared to the energy released in the combustion of fuel. RRFC can also be expressed as a function of time in order to give a dynamic cumulative picture on the caused effect. Varying time horizons can be studied separately, as is the case when studying the effects of different climate policies on varying time scales. The RRFC for coal for 100 years is about 170, which means that in 100 years 170 times more energy is absorbed in the atmosphere due to the emissions of coal combustion activity than is released in combustion itself. RRFC values of the other studied fuel production chains varied from about 30 (forest residues fuel) to 190 (peat fuel) for the 100-year study period. The length of the studied time horizon had an impact on the RRFC values and, to some extent, on the relative positions of various fuels.

  16. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  17. Entropic Representation and Estimation of Diversity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiyi; Grabchak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper serves a twofold purpose. First, a unified perspective on diversity indices is introduced based on an entropic basis. It is shown that the class of all linear combinations of the entropic basis, referred to as the class of linear diversity indices, covers a wide range of diversity indices used in the literature. Second, a class of estimators for linear diversity indices is proposed and it is shown that these estimators have rapidly decaying biases and asymptotic normality.

  18. Macrorealism from entropic Leggett-Garg inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, A. R. Usha; Karthik, H. S.; Sudha; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    We formulate entropic Leggett-Garg inequalities, which place constraints on the statistical outcomes of temporal correlations of observables. The information theoretic inequalities are satisfied if macrorealism holds. We show that the quantum statistics underlying correlations between time-separated spin component of a quantum rotor mimics that of spin correlations in two spatially separated spin-s particles sharing a state of zero total spin. This brings forth the violation of the entropic Leggett-Garg inequality by a rotating quantum spin-s system in a similar manner as does the entropic Bell inequality [S. L. Braunstein and C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.61.662 61, 662 (1988)] by a pair of spin-s particles forming a composite spin singlet state.

  19. Entropic Approach to Brownian Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    A diffusional driving force, called the radial force, which is responsible for the increase with time of the scalar separation between a fixed point and a particle undergoing three-dimensional Brownian motion, is derived using Boltzmann's equation. (Author/HM)

  20. Entropic Repulsion Between Fluctuating Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, W.

    The statistical mechanics of fluctuating surfaces plays an important role in a variety of physical systems, ranging from biological membranes to world sheets of strings in theories of fundamental interactions. In many applications it is a good approximation to assume that the surfaces possess no tension. Their statistical properties are then governed by curvature energies only, which allow for gigantic out-of-plane undulations. These fluctuations are the “entropic” origin of long-range repulsive forces in layered surface systems. Theoretical estimates of these forces for simple model surfaces are surveyed and compared with recent Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Quantum channels and their entropic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holevo, A S; Giovannetti, V

    2012-01-01

    One of the major achievements of the recently emerged quantum information theory is the introduction and thorough investigation of the notion of a quantum channel which is a basic building block of any data-transmitting or data-processing system. This development resulted in an elaborated structural theory and was accompanied by the discovery of a whole spectrum of entropic quantities, notably the channel capacities, characterizing information-processing performance of the channels. This paper gives a survey of the main properties of quantum channels and of their entropic characterization, with a variety of examples for finite-dimensional quantum systems. We also touch upon the 'continuous-variables' case, which provides an arena for quantum Gaussian systems. Most of the practical realizations of quantum information processing were implemented in such systems, in particular based on principles of quantum optics. Several important entropic quantities are introduced and used to describe the basic channel capacity formulae. The remarkable role of specific quantum correlations—entanglement—as a novel communication resource is stressed.

  2. Directionality Theory and the Entropic Principle of Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd A. Demetrius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Darwinian fitness describes the capacity of an organism to appropriate resources from the environment and to convert these resources into net-offspring production. Studies of competition between related types indicate that fitness is analytically described by entropy, a statistical measure which is positively correlated with population stability, and describes the number of accessible pathways of energy flow between the individuals in the population. Directionality theory is a mathematical model of the evolutionary process based on the concept evolutionary entropy as the measure of fitness. The theory predicts that the changes which occur as a population evolves from one non-equilibrium steady state to another are described by the following directionality principle–fundamental theorem of evolution: (a an increase in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is diverse, and resource abundance constant; (b a decrease in evolutionary entropy when resource composition is singular, and resource abundance variable. Evolutionary entropy characterizes the dynamics of energy flow between the individual elements in various classes of biological networks: (a where the units are individuals parameterized by age, and their age-specific fecundity and mortality; where the units are metabolites, and the transitions are the biochemical reactions that convert substrates to products; (c where the units are social groups, and the forces are the cooperative and competitive interactions between the individual groups. % This article reviews the analytical basis of the evolutionary entropic principle, and describes applications of directionality theory to the study of evolutionary dynamics in two biological systems; (i social networks–the evolution of cooperation; (ii metabolic networks–the evolution of body size. Statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical model of macroscopic behavior in inanimate matter based on entropy, a statistical measure which

  3. Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewpoint A Viewpoint of Personal Aesthetic Preferences and Aesthetic Education, Landscape Theory and Survival in the Kalahari Region of South Africa: Implications for an Authentic Contemporary Curriculum.

  4. Curvature constraints from the causal entropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Albrecht, Andreas; Phillips, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Current cosmological observations indicate a preference for a cosmological constant that is drastically smaller than what can be explained by conventional particle physics. The causal entropic principle (Bousso et al.) provides an alternative approach to anthropic attempts to predict our observed value of the cosmological constant by calculating the entropy created within a causal diamond. We have extended this work to use the causal entropic principle to predict the preferred curvature within the 'multiverse'. We have found that values larger than ρ k =40ρ m are disfavored by more than 99.99% peak value at ρ Λ =7.9x10 -123 and ρ k =4.3ρ m for open universes. For universes that allow only positive curvature or both positive and negative curvature, we find a correlation between curvature and dark energy that leads to an extended region of preferred values. Our universe is found to be disfavored to an extent depending on the priors on curvature. We also provide a comparison to previous anthropic constraints on open universes and discuss future directions for this work.

  5. The entropic cost of quantum generalized measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Luca; Sbroscia, Marco; Roccia, Emanuele; Gianani, Ilaria; Somma, Fabrizia; Mataloni, Paolo; Paternostro, Mauro; Barbieri, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Landauer's principle introduces a symmetry between computational and physical processes: erasure of information, a logically irreversible operation, must be underlain by an irreversible transformation dissipating energy. Monitoring micro- and nano-systems needs to enter into the energetic balance of their control; hence, finding the ultimate limits is instrumental to the development of future thermal machines operating at the quantum level. We report on the experimental investigation of a lower bound to the irreversible entropy associated to generalized quantum measurements on a quantum bit. We adopted a quantum photonics gate to implement a device interpolating from the weakly disturbing to the fully invasive and maximally informative regime. Our experiment prompted us to introduce a bound taking into account both the classical result of the measurement and the outcoming quantum state; unlike previous investigation, our entropic bound is based uniquely on measurable quantities. Our results highlight what insights the information-theoretic approach provides on building blocks of quantum information processors.

  6. Entropic Analysis of Electromyography Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Sung, Paul

    2005-03-01

    We are in the process of assessing the effectiveness of fractal and entropic measures for the diagnostic of low back pain from surface electromyography (EMG) time series. Surface electromyography (EMG) is used to assess patients with low back pain. In a typical EMG measurement, the voltage is measured every millisecond. We observed back muscle fatiguing during one minute, which results in a time series with 60,000 entries. We characterize the complexity of time series by computing the Shannon entropy time dependence. The analysis of the time series from different relevant muscles from healthy and low back pain (LBP) individuals provides evidence that the level of variability of back muscle activities is much larger for healthy individuals than for individuals with LBP. In general the time dependence of the entropy shows a crossover from a diffusive regime to a regime characterized by long time correlations (self organization) at about 0.01s.

  7. Entropic and algebraic K-systems: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.

    1990-01-01

    In the quantum, i.e. non-commutative case, algebraic K-systems and entropic K-systems must be distinguished. The similarities and differences between them are considered, especially with regard to clustering- and mixing properties. 14 refs

  8. Quantized Arnold cat maps can be entropic K systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Automorphisms on the irrational rotation algebra with respect to their ergodic properties are studied. Especially it is shown that for a dense set of the rotation parameter θ cat maps are entropic K systems. (Author)

  9. Entropic derivation of F=ma for circular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Michael; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F=ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations.

  10. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  11. Exhibition of Monogamy Relations between Entropic Non-contextuality Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feng; Zhang Wei; Huang Yi-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We exhibit the monogamy relation between two entropic non-contextuality inequalities in the scenario where compatible projectors are orthogonal. We show the monogamy relation can be exhibited by decomposing the orthogonality graph into perfect induced subgraphs. Then we find two entropic non-contextuality inequalities are monogamous while the KCBS-type non-contextuality inequalities are not if the orthogonality graphs of the observable sets are two odd cycles with two shared vertices. (paper)

  12. ViewpointS: When Social Ranking Meets the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Lemoisson , Philippe; Surroca , Guillaume; Jonquet , Clement; Cerri , Stefano A.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Reconciling the ecosystem of semantic Web data with the ecosystem of social Web participation has been a major issue for the Web Science community. To answer this need, we propose an innovative approach called ViewpointS where the knowledge is topologically, rather than logically, explored and assessed. Both social contributions and linked data are represented by triples agent-resource-resource called " viewpoints ". A " viewpoint " is the subjective declaration by an ...

  13. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  14. Entropic Phase Maps in Discrete Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F. Dribus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Path summation offers a flexible general approach to quantum theory, including quantum gravity. In the latter setting, summation is performed over a space of evolutionary pathways in a history configuration space. Discrete causal histories called acyclic directed sets offer certain advantages over similar models appearing in the literature, such as causal sets. Path summation defined in terms of these histories enables derivation of discrete Schrödinger-type equations describing quantum spacetime dynamics for any suitable choice of algebraic quantities associated with each evolutionary pathway. These quantities, called phases, collectively define a phase map from the space of evolutionary pathways to a target object, such as the unit circle S 1 ⊂ C , or an analogue such as S 3 or S 7 . This paper explores the problem of identifying suitable phase maps for discrete quantum gravity, focusing on a class of S 1 -valued maps defined in terms of “structural increments” of histories, called terminal states. Invariants such as state automorphism groups determine multiplicities of states, and induce families of natural entropy functions. A phase map defined in terms of such a function is called an entropic phase map. The associated dynamical law may be viewed as an abstract combination of Schrödinger’s equation and the second law of thermodynamics.

  15. The entropic cost to tie a knot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiesi, M; Orlandini, E; Stella, A L

    2010-01-01

    We estimate by Monte Carlo simulations the configurational entropy of N-step polygons in the cubic lattice with fixed knot type. By collecting rich statistics of configurations with very large values of N we are able to analyse the asymptotic behaviour of the partition function of the problem for different knot types. Our results confirm that, in the large N limit, each prime knot is localized in a small region of the polygon, regardless of the possible presence of other knots. Each prime knot component may slide along the unknotted region contributing to the overall configurational entropy with a term proportional to lnN. Furthermore, we discover that the mere existence of a knot requires a well defined entropic cost that scales exponentially with its minimal length. In the case of polygons with composite knots it turns out that the partition function can be simply factorized in terms that depend only on prime components, with an additional combinatorial factor that takes into account the statistical property that by interchanging two identical prime knot components in the polygon the corresponding set of overall configurations remains unaltered. Finally, the above results allow one to conjecture a sequence of inequalities for the connective constants of polygons whose topology varies within a given family of composite knot types

  16. Non extensive statistics and entropic gravity in a non-integer dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge; Godinho, Cresus F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The idea that gravity can be originated from thermodynamics features has begun with the discovering that black hole physics is connected to the thermodynamics laws. These concepts were strongly boosted after Jacobson's work, where the Einstein equations were obtained from general thermodynamics approaches. In a recent work, Padmanabhan obtained an interpretation of gravity as an equipartition law. In Verlinde's thermo gravitational formalism, the temperature and the acceleration are connected via Unruh effect. At the same time, he combined the holographic principle with an equipartition law, where the number of bits is proportional to the area of the holographic surface. Bits were used to define the microscopic degrees of freedom. With these ingredients, the entropic force combined with the holographic principle and the equipartition law originated the Newton's law of gravitation. The possible interpretation of Verlinde's result is that gravity is not an underlying concept, but an emergent one. It originates from the statistical behavior of the holographic screen microscopic degrees of freedom. Following these ideas, the current literature has grown in an accelerated production from Coulomb force and symmetry considerations of entropic force to cosmology and loop quantum. In this work we introduced the Newton's constant in a fractal space as a function of the non extensive one. With this result we established a relation between the Tsallis non extensive parameter and the dimension of this fractal space. Using Verlinde's formalism we used these fractal ideas combined with the concept of entropic gravity to calculate the number of bits of an holographic surface in this non-integer dimensional space, a fractal holographic screen. We introduced a fundamental length, a Planck-like length, into this space as a function of this fractal holographic screen radius. Finally, we consider superior dimensions in this analysis. (author)

  17. Multi-scale entropic depletion phenomena in polymer liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Debapriya [Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We apply numerical polymer integral equation theory to study the entropic depletion problem for hard spheres dissolved in flexible chain polymer melts and concentrated solutions over an exceptionally wide range of polymer radius of gyration to particle diameter ratios (R{sub g}/D), particle-monomer diameter ratios (D/d), and chain lengths (N) including the monomer and oligomer regimes. Calculations are performed based on a calibration of the effective melt packing fraction that reproduces the isobaric dimensionless isothermal compressibility of real polymer liquids. Three regimes of the polymer-mediated interparticle potential of mean force (PMF) are identified and analyzed in depth. (i) The magnitude of the contact attraction that dominates thermodynamic stability scales linearly with D/d and exhibits a monotonic and nonperturbative logarithmic increase with N ultimately saturating in the long chain limit. (ii) A close to contact repulsive barrier emerges that grows linearly with D/d and can attain values far in excess of thermal energy for experimentally relevant particle sizes and chain lengths. This raises the possibility of kinetic stabilization of particles in nanocomposites. The barrier grows initially logarithmically with N, attains a maximum when 2R{sub g} ∼ D/2, and then decreases towards its asymptotic long chain limit as 2R{sub g} ≫ D. (iii) A long range (of order R{sub g}) repulsive, exponentially decaying component of the depletion potential emerges when polymer coils are smaller than, or of order, the nanoparticle diameter. Its amplitude is effectively constant for 2R{sub g} ≤ D. As the polymer becomes larger than the particle, the amplitude of this feature decreases extremely rapidly and becomes negligible. A weak long range and N-dependent component of the monomer-particle pair correlation function is found which is suggested to be the origin of the long range repulsive PMF. Implications of our results for thermodynamics and miscibility are

  18. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  19. Tightness Entropic Uncertainty Relation in Quantum Markovian-Davies Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Liang; Han, Yan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tightness of entropic uncertainty relation in the absence (presence) of the quantum memory which the memory particle being weakly coupled to a decohering Davies-type Markovian environment. The results show that the tightness of the quantum uncertainty relation can be controlled by the energy relaxation time F, the dephasing time G and the rescaled temperature p, the perfect tightness can be arrived by dephasing and energy relaxation satisfying F = 2G and p = 1/2. In addition, the tightness of the memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation and the entropic uncertainty relation can be influenced mainly by the purity. While in memory-assisted model, the purity and quantum correlation can also influence the tightness actively while the quantum entanglement can influence the tightness slightly.

  20. The Entropic Linkage between Equity and Bond Market Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Parker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An alternative derivation of the yield curve based on entropy or the loss of information as it is communicated through time is introduced. Given this focus on entropy growth in communication the Shannon entropy will be utilized. Additionally, Shannon entropy’s close relationship to the Kullback–Leibler divergence is used to provide a more precise understanding of this new yield curve. The derivation of the entropic yield curve is completed with the use of the Burnashev reliability function which serves as a weighting between the true and error distributions. The deep connections between the entropic yield curve and the popular Nelson–Siegel specification are also examined. Finally, this entropically derived yield curve is used to provide an estimate of the economy’s implied information processing ratio. This information theoretic ratio offers a new causal link between bond and equity markets, and is a valuable new tool for the modeling and prediction of stock market behavior.

  1. On the entropy variation in the scenario of entropic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Bai, Shi-Yang

    2018-05-01

    In the scenario of entropic gravity, entropy varies as a function of the location of the matter, while the tendency to increase entropy appears as gravity. We concentrate on studying the entropy variation of a typical gravitational system with different relative positions between the mass and the gravitational source. The result is that the entropy of the system doesn't increase when the mass is displaced closer to the gravitational source. In this way it disproves the proposal of entropic gravity from thermodynamic entropy. It doesn't exclude the possibility that gravity originates from non-thermodynamic entropy like entanglement entropy.

  2. Entropic sampling in the path integral Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov-Velyaminov, P N; Lyubartsev, A P

    2003-01-01

    We have extended the entropic sampling Monte Carlo method to the case of path integral representation of a quantum system. A two-dimensional density of states is introduced into path integral form of the quantum canonical partition function. Entropic sampling technique within the algorithm suggested recently by Wang and Landau (Wang F and Landau D P 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 2050) is then applied to calculate the corresponding entropy distribution. A three-dimensional quantum oscillator is considered as an example. Canonical distributions for a wide range of temperatures are obtained in a single simulation run, and exact data for the energy are reproduced

  3. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  4. Long charged macromolecule in an entropic trap with rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh; Hayryan, Shura; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of the flux of a charged macromolecular solution through an environment of changing geometry with wide and constricted regions is investigated analytically. A model device consisting of alternating deep and shallow slits known as an "entropic trap" is used to represent the environment. The flux is supported by the external electrostatic field. The "wormlike chain" model is used for the macromolecule (dsDNA in the present study). The chain entropy in both the deep and the shallow slits, the work by the electric field, and the energy of the elastic bending of the chain are taken into account accurately. Based on the calculated free energy, the kinetics and the scaling behavior of the chain escaping from the entropic trap are studied. We find that the escape process occurs in two kinetic stages with different time scales and discuss the possible influence of the surface roughness. The scope of the accuracy of the proposed model is discussed.

  5. Entropic information of dynamical AdS/QCD holographic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-11-10

    The Shannon based conditional entropy that underlies five-dimensional Einstein–Hilbert gravity coupled to a dilaton field is investigated in the context of dynamical holographic AdS/QCD models. Considering the UV and IR dominance limits of such AdS/QCD models, the conditional entropy is shown to shed some light onto the meson classification schemes, which corroborate with the existence of light-flavor mesons of lower spins in Nature. Our analysis is supported by a correspondence between statistical mechanics and information entropy which establishes the physical grounds to the Shannon information entropy, also in the context of statistical mechanics, and provides some specificities for accurately extending the entropic discussion to continuous modes of physical systems. From entropic informational grounds, the conditional entropy allows one to identify the lower experimental/phenomenological occurrence of higher spin mesons in Nature. Moreover, it introduces a quantitative theoretical apparatus for studying the instability of high spin light-flavor mesons.

  6. Positive maps, majorization, entropic inequalities and detection of entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, R; Stasinska, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss some general connections between the notions of positive map, weak majorization and entropic inequalities in the context of detection of entanglement among bipartite quantum systems. First, basing on the fact that any positive map Λ:M d (C)→M d (C) can be written as the difference between two completely positive maps Λ=Λ 1 -Λ 2 , we propose a possible way to generalize the Nielsen-Kempe majorization criterion. Then, we present two methods of derivation of some general classes of entropic inequalities useful for the detection of entanglement. While the first one follows from the aforementioned generalized majorization relation and the concept of Schur-concave decreasing functions, the second is based on some functional inequalities. What is important is that, contrary to the Nielsen-Kempe majorization criterion and entropic inequalities, our criteria allow for the detection of entangled states with positive partial transposition when using indecomposable positive maps. We also point out that if a state with at least one maximally mixed subsystem is detected by some necessary criterion based on the positive map Λ, then there exist entropic inequalities derived from Λ (by both procedures) that also detect this state. In this sense, they are equivalent to the necessary criterion [IxΛ](rhov AB )≥0. Moreover, our inequalities provide a way of constructing multi-copy entanglement witnesses and therefore are promising from the experimental point of view. Finally, we discuss some of the derived inequalities in the context of the recently introduced protocol of state merging and the possibility of approximating the mean value of a linear entanglement witness.

  7. Phenomenon of entropic stochastic resonance with asymmetric dichotomous noise and white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Shao-Fu; Cheng, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The entropic stochastic resonance (ESR) in a confined system subject to asymmetric dichotomous noise, white noise, and a periodic square-wave signal is investigated. Under the adiabatic approximation condition, by use of the properties of the dichotomous noise, we obtain the expression of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on two-state theory. The SNR is shown to be a nonmonotonic function of the strength and asymmetry of the dichotomous noise, the intensity of the white noise, and the amplitude of the square-wave signal. The SNR varies non-monotonically with increases in the parameters of the confined structure. The influence of the correlation rate of the dichotomous noise and the frequency of the external constant force on the SNR is also discussed.

  8. A Viewpoint Approach to Structured Argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Tamani, Nouredine; Croitoru, Madalina; Buche, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    We introduce in this paper a viewpoint-based argumentation approach in the context of the EcoBioCap project, which requirements are different actor arguments expressed over several criteria, describing the objects of a domain, to support/oppose contradictory goals. A viewpoint is an ASPIC+ argumentation system defined over a subset of rules corresponding to a single criterion. Concepts of conflict between viewpoints, independent viewpoints, and collection of independent viewpoints are the bas...

  9. How can rainbow gravity affect on gravitational force?

    OpenAIRE

    Sefiedgar, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    According to Verlinde's recent proposal, the gravity is originally an entropic force. In this work, we obtain the corrections to the entropy-area law of black holes within rainbow gravity. The corrected entropy-area law leads to the modifications of the number of bits $N$. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and using the modified number of bits, we can investigate the effects of rainbow gravity on the modified Newtonian dynamics, Newton's law of gravitation, and Einstein's...

  10. Decoherence effect on quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Uncertainty principle significantly provides a bound to predict precision of measurement with regard to any two incompatible observables, and thereby plays a nontrivial role in quantum precision measurement. In this work, we observe the dynamical features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (EUR) for a pair of incompatible measurements in an open system characterized by local generalized amplitude damping (GAD) noises. Herein, we derive the dynamical evolution of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement affecting by the canonical GAD noises when particle A is initially entangled with quantum memory B. Specifically, we examine the dynamics of EUR in the frame of three realistic scenarios: one case is that particle A is affected by environmental noise (GAD) while particle B as quantum memory is free from any noises, another case is that particle B is affected by the external noise while particle A is not, and the last case is that both of the particles suffer from the noises. By analytical methods, it turns out that the uncertainty is not full dependent of quantum correlation evolution of the composite system consisting of A and B, but the minimal conditional entropy of the measured subsystem. Furthermore, we present a possible physical interpretation for the behavior of the uncertainty evolution by means of the mixedness of the observed system; we argue that the uncertainty might be dramatically correlated with the systematic mixedness. Furthermore, we put forward a simple and effective strategy to reduce the measuring uncertainty of interest upon quantum partially collapsed measurement. Therefore, our explorations might offer an insight into the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty relation in a realistic system, and be of importance to quantum precision measurement during quantum information processing.

  11. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction

  12. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; De Siena, Silvio

    2003-01-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entanglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion

  13. Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); He, Ya-Feng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2014-11-21

    Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.

  14. Interrelation of Entropic Contributors to π -Stacking in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, Maria A.; Lantushenko, Anastasia O.; Evstigneev, Vladislav P.; Golovchenko, Igor V.; Mykhina, Yulia V.; Savin, Valery V.; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2016-08-01

    The recently published most complete set of thermodynamical data on self- and hetero-complexation of aromatic molecules measured under comparable experimental conditions were analyzed. The main aim of this study is to get insights into contribution of various entropic factors to π -stacking in aqueous solution. It was found that the experimental entropy change on π -stacking is determined by counterbalancing effects of two principal factors, i.e., the hydrophobic interaction (positive contribution) and the loss of degrees of freedom (negative contribution) modulated by the electrostatic contribution. Other factors, including the mixing entropy contribution, were shown to be less important.

  15. Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid open-quote open-quote field theory close-quote close-quote is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Towards a physical interpretation of the entropic lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspinas, Orestis; Deville, Michel; Chopard, Bastien

    2008-12-01

    The entropic lattice Boltzmann method (ELBM) is one among several different versions of the lattice Boltzmann method for the simulation of hydrodynamics. The collision term of the ELBM is characterized by a nonincreasing H function, guaranteed by a variable relaxation time. We propose here an analysis of the ELBM using the Chapman-Enskog expansion. We show that it can be interpreted as some kind of subgrid model, where viscosity correction scales like the strain rate tensor. We confirm our analytical results by the numerical computations of the relaxation time modifications on the two-dimensional dipole-wall interaction benchmark.

  17. Limited entropic uncertainty as new principle of quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Uncertainty Principle (UP) of quantum mechanics discovered by Heisenberg, which constitute the corner-stone of quantum physics, asserts that: there is an irreducible lower bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables. In order to avoid this state-dependence many authors proposed to use the information entropy as a measure of the uncertainty instead of above standard quantitative formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In this paper the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle), as a new principle in quantum physics, is proved. Then, consistent experimental tests of the LEU-principle, obtained by using the available 49 sets of the pion-nucleus phase shifts, are presented for both, extensive (q=1) and nonextensive (q=0.5 and q=2.0) cases. Some results obtained by the application of LEU-Principle to the diffraction phenomena are also discussed. The main results and conclusions of our paper can be summarized as follows: (i) We introduced a new principle in quantum physics namely the Principle of Limited Entropic Uncertainty (LEU-Principle). This new principle includes in a more general and exact form not only the old Heisenberg uncertainty principle but also introduce an upper limit on the magnitude of the uncertainty in the quantum physics. The LEU-Principle asserts that: 'there is an irreducible lower bound as well as an upper bound on the uncertainty in the result of a simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables for any extensive and nonextensive (q ≥ 0) quantum systems'; (ii) Two important concrete realizations of the LEU-Principle are explicitly obtained in this paper, namely: (a) the LEU-inequalities for the quantum scattering of spinless particles and (b) the LEU-inequalities for the diffraction on single slit of width 2a. In particular from our general results, in the limit y → +1 we recover in an exact form all the results previously reported. In our paper an

  18. Information causality from an entropic and a probabilistic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safi, Sabri W.; Short, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The information causality principle is a generalization of the no-signaling principle which implies some of the known restrictions on quantum correlations. But despite its clear physical motivation, information causality is formulated in terms of a rather specialized game and figure of merit. We explore different perspectives on information causality, discussing the probability of success as the figure of merit, a relation between information causality and the nonlocal ''inner-product game,'' and the derivation of a quadratic bound for these games. We then examine an entropic formulation of information causality with which one can obtain the same results, arguably in a simpler fashion.

  19. Interracial America. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Bonnie, Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The varied opinions in each book examine different aspects of a single issue. The topics covered in this volume explore the racial and ethnic tensions that concern many Americans today. The racial divide…

  20. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  1. Entropic multirelaxation lattice Boltzmann models for turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, Fabian; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Ilya V.

    2015-10-01

    We present three-dimensional realizations of a class of lattice Boltzmann models introduced recently by the authors [I. V. Karlin, F. Bösch, and S. S. Chikatamarla, Phys. Rev. E 90, 031302(R) (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.031302] and review the role of the entropic stabilizer. Both coarse- and fine-grid simulations are addressed for the Kida vortex flow benchmark. We show that the outstanding numerical stability and performance is independent of a particular choice of the moment representation for high-Reynolds-number flows. We report accurate results for low-order moments for homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence and second-order grid convergence for most assessed statistical quantities. It is demonstrated that all the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann realizations considered herein converge to the familiar lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model when the resolution is increased. Moreover, thanks to the dynamic nature of the entropic stabilizer, the present model features less compressibility effects and maintains correct energy and enstrophy dissipation. The explicit and efficient nature of the present lattice Boltzmann method renders it a promising candidate for both engineering and scientific purposes for highly turbulent flows.

  2. Evolving Stochastic Learning Algorithm based on Tsallis entropic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, A. D.; Magoulas, G. D.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, inspired from our previous algorithm, which was based on the theory of Tsallis statistical mechanics, we develop a new evolving stochastic learning algorithm for neural networks. The new algorithm combines deterministic and stochastic search steps by employing a different adaptive stepsize for each network weight, and applies a form of noise that is characterized by the nonextensive entropic index q, regulated by a weight decay term. The behavior of the learning algorithm can be made more stochastic or deterministic depending on the trade off between the temperature T and the q values. This is achieved by introducing a formula that defines a time-dependent relationship between these two important learning parameters. Our experimental study verifies that there are indeed improvements in the convergence speed of this new evolving stochastic learning algorithm, which makes learning faster than using the original Hybrid Learning Scheme (HLS). In addition, experiments are conducted to explore the influence of the entropic index q and temperature T on the convergence speed and stability of the proposed method.

  3. Exploring entropic uncertainty relation in the Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jia-Ming; Shi, Jia-Dong; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It has been found that larger coupling strength J between the two spin-chain qubits can effectively reduce the entropic uncertainty. Besides, we observe the mechanics of how the inhomogeneous field influences the uncertainty, and find out that when the inhomogeneous field parameter b1. Intriguingly, the entropic uncertainty can shrink to zero when the coupling coefficients are relatively large, while the entropic uncertainty only reduces to 1 with the increase of the homogeneous magnetic field. Additionally, we observe the purity of the state and Bell non-locality and obtain that the entropic uncertainty is anticorrelated with both the purity and Bell non-locality of the evolution state.

  4. Super-entropic black holes and the Kerr-CFT correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinamuli, Musema [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Ave., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Ave., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-08-24

    We demonstrate that Kerr-CFT duality can be extended to super-entropic black holes, which have non-compact horizons with finite area. We demonstrate that this duality is robust insofar as the ultra-spinning limit of a Kerr-AdS black hole (which yields the super-entropic class) commutes with the near-horizon limit (which yields the Kerr-CFT duality). Consequently the Bekenstein-Hawking and the CFT entropies are equivalent. We show that the duality holds for both singly-spinning super-entropic black holes in 4 dimensions and for doubly-spinning super-entropic black holes of gauged supergravity in 5 dimensions. In both cases we obtain not only the expected left/right temperatures, but also temperatures associated with electric charge and with a new thermodynamic parameter specific to super-entropic black holes.

  5. Super-entropic black holes and the Kerr-CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinamuli, Musema; Mann, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that Kerr-CFT duality can be extended to super-entropic black holes, which have non-compact horizons with finite area. We demonstrate that this duality is robust insofar as the ultra-spinning limit of a Kerr-AdS black hole (which yields the super-entropic class) commutes with the near-horizon limit (which yields the Kerr-CFT duality). Consequently the Bekenstein-Hawking and the CFT entropies are equivalent. We show that the duality holds for both singly-spinning super-entropic black holes in 4 dimensions and for doubly-spinning super-entropic black holes of gauged supergravity in 5 dimensions. In both cases we obtain not only the expected left/right temperatures, but also temperatures associated with electric charge and with a new thermodynamic parameter specific to super-entropic black holes.

  6. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  7. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in including environmental issues in formal education curricula. ... In 1991, Fien noted that, if environmental education were to be one of the social agencies ... the aim of developing ideas and practices that could support the inclusion of environmental .... 2007:35), and can be studied at scales varying from local to global.

  8. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Natural resource management (NRM) education has the potential to improve the ... For the textbook, only 8% of the analysed items had a strong link to NRM and .... was specific and direct reference to NRM or its related issues, the degree of ...

  9. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    Our intention in this paper is to explore how the multi-layered public relations messages of ... media campaign in early 2004 in order to canvass public approval for a ... sponsor of Birdlife South Africa' and they state that they 'are planning a ...

  10. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We contemplated the effect this had on our intuitive assessment of our accommodation and surrounding ... pleasures of playing video games or listening to fugues derive from instinctive processes that were in ... to our teenagers today? Note.

  11. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questionnaire that they benefited from experiential learning, the benefits appear to be ... the School of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education (SSMTE) at the University of ... It is essentially different from informal everyday learning.

  12. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work became over-emphasised in schools, as a result of which pupils grew to dislike self- reliance activities and all other ... develops school curricula under the Ministry of Education and Culture (MoEC), revisited the school curricula and updated them after .... It is hoped that the end result will be development of appropriate ...

  13. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    To do this, we ensured that participants were involved in deciding ... Currently, participation has a split personality. As one ... An effect of this split personality is an .... First, I suggest that we change our choice of words to explain participation:.

  14. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by multi-dimensional perspectives will help found solutions to environmental issues and risks. Lessons from ... The physical separation of workplaces further discourages interaction. In order ... who are in touch with experts in other disciplines.

  15. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As awareness grows that social justice and the protection of nature are closely related. (see Brechin, et al., ... human organisation, than of formal, empirical ecological science; and the sociopolitical realm is seen as ... some political ecologists stress not only a 'post-structuralist sensibility to discourse' (Berglund. & Anderson ...

  16. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jenny

    for school-based environmental educators. Eureta Rosenberg, ... and intolerance under the banner of 'environmental education'. I will go on to ... constitutional values as key concerns in almost every context across the country.The British.

  17. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greenhouse gases and will provide an incentive to governments to abuse local ..... morning and, as I was looking for an internet connection, a woman came to me .... Brazil, India, China, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Oman, Egypt, Papua ...

  18. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domain of the two RCE communities of practice is a response to environment and sustainability concerns through ESD. This domain was also characterised by supporting sustainable living choices and health and nutrition in the community. one of the principal defining factors of community is having a shared interest, ...

  19. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reciprocal visits to each others' classrooms and participation in video conferences together. Once completed, the materials will ... importantly of all, it is intended for joint use in Grades 4-6 classrooms in the two countries. An important secondary aim of ... teaching over the internet using video-conferencing. Research Focus.

  20. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diversity such as poverty, inequality, race, gender, language, age, disability and ... 3. the indigenous land rights movement, particularly that wing devoted to the cultural .... what is the promise of environmental justice in a post-apartheid order?

  1. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESD aims to develop an understanding of the interdependence of life on earth for effective use of resources – to achieve a balance between ecology, ... through preparing them to plan for, cope with and find solutions to sustainability challenges. ... As such, universities are expected to give them intellectual and professional.

  2. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Women are seen as critical to environmental education in that they tend to .... One reads of India, in Seager, that 'widespread discrimination exists ... impact directly upon those least in a position to take evasive action – namely poor women.

  3. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the public media and numerous scientific products tell us, we are living in momentous, extraordinary times ... yet we have remarkably little knowledge about the future. Against a ... ontological practice of research. .... Universities will need to create interdisciplinary spaces to help look after the 'whole' and to invigorate the ...

  4. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education pedagogies with Life Orientation so as to enhance the quality of their teaching practices and lesson ... relevant environmental knowledge, skills and values to respond to these challenges. In this ... ecological balance. ... Our concern is that LO teachers with inadequate professional knowledge and training within.

  5. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... Ahmedabad, India, and the other from the 1st International Conference on .... education for sustainable development is visible in the social politics of conference ... and socio-ecological resilience, amongst others, into the education system), and they reflect the.

  6. Viewpoint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, Vol. ... Fifty-eight per cent of the 34 respondents gave social-ecological systems interpretations .... Earth alive for all of us', 'sustainability of environment and development' and 'fit in with the ... might differ in their understanding of an internationally and locally used slogan ...

  7. Viewpoints to labour mobility development

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmár, András

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to provide viewpoints to labour mobility development in the Western Balkans and in Macedonia in particular, since it would be one of the advantages of joining the European Union. The EU integration process of the Western Balkans opens up new dimensions for labour mobility in the long run in two aspects. One is the possibility of revitalization of the earlier notion of 'intra mobility' of Yugoslavia, especially since there are small language barriers among the successo...

  8. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  9. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the Causal Entropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-05-01

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, the principle asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach-weighting by the number of"observers per baryon" -- is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  10. Predicting the Cosmological Constant from the CausalEntropic Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2007-02-20

    We compute the expected value of the cosmological constant in our universe from the Causal Entropic Principle. Since observers must obey the laws of thermodynamics and causality, it asserts that physical parameters are most likely to be found in the range of values for which the total entropy production within a causally connected region is maximized. Despite the absence of more explicit anthropic criteria, the resulting probability distribution turns out to be in excellent agreement with observation. In particular, we find that dust heated by stars dominates the entropy production, demonstrating the remarkable power of this thermodynamic selection criterion. The alternative approach--weighting by the number of ''observers per baryon''--is less well-defined, requires problematic assumptions about the nature of observers, and yet prefers values larger than present experimental bounds.

  11. Ultraspinning limits and super-entropic black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennigar, Robie A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kubizňák, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Mann, Robert B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Musoke, Nathan [Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-06-16

    By employing the new ultraspinning limit we construct novel classes of black holes with non-compact event horizons and finite horizon area and study their thermodynamics. Our ultraspinning limit can be understood as a simple generating technique that consists of three steps: i) transforming the known rotating AdS black hole solution to a special coordinate system that rotates (in a given 2-plane) at infinity ii) boosting this rotation to the speed of light iii) compactifying the corresponding azimuthal direction. In so doing we qualitatively change the structure of the spacetime since it is no longer possible to return to a frame that does not rotate at infinity. The obtained black holes have non-compact horizons with topology of a sphere with two punctures. The entropy of some of these exceeds the maximal bound implied by the reverse isoperimetric inequality, such black holes are super-entropic.

  12. Predicting Atomic Decay Rates Using an Informational-Entropic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Jiang, Nan

    2018-06-01

    We show that a newly proposed Shannon-like entropic measure of shape complexity applicable to spatially-localized or periodic mathematical functions known as configurational entropy (CE) can be used as a predictor of spontaneous decay rates for one-electron atoms. The CE is constructed from the Fourier transform of the atomic probability density. For the hydrogen atom with degenerate states labeled with the principal quantum number n, we obtain a scaling law relating the n-averaged decay rates to the respective CE. The scaling law allows us to predict the n-averaged decay rate without relying on the traditional computation of dipole matrix elements. We tested the predictive power of our approach up to n = 20, obtaining an accuracy better than 3.7% within our numerical precision, as compared to spontaneous decay tables listed in the literature.

  13. Hyper-entropic gravitational fireballs (grireballs) with firewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been much discussion as to whether old black holes have firewalls at their surfaces that would destroy infalling observers. Though I suspect that a proper handling of nonlocality in quantum gravity may show that firewalls do not exist, it is interesting to consider an extension of the firewall idea to what seems to be the logically possible concept of hyper-entropic gravitational hot objects (gravitational fireballs or grireballs for short) that have more entropy than ordinary black holes of the same mass. Here some properties of such grireballs are discussed under various assumptions, such as assuming that their radii and entropies both go as powers of their masses as the one independent parameter, or assuming that their radii depend on both their masses and their entropies as two independent parameters

  14. Hyper-entropic gravitational fireballs (grireballs) with firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Don N.

    2013-04-01

    Recently there has been much discussion as to whether old black holes have firewalls at their surfaces that would destroy infalling observers. Though I suspect that a proper handling of nonlocality in quantum gravity may show that firewalls do not exist, it is interesting to consider an extension of the firewall idea to what seems to be the logically possible concept of hyper-entropic gravitational hot objects (gravitational fireballs or grireballs for short) that have more entropy than ordinary black holes of the same mass. Here some properties of such grireballs are discussed under various assumptions, such as assuming that their radii and entropies both go as powers of their masses as the one independent parameter, or assuming that their radii depend on both their masses and their entropies as two independent parameters.

  15. Predicting Atomic Decay Rates Using an Informational-Entropic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Jiang, Nan

    2018-02-01

    We show that a newly proposed Shannon-like entropic measure of shape complexity applicable to spatially-localized or periodic mathematical functions known as configurational entropy (CE) can be used as a predictor of spontaneous decay rates for one-electron atoms. The CE is constructed from the Fourier transform of the atomic probability density. For the hydrogen atom with degenerate states labeled with the principal quantum number n, we obtain a scaling law relating the n-averaged decay rates to the respective CE. The scaling law allows us to predict the n-averaged decay rate without relying on the traditional computation of dipole matrix elements. We tested the predictive power of our approach up to n = 20, obtaining an accuracy better than 3.7% within our numerical precision, as compared to spontaneous decay tables listed in the literature.

  16. Ultraspinning limits and super-entropic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Musoke, Nathan

    2015-06-01

    By employing the new ultraspinning limit we construct novel classes of black holes with non-compact event horizons and finite horizon area and study their thermo-dynamics. Our ultraspinning limit can be understood as a simple generating technique that consists of three steps: i) transforming the known rotating AdS black hole solution to a special coordinate system that rotates (in a given 2-plane) at infinity ii) boosting this rotation to the speed of light iii) compactifying the corresponding azimuthal direction. In so doing we qualitatively change the structure of the spacetime since it is no longer pos-sible to return to a frame that does not rotate at infinity. The obtained black holes have non-compact horizons with topology of a sphere with two punctures. The entropy of some of these exceeds the maximal bound implied by the reverse isoperimetric inequality, such black holes are super-entropic.

  17. Intelligence by design in an entropic power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Pincetic, Matias Alejandro

    In this work, the term Entropic Grid is coined to describe a power grid with increased levels of uncertainty and dynamics. These new features will require the reconsideration of well-established paradigms in the way of planning and operating the grid and its associated markets. New tools and models able to handle uncertainty and dynamics will form the required scaffolding to properly capture the behavior of the physical system, along with the value of new technologies and policies. The leverage of this knowledge will facilitate the design of new architectures to organize power and energy systems and their associated markets. This work presents several results, tools and models with the goal of contributing to that design objective. A central idea of this thesis is that the definition of products is critical in electricity markets. When markets are constructed with appropriate product definitions in mind, the interference between the physical and the market/financial systems seen in today's markets can be reduced. A key element of evaluating market designs is understanding the impact that salient features of an entropic grid---uncertainty, dynamics, constraints---can have on the electricity markets. Dynamic electricity market models tailored to capture such features are developed in this work. Using a multi-settlement dynamic electricity market, the impact of volatility is investigated. The results show the need to implement policies and technologies able to cope with the volatility of renewable sources. Similarly, using a dynamic electricity market model in which ramping costs are considered, the impacts of those costs on electricity markets are investigated. The key conclusion is that those additional ramping costs, in average terms, are not reflected in electricity prices. These results reveal several difficulties with today's real-time markets. Elements of an alternative architecture to organize these markets are also discussed.

  18. Entropic dynamics: From entropy and information geometry to Hamiltonians and quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caticha, Ariel; Bartolomeo, Daniel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States); Reginatto, Marcel [Physicalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-01-13

    Entropic Dynamics is a framework in which quantum theory is derived as an application of entropic methods of inference. There is no underlying action principle. Instead, the dynamics is driven by entropy subject to the appropriate constraints. In this paper we show how a Hamiltonian dynamics arises as a type of non-dissipative entropic dynamics. We also show that the particular form of the 'quantum potential' that leads to the Schrödinger equation follows naturally from information geometry.

  19. Entropic dynamics: From entropy and information geometry to Hamiltonians and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, Ariel; Bartolomeo, Daniel; Reginatto, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Entropic Dynamics is a framework in which quantum theory is derived as an application of entropic methods of inference. There is no underlying action principle. Instead, the dynamics is driven by entropy subject to the appropriate constraints. In this paper we show how a Hamiltonian dynamics arises as a type of non-dissipative entropic dynamics. We also show that the particular form of the 'quantum potential' that leads to the Schrödinger equation follows naturally from information geometry

  20. Unfolding transitions in myosin give rise to the double-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an extension to a recent model of muscle contraction that was based on entropic elasticity (Nielsen 2002 J. Theor Biol. 219 99-119). By using entropic elasticity as the origin of muscle force, various possibilities emerge that can account for the presence of the double......-hyperbolic force-velocity relation in muscle that was observed by Edman (1988 J. Physiol. 404 301-21). In the present work, it will be argued that a slight change (elongation) of the contour length of the entropic springs involved in their high-force regions is sufficient to produce such a double...

  1. A partial entropic lattice Boltzmann MHD simulation of the Orszag-Tang vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George

    2018-02-01

    Karlin has introduced an analytically determined entropic lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for Navier-Stokes turbulence. Here, this is partially extended to an LB model of magnetohydrodynamics, on using the vector distribution function approach of Dellar for the magnetic field (which is permitted to have field reversal). The partial entropic algorithm is benchmarked successfully against standard simulations of the Orszag-Tang vortex [Orszag, S.A.; Tang, C.M. J. Fluid Mech. 1979, 90 (1), 129-143].

  2. Entropic Lattice Boltzmann: an implicit Large-Eddy Simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Guillaume; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Gupta, Abhineet; Toschi, Federico; Ehrhardt, Matthias; Bartel, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    We study the modeling of turbulence implied by the unconditionally stable Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Method (ELBM). We first focus on 2D homogeneous turbulence, for which we conduct numerical simulations for a wide range of relaxation times τ. For these simulations, we analyze the effective viscosity obtained by numerically differentiating the kinetic energy and enstrophy balance equations averaged over sub-domains of the computational grid. We aim at understanding the behavior of the implied sub-grid scale model and verify a formulation previously derived using Chapman-Enskog expansion. These ELBM benchmark simulations are thus useful to understand the range of validity of ELBM as a turbulence model. Finally, we will discuss an extension of the previously obtained results to the 3D case. Supported by the European Unions Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (2014-2020) under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 642069 and by the European Research Council under the ERC Grant Agreement No. 339032.

  3. Entanglement witness via quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiadong; Ding, Zhiyong; Wu, Tao; He, Juan; Yu, Lizhi; Sun, Wenyang; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-12-01

    By virtue of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (EUR), we analyze entanglement witness via the efficiencies of the estimates proposed by Berta (2010 Nat. Phys. 6 659) and Pati (2012 Phys. Rev. A 86 042105). The results show that, without a structured reservoir, the entanglement regions witnessed by these EUR estimates are only determined by the chosen estimated setup, and have no correlation with the explicit form of the initial state. On the other hand, with the structured reservoirs, the time regions during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and the corresponding entanglement regions closely depend on the choice of the estimated setup, the initial state and the state purity p . Concretely, for a pure state with p=1 , the entanglement can be witnessed by both estimates, while for mixed states with p=0.78 , it can only be witnessed using the Pati estimate. What is more, we find that the time regions incorporating the Pati estimate become discontinuous for the initial state with ≤ft| {{φ }\\prime } \\right> ={≤ft(≤ft| 01 \\right> +≤ft| 10 \\right> \\right)}/{\\sqrt{2}} , and the corresponding entanglement regions remain the same; however the entanglement can only be witnessed once by utilizing the Berta estimate.

  4. Free-viewpoint depth image based rendering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 3D TV research, one approach is to employ multiple cameras for creating a 3D multi-view signal with the aim to make interactive free-viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV media. This paper explores a new rendering algorithm that enables to compute a free-viewpoint between two reference views from

  5. Radiologic viewpoint of splenic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jae Chun; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Sun Yong; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan

    1988-01-01

    Splenic abscess is not a common disease, and has been infrequently diagnosed during life because of vague symptom and presence of underlying disease. However, advent of newer diagnostic imaging and interventional technology have augmented our ability to diagnose and treat the abscess. Authors experienced eight cases of splenic abscess, which were confirmed by operation or aspiration and, herein, we describe the radiological viewpoint and clinical course. Summary is follows: 1. Radiological finding was well defined, noncontrast enhancing wedge or lentiform lower density lesion, either single or multiple, focal or massive, parenchymal or subcapsular in location. Prognosis was favorable in focal parenchymal lesion after medical treatment. 2. Pancreatitis is the most common combined disease and this made the localization delay. 3. High incidence of sterile culture suggests possibility of anaerobic of fungal infection. 4. Hypoechoic lesion suggesting splenic abscess should be aspirated under the guidance of ultrasound and The aspirate should be cultured including anaerobic and fungus. C.T. scan should be done for better evaluation of the lesion. 5. According to pathology, organism and loculation pattern, various treatment modalities can be considered rather than routine splenectomy.

  6. Reconstruction of Novel Viewpoint Image Using GRNN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李战委; 孙济洲; 张志强

    2003-01-01

    A neural-statistical approach to the reconstruction of novel viewpoint image using general regression neural networks(GRNN) is presented. Different color value will be obtained by watching the same surface point of an object from different viewpoints due to specular reflection, and the difference is related to the position of viewpoint. The relationship between the position of viewpoint and the color of image is non-linear, neural network is introduced to make curve fitting, where the inputs of neural network are only a few calibrated images with obvious specular reflection. By training the neural network, network model is obtained. By inputing an arbitrary virtual viewpoint to the model, the image of the virtual viewpoint can be computed. By using the method presented here, novel viewpoint image with photo-realistic property can be obtained, especially images with obvious specular reflection can accurately be generated. The method is an image-based rendering method, geometric model of the scene and position of lighting are not needed.

  7. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass

  8. The Comparison between Spectral and Entropic Measures Following Fatigue in Erector Spinae Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Talebian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surface electromyography (sEMG of muscles is a non-invasive tool that can be helpful in the assessment of muscle function and some motor control evaluations. A loss of force, known as muscle fatigue is accompanied by changes in muscle electrical activity. One of the most commonly used surface EMG parameters which reflects paraspinal muscle fatigue during different tasks and positions is median frequency. Although it is widely known that the electromyography power spectrum shifts to lower frequencies during fatiguing contraction, an opinion exists that the validity of spectral shifts in assessment of fatigue is questionable. Some researchers have examined whether other quantities derived from sEMG signals are better indicators for muscle fatigue. Following cyclic flexion/extension and consequence fatigue, variation in sEMG signals may be complex for study. The aim of this study was to determine which of the median frequency (MF or entropic (ENTR is more sensitive for measuring muscular fatigue in erector spinae muscles during cyclic flexion/extension. Methods: Surface electromyography of erector spine muscles was recorded in 25 healthy subjects during cyclic dynamic contractions. The experimental session consisted of two parts: measurement of Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC, and performing the fatigue test. All subjects performed rhythmic flexion/extension with 50% MVC loading against B-200 Isostation, about 4-6 minutes. The MF and ENTR of the muscle activities were computed to assess muscular fatigue. Results: Paired sample t-tests showed that MF and ENTR changes after fatigue test were significant (P<0.001. Percentage changes of both MF and ENTR were reduced, this reduction for ENTR was more than 40% (P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems that the changes of ENTR in muscle activities have the ability to measure muscular fatigue and is more sensitive in comparison to MF.

  9. Dynamics of entropic uncertainty for atoms immersed in thermal fluctuating massless scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-04-01

    In this article, the dynamics of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation for two atoms immersed in a thermal bath of fluctuating massless scalar field is investigated. The master equation that governs the system evolution process is derived. It is found that the mixedness is closely associated with entropic uncertainty. For equilibrium state, the tightness of uncertainty vanishes. For the initial maximum entangled state, the tightness of uncertainty undergoes a slight increase and then declines to zero with evolution time. It is found that temperature can increase the uncertainty, but two-atom separation does not always increase the uncertainty. The uncertainty evolves to different relatively stable values for different temperatures and converges to a fixed value for different two-atom distances with evolution time. Furthermore, weak measurement reversal is employed to control the entropic uncertainty.

  10. Viewpoint Reading Conference Recommendations in a Wider ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viewpoint Reading Conference Recommendations in a Wider Context of Social Change. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Free surface entropic lattice Boltzmann simulations of film condensation on vertical hydrophilic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Karlin, Iliya; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall. It is sh......A model for vapor condensation on vertical hydrophilic surfaces is developed using the entropic lattice Boltzmann method extended with a free surface formulation of the evaporation–condensation problem. The model is validated with the steady liquid film formation on a flat vertical wall...

  12. Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de newton

    OpenAIRE

    Barragán, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conex...

  13. Electrochemical deposition of coatings of highly entropic alloys from non-aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeníček V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with electrochemical deposition of coatings of highly entropic alloys. These relatively new materials have been recently intensively studied. The paper describes the first results of electrochemical coating with highly entropic alloys by deposition from non-aqueous solutions. An electrochemical device was designed and coatings were deposited. The coatings were characterised with electronic microscopy scanning, atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction methods and the combination of methods of thermic analysis of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry.

  14. Multi-viewpoint Image Array Virtual Viewpoint Rapid Generation Algorithm Based on Image Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu; Piao, Yan

    2018-04-01

    The use of multi-view image array combined with virtual viewpoint generation technology to record 3D scene information in large scenes has become one of the key technologies for the development of integrated imaging. This paper presents a virtual viewpoint rendering method based on image layering algorithm. Firstly, the depth information of reference viewpoint image is quickly obtained. During this process, SAD is chosen as the similarity measure function. Then layer the reference image and calculate the parallax based on the depth information. Through the relative distance between the virtual viewpoint and the reference viewpoint, the image layers are weighted and panned. Finally the virtual viewpoint image is rendered layer by layer according to the distance between the image layers and the viewer. This method avoids the disadvantages of the algorithm DIBR, such as high-precision requirements of depth map and complex mapping operations. Experiments show that, this algorithm can achieve the synthesis of virtual viewpoints in any position within 2×2 viewpoints range, and the rendering speed is also very impressive. The average result proved that this method can get satisfactory image quality. The average SSIM value of the results relative to real viewpoint images can reaches 0.9525, the PSNR value can reaches 38.353 and the image histogram similarity can reaches 93.77%.

  15. Observation of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under open systems, and its steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Quantum objects are susceptible to noise from their surrounding environments, interaction with which inevitably gives rise to quantum decoherence or dissipation effects. In this work, we examine how different types of local noise under an open system affect entropic uncertainty relations for two incompatible measurements. Explicitly, we observe the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the presence of quantum memory under two canonical categories of noisy environments: unital (phase flip) and nonunital (amplitude damping). Our study shows that the measurement uncertainty exhibits a non-monotonic dynamical behavior—that is, the amount of the uncertainty will first inflate, and subsequently decrease, with the growth of decoherence strengths in the two channels. In contrast, the uncertainty decreases monotonically with the growth of the purity of the initial state shared in prior. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty in noisy environments, we put forward a remarkably effective strategy to steer the magnitude of uncertainty by means of a local non-unitary operation (i.e. weak measurement) on the qubit of interest. It turns out that this non-unitary operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty, upon tuning the operation strength. Our investigations might thereby offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of entropic uncertainty in open systems.

  16. Controlling quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty in non-Markovian environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Fang, Maofa; Kang, Guodong; Zhou, Qingping

    2018-03-01

    Quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA EUR) addresses that the lower bound of Maassen and Uffink's entropic uncertainty relation (without quantum memory) can be broken. In this paper, we investigated the dynamical features of QMA EUR in the Markovian and non-Markovian dissipative environments. It is found that dynamical process of QMA EUR is oscillation in non-Markovian environment, and the strong interaction is favorable for suppressing the amount of entropic uncertainty. Furthermore, we presented two schemes by means of prior weak measurement and posterior weak measurement reversal to control the amount of entropic uncertainty of Pauli observables in dissipative environments. The numerical results show that the prior weak measurement can effectively reduce the wave peak values of the QMA-EUA dynamic process in non-Markovian environment for long periods of time, but it is ineffectual on the wave minima of dynamic process. However, the posterior weak measurement reversal has an opposite effects on the dynamic process. Moreover, the success probability entirely depends on the quantum measurement strength. We hope that our proposal could be verified experimentally and might possibly have future applications in quantum information processing.

  17. Capturing the Landauer bound through the application of a detailed Jarzynski equality for entropic memory erasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moupriya

    2014-12-01

    The states of an overdamped Brownian particle confined in a two-dimensional bilobal enclosure are considered to correspond to two binary values: 0 (left lobe) and 1 (right lobe). An ensemble of such particles represents bits of entropic information. An external bias is applied on the particles, equally distributed in two lobes, to drive them to a particular lobe erasing one kind of bit of information. It has been shown that the average work done for the entropic memory erasure process approaches the Landauer bound for a very slow erasure cycle. Furthermore, the detailed Jarzynski equality holds to a very good extent for the erasure protocol, so that the Landauer bound may be calculated irrespective of the time period of the erasure cycle in terms of the effective free-energy change for the process. The detailed Jarzynski equality applied to two subprocesses, namely the transition from entropic memory state 0 to state 1 and the transition from entropic memory state 1 to state 1, connects the work done on the system to the probability to occupy the two states under a time-reversed process. In the entire treatment, the work appears as a boundary effect of the physical confinement of the system not having a conventional potential energy barrier. Finally, an analytical derivation of the detailed and classical Jarzynski equality for Brownian movement in confined space with varying width has been proposed. Our analytical scheme supports the numerical simulations presented in this paper.

  18. Un método sencillo para definir la entropía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alejo Pinzón Bello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Analizando un proceso adiabático de comprimir y expandir un gas y con base en el enunciado de la segunda ley de la termodinámica, dado por Carathéodory, se define la entropía sin cálculos matemáticos complicados.

  19. Exploiting large-pore metal-organic frameworks for separations through entropic molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Knoop, A.; Dubbeldam, D.

    2015-01-01

    We review the molecular mechanisms behind adsorption and the separations of mixtures in metal-organic frameworks and zeolites. Separation mechanisms can be based on differences in the affinity of the adsorbate with the framework and on entropic effects. To develop next-generation adsorbents, the

  20. Viewpoint Working with Environmental Education Pedagogies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this viewpoint paper is to generate interest in working with environmental education pedagogies in order to enhance the quality imperative of social and environmental responsibility for South African learners through the fundamental subject, Life Orientation. Drawing on our own experiences as Life Orientation ...

  1. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-09-01

    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  2. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  3. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaultier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  4. The angle-angular momentum and entropic uncertainty relations for quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently the entropic uncertainty relations are obtained in a more general form by using Tsallis-like entropies for the quantum scattering. Hence, using Riesz theorem, the state-independent entropic angle-angular momentum uncertainty relations are proved for the Tsallis-like scattering entropies of spinless particles. The generalized entropic inequalities for the Tsallis-like entropies are presented. The two upper bounds are optimal bounds and can be obtained via Lagrange multipliers by extremizing the Tsallis-like entropies subject to the normalization constraints, respectively. The proof of the lower bound is provided by considering the condition that the angular distribution of probability, P(x) has, everywhere, a finite magnitude. Next, by using the Riesz Theorem a general result was obtained, appearing as inequalities valid for the case of hadron-hadron scattering. An important entropic uncertainty relation for the scattering of spinless particle was thus obtained. For σ el and dσ/dΩ, fixed from experiment, we proved that the optimal scattering entropies are the maximum possible entropies in the scattering process. In as previous paper it was shown that the experimental values of the entropies for the pion--nucleus scatterings are systematically described by the optimal entropies, at all available pion kinetic energies. In this sense the obtained results can also be considered as new experimental signatures for the validity of the principle of minimum distance in space of scattering states. The extension of the optimal state analysis to the generalized non-extensive statistics case, as well as, a test of the entropic inequalities, can be obtained in similar way by using non-extensive optimal entropies. Since this kind of analysis is more involved the numerical examples will be given in a following more extended paper. Finally, we believe that the results obtained here are encouraging for further investigations of the entropic uncertainty relations as well

  5. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir; Cervera, Javier; Pellicer, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems

  6. On entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of a minimal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.

    2017-07-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations for the position and momentum within the generalized uncertainty principle are examined. Studies of this principle are motivated by the existence of a minimal observable length. Then the position and momentum operators satisfy the modified commutation relation, for which more than one algebraic representation is known. One of them is described by auxiliary momentum so that the momentum and coordinate wave functions are connected by the Fourier transform. However, the probability density functions of the physically true and auxiliary momenta are different. As the corresponding entropies differ, known entropic uncertainty relations are changed. Using differential Shannon entropies, we give a state-dependent formulation with correction term. State-independent uncertainty relations are obtained in terms of the Rényi entropies and the Tsallis entropies with binning. Such relations allow one to take into account a finiteness of measurement resolution.

  7. Producción de entropía y ley de enfriamiento de Newton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barragán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Para un sistema con una fuente interna de generación de calor se analizan, en el marco de la termodinámica de los procesos irreversibles, las ecuaciones evolutivas que describen la transferencia de calor según la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. A partir del balance de flujo de entropía se muestra que la generación de entropía no es mínima en el estado estacionario descrito por la ley de enfriamiento de Newton. Igualmente, se discute cómo realizar el balance de flujos en el sistema, su conexión con los parámetros de control y su futura aplicación a procesos de optimización basados en la segunda ley de la termodinámica.

  8. Entropic lattice Boltzmann representations required to recover Navier-Stokes flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Brian; Vahala, George; Yepez, Jeffrey; Soe, Min; Vahala, Linda

    2007-03-01

    There are two disparate formulations of the entropic lattice Boltzmann scheme: one of these theories revolves around the analog of the discrete Boltzmann H function of standard extensive statistical mechanics, while the other revolves around the nonextensive Tsallis entropy. It is shown here that it is the nonenforcement of the pressure tensor moment constraints that lead to extremizations of entropy resulting in Tsallis-like forms. However, with the imposition of the pressure tensor moment constraint, as is fundamentally necessary for the recovery of the Navier-Stokes equations, it is proved that the entropy function must be of the discrete Boltzmann form. Three-dimensional simulations are performed which illustrate some of the differences between standard lattice Boltzmann and entropic lattice Boltzmann schemes, as well as the role played by the number of phase-space velocities used in the discretization.

  9. Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty in spin models with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we investigate the dynamics and correlations of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty, the tightness of the uncertainty, entanglement, quantum correlation and mixedness for various spin chain models with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, including the XXZ model with DM interaction, the XY model with DM interaction and the Ising model with DM interaction. We find that the uncertainty grows to a stable value with growing temperature but reduces as the coupling coefficient, anisotropy parameter and DM values increase. It is found that the entropic uncertainty is closely correlated with the mixedness of the system. The increasing quantum correlation can result in a decrease in the uncertainty, and the robustness of quantum correlation is better than entanglement since entanglement means sudden birth and death. The tightness of the uncertainty drops to zero, apart from slight volatility as various parameters increase. Furthermore, we propose an effective approach to steering the uncertainty by weak measurement reversal.

  10. Entropic formulation of the uncertainty principle for the number and annihilation operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E

    2011-01-01

    An entropic approach to formulating uncertainty relations for the number-annihilation pair is considered. We construct some normal operator that traces the annihilation operator as well as commuting quadratures with a complete system of common eigenfunctions. Expanding the measured wave function with respect to them, one obtains a relevant probability distribution. Another distribution is naturally generated by measuring the number operator. Due to the Riesz-Thorin theorem, there exists a nontrivial inequality between corresponding functionals of the above distributions. We find the bound in this inequality and further derive uncertainty relations in terms of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropies. Entropic uncertainty relations for a continuous distribution as well as relations for a discretized one are presented. (comment)

  11. Entropic Constitutive Relation and Modeling for Fourier and Hyperbolic Heat Conductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most existing phenomenological heat conduction models are expressed by temperature and heat flux distributions, whose definitions might be debatable in heat conductions with strong non-equilibrium. The constitutive relations of Fourier and hyperbolic heat conductions are here rewritten by the entropy and entropy flux distributions in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT. The entropic constitutive relations are then generalized by Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon (BGS statistical mechanics, which can avoid the debatable definitions of thermodynamic quantities relying on local equilibrium. It shows a possibility of modeling heat conduction through entropic constitutive relations. The applicability of the generalizations by BGS statistical mechanics is also discussed based on the relaxation time approximation, and it is found that the generalizations require a sufficiently small entropy production rate.

  12. Classical and quantum transport through entropic barriers modeled by hardwall hyperboloidal constrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, R.; Waalkens, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the quantum transport through entropic barriers induced by hardwall constrictions of hyperboloidal shape in two and three spatial dimensions. Using the separability of the Schroedinger equation and the classical equations of motion for these geometries, we study in detail the quantum transmission probabilities and the associated quantum resonances, and relate them to the classical phase structures which govern the transport through the constrictions. These classical phase structures are compared to the analogous structures which, as has been shown only recently, govern reaction type dynamics in smooth systems. Although the systems studied in this paper are special due their separability they can be taken as a guide to study entropic barriers resulting from constriction geometries that lead to non-separable dynamics.

  13. Entropía de la información: una herramienta útil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, P.

    En este trabajo se presenta una muy breve introducción al concepto de Entropía de la Información y se muestran distintas aplicaciones de una misma técnica para estudiar problemas tan variados como la determinación de periodicidad en una serie de tiempo arbitraria o de estimar el grado de caoticidad de una trayectoria en un sistema dinámico de N grados de libertad.

  14. Entropic uncertainty relations in the Heisenberg XXZ model and its controlling via filtering operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Shi, Wei-Nan; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2018-04-01

    The uncertainty principle is recognized as an elementary ingredient of quantum theory and sets up a significant bound to predict outcome of measurement for a couple of incompatible observables. In this work, we develop dynamical features of quantum memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We specifically derive the dynamical evolutions of the entropic uncertainty with respect to the measurement in the Heisenberg XXZ model when spin A is initially correlated with quantum memory B. It has been found that the larger coupling strength J of the ferromagnetism ( J 0 ) chains can effectively degrade the measuring uncertainty. Besides, it turns out that the higher temperature can induce the inflation of the uncertainty because the thermal entanglement becomes relatively weak in this scenario, and there exists a distinct dynamical behavior of the uncertainty when an inhomogeneous magnetic field emerges. With the growing magnetic field | B | , the variation of the entropic uncertainty will be non-monotonic. Meanwhile, we compare several different optimized bounds existing with the initial bound proposed by Berta et al. and consequently conclude Adabi et al.'s result is optimal. Moreover, we also investigate the mixedness of the system of interest, dramatically associated with the uncertainty. Remarkably, we put forward a possible physical interpretation to explain the evolutionary phenomenon of the uncertainty. Finally, we take advantage of a local filtering operation to steer the magnitude of the uncertainty. Therefore, our explorations may shed light on the entropic uncertainty under the Heisenberg XXZ model and hence be of importance to quantum precision measurement over solid state-based quantum information processing.

  15. Viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Mantel, Claire

    2017-01-01

    In this paper viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images incorporating the effects of ambient light is presented and evaluated. LED backlight displays may render HDR images, but while at a global scale a high dynamic range may be achieved, locally the contrast is limited by the leakage of light...... through the LC elements of the display. To render high quality images, the display with backlight dimming can compute the values of the LED backlight and LC elements based on the input image, information about the viewpoint of the observer(s) and information of the ambient light. The goal is to achieve...... the best perceptual reproduction of the specified target image derived from the HDR input image in the specific viewing situation including multiple viewers, possibly having different preferences. An optimization based approach is presented. Some tests with reproduced images are also evaluated subjectively...

  16. The child audience from TV professionals' viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the viewpoints of a range of television professionals regarding young audiences - how they define children, how they see this special kind of audience, including its needs and interests, and how they view the role of television in children's lives. Focusing on these ideas, our goal is to understand how they translate into decisions about the format and content of schedules, programming, production, marketing campaigns, regulation measures and also res...

  17. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  18. Using Technology to Improve Student Learning. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahala, Jan, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on how technology can help improve student learning. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who work closely with technology issues. Their…

  19. Generalized Galilean transformations and the measurement problem in the entropic dynamics approach to quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David T.

    Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in

  20. An Efficient, Hierarchical Viewpoint Planning Strategy for Terrestrial Laser Scanner Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, F.; Lichti, D. D.

    2018-05-01

    Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) techniques have been widely adopted in a variety of applications. However, unlike in geodesy or photogrammetry, insufficient attention has been paid to the optimal TLS network design. It is valuable to develop a complete design system that can automatically provide an optimal plan, especially for high-accuracy, large-volume scanning networks. To achieve this goal, one should look at the "optimality" of the solution as well as the computational complexity in reaching it. In this paper, a hierarchical TLS viewpoint planning strategy is developed to solve the optimal scanner placement problems. If one targeted object to be scanned is simplified as discretized wall segments, any possible viewpoint can be evaluated by a score table representing its visible segments under certain scanning geometry constraints. Thus, the design goal is to find a minimum number of viewpoints that achieves complete coverage of all wall segments. The efficiency is improved by densifying viewpoints hierarchically, instead of a "brute force" search within the entire workspace. The experiment environments in this paper were simulated from two buildings located on University of Calgary campus. Compared with the "brute force" strategy in terms of the quality of the solutions and the runtime, it is shown that the proposed strategy can provide a scanning network with a compatible quality but with more than a 70 % time saving.

  1. Temporal Asymmetry, Entropic Irreversibility, and Finite-Time Thermodynamics: From Parmenides–Einstein Time-Reversal Symmetry to the Heraclitan Entropic Arrow of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we combine the two universalisms of thermodynamics and dynamical systems theory to develop a dynamical system formalism for classical thermodynamics. Specifically, using a compartmental dynamical system energy flow model we develop a state-space dynamical system model that captures the key aspects of thermodynamics, including its fundamental laws. In addition, we establish the existence of a unique, continuously differentiable global entropy function for our dynamical system model, and using Lyapunov stability theory we show that the proposed thermodynamic model has finite-time convergent trajectories to Lyapunov stable equilibria determined by the system initial energies. Finally, using the system entropy, we establish the absence of Poincaré recurrence for our thermodynamic model and develop clear and rigorous connections between irreversibility, the second law of thermodynamics, and the entropic arrow of time.

  2. Efectos de la entropía urbana en el coste energético del trasporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bascuñán Walker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue descubrir los efectos de la diversidad de uso de suelo o entropía urbana sobre el gasto energético del transporte. Se eligió como zona de estudio la ciudad de La Serena y se encuestó a un grupo representativo de familias con gastos energéticos y de estratos sociales diversos y se comparó con las zonas urbanas de diferentes grados de entropía. El estudio mostró que, indistintamente del nivel social, los habitantes de las zonas que mostraban niveles mayores de entropía gastaban menos energía en traslados a destinos urbanos que aquellos que vivían en zonas de menores entropías. Basados en los resultados del estudio se concluyó que para disminuir el gasto energético en trasporte de los habitantes de la ciudad se requería incrementar el nivel de entropía. La alternativa más eficiente estudiada fue contemplar en la planificación urbana, pequeños policentros de multiservicios (más de tres servicios diferentes que cubran una superficie de población urbana de 78 has aproximadamente.

  3. Overview of FTV (free-viewpoint television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is the ultimate 3DTV that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. FTV is based on the rayspace method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have developed ray capture, processing and display technologies for FTV. FTV can be carried out today in real time on a single PC or on a mobile player. We also realized FTV with free listening-point audio. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG. The first phase of FTV was MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in May 2009. The Blu-ray 3D specification has adopted MVC for compression. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. The view generation function of FTV is used to decouple capture and display in 3DV. FDU (FTV Data Unit) is proposed as a data format for 3DV. FTU can compensate errors of the synthesized views caused by depth error.

  4. Free viewpoint TV and its international standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. We also realized FTV on a single PC and FTV with free listening-point audio. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. MPEG regarded FTV as the most challenging 3D media and started the international standardization activities of FTV. The first phase of FTV is MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in March 2009. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. It will be completed within the next two years.

  5. The ViewPoint radioprotection supervision workstation; Poste de supervision radioprotection viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaultier, E. [APVL Ingenierie- 6, bd Nobel - Equatop La Rabelais - 37540 Saint Cyr sur Loire (France)

    2009-07-01

    The author briefly presents the ViewPoint supervision global solution which incorporates audio and video advanced technologies to manage radioprotection operational measurements. Data can be transmitted by-wire or wireless. It can integrate a large number of radioprotection measurement instruments, such as a belt for the monitoring of physiological parameters (body temperature, breathing rhythm, body posture)

  6. First-passage dynamics of linear stochastic interface models: numerical simulations and entropic repulsion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus

    2018-03-01

    A fluctuating interfacial profile in one dimension is studied via Langevin simulations of the Edwards–Wilkinson equation with non-conserved noise and the Mullins–Herring equation with conserved noise. The profile is subject to either periodic or Dirichlet (no-flux) boundary conditions. We determine the noise-driven time-evolution of the profile between an initially flat configuration and the instant at which the profile reaches a given height M for the first time. The shape of the averaged profile agrees well with the prediction of weak-noise theory (WNT), which describes the most-likely trajectory to a fixed first-passage time. Furthermore, in agreement with WNT, on average the profile approaches the height M algebraically in time, with an exponent that is essentially independent of the boundary conditions. However, the actual value of the dynamic exponent turns out to be significantly smaller than predicted by WNT. This ‘renormalization’ of the exponent is explained in terms of the entropic repulsion exerted by the impenetrable boundary on the fluctuations of the profile around its most-likely path. The entropic repulsion mechanism is analyzed in detail for a single (fractional) Brownian walker, which describes the anomalous diffusion of a tagged monomer of the interface as it approaches the absorbing boundary. The present study sheds light on the accuracy and the limitations of the weak-noise approximation for the description of the full first-passage dynamics.

  7. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  8. Fundamental understanding of matter: an engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, H.S.; Cort, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of matter is a continuous process that should produce physical data for use by engineers and scientists in their work. Lack of fundamental property data in any engineering endeavor cannot be mitigated by theoretical work that is not confirmed by physical experiments. An engineering viewpoint will be presented to justify the need for understanding of matter. Examples will be given in the energy engineering field to outline the importance of further understanding of material and fluid properties and behavior. Cases will be cited to show the effects of various data bases in energy, mass, and momentum transfer. The status of fundamental data sources will be discussed in terms of data centers, new areas of engineering, and the progress in measurement techniques. Conclusions and recommendations will be outlined to improve the current situation faced by engineers in carrying out their work. 4 figures

  9. Entropic Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    in particular, materialists and positivists engaged in battle with Christian - mostly Catholic - scholars over the cosmological consequences of thermodynamics. This heated debate, which is today largely forgotten, is reconstructed and examined in detail in this book, bringing into focus key themes...

  10. Entropic Nomogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korablev Grigoriy Andreevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of entropy spatial-energy interactions is used to reflect the similar views on the statistical thermodynamics of entropy. The resulting nomogram is obtained for estimating the entropy of various processes. The authors discuss the variety of manifestations of entropy, including the biochemical processes in the economy. In living systems the entropy increase is offset by the negative entropy, which is formed through interaction with the external environment. Thus, a living system is an open system. And businesses can no longer be isolated systems without exchange process and the relationship with the external environment. The role of the external system reducing the increase in business entropy must perform, for example, relevant state and public structures, functionally separated from the business. Perhaps, inevitable process in this direction can be de-monopolization of the largest economic structures, carried out “on top” in an evolutionary way. In thermodynamics it is considered that the uncontrolled growth of entropy leads to the termination of any macroeconomic systems, that is, to their death. Therefore, the main task is to search for the methods of reducing the uncontrolled growth of entropy in big business. In addition, these critical numbers of entropy relate mainly to big business. A simple reduction of the number of its employees may not give the real result of a decrease in entropy. So, reduction of the number of employees by 10 % would decrease the entropy of only 0.6 % and this despite the general negative effects of unemployment, which inevitably accompanies such a process. Therefore, such sermonettes not controlled either by the state or society are aimed to reduce the entropy of the business in a more real way of demonopolization without optimization (that is, without reducing the total number of employees. Now the scientific world is puzzled by the intensification of technological processes on the basis of energy-saving technology, for example. This technique P-parameter can also be used in this promising direction.

  11. Determination of the physical parameters distribution in spin transition compounds using experimental FORC diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasa, Radu; Linares, Jorge; Enachescu, Cristian; Varret, Francois; Stancu, Alexandru

    2006-01-01

    Spin transitions materials are characterized with an innovative experimental method, i.e. first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagram. The interpretation of the results is performed in the framework of two different Ising-like models: a mean-field approach and the exact solution done by the Monte Carlo entropic sampling (MCES) method

  12. IGLANCE: interactive free viewpoint for 3D TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; Ruijters, D.; With, de P.H.N.

    2010-01-01

    The iGLANCE project aims at making interactive free viewpoint selection possible in 3D TV broadcasted media. This means that the viewer can select and interactively change the viewpoint of a stereoscopic streamed video. The interactivity is enabled by broad-casting a number of video streams from

  13. Perspectives on High School Reform. NCREL Viewpoints, Volume 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a brief, informative booklet. This volume of Viewpoints focuses on issues related to high school reform. This booklet offers background information explaining the issues surrounding high school reform with perspectives from research, policy, and practice. It also provides a list of…

  14. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarinoori, R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among theissues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressedviews about. There are two major approaches; the essence-oriented notionwhich has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiencesbetween individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective whichhas considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts inthe development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essentialdifferences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system ofIllumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’sdiscussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts thatunion with light underlies mystical revelation and the specificself-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences alongwith illumination, observation, union, and inexistence. Althoughcharacteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system ofthought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences,according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation inmystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on thethinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather,they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the viewsexpressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritualexperiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answersto some unknown issues.

  15. SOCIALISM FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klistorin V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to discuss the role the socialist ideas played in the development of economic thoughts. The paper considers a brief history of socialist thought, fundamental ideas of the scientists and publicists who made the greatest contribution to development of socialist concepts; common principles at a huge variety of such concepts; and criticism of socialist ideas made by representatives of alternative schools. A special focus of the paper is the discussion held in the period between the world wars on whether socialism could take place. In the critics’ opinion, socialization of the economy resulted in corrupted economic information which made economic calculations impossible in socialism and abolition of private ownership - in both eliminated freedom of choice and lower economic growth. In response, economists-socialists insisted on positive impacts through lower transactional costs and they proposed different types of market socialism. The author also makes an attempt to formulate what the socialist theories contributed to modern economics from the viewpoint of its research subject and definitions.

  16. QUALITY FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF TOURISM DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana ELMAZI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Service quality initiatives are high priorities in many tourist destinations, with expenditure seen as long-term investment for future growth and profitability. My study’s goal is to explain the quality dimensions from the viewpoint of tourism destination. When we start to discuss about tourism quality supply, the main problem we have to consider is the structure of tourism supply as a complex of tangible and intangible elements. Analysis of the quality problem, their measuring and monitoring and marketing strategies based on quality, needs to be built on the specificity of tourist offer, regarding the level of goods and services. Because of this, the level of quality and customer satisfaction of quality is very hard to measure and to control. The first major feature of quality programs development is typically, to identify the key components or dimensions of quality from customer and employee research, i.e. their needs and expectations.

  17. Transplant organizational structures: viewpoints from established centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouljoud, M; Klintmalm, G; Whitehouse, S

    2012-10-01

    This personal viewpoint report summarizes the responses of a survey targeting established transplant programs with a structured framework, such as center, institute, or department, and stability of leadership to assure valuable experiential observations. The 18-item survey was sent to 20 US institutions that met inclusion criteria. The response rate was 100%. Seventeen institutions had a distinct transplant governance structure. A majority of respondents perceived that their type of transplant structure was associated with enhanced recognition within their institution (85%), improved regulatory compliance (85%), transplant volume growth (75%), improved quality outcomes (75%) and increased funding for transplant-related research (75%). The prevailing themes in respondents' remarks were the perceived need for autonomy of the transplant entity, alignment among services and finances and alignment of authority with responsibility. Many respondents suggested that a dialogue be opened about effective transplant infrastructure that overcomes the boundaries of traditional academic department silos. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Regulation of biogenerics: a survey of viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Outi; Nordström, Katrina

    2004-01-01

    'Biogenerics' regulation has brought about a heated debate within the EU as the first biopharmaceuticals are going off patent. This study aims to examine the opportunities and challenges offered by biogenerics by surveying the viewpoints of experts in regulatory agencies and in companies developing novel biopharmaceuticals and biogenerics. Oral interviews were conducted in 2002 and 2003 with experts including representatives of the European Generic Medicines Association (EGA) and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) in Brussels, three innovator biotech companies, and five other experts in Finland. Additionally, four biogenerics companies and one innovator company abroad answered a structured, written questionnaire. According to this study, biogenerics should be regulated on a case-by-case basis. The interviewees were not unanimous as to whether comparability can be addressed and which are the most challenging areas for proving comparability. Immunogenicity was considered to be a major problem for biogenerics. Therefore, a requirement for an intensified monitoring of the safety profile during post-marketing was thought to be justified in many cases.

  19. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  20. Where should we be: a viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannon, J.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The recent changes in the nuclear power industry's training programs, bases, philosophies, depths and extents can only be described as extraordinary. There is a flood of where we should be's that need to be addressed, and directions justified. This myraid of needs stems not only from the lessons learned as the result of Three Mile Island, but also from the recognition by the industry that the basic approaches to training of our operations and maintenance personnel are the same as those for other complex systems and facilities. This paper presents a viewpoint on both the practical and ultimate side of the equation as to where we should be in our training programs. Categorically, it reviews the questions of the role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), needed resources, management/plans, new areas of importance, new sensitivities, the changing work environment, and new challenges. It concentrates on master planning and the employment of badly-needed program analysis and curriculum development. Some of the most recent sensitivities are identified: high-priority concerns include retraining, simulator training, pressurized thermal shock, independent verification, technical specifications, procedures, and emergency preparedness. A number of recommendations are made. These include classroom and on-the-job-training (OJT), instructor training, the development of generic textbook(s) for the industry and probable cause and trend analyses

  1. An entropic barriers diffusion theory of decision-making in multiple alternative tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez Slezak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory of decision-making in the presence of multiple choices that departs from traditional approaches by explicitly incorporating entropic barriers in a stochastic search process. We analyze response time data from an on-line repository of 15 million blitz chess games, and show that our model fits not just the mean and variance, but the entire response time distribution (over several response-time orders of magnitude at every stage of the game. We apply the model to show that (a higher cognitive expertise corresponds to the exploration of more complex solution spaces, and (b reaction times of users at an on-line buying website can be similarly explained. Our model can be seen as a synergy between diffusion models used to model simple two-choice decision-making and planning agents in complex problem solving.

  2. Bounds on topological Abelian string-vortex and string-cigar from information-entropic measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, R.A.C., E-mail: rafael.couceiro@ufabc.edu.br [CCNH, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Dantas, D.M., E-mail: davi@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, C.A.S., E-mail: carlos@fisica.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Departamento de Física, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), 09210-580, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we obtain bounds on the topological Abelian string-vortex and on the string-cigar, by using a new measure of configurational complexity, known as configurational entropy. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of six-dimensional braneworlds scenarios is capable to probe situations where the parameters responsible for the brane thickness are arbitrary. The so-called configurational entropy (CE) selects the best value of the parameter in the model. This is accomplished by minimizing the CE, namely, by selecting the most appropriate parameters in the model that correspond to the most organized system, based upon the Shannon information theory. This information-theoretical measure of complexity provides a complementary perspective to situations where strictly energy-based arguments are inconclusive. We show that the higher the energy the higher the CE, what shows an important correlation between the energy of the a localized field configuration and its associated entropic measure.

  3. Free energy calculations along entropic pathways. III. Nucleation of capillary bridges and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2017-05-01

    Using molecular simulation, we analyze the capillary condensation and evaporation processes for argon confined in a cylindrical nanopore. For this purpose, we define the entropy of the adsorbed fluid as a reaction coordinate and determine the free energy associated with both processes along entropic pathways. For capillary condensation, we identify a complex free energy profile resulting from the multi-stage nature of this phenomenon. We find capillary condensation to proceed through the nucleation of a liquid bridge across the nanopore, followed by its expansion throughout the pore to give rise to the stable phase of high density. In the case of capillary evaporation, the free energy profile along the entropy pathway also exhibits different regimes, corresponding to the initial destabilization of the layered structure of the fluid followed by the formation, and subsequent expansion, of a bubble across the nanopore.

  4. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  5. Thermophoretic forces on DNA measured with a single-molecule spring balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Lüscher, Christopher James; Marie, Rodolphe

    2014-01-01

    We stretch a single DNA molecule with thermophoretic forces and measure these forces with a spring balance: the DNA molecule itself. It is an entropic spring which we calibrate, using as a benchmark its Brownian motion in the nanochannel that contains and prestretches it. This direct measurement ....... We find the Soret coefficient per unit length of DNA at various ionic strengths. It agrees, with novel precision, with results obtained in bulk for DNA too short to shield itself and with the thermodynamic model of thermophoresis.......We stretch a single DNA molecule with thermophoretic forces and measure these forces with a spring balance: the DNA molecule itself. It is an entropic spring which we calibrate, using as a benchmark its Brownian motion in the nanochannel that contains and prestretches it. This direct measurement...

  6. The quantum entropic uncertainty relation and entanglement witness in the two-atom system coupling with the non-Markovian environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Hong-Mei; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yang, Bai-Yuan; Guo, You-Neng; He, Wei; Zhang, Shi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The quantum entropic uncertainty relation and entanglement witness in the two-atom system coupling with the non-Markovian environments are studied using the time-convolutionless master-equation approach. The influence of the non-Markovian effect and detuning on the lower bound of the quantum entropic uncertainty relation and entanglement witness is discussed in detail. The results show that, only if the two non-Markovian reservoirs are identical, increasing detuning and non-Markovian effect can reduce the lower bound of the entropic uncertainty relation, lengthen the time region during which the entanglement can be witnessed, and effectively protect the entanglement region witnessed by the lower bound of the entropic uncertainty relation. The results can be applied in quantum measurement, quantum cryptography tasks and quantum information processing. (paper)

  7. Chaining of the musculoskeletal disorders from various viewpoints in physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hák, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Title of diploma thesis: Chaining of the musculoskeletal disorders from various viewpoints in physiotherapy Objective: The purpouse of this thesis is to research available literary sources describing the possible mechanisms of chaining of musculoskeletal disorders from various viewpoints in physiotherapy. Methods: This diploma thesis has descriptively-analytical character. It is structured in the form of literary research. Results: On the basis of the researched literary sources, the thesis s...

  8. Conservatism is not the missing viewpoint for true diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Beate; Waldzus, Sven; Schubert, Thomas W; Brito, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The target article diagnoses a dominance of liberal viewpoints with little evidence, promotes a conservative viewpoint without defining it, and wrongly projects the U.S. liberal-conservative spectrum to the whole field of social psychology. Instead, we propose to anticipate and reduce mixing of theorizing and ideology by using definitions that acknowledge divergence in perspective, and promote representative sampling and observation of the field, as well as dialogical publication.

  9. Viewpoints, Formalisms, Languages, and Tools for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-16

    ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481. Formalisms Languages and ToolsViewpoints supported by implemented by based on Figure 1: Framework for Viewpoints...Description Languages Examples: VHDL , Verilog, and AMS extensions Reactive languages Examples: SCADE/Lustre and Giotto Model Checkers Examples: Spin, NuSMV...syntax and a formal semantics. Languages are con- crete implementations of formalisms. A language has a con- crete syntax, may deviate slightly from

  10. New entropic uncertainty relations and tests of PMD-SQS-optimal limits in pion-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we define a new kind of quantum entropy, namely, the nonextensivity conjugated entropy S Jθ (p,q) bar.Then we prove the optimal nonextensivity conjugated entropic uncertainty relations (ONC-EUR) as well as optimal nonextensivity conjugated entropic uncertainty bands (ONC E UB). The results of the first experimental test of ONC-EUB in the pion-nucleus scattering, obtained by using 49-sets of experimental phase shift analysis, are presented. So, strong evidences for the saturation of the PMD-SQS-optimum limit are obtained with high accuracy (confidence level > 99%) for the nonextensivities: 1/2 ≤ p ≤ 2/3 and q = p/(2p-1). (authors)

  11. Entropic sampling of simple polymer models within Wang-Landau algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov-Velyaminov, P N; Volkov, N A; Yurchenko, A A

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we apply a new simulation technique proposed in Wang and Landau (WL) (2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 2050) to sampling of three-dimensional lattice and continuous models of polymer chains. Distributions obtained by homogeneous (unconditional) random walks are compared with results of entropic sampling (ES) within the WL algorithm. While homogeneous sampling gives reliable results typically in the range of 4-5 orders of magnitude, the WL entropic sampling yields them in the range of 20-30 orders and even larger with comparable computer effort. A combination of homogeneous and WL sampling provides reliable data for events with probabilities down to 10 -35 . For the lattice model we consider both the athermal case (self-avoiding walks, SAWs) and the thermal case when an energy is attributed to each contact between nonbonded monomers in a self-avoiding walk. For short chains the simulation results are checked by comparison with the exact data. In WL calculations for chain lengths up to N = 300 scaling relations for SAWs are well reproduced. In the thermal case distribution over the number of contacts is obtained in the N-range up to N = 100 and the canonical averages - internal energy, heat capacity, excess canonical entropy, mean square end-to-end distance - are calculated as a result in a wide temperature range. The continuous model is studied in the athermal case. By sorting conformations of a continuous phantom freely joined N-bonded chain with a unit bond length over a stochastic variable, the minimum distance between nonbonded beads, we determine the probability distribution for the N-bonded chain with hard sphere monomer units over its diameter a in the complete diameter range, 0 ≤ a ≤ 2, within a single ES run. This distribution provides us with excess specific entropy for a set of diameters a in this range. Calculations were made for chain lengths up to N = 100 and results were extrapolated to N → ∞ for a in the range 0 ≤ a ≤ 1.25

  12. Dual nature of localization in guiding systems with randomly corrugated boundaries: Anderson-type versus entropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Yu.V.; Shostenko, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    A unified theory for the conductance of an infinitely long multimode quantum wire whose finite segment has randomly rough lateral boundaries is developed. It enables one to rigorously take account of all feasible mechanisms of wave scattering, both related to boundary roughness and to contacts between the wire rough section and the perfect leads within the same technical frameworks. The rough part of the conducting wire is shown to act as a mode-specific randomly modulated effective potential barrier whose height is governed essentially by the asperity slope. The mean height of the barrier, which is proportional to the average slope squared, specifies the number of conducting channels. Under relatively small asperity amplitude this number can take on arbitrary small, up to zero, values if the asperities are sufficiently sharp. The consecutive channel cut-off that arises when the asperity sharpness increases can be regarded as a kind of localization, which is not related to the disorder per se but rather is of entropic or (equivalently) geometric origin. The fluctuating part of the effective barrier results in two fundamentally different types of guided wave scattering, viz., inter- and intramode scattering. The intermode scattering is shown to be for the most part very strong except in the cases of (a) extremely smooth asperities, (b) excessively small length of the corrugated segment, and (c) the asperities sharp enough for only one conducting channel to remain in the wire. Under strong intermode scattering, a new set of conducting channels develops in the corrugated waveguide, which have the form of asymptotically decoupled extended modes subject to individual solely intramode random potentials. In view of this fact, two transport regimes only are realizable in randomly corrugated multimode waveguides, specifically, the ballistic and the localized regime, the latter characteristic of one-dimensional random systems. Two kinds of localization are thus shown to

  13. The role of entropic potential in voltage activation and K+ transport through Kv 1.2 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzkiewicz-Jałowiecka, Agata; Grzywna, Zbigniew J.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the entropic effects of inner pore geometry changes of Kv 1.2 channel during membrane depolarization and their implications for the rate of transmembrane transport of potassium ions. We base this on the idea that spatial confinements within the channel pore give rise to entropic barriers which can both effectively affect the stability of open macroconformation and influence channel's ability to conduct the potassium ions through the membrane. First, we calculate the differences in entropy between voltage-activated and resting states of the channel. As a template, we take a set of structures of channel pore in an open state at different membrane potentials generated in our previous research. The obtained results indicate that tendency to occupy open states at membrane depolarization is entropy facilitated. Second, we describe the differences in rates of K+ transport through the channel pore at different voltages based on the results of appropriate random walk simulations in entropic and electric potentials. The simulated single channel currents (I) suggest that the geometry changes during membrane depolarization are an important factor contributing to the observed flow of potassium ions through the channel. Nevertheless, the charge distribution within the channel pore (especially at the extracellular entrance) seems most prominent for the observed I/Imax relation at a qualitative level at analyzed voltages.

  14. Entropic effects, shape, and size of mixed micelles formed by copolymers with complex architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Moultos, Othonas; Vlahos, Costas

    2015-11-01

    The entropic effects in the comicellization behavior of amphiphilic A B copolymers differing in the chain size of solvophilic A parts were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, mixtures of miktoarm star copolymers differing in the molecular weight of solvophilic arms were investigated. We found that the critical micelle concentration values show a positive deviation from the analytical predictions of the molecular theory of comicellization for chemically identical copolymers. This can be attributed to the effective interactions between copolymers originated from the arm size asymmetry. The effective interactions induce a very small decrease in the aggregation number of preferential micelles triggering the nonrandom mixing between the solvophilic moieties in the corona. Additionally, in order to specify how the chain architecture affects the size distribution and the shape of mixed micelles we studied star-shaped, H-shaped, and homo-linked-rings-linear mixtures. In the first case the individual constituents form micelles with preferential and wide aggregation numbers and in the latter case the individual constituents form wormlike and spherical micelles.

  15. Multidimensional entropic uncertainty relation based on a commutator matrix in position and momentum spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Anaelle; Vanbever, Luc; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2018-01-01

    The uncertainty relation for continuous variables due to Byałinicki-Birula and Mycielski [I. Białynicki-Birula and J. Mycielski, Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129 (1975), 10.1007/BF01608825] expresses the complementarity between two n -tuples of canonically conjugate variables (x1,x2,...,xn) and (p1,p2,...,pn) in terms of Shannon differential entropy. Here we consider the generalization to variables that are not canonically conjugate and derive an entropic uncertainty relation expressing the balance between any two n -variable Gaussian projective measurements. The bound on entropies is expressed in terms of the determinant of a matrix of commutators between the measured variables. This uncertainty relation also captures the complementarity between any two incompatible linear canonical transforms, the bound being written in terms of the corresponding symplectic matrices in phase space. Finally, we extend this uncertainty relation to Rényi entropies and also prove a covariance-based uncertainty relation which generalizes the Robertson relation.

  16. Number-Phase Wigner Representation and Entropic Uncertainty Relations for Binomial and Negative Binomial States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitabh, J.; Vaccaro, J.A.; Hill, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    We study the recently defined number-phase Wigner function S NP (n,θ) for a single-mode field considered to be in binomial and negative binomial states. These states interpolate between Fock and coherent states and coherent and quasi thermal states, respectively, and thus provide a set of states with properties ranging from uncertain phase and sharp photon number to sharp phase and uncertain photon number. The distribution function S NP (n,θ) gives a graphical representation of the complimentary nature of the number and phase properties of these states. We highlight important differences between Wigner's quasi probability function, which is associated with the position and momentum observables, and S NP (n,θ), which is associated directly with the photon number and phase observables. We also discuss the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation for the binomial and negative binomial states and we show that negative binomial states give a lower phase entropy than states which minimize the phase variance

  17. Entropic Measure of Epistemic Uncertainties in Multibody System Models by Axiomatic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Villecco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the MaxInf Principle in real optimization problems is investigated for engineering applications, where the current design solution is actually an engineering approximation. In industrial manufacturing, multibody system simulations can be used to develop new machines and mechanisms by using virtual prototyping, where an axiomatic design can be employed to analyze the independence of elements and the complexity of connections forming a general mechanical system. In the classic theories of Fisher and Wiener-Shannon, the idea of information is a measure of only probabilistic and repetitive events. However, this idea is broader than the probability alone field. Thus, the Wiener-Shannon’s axioms can be extended to non-probabilistic events and it is possible to introduce a theory of information for non-repetitive events as a measure of the reliability of data for complex mechanical systems. To this end, one can devise engineering solutions consistent with the values of the design constraints analyzing the complexity of the relation matrix and using the idea of information in the metric space. The final solution gives the entropic measure of epistemic uncertainties which can be used in multibody system models, analyzed with an axiomatic design.

  18. Self-assembly of Archimedean tilings with enthalpically and entropically patchy polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Jaime A; Ortiz, Daniel; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2014-03-25

    Considerable progress in the synthesis of anisotropic patchy nanoplates (nanoplatelets) promises a rich variety of highly ordered two-dimensional superlattices. Recent experiments of superlattices assembled from nanoplates confirm the accessibility of exotic phases and motivate the need for a better understanding of the underlying self-assembly mechanisms. Here, we present experimentally accessible, rational design rules for the self-assembly of the Archimedean tilings from polygonal nanoplates. The Archimedean tilings represent a model set of target patterns that (i) contain both simple and complex patterns, (ii) are comprised of simple regular shapes, and (iii) contain patterns with potentially interesting materials properties. Via Monte Carlo simulations, we propose a set of design rules with general applicability to one- and two-component systems of polygons. These design rules, specified by increasing levels of patchiness, correspond to a reduced set of anisotropy dimensions for robust self-assembly of the Archimedean tilings. We show for which tilings entropic patches alone are sufficient for assembly and when short-range enthalpic interactions are required. For the latter, we show how patchy these interactions should be for optimal yield. This study provides a minimal set of guidelines for the design of anisostropic patchy particles that can self-assemble all 11 Archimedean tilings.

  19. Federal radiation protection regulations: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harward, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations and standards to protect the public and workers from ionizing radiation have been in transition for a number of years, although most of the basic limits in use have remained essentially unchanged over the past 25 years or so. Legislation, political changes, new scientific data, advances in scientific concepts, and finally, public perception and resulting pressures have all been factors in the modifications that have been implemented or considered for radiation protection regulations in recent years. During this period, radiation exposures to both the public and the work force have been reduced through program management and improved technology. Based on activities of the AIF Subcommittee on Radiation Protection, this paper reviews pertinent NRC and EPA regulations, standards and guidance as well as NCRP recommendations and provide some analyses of these in terms of their potential effect on nuclear industry operations. Comments include suggestions where minor changes in Federal agency approaches to radiation regulation might be made for the public benefit

  20. The Viewpoint Paradigm: a semiotic based approach for the intelligibility of a cooperative designing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean Charrel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of viewpoint is studied in the field of the modelling and the knowledge management concerned in the upstream phases of a designing process. The concept is approached by semiotics, i.e. in dealing with the requirements so that an actor gives sense to an object. This gives means to transform the intuitive concepts of viewpoint and relation between viewpoints into the Viewpoint Paradigm: the sense of an object is the integration of the viewpoints which exert on it. The elements of this paradigm are integrated in a general model, which defines two concepts formally: Viewpoint and Correlation of viewpoints. The Viewpoint Paradigm is then implemented in operational concerns which are related with the intelligibility of the designing process. Two models of viewpoint and correlation are proposed. They raise of viewpoints management such as one can identify them in the written documents of a project.

  1. Repetition blindness for natural images of objects with viewpoint changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eBuffat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When stimuli are repeated in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP, observers sometimes fail to report the second occurrence of a target. This phenomenon is referred to as repetition blindness (RB. We report an RSVP experiment with photographs in which we manipulated object viewpoints between the first and second occurrences of a target (0-, 45-, or 90-degree changes, and spatial frequency content. Natural images were spatially filtered to produce low, medium, or high spatial-frequency stimuli. RB was observed for all filtering conditions. Surprisingly, for full-spectrum images, RB increased significantly as the viewpoint reached 90 degrees. For filtered images, a similar pattern of results was found for all conditions except for medium spatial-frequency stimuli. These findings suggest that object recognition in RSVP are subtended by viewpoint-specific representations for all spatial frequencies except medium ones.

  2. Joint Rendering and Segmentation of Free-Viewpoint Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Masato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a method that jointly performs synthesis and object segmentation of free-viewpoint video using multiview video as the input. This method is designed to achieve robust segmentation from online video input without per-frame user interaction and precomputations. This method shares a calculation process between the synthesis and segmentation steps; the matching costs calculated through the synthesis step are adaptively fused with other cues depending on the reliability in the segmentation step. Since the segmentation is performed for arbitrary viewpoints directly, the extracted object can be superimposed onto another 3D scene with geometric consistency. We can observe that the object and new background move naturally along with the viewpoint change as if they existed together in the same space. In the experiments, our method can process online video input captured by a 25-camera array and show the result image at 4.55 fps.

  3. An unconventional depiction of viewpoint in rock art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jack; Scott-Virtue, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Rock art in Africa sometimes takes advantage of three-dimensional features of the rock wall, such as fissures or protuberances, that can be incorporated into the artistic composition (Lewis-Williams, 2002). More commonly, rock artists choose uniform walls on which two-dimensional depictions may represent three-dimensional figures or objects. In this report we present such a two-dimensional depiction in rock art that we think reveals an intention by the artist to represent an unusual three-dimensional viewpoint, namely, with the two human figures facing into the rock wall, instead of the accustomed Western viewpoint facing out!

  4. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of management systems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of

  5. Public consent for mining: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelms, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The predominance of the mining industry was never intentionally destructive to the environment. Even when laws and regulations were far more relaxed than they are today, our operations were conducted professionally, But when change came, mining companies took a noncooperative attitude. We knew that we were the mining experts and that regulators or lawmakers were not. And it became accepted in our industry to stonewall change -- not to work with regulators and lawmakers but to resist change. This same attitude spilled over into attitudes with the media. Reporters were percieved as the enemy and many felt the press misrepresented their views. So we didn't work with the media unless we absolutely had to. In the process, industry did not participate in establishing guidelines and criteria for environmental regulation. Business ceded the environmental agenda to others and we have ended up with laws that forced billions of dollars of expenditures without ensuring that those expenditures had maximum impact on environmental problems. New rules are written by people less knowledgeable about the industry, consequently they cost more than they should and may not even have the desired result. Companies end up spending more than if they had addressed the problem themselves originally. It is no longer enough merely to be mining professionals. Today, it's only a threshold requirement for enduring success. We will best earn public consent to operate by anticipating what society will expect of us and by working to meet those expectations. We must set our own public policy before they become law or regulation and before we are branded as nonresponsive and noncaring

  6. Viewpoint: the elephant in medical professionalism's kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, Fred

    2006-10-01

    The rise of the corporation within health care during the 1980s and early 1990s was met by organized medicine with a deluge of editorials, articles, and books that identified a singular enemy--commercialism--and depicted it as corrosive of, and antithetical to, medical professionalism. Medicine's ire proved prognostic as scores of highly publicized corporate-medical scandals began to crater the landscape of a rapidly emerging "medical marketplace." Medicine's main weapon in this counteroffensive was a renewed call to medical professionalism. Numerous organizations hosted conferences and underwrote initiatives to define, measure, and ultimately inculcate professionalism as a core medical competency. Nonetheless, an examination of medicine's overall response to the threat of commercialism reveals inconsistencies and schisms between these praiseworthy efforts and a parallel absence of action at the community practitioner and peer-review levels. The most recent salvo in this war on commercialism is a policy proposal by influential medical leaders who call for an end to the market incentives linking academic health centers and medical schools with industry. These forthright proposals nevertheless appear once again not to address the heartbeat of professional social control: community-based peer review, including a vigorous and proactive role by state medical boards. The author concludes by examining the implications of a professionalism bereft of peer review and explores the societal-level responsibilities of organized medicine to protect, nurture, and expand the role of the physician to maintain the values and ideals of professionalism against the countervailing social forces of the free market and bureaucracy.

  7. Entropic multiple-relaxation-time multirange pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feifei; Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Kang, Qinjun; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2018-03-01

    An entropic multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann approach is coupled to a multirange Shan-Chen pseudopotential model to study the two-phase flow. Compared with previous multiple-relaxation-time multiphase models, this model is stable and accurate for the simulation of a two-phase flow in a much wider range of viscosity and surface tension at a high liquid-vapor density ratio. A stationary droplet surrounded by equilibrium vapor is first simulated to validate this model using the coexistence curve and Laplace's law. Then, two series of droplet impact behavior, on a liquid film and a flat surface, are simulated in comparison with theoretical or experimental results. Droplet impact on a liquid film is simulated for different Reynolds numbers at high Weber numbers. With the increase of the Sommerfeld parameter, onset of splashing is observed and multiple secondary droplets occur. The droplet spreading ratio agrees well with the square root of time law and is found to be independent of Reynolds number. Moreover, shapes of simulated droplets impacting hydrophilic and superhydrophobic flat surfaces show good agreement with experimental observations through the entire dynamic process. The maximum spreading ratio of a droplet impacting the superhydrophobic flat surface is studied for a large range of Weber numbers. Results show that the rescaled maximum spreading ratios are in good agreement with a universal scaling law. This series of simulations demonstrates that the proposed model accurately captures the complex fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfacial physical processes for a wide range of Reynolds and Weber numbers at high density ratios.

  8. An approach to relate viewpoints and modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Quartel, Dick; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Duddy, K.

    The architectural design of distributed enterprise applications from the viewpoints of different stakeholders has been proposed for some time, for example, as part of RM-ODP and IEEE 1471, and seems now-a-days to gain acceptance in practice. However, much work remains to be done on the relationships

  9. Viewpoint Fieldwork in Ecology as a Form of Experiential Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The small-scale research study reported on in this Viewpoint paper was conducted to determine the extent to which experiential learning in the form of fieldwork contributes to learning in Biology. The participants in the study were 36 first-year students registered for a module on Ecology. The conceptual framework that ...

  10. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  11. Move to learn: Integrating spatial information from multiple viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Corinne A; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F

    2018-05-11

    Recalling a spatial layout from multiple orientations - spatial flexibility - is challenging, even when the global configuration can be viewed from a single vantage point, but more so when it must be viewed piecemeal. In the current study, we examined whether experiencing the transition between multiple viewpoints enhances spatial memory and flexible recall for a spatial configuration viewed simultaneously (Exp. 1) and sequentially (Exp. 2), whether the type of transition matters, and whether action provides an additional advantage over passive experience. In Experiment 1, participants viewed an array of dollhouse furniture from four viewpoints, but with all furniture simultaneously visible. In Experiment 2, participants viewed the same array piecemeal, from four partitioned viewpoints that allowed for viewing only a segment at a time. The transition between viewpoints involved rotation of the array or participant movement around it. Rotation and participant movement were passively experienced or actively generated. The control condition presented the dollhouse as a series of static views. Across both experiments, participant movement significantly enhanced spatial memory relative to array rotation or static views. However, in Exp. 2, there was a further advantage for actively walking around the array compared to being passively pushed. These findings suggest that movement around a stable environment is key to spatial memory and flexible recall, with action providing an additional boost to the integration of temporally segmented spatial events. Thus, spatial memory may be more flexible than prior data indicate, when studied under more natural acquisition conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Children's Participation in Slovene Preschools: The Teachers' Viewpoints and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic

    2015-01-01

    This article presents part of the research performed in a project from 2008 to 2013, regarding the introduction of the Reggio Emilia approach to Slovene preschool educators. The study's aim was to recognize the possible influence of the training--from 2009 to 2011--in this project on educators' viewpoints and the promotion of children's…

  13. Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Letters and Viewpoints Planning Education in Africa: Towards the 21st Century. George N. Ngugi ... The relevance of planning education is questioned from the theoretical and philosophical perspectives on one hand, the professional and practical stance on the other. Its goals are scrutinized and its structure argued about.

  14. Viewpoint: Transatlantic Scholarship on Victorian Literature and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Armstrong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This viewpoint offers a comparison of recent British and American criticism of Victorian literature and culture, encompassing Dickens, Tennyson, the epic and ethical criticism. Discussion centres on recent studies by Sally Ledger, Rosemarie Bodenheimer, Cornelia Pearsall, Kirstie Blair, Simon Dentith, Herbert Tucker, Andrew Miller and Mike Sanders.

  15. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  16. Recent developments in free-viewpoint interpolation for 3DTV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Do, Q.L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Current development of 3D technologies brings 3DTV within reach for the customers. We discuss in this article the recent advancements in free-viewpoint interpolation for 3D video. This technology is still a research topic and many efforts are dedicated to creation, evaluation and improvement of new

  17. Mathematical Processes: A Viewpoint-oriented Manipulation Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2008-01-01

    View-point oriented manipulation of concepts can be helpful for generating new ideas in basic sciences and in the meantime, justifying the processes that are principally meaningful to the related disciplines. Mathematics, as a major ground for basic sciences, seems to be an appropriate exemplar t...

  18. A smart surface from natural rubber: the mechanism of entropic control at the surface monitored by contact angle measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureurg Khongtong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface oxidation of crosslinked natural rubber provided a hydrophilic substrate (sticky surface that became more hydrophobic (less sticky when equilibrated against hot water. This unusual temperaturedependent surface reconstruction is interpreted as the result of recoiling of entropic unfavorable uncoiled chains induced when rubber surface was oxidized. Subsequent equilibration of these annealed samples against water at room temperature returned their original hydrophilicity. The degree of this surface reconstruction and its kinetics are also dependent on the amounts of crosslinking of the samples.

  19. Entropic potential field formed for a linear-motor protein near a filament: Statistical-mechanical analyses using simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Ken-Ichi; Yoshidome, Takashi; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2010-07-28

    We report a new progress in elucidating the mechanism of the unidirectional movement of a linear-motor protein (e.g., myosin) along a filament (e.g., F-actin). The basic concept emphasized here is that a potential field is entropically formed for the protein on the filament immersed in solvent due to the effect of the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The entropic potential field is strongly dependent on geometric features of the protein and the filament, their overall shapes as well as details of the polyatomic structures. The features and the corresponding field are judiciously adjusted by the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the protein, hydrolysis of ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP)+Pi, and release of Pi and ADP. As the first step, we propose the following physical picture: The potential field formed along the filament for the protein without the binding of ATP or ADP+Pi to it is largely different from that for the protein with the binding, and the directed movement is realized by repeated switches from one of the fields to the other. To illustrate the picture, we analyze the spatial distribution of the entropic potential between a large solute and a large body using the three-dimensional integral equation theory. The solute is modeled as a large hard sphere. Two model filaments are considered as the body: model 1 is a set of one-dimensionally connected large hard spheres and model 2 is a double helical structure formed by two sets of connected large hard spheres. The solute and the filament are immersed in small hard spheres forming the solvent. The major findings are as follows. The solute is strongly confined within a narrow space in contact with the filament. Within the space there are locations with sharply deep local potential minima along the filament, and the distance between two adjacent locations is equal to the diameter of the large spheres constituting the filament. The potential minima form a ringlike domain in model 1

  20. Unveiling the decoherence effect of noise on the entropic uncertainty relation and its control by partially collapsed operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Nan; Sun, Wen-Yang; Huang, Ai-Jun; Ming, Fei; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relations under open systems, and how to steer the uncertainty under different types of decoherence. Specifically, we develop the dynamical behaviors of the uncertainty of interest under two typical categories of noise; bit flipping and depolarizing channels. It has been shown that the measurement uncertainty firstly increases and then decreases with the growth of the decoherence strength in bit flipping channels. In contrast, the uncertainty monotonically increases with the increase of the decoherence strength in depolarizing channels. Notably, and to a large degree, it is shown that the uncertainty depends on both the systematic quantum correlation and the minimal conditional entropy of the observed subsystem. Moreover, we present a possible physical interpretation for these distinctive behaviors of the uncertainty within such scenarios. Furthermore, we propose a simple and effective strategy to reduce the entropic uncertainty by means of a partially collapsed operation—quantum weak measurement. Therefore, our investigations might offer an insight into the dynamics of the measurment uncertainty under decoherence, and be of importance to quantum precision measurement in open systems.

  1. Quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a Heisenberg XYZ chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Aijun; Ming, Fei; Sun, Wenyang; Lu, Heping; Liu, Chengcheng; Ye, Liu

    2017-06-01

    The uncertainty principle provides a nontrivial bound to expose the precision for the outcome of the measurement on a pair of incompatible observables in a quantum system. Therefore, it is of essential importance for quantum precision measurement in the area of quantum information processing. Herein, we investigate quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA-EUR) in a two-qubit Heisenberg \\boldsymbol{X}\\boldsymbol{Y}\\boldsymbol{Z} spin chain. Specifically, we observe the dynamics of QMA-EUR in a realistic model there are two correlated sites linked by a thermal entanglement in the spin chain with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. It turns out that the temperature, the external inhomogeneous magnetic field and the field inhomogeneity can lift the uncertainty of the measurement due to the reduction of the thermal entanglement, and explicitly higher temperature, stronger magnetic field or larger inhomogeneity of the field can result in inflation of the uncertainty. Besides, it is found that there exists distinct dynamical behaviors of the uncertainty for ferromagnetism \\boldsymbol{}≤ft(\\boldsymbol{J}\\boldsymbol{0}\\right) chains. Moreover, we also verify that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically anti-correlated with the purity of the bipartite spin system, the greater purity can result in the reduction of the measuring uncertainty, vice versa. Therefore, our observations might provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus shed light on quantum precision measurement in the framework of versatile systems, particularly solid states.

  2. Biomedical waste management - problems and perspectives: legal, administrative and fiscal viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraman, S.; Philip, P.C.; Stephens, R.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, the costs for the disposal of low level radioactive wastes have escalated and the states in which commercial waste disposal sites are located have also been insisting on ''hold harmless'' and indemnity agreements from the users of such sites. Coupled with the above, the uncertainty associated with the sites being kept open, has created a significant problem for the generators of low level wastes, forcing them to look for alternatives such as incineration. This paper attempts to provide an insight into the problem of low level radioactive wastes disposal from the legal, administrative and fiscal viewpoint as it pertains to statesupported teaching medical institution. Some aspects of public relations are also covered

  3. Knowledge-based potentials in bioinformatics: From a physicist’s viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Mou

    2015-12-01

    Biological raw data are growing exponentially, providing a large amount of information on what life is. It is believed that potential functions and the rules governing protein behaviors can be revealed from analysis on known native structures of proteins. Many knowledge-based potentials for proteins have been proposed. Contrary to most existing review articles which mainly describe technical details and applications of various potential models, the main foci for the discussion here are ideas and concepts involving the construction of potentials, including the relation between free energy and energy, the additivity of potentials of mean force and some key issues in potential construction. Sequence analysis is briefly viewed from an energetic viewpoint. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175224 and 11121403).

  4. Knowledge-based potentials in bioinformatics: From a physicist’s viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei-Mou

    2015-01-01

    Biological raw data are growing exponentially, providing a large amount of information on what life is. It is believed that potential functions and the rules governing protein behaviors can be revealed from analysis on known native structures of proteins. Many knowledge-based potentials for proteins have been proposed. Contrary to most existing review articles which mainly describe technical details and applications of various potential models, the main foci for the discussion here are ideas and concepts involving the construction of potentials, including the relation between free energy and energy, the additivity of potentials of mean force and some key issues in potential construction. Sequence analysis is briefly viewed from an energetic viewpoint. (topical review)

  5. Radiation and chemotherapy from the viewpoint of radiochemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fundamentals of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer treatment are presented from the viewpoint of radiochemistry. Properties and mechanism of chemotherapy, especially of platinum compounds are explained. The present state of radiation therapy is shown and possibilities for future reduction of the patients dose burden are discussed. Promising ways are the radiation sensitization of tumor cells by oxygen or the use of particle radiation instead of γ-quants. (orig.) [de

  6. Dualities in ABJM matrix model from closed string viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshige, Kazuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University,3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2016-11-17

    We propose a new formalism to study the ABJM matrix model. Contrary to expressing the fractional brane background with the Wilson loops in the open string formalism, we formulate the Wilson loop expectation value from the viewpoint of the closed string background. With this new formalism, we can prove some duality relations in the matrix model. /includegraphics[scale=0.7]{abstract.eps}.

  7. Service-oriented Design: A Multi-viewpoint Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dumas, M.

    2004-01-01

    As the technology associated to the ¿Web Services¿ trend gains significant adoption, the need for a corresponding design approach becomes increasingly important. This paper introduces a foundational model for designing (composite) services. The innovation of this model lies in the identification of four interrelated viewpoints (interface behaviour, provider behaviour, choreography, and orchestration) and their formalization from a control-flow perspective in terms of Petri nets. By formally c...

  8. Principal viewpoint on nuclear energy development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadao Kijima

    1996-01-01

    A great deal of electricity demand in Japan is covered by Light Water Reactors. Besides the description of potential role of uranium as an energy resource, plutonium is regarded as an important one. Principal viewpoint for utilization of plutonium is presented taking into account non-proliferation aspects. Fast Breeder Reactors being suitable for utilization of plutonium are considered as a very important option that should not be abandoned in spite of difficulties in their development

  9. Radiation protection: precedents, principles and practices - a regulatory viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.H.

    1986-06-01

    Radiation protection in its broadest sense is a multidisciplinary human function exemplifying in all meaningful respects the innate ability of dedicated persons to apply with both general and specialized expertise knowledge derived from a great many scientific and technical fields. The aim of this address is to outline from a regulatory viewpoint the precedents, principles and practices of radiation protection, a very essential human function

  10. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  11. 75 FR 27119 - ViewPoint Financial Group, Inc., Plano, Texas; Approval of Conversion Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ..., 2010, the Office of Thrift Supervision approved the application of ViewPoint MHC and ViewPoint Bank... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [AC-37: OTS No. H-47111] ViewPoint... Carpenter Freeway, Suite 500, Irving, Texas 75062-2326. Dated: May 7, 2010. By the Office of Thrift...

  12. Time-aware multi-viewpoint summarization of multilingual social text streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Zhaochun; Inel, Oana; Aroyo, Lora; De Rijke, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    A viewpoint is a triple consisting of an entity, a topic related to this entity and sentiment towards this topic. In time-aware multi-viewpoint summarization one monitors viewpoints for a running topic and selects a small set of informative documents. In this paper, we focus on time-aware

  13. Improving Student Achievement and Teacher Effectiveness through Scientifically Based Practices. NCREL Viewpoints, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Linda, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Viewpoints" is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short, informative booklet. This volume of "Viewpoints" focuses on using scientifically based practices to improve student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The audio CDs provide the voices, or viewpoints, of various leaders from the education field who have worked closely…

  14. An entropic approach to magnetized nonlocal transport and other kinetic phenomena in high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Sorbo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations in high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion require a detailed description of energy fluxes. The leading mechanism is the electron transport, which can be a nonlocal phenomenon that needs to be described with quasistationary and simplified Fokker-Planck models in large scale hydrodynamic codes. My thesis is dedicated to the development of a new nonlocal transport model based on a fast-moving-particles collision operator and on a first moment Fokker-Planck equation, simplified with an entropic closure relation. Such a closure enables a better description of the electron distribution function in the limit of high anisotropies, where small scale electrostatic instabilities could be excited. This new model, so called M1, is successfully compared with the well known nonlocal electron transport model proposed by Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, using different collision operators, and with the reduced Fokker-Planck model, based on a small-anisotropies polynomial closure relation (P1). Several typical configurations of heat transport are considered. We show that the M1 entropic model may operate in two and three dimensions and is able to account for electron transport modifications in external magnetic fields. Moreover, our model enables to compute realistic electron distribution functions, which can be used for kinetic studies, as for the plasma stability in the transport zone. It is demonstrated that the electron energy transport may strongly modify damping of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, while the simplified nonlocal transport models are not able to describe accurately the modifications of the distribution function and plasma wave damping. The structure of the M1 model allows to naturally take into account self-generated magnetic fields, which play a crucial role in multidimensional simulations. Moreover, magnetic fields could also be used for the focusing of energetic particles in alternative ignition schemes. The M1 model

  15. Entropic uncertainty relation of a two-qutrit Heisenberg spin model in nonuniform magnetic fields and its dynamics under intrinsic decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuo-Yuan; Wei, DaXiu; Liu, Jin-Ming

    2018-06-01

    The precision of measurements for two incompatible observables in a physical system can be improved with the assistance of quantum memory. In this paper, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation for a spin-1 Heisenberg model in the presence of external magnetic fields, the systemic quantum entanglement (characterized by the negativity) is analyzed as contrast. Our results show that for the XY spin chain in thermal equilibrium, the entropic uncertainty can be reduced by reinforcing the coupling between the two particles or decreasing the temperature of the environment. At zero-temperature, the strong magnetic field can result in the growth of the entropic uncertainty. Moreover, in the Ising case, the variation trends of the uncertainty are relied on the choices of anisotropic parameters. Taking the influence of intrinsic decoherence into account, we find that the strong coupling accelerates the inflation of the uncertainty over time, whereas the high magnetic field contributes to its reduction during the temporal evolution. Furthermore, we also verify that the evolution behavior of the entropic uncertainty is roughly anti-correlated with that of the entanglement in the whole dynamical process. Our results could offer new insights into quantum precision measurement for the high spin solid-state systems.

  16. Índices para medir las desigualdades de salud de carácter social basados en la noción de entropía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacallao

    Full Text Available Los índices descritos en la literatura para medir las desigualdades de salud de carácter social tienen facetas positivas pero también algunas insuficiencias, según las circunstancias de su aplicación. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer y demostrar, en los planos teórico y práctico, las ventajas de las mediciones de la desigualdad basadas en la noción de entropía, conocida ampliamente en la física y la teoría de la información. Se definen y exponen las principales propiedades de los índices basados en las nociones de entropía y redundancia. Se ilustra su aplicación en dos conjuntos de datos ficticios y en datos reales, derivados de los indicadores básicos de salud para las Américas, de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Los índices basados en la noción de entropía poseen, entre otras, las siguientes propiedades: a no varían con los cambios de escala; b son simétricos; c incorporan la dimensión social, y d son fáciles de interpretar gracias a la condición de equivalencia entre la entropía y un sistema con dos clases.

  17. The role of enjoyment in exercise for people with arthritis: Four different viewpoints from a Q-methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Julia R; Hegarty, Roisin S M; Stebbings, Simon; Treharne, Gareth J

    2017-12-01

    There is limited research on the role of enjoyment of exercise among people with arthritis. The aim of the present study was to determine distinct viewpoints on exercise held by people with arthritis, and how enjoyment features in these viewpoints. A Q-methodology study was conducted, which involved two interviews with people with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis (aged 20-85 years). In the first interviews, 11 participants helped to create the Q-set, a set of statements reflecting a range of existing views on exercising. In the second interviews, 12 participants (nine of the 11 from the first interviews and three others) ranked the Q-set on a forced quasi-normal distribution of agreement. A Q-method factor analysis was carried out to determine groupings of participants with similar views on exercise. Four groupings were discovered, and defined in terms of rankings of statements and illustrative quotes from the ranking procedure. The first grouping had all changed their exercise habits after diagnosis with arthritis. The second grouping had a shared enjoyment for walking to stay healthy. The third grouping's viewpoints focused on knowledge about how much exercise they should carry out. The fourth grouping shared a sense of importance of being responsible for their health by exercising. These findings provide information about the role that enjoyment plays in motivating people with arthritis to exercise, although enjoyment of exercise was not expressed by all participants. People with arthritis who share these viewpoints on exercise enjoyment may require different forms of advice regarding feasible and enjoyable exercise. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Electro-suppression of water nano-droplets' solidification in no man's land: Electromagnetic fields' entropic trapping of supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Prithwish K.; Burnham, Christian J.; English, Niall J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding water solidification, especially in "No Man's Land" (NML) (150 K < T < 235 K) is crucially important (e.g., upper-troposphere cloud processes) and challenging. A rather neglected aspect of tropospheric ice-crystallite formation is inevitably present electromagnetic fields' role. Here, we employ non-equilibrium molecular dynamics of aggressively quenched supercooled water nano-droplets in the gas phase under NML conditions, in externally applied electromagnetic (e/m) fields, elucidating significant differences between effects of static and oscillating fields: although static fields induce "electro-freezing," e/m fields exhibit the contrary - solidification inhibition. This anti-freeze action extends not only to crystal-ice formation but also restricts amorphisation, i.e., suppression of low-density amorphous ice which forms otherwise in zero-field NML environments. E/m-field applications maintain water in the deeply supercooled state in an "entropic trap," which is ripe for industrial impacts in cryo-freezing, etc.

  19. Adília Lopes: traducir entre la entropía y la subversión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghard Baltrusch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es ofrecer una apreciación crítica de la obra poética de Adília Lopes como también de algunas de sus líneas temáticas centrales. Desde las perspectivas de la crítica de ideologías, de la crítica feminista y de la traductología argumentaré que la dicotomía entropía-“desentropiar” representa el trasfondo filosófico de su obra. Además, analizaré su peculiar tratamiento para/traductivo o transcreativo de algunos de sus antecedentes literarios, especialmente a partir del poemario Florbela Espanca espanca.

  20. Review of Public Safety in Viewpoint of Complex Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai Chengcheng; Weng Wenguo; Yuan Hongyong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a brief review of public safety in viewpoint of complex networks is presented. Public safety incidents are divided into four categories: natural disasters, industry accidents, public health and social security, in which the complex network approaches and theories are need. We review how the complex network methods was developed and used in the studies of the three kinds of public safety incidents. The typical public safety incidents studied by the complex network methods in this paper are introduced, including the natural disaster chains, blackouts on electric power grids and epidemic spreading. Finally, we look ahead to the application prospects of the complex network theory on public safety.

  1. Inventory of present verification techniques. Viewpoint of EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeckner, W.; Eecken, D. Van der; Gmelin, W.

    1998-01-01

    Starting from the role of Euratom as an established regional safeguards system, an overview is given of verification techniques currently practised by Euratom. In the stage-light of a rapidly changing and complex international safeguards scene, Euratom considers it has an important role to play. Having in mind the possibilities created by accelerating modern technology, recommendations are given for an enhanced use of technological means in safeguards. The viewpoint of Euratom is that the majority of methodologies and techniques in place may very well be copied to or used for a cut-off verification system currently under discussion

  2. The Representation of Object Viewpoint in Human Visual Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, David R.; Vinberg, Joakim; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the nature of object representations in the human brain is critical for understanding the neural basis of invariant object recognition. However, the degree to which object representations are sensitive to object viewpoint is unknown. Using fMRI we employed a parametric approach to examine the sensitivity to object view as a function of rotation (0°–180°), category (animal/vehicle) and fMRI-adaptation paradigm (short or long-lagged). For both categories and fMRI-adaptation paradi...

  3. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  4. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  5. Effects produced by nuclear weapons from the medical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1982-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the protection commission of the Minister of the Interior on diagnostics and therapy of the acute radiation syndrome. In summary form, findings from the medical viewpoint are given on the biological effects of nuclear explosions - irrespective of their being produced in peace times by reactor accidents or by use of nuclear weapons in warfare. The statements on the therapy of radiation injuries are a practical aid to the experienced catastrophe physician and suggest to the still unexperienced physician to extend his training for mastering radiation injuries in catastrophes. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Forces in Motzkin paths in a wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J

    2006-01-01

    Entropic forces in models of Motzkin paths in a wedge geometry are considered as models of forces in polymers in confined geometries. A Motzkin path in the square lattice is a path from the origin to a point in the line Y = X while it never visits sites below this line, and it is constrained to give unit length steps only in the north and east directions and steps of length √2 in the north-east direction. Motzkin path models may be generalized to ensembles of NE-oriented paths above the line Y = rX, where r > 0 is an irrational number. These are paths giving east, north and north-east steps from the origin in the square lattice, and confined to the r-wedge formed by the Y-axis and the line Y = rX. The generating function g r of these paths is not known, but if r > 1, then I determine its radius of convergence to be t r = min (r-1)/r≤y≤r/(r+1) [y y (1-r(1-y)) 1-r(1-y) (r(1-y)-y) r(1-y)-y ] and if r is an element of (0, 1), then t r = 1/3. The entropic force the path exerts on the line Y rX may be computed from this. An asymptotic expression for the force for large values of r is given by F(r) = log(2r)/r 2 - (1+2log(2r))/2r 3 + O (log(2r)/r 4 ). In terms of the vertex angle α of the r-wedge, the moment of the force about the origin has leading terms F(α) log(2/α) - (α/2)(1+2log(2/α)) + O(α 2 log(2/α)) as α → 0 + and F(α) = 0 if α is element of [π/4, π/2]. Moreover, numerical integration of the force shows that the total work done by closing the wedge is 1.085 07... lattice units. An alternative ensemble of NE-oriented paths may be defined by slightly changing the generating function g r . In this model, it is possible to determine closed-form expressions for the limiting free energy and the force. The leading term in an asymptotic expansions for this force agrees with the leading term in the asymptotic expansion of the above model, and the subleading term only differs by a factor of 2

  7. Understanding the Sustainability of Fuel from the Viewpoint of Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaning Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time of providing a huge amount of energy to the world population (social sustainability and global economy (economic sustainability, the fuel itself also releases a great amount of emissions to the environment the world people live in in the forms of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2, CH4, etc. and ash compositions (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SO3, SiO2, TiO2, etc., seriously impacting the environment (environmental sustainability for the world population and global economy. Sustainability generally encompasses economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social sustainability, and all of these are significantly related to the energy/resource sustainability. This study addresses the sustainability of fuel from the viewpoint of exergy. It is demonstrated that the energy of a fuel is best evaluated by its chemical exergy, and the environmental impact of a fuel can be assessed through the chemical exergy of its emissions (the specific impacts such as toxicity or greenhouse effect are not detailed. Then, the sustainability of fuel can be understood from the viewpoint of exergy through three ways: (a high chemical exergy of the fuel, (b high exergy efficiency of the fuel conversion process, and (c low chemical exergy of the emissions.

  8. Mechanisms explaining Coulomb's electric force & Lorentz's magnetic force from a classical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Dan S.

    2018-06-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the fundamental electric and magnetic forces are not clear in current models; they are mainly mathematical constructs. This study examines the underlying physics from a classical viewpoint to explain Coulomb's electric force and Lorentz's magnetic force. This is accomplished by building upon already established physics. Although no new physics is introduced, extension of existing models is made by close examination. We all know that an electron carries a bound cylindrical B-field (CBF) as it translates. Here, we show how the electron CBF plays an intrinsic role in the generation of the electric and magnetic forces.

  9. Four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. II Invariant distribution of quantized field oscillators and questions on infinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The foundation of the quantum field theory is changed by introducing a new universal probability principle into field operators: one single inherent and invariant probability distribution P(/k/) is postulated for boson and fermion field oscillators. This can be accomplished only when one treats the four-dimensional symmetry from a broad viewpoint. Special relativity is too restrictive to allow such a universal probability principle. A radical length, R, appears in physics through the probability distribution P(/k/). The force between two point particles vanishes when their relative distance tends to zero. This appears to be a general property for all forces and resembles the property of asymptotic freedom. The usual infinities in vacuum fluctuations and in local interactions, however complicated they may be, are all removed from quantum field theories. In appendix A a simple finite and unitary theory of unified electroweak interactions is discussed without assuming Higgs scalar bosons.

  10. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  11. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstein, Manuela; Huang, Shiew-Mei

    2018-04-01

    There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical-drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions and labeling implications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Accreditation of qualification testing organizations: the industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roby, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint on the program for the Accreditation of Qualification Testing Organizations, which has been proposed for rulemaking by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The IEEE has agreed to establish the program content, and would administer its requirements in accordance with an agreement between the NRC and IEEE of September 30th, 1981. Presented in this paper is the industry perspective, developed and prepared through the AIF, identifying the serious concerns which the accreditation program has raised. Discussed are the disadvantages of the program and those present benefits which would be lost if the program was adopted. The value of greater emphasis on current regulation to improve the qualification process is presented and the paper details areas where the NRC proposals do not provide adequate justification for the accreditation program

  13. A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical–drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Grimstein

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a continued predisposition of concurrent use of drugs and botanical products. Consumers often self-administer botanical products without informing their health care providers. The perceived safety of botanical products with lack of knowledge of the interaction potential poses a challenge for providers and both efficacy and safety concerns for patients. Botanical–drug combinations can produce untoward effects when botanical constituents modulate drug metabolizing enzymes and/or transporters impacting the systemic or tissue exposure of concomitant drugs. Examples of pertinent scientific literature evaluating the interaction potential of commonly used botanicals in the US are discussed. Current methodologies that can be applied to advance our efforts in predicting drug interaction liability is presented. This review also highlights the regulatory science viewpoint on botanical–drug interactions and labeling implications. Keywords: Drug interaction, Botanical product, St. John's wort, Fruit juices, Regulatory science

  14. Stakeholder confidence: observations from the viewpoint of ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Discussions among the participants of this Forum on Stakeholder Confidence Workshop as well as the Canadian Context and field trip to the Municipality of Port Hope and Clarington often turned to foundational social concerns in radioactive waste facility siting. Intertwined in these topics were less obvious but persistent ethical concerns. Below I articulate some of these ethical issues. I do this by describing four observations I made throughout the week. I suggest that these observations be examined from the viewpoint of ethics and reflect on their complexity. I initiate this paper with a preliminary discussion of the expression 'ethical assessment' referred to throughout the workshop. This expression is key to Canada's new Nuclear Waste Fuel Act (NWFA) requiring proof that this type of assessment occurs in the consideration of potential concepts and hosts for the disposal of nuclear waste. (author)

  15. Water surface modeling from a single viewpoint video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Pickup, David; Saunders, Thomas; Cosker, Darren; Marshall, David; Hall, Peter; Willis, Philip

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a video-based approach for producing water surface models. Recent advances in this field output high-quality results but require dedicated capturing devices and only work in limited conditions. In contrast, our method achieves a good tradeoff between the visual quality and the production cost: It automatically produces a visually plausible animation using a single viewpoint video as the input. Our approach is based on two discoveries: first, shape from shading (SFS) is adequate to capture the appearance and dynamic behavior of the example water; second, shallow water model can be used to estimate a velocity field that produces complex surface dynamics. We will provide qualitative evaluation of our method and demonstrate its good performance across a wide range of scenes.

  16. Chinese Culture of Learning from Western Teachers’Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹旭

    2014-01-01

    While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.

  17. Introduction to the viewpoint set on shear bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recent work aimed at improving our understanding of shear banding and flow localization as modes of deformation and failure is summarized in the six viewpoint articles which follow. For the most part, the emphasis here is on the observation and analysis of shear banding in metals, but active efforts are also underway to understand the role of shear bands in the deformation and failure of soils and rocks. There is a tendency to regard shear bands as a failure mode, as indeed they often are. But extensive straining under highly constrained conditions such as rolling can give rise to profuse flow localization into shear bands which can be regarded as microscopic in the sense that their extent is on the scale of the grains rather than the overall dimensions of the block of material being deformed. Hatherly and Malin describe in detail the observation of such bands and emphasize that they should be considered as a mode of deformation under these circumstances. They relate the formation of the bands to microstructural aspects and discuss their role in the development of recrystallization textures. It will be clear from reading the articles in this viewpoint set that the beginnings of a quantitative theory of shear banding is in place. Continued progress will require parallel developments in constitutive theory and experimental observation. Moreover, basic questions remain to be explored related to the spatial development of the shear bands, their mutual interaction, their development into a failure mode, and how these are influenced by factors such as overall deformational constraint, rate of straining, and temperature

  18. Conformational entropic maps of functional coupling domains in GPCR activation: A case study with beta2 adrenergic receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William, III; Dougherty, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Entropic effect in GPCR activation is poorly understood. Based on the recent solved structures, researchers in the GPCR structural biology field have proposed several ``local activating switches'' that consisted of a few number of conserved residues, but have long ignored the collective dynamical effect (conformational entropy) of a domain comprised of an ensemble of residues. A new paradigm has been proposed recently that a GPCR can be viewed as a composition of several functional coupling domains, each of which undergoes order-to-disorder or disorder-to-order transitions upon activation. Here we identified and studied these functional coupling domains by comparing the local entropy changes of each residue between the inactive and active states of the β2 adrenergic receptor from computational simulation. We found that agonist and G-protein binding increases the heterogeneity of the entropy distribution in the receptor. This new activation paradigm and computational entropy analysis scheme provides novel ways to design functionally modified mutant and identify new allosteric sites for GPCRs. The authors thank NIH and Sanofi for funding this project.

  19. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Bagheri Harouni, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field-field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately.

  20. Tripartite entanglement dynamics and entropic squeezing of a three-level atom interacting with a bimodal cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M J; Tavassoly, M K; Bagheri Harouni, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a Λ-type three-level atom and two quantized electromagnetic fields which are simultaneously injected in a bichromatic cavity surrounded by a Kerr medium in the presence of field–field interaction (parametric down conversion) and detuning parameters. By applying a canonical transformation, the introduced model is reduced to a well-known form of the generalized Jaynes–Cummings model. Under particular initial conditions which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the time evolution of the state vector of the entire system is analytically evaluated. Then, the dynamics of the atom is studied through the evolution of the atomic population inversion. In addition, two different measures of entanglement between the tripartite system (three entities make the system: two field modes and one atom), i.e., von Neumann and linear entropy are investigated. Also, two kinds of entropic uncertainty relations, from which entropy squeezing can be obtained, are discussed. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters and Kerr medium on the above nonclassicality features are analyzed in detail via numerical results. It is illustrated that the amount of the above-mentioned physical phenomena can be tuned by choosing the evolved parameters, appropriately. (paper)

  1. Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2014-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint article discusses the pros and cons of deploying one aspect of instructional technology in dental education: the use of laptops in the classroom. Two opposing viewpoints, written by different authors, evaluate the arguments. Viewpoint 1 argues that laptops in classrooms can be a catalyst for rapid curricular advancement and prepare dental graduates for the digital age of dentistry. As dental education is not limited to textual information, but includes skill development in spatial relationships and hands-on training, technology can play a transformative role in students' learning. Carefully implemented instructional technology can enhance student motivation when it transforms students from being the objects of teaching to the subjects of learning. Ubiquitous access to educational material allows for just-in-time learning and can overcome organizational barriers when, for instance, introducing interprofessional education. Viewpoint 2 argues that, in spite of widespread agreement that instructional technology leads to curricular innovation, the notion of the use of laptops in classrooms needs to be deconstructed and rethought when effective learning outcomes are sought. Analyzing the purpose, pedagogy, and learning product while applying lessons learned from K-12 implementation leads to a more complex picture of laptop integration in dental classrooms and forms the basis for questioning the value of such usage. For laptop use to contribute to student learning, rather than simply providing opportunity for students to take notes and access the Internet during class, this viewpoint emphasizes that dental educators need to think carefully about the purpose of this technology and to develop appropriate pedagogical strategies to achieve their objectives. The two viewpoints agree that significant faculty development efforts should precede any introduction of technology into the educational process and that technology alone cannot change education

  2. Age management in Slovenian enterprises: the viewpoint of older employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žnidaršič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to highlight age management within Slovenian enterprises from the viewpoint of older employees by finding out what influences older employees to decide “should I stay or should I go”. The empirical research methodology is based on mixed strategy of approaching organizations (employees, which means that the quantitative (factor analysis, cluster analysis, correlation, regression, descriptive statistics and frequency distributions and qualitative parts (in-depth interviews analysis of research were conducted simultaneously. The results of the research indicate that there are in fact two groups of older employees, which can be referred to as “susceptible” and “insusceptible” in terms of how the employer can affect their decisions. “The unsusceptible” have already decided to retire as soon as possible and they cannot be influenced by any employer measure. On the other hand, “the susceptible” employees are sensitive to employers’ measures aimed at prolonging their working lives. Besides, a regression analysis confirmed a statistically significant correlation between the inclination towards extending one’s employment period and the susceptibility to the employer measures. It can thus be concluded that, through age management measures, an employer has an impact on an extended employment period of older employees. However, employers should be interested primarily in those employees who are inclined towards extending their working lives.

  3. Morality and longevity in the viewpoint of Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of morality and health of humans are discussed from the viewpoint of Sasang medicine, as described by Je-Ma Lee in his books Donguisusebowon and Gyeokchigo. Sasang medicine suggests that human beings exist with qualities of “heavenly loom,” “humanly affair,” and “nature and conduct in following parts.” In addition, Sasang medicine classifies people into the following four Sasang types: Tae-Yang, So-Yang, Tae-Eum, and So-Eum. This classification is based on the following traits: benevolence–righteousness–propriety–wisdom, manifestations of sorrow–anger–joy–pleasure (Seong and Jeong, and largeness and smallness of lung–spleen–liver–kidney. Human diseases are always caused by the excessive mind action of sorrow–anger–joy–pleasure. Mind action affects the body unilaterally and makes it ill. According to Sasang medicine, both good health and illness in human beings originate from morality. Therefore, realizing and acting in accordance with the right moral behavior are essential to lead a healthy life.

  4. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  5. [Impact of backward sexual viewpoints on population development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B

    1991-04-01

    In the development of human society, the reproductive function was considered the sole purpose of sexual activities. Any other purposes were deemed abnormal or deviant. The prevalence of that viewpoint reflected the needs during the transformation from hunting to farming as major means of production of the society and the needs for large populations under the socioeconomic conditions of rural society. With the low level of productivity in a family-oriented economy, further development depended on the number of labor hands in the family. The wars for extension of territory and for survival need a constant supply of soldiers. Under such circumstances, the need for large populations implied the importance of fertility behavior in sexual relations. In the rural farming societies, fertility was important in strengthening and developing the family wealth, status, and family structure. Blood relations were emphasized in rural society for family inheritance, for expansion of family influence, and for old age support. The rapid decline of fertility in Europe at the beginning of this century was proposed by some Chinese scholars as the result of their citizens pursuing individual happiness including in sexual relations. The use of contraceptives prevented couples from being overburdened with children. These concepts on sexual relations facilitated the decline of fertility. The necessary social and economic conditions and advances in technology are already present for the changes of the traditional concepts toward sexual relations. The united efforts of social agencies in promoting these changes will be an efficient ensure in regulating the speed of population growth.

  6. Best medical practice: viewpoint of a UK oncologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, B

    1989-01-01

    In a clinician's view, best medical practice has two distinct meanings in a tax-funded health system: optimal management as expected by the individual patient; or, the best possible within the economic limits dictated by the society. Based on this viewpoint, this article represents an oncologist's perspective on the meaning of best medical practice in the management of patients suffering from cancer, the extent to which it is achieved in the UK health system, and how far some of the present deficiencies may be overcome. There is urgent need for medical audit in the management of cancer patients in the UK because the traditional clinical freedom of doctors can lead to wide variations in management without corresponding differences in outcome as measured by benefit to the patient. We need consensus by physicians on the guidelines for optimal management of different types of cancer at various stages, both to avoid overtreatment of the individual patient and also to direct scarce resources to their most effective use. Physicians also need to agree on guidelines for giving priority to one patient over another when resources are limited, and such criteria need to be approved by society at large. The public must accept that in a non-explicit rationing system, each individual competes with every other. In the case of even more difficult ethical choices, a multidisciplinary national committee is required to advise on decision-making and its views need to be debated by the general public.

  7. Eurasian Union on the Viewpoint of China: Geopolitical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about geopolitical strategic analyze of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Eurasian Union” strategy from Chinese viewpoint. The article describes historical background of Eurasian Union, its geopolitical purposes, achievements and weakness, particularly from China's national strategic design and stance of Central Asia in Eurasian Continent. The geopolitical analysis of possibility for Sino-Russian Alliance and realistic difficulties of it are provided. Different point of Chinese experts on Russia-West relations are given. Some of them believe that he Warsaw Pact and the Cold War revival in the CIS, its purpose is to play as geopolitical blunders against the Western countries under the leadership of NATO, IMF and the United States. While others, take into consideration the US-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, and Russia’s actively participation in the former Group of Eight, accession to WTO and other initiatives that indicates the current Moscow is not the Soviet Union, and does not exclude cooperation with existing international system dominated by the Western world. And finally, China's own Eurasian strategy design is represented, especially China’s foreign policy options on Central Asia as solutions to some current existing geopolitical differences between China and Russia’s own Eurasian Strategy in order to achieve mutual win-set goal.

  8. Intuitive Experiences from Sohrevardi’s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heydarinoori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The truth of intuitive experiences and how to fulfill them are among the issues that all people, cultures and rituals have faced with and expressed views about. There are two major approaches the essence-oriented notion which has emphasized on the cohesion and commonality of these experiences between individuals and people, and construction-oriented perspective which has considered more important roles for the discovery ideas and thoughts in the development and shaping of these experiences, so there are essential differences of them between people and cultures. Intellectual system of Illumination, which has been developed according to Sohrevardi’s discussions, has unique and valuable view in this regard. It asserts that :::::union::::: with light underlies mystical revelation and the specific self-centeredness is involved in the realization of these experiences along with illumination, observation, :::::union:::::, and inexistence. Although characteristics of illumination and talent are essential in this system of thought, the collection of features regarding spiritual experiences, according to Sohrevardi, represents a kind of essence-orientation in mystical revelation. The personal unity of experiences based on the thinking of each individual does not mean to separate experiences. Rather, they all have common grounds. The present study first, refers to the views expressed in this regard, and then explains what and how of spiritual experiences from the viewpoint of Sohrevardi. It finally, provides answers to some unknown issues.

  9. A viewpoint on the approval context of strategic environmental assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontić, Branko; Kontić, Davor

    2012-01-01

    A reflection on the last report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the application and effectiveness of the Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is provided. It covers the inadequacies of the approval/permitting context of SEA, which appears to be increasingly applied by a significant number of Member States in recent years. A viewpoint is provided on the main deficiencies of such praxis. As a practical defence of the planning context of SEA, the authors propose that the EC should consider a clear recommendation to Member States to cease performing SEA in the approval/permitting context until proper amendments to the SEA Directive are made and implemented. - Highlights: ► Administrative and permitting context of SEA, has ousted the primary environmental impact assessment goal. ► The approval context moves from the environmental protection to the area of political power and economy. ► SEA and EIA are misused. ► Environmental evaluations should be used for improving the projects/plans/programmes and not for permitting them.

  10. Luminance, Colour, Viewpoint and Border Enhanced Disparity Energy Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A Martins

    Full Text Available The visual cortex is able to extract disparity information through the use of binocular cells. This process is reflected by the Disparity Energy Model, which describes the role and functioning of simple and complex binocular neuron populations, and how they are able to extract disparity. This model uses explicit cell parameters to mathematically determine preferred cell disparities, like spatial frequencies, orientations, binocular phases and receptive field positions. However, the brain cannot access such explicit cell parameters; it must rely on cell responses. In this article, we implemented a trained binocular neuronal population, which encodes disparity information implicitly. This allows the population to learn how to decode disparities, in a similar way to how our visual system could have developed this ability during evolution. At the same time, responses of monocular simple and complex cells can also encode line and edge information, which is useful for refining disparities at object borders. The brain should then be able, starting from a low-level disparity draft, to integrate all information, including colour and viewpoint perspective, in order to propagate better estimates to higher cortical areas.

  11. Viewpoint-Driven Simplification of Plant and Tree Foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gasch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants and trees are an essential part of outdoor scenes. They are represented by such a vast number of polygons that performing real-time visualization is still a problem in spite of the advantages of the hardware. Some methods have appeared to solve this drawback based on point- or image-based rendering. However, geometry representation is required in some interactive applications. This work presents a simplification method that deals with the geometry of the foliage, reducing the number of primitives that represent these objects and making their interactive visualization possible. It is based on an image-based simplification that establishes an order of leaf pruning and reduces the complexity of the canopies of trees and plants. The proposed simplification method is viewpoint-driven and uses the mutual information in order to choose the leaf to prune. Moreover, this simplification method avoids the pruned appearance of the tree that is usually produced when a foliage representation is formed by a reduced number of leaves. The error introduced every time a leaf is pruned is compensated for if the size of the nearest leaf is altered to preserve the leafy appearance of the foliage. Results demonstrate the good quality and time performance of the presented work.

  12. Should Lecture Recordings Be Mandated in Dental Schools? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Lecture Recordings Should Be Mandatory in U.S. Dental Schools and Viewpoint 2: Lecture Recordings Should Not Be Mandatory in U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandona, Andrea Ferreira; Kinney, Janet; Seong, WookJin; Kumar, Vandana; Bendayan, Alexander; Hewlett, Edmond

    2016-12-01

    Transcription or recording of lectures has been in use for many years, and with the availability of high-fidelity recording, the practice is now ubiquitous in higher education. Since technology has permeated education and today's tech-savvy students have expectations for on-demand learning, dental schools are motivated to record lectures, albeit with positive and negative implications. This Point/Counterpoint article addresses the question of whether lecture recording should be mandatory in U.S. dental schools. Viewpoint 1 supports the statement that lecture recording should be mandatory. Proponents of this viewpoint argue that the benefits-notably, student satisfaction and potential for improvement in student performance-outweigh concerns. Viewpoint 2 takes the opposite position, arguing that lecture recording decreases students' classroom attendance and adversely affects the morale of educators. Additional arguments against mandatory lecture recordings involve the expense of incorporating technology that requires ongoing support.

  13. The elastic free energy of a tandem modular protein under force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Orero, Jessica; Eckels, Edward C; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Fernandez, Julio M

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have provided a theoretical framework for including entropic elasticity in the free energy landscape of proteins under mechanical force. Accounting for entropic elasticity using polymer physics models has helped explain the hopping behavior seen in single molecule experiments in the low force regime. Here, we expand on the construction of the free energy of a single protein domain under force proposed by Berkovich et al. to provide a free energy landscape for N tandem domains along a continuous polypeptide. Calculation of the free energy of individual domains followed by their concatenation provides a continuous free energy landscape whose curvature is dominated by the worm-like chain at forces below 20 pN. We have validated our free energy model using Brownian dynamics and reproduce key features of protein folding. This free energy model can predict the effects of changes in the elastic properties of a multidomain protein as a consequence of biological modifications such as phosphorylation or the formation of disulfide bonds. This work lays the foundations for the modeling of tissue elasticity, which is largely determined by the properties of tandem polyproteins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The representation of object viewpoint in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, David R; Vinberg, Joakim; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the nature of object representations in the human brain is critical for understanding the neural basis of invariant object recognition. However, the degree to which object representations are sensitive to object viewpoint is unknown. Using fMRI we employed a parametric approach to examine the sensitivity to object view as a function of rotation (0 degrees-180 degrees ), category (animal/vehicle) and fMRI-adaptation paradigm (short or long-lagged). For both categories and fMRI-adaptation paradigms, object-selective regions recovered from adaptation when a rotated view of an object was shown after adaptation to a specific view of that object, suggesting that representations are sensitive to object rotation. However, we found evidence for differential representations across categories and ventral stream regions. Rotation cross-adaptation was larger for animals than vehicles, suggesting higher sensitivity to vehicle than animal rotation, and was largest in the left fusiform/occipito-temporal sulcus (pFUS/OTS), suggesting that this region has low sensitivity to rotation. Moreover, right pFUS/OTS and FFA responded more strongly to front than back views of animals (without adaptation) and rotation cross-adaptation depended both on the level of rotation and the adapting view. This result suggests a prevalence of neurons that prefer frontal views of animals in fusiform regions. Using a computational model of view-tuned neurons, we demonstrate that differential neural view tuning widths and relative distributions of neural-tuned populations in fMRI voxels can explain the fMRI results. Overall, our findings underscore the utility of parametric approaches for studying the neural basis of object invariance and suggest that there is no complete invariance to object view in the human ventral stream.

  15. Waste management '76 nuclear overview session industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Lack of firm policy decisions and implementing regulations and program plans related to nuclear fuel cycle by-product wastes has become a major deterrent to progress in the constructive utilization of fission energy. In any event, the mismatch between waste management program accomplishments and perceived requirements has increased rather than decreased over recent years. Multi-agency programs and industry participation as well, at higher levels of effort than in the past, are required and are being initiated, but useful and lasting decisions still are some time off. From industry's viewpoint, all of the agency and industry programs related to waste management must be based on (a) a common view that no constructive activity is going to have zero personnel or environmental impact and that there generally will be a finite level of impact or risk to public health and safety that can be considered acceptable, and (b) consistent and rational consideration of what the levels of impact or risk are that can be considered acceptable in various circumstances. Regulatory requirements finally imposed must be related in some rational way to actual effects and their acceptable levels. Sound bases for timely decisions also require recognition of the fact that ''full and complete demonstration'' is not often really practical or necessary. Demonstration requirements for particular circumstances must be clearly defined and related to functional importance, extent of supporting technology and experience and other such rational factors. Finally, it is recognized that there are nontechnical issues the resolution of which are just as necessary to progress as the technical ones. However, such issues should not be allowed to lead to decisions or actions which are phenomenologically unsound or technically unsupported. After all, you might as well fall flat on your face as lean too far over backward

  16. Viewpoints of students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Mojahed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Academic advisors have been proven important in students’ success. Insufficient guidance and counseling can delay professional and educational achievements. Proper counseling can provide opportunities for educational success and also positive change students’ behavioral models. This study was accomplished with the purpose of assigning the function of advisors from the viewpoint of the students. Methods: This descriptive study was done on 385 students of Shahid Sadoughi University. Randomized stratified sampling was used. The data were collected by completing the self-reported questionnaire and then were analyzed by SPSS software. Advisors’ functions in each of the items were evaluated. The significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: The majority of samples were from Nursing, Midwifery, and Public Health School and a few from Faculty of Medicine. The majority of students (41.8% agreed to have the same advisor from the first term to the last. Also the results showed that the functions of advisors were poor in the areas of constant supervision and monitoring of students’ educational status (35.8%, preparing the timetable for performing the personal or group counseling (41.8% and providing counseling sessions according to the timetable (42.3%. But their functions were fair in the areas of acceptable guidance of students in the educational problems (35.1%, and the advisor’s familiarity to educational regulations (43.9%. It is necessary to note that the advisor's ability in making the intimate relationship with students (37.1%, and the advisors’ motivation and tendency to guidance and counseling (30.1% were the two items evaluated excellent by students. Conclusion: It is necessary that advisors make the students familiar with educational regulations at the first semester of higher education. Also, the policies and regulations for advisors will clarify their activities and will help them to perform better.

  17. The Students' Viewpoint on Quality of Educational Services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamian, Hasan; Rostami, Farideh; Ghara, Aliasghar Nadi; Abedi, Ghassem

    2017-03-01

    Recently, focusing on higher education quality has got increasingly critical. The novel managerial attitudes have defined the customer-demanded quality. Based on this, recognizing the receivers' perception of the quality of the services offered and evaluating the quality of the service is considered of the basic measures taken in order to develop quality promotion programs. Therefore, this is a qualitative research conducted for students' viewpoint on quality of educational services. This qualitative study has been performed by the phenomenological method. The samples have been selected based on goal-oriented approach. In this qualitative research, the required data have been collected in two phases (90 individual interviews and 30 focus group discussions) at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences during which the participants have conveyed their experiences and expectations encountering the educational quality topic. All the interviews have been recorded and implemented. The interviews analysis has been carried out simultaneously with the implementation and using theme analysis by Smith method. According to the findings regarding the definition of quality, the students have emphasized two important aspects including "educational services standards by the teacher "and "the students' satisfaction". Thus the final education quality resulted from the students' experiences and perception is this way: "Presenting the students educational services in class and out of class compatible with the educational services standards so that it results in the students' satisfaction". When a person views her/him-self rightful as a customer, whatever seems necessary to them appears like a requirement. Then regarding paying attention and reflecting on the customers' perceived needs, it is possible to determine their expectations limit to some extent. Therefore, designing educational quality standards in order to evaluate the teachers' function without taking the stakeholders

  18. The students' viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim Khanli, Marziyeh; Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students' viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years). The service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students' perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (peducational facilities and physical environment is recommended.

  19. The ion-acoustic soliton: A gas-dynamic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons are investigated by interpreting conservation of total momentum as the structure equation for the proton flow in the wave. In most studies momentum conservation is regarded as the first integral of the Poisson equation for the electric potential and is interpreted as being analogous to a particle moving in a pseudo-potential well. By adopting an essentially gas-dynamic viewpoint, which emphasizes momentum conservation and the properties of the Bernoulli-type energy equations, the crucial role played by the proton sonic point becomes apparent. The relationship (implied by energy conservation) between the electron and proton speeds in the transition yields a locus--the hodograph of the system-which shows that, in the first half of the soliton, the electrons initially lag behind the protons until the charge neutral point is reached, after which they run ahead of the protons. The system reaches an equilibrium point (the center of the soliton) before the proton flow goes sonic. It follows that the critical ion-acoustic Mach number, M c , above which smooth, continuous solitons cannot be constructed, stems from the requirement that the two equilibrium points of the structure equation coalesce at the proton sonic point of the flow. In general the range of the ion-acoustic Mach numbers, M ep , in which solitons exist, is extended beyond the classical range 1 ep 2 shaped pulses characteristic of weakly nonlinear waves and shows that solitons exist only if 1 ep e and 10kT e depending upon the values of the adiabatic indices of the electrons and protons and the proton Mach number

  20. The students’ viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAHIM KHANLI, MARZIYEH; DANESHMANDI, HADI; CHOOBINEH, ALIREZA

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students’ viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years). The service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students’ perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. Results: The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (p<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results, the students’ expectations were higher than their perceptions of current conditions; also, in all aspects of the services their expectations were not met. It is recommended that workshops on customer services, communication skills and personnel’s technical skills development should be planned and held. Also, allocating more resources for improving

  1. The students' viewpoint on the quality gap in educational services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIYEH RAHIM-KHANLI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students and university community are social and human resources of the country. The students’ viewpoints about the quality of educational services can be considered as a basis for planning quality promotion and improving organizational performance. This study was conducted to determine the quality gap in educational services by the students of Health and Nutrition School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 students participated voluntarily (age range=19 to 40 years. The service quality (SERVQUAL questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire measured the quality gap in 5 dimensions of educational service including assurance, responsiveness, empathy, reliability, and tangibility. The students’ perception about the current conditions and their expectations as to optimal conditions can be determined, using this questionnaire. The score of the gap in quality of educational services is calculated from difference between perception and expectation scores. Due to non-normality of data, non-parametric tests were used. To this end, data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whiteny tests in SPSS 14. Results: The results showed that there was quality gap in all 5 dimensions of educational services. The largest and the smallest gaps were observed in "responsiveness" with a mean±SD of -0.94±0.74 and in "reliability" with a mean±SD of -0.76±0.69, respectively. There was a significant difference in quality gap between the 5 dimensions (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, the students’ expectations were higher than their perceptions of current conditions; also, in all aspects of the services their expectations were not met. It is recommended that workshops on customer services, communication skills and personnel’s technical skills development should be planned and held. Also, allocating more resources for

  2. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  3. The Occipital Face Area Is Causally Involved in Facial Viewpoint Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Tim C; Poltoratski, Sonia; König, Peter; Blake, Randolph; Tong, Frank; Ling, Sam

    2015-12-16

    Humans reliably recognize faces across a range of viewpoints, but the neural substrates supporting this ability remain unclear. Recent work suggests that neural selectivity to mirror-symmetric viewpoints of faces, found across a large network of visual areas, may constitute a key computational step in achieving full viewpoint invariance. In this study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the hypothesis that the occipital face area (OFA), putatively a key node in the face network, plays a causal role in face viewpoint symmetry perception. Each participant underwent both offline rTMS to the right OFA and sham stimulation, preceding blocks of behavioral trials. After each stimulation period, the participant performed one of two behavioral tasks involving presentation of faces in the peripheral visual field: (1) judging the viewpoint symmetry; or (2) judging the angular rotation. rTMS applied to the right OFA significantly impaired performance in both tasks when stimuli were presented in the contralateral, left visual field. Interestingly, however, rTMS had a differential effect on the two tasks performed ipsilaterally. Although viewpoint symmetry judgments were significantly disrupted, we observed no effect on the angle judgment task. This interaction, caused by ipsilateral rTMS, provides support for models emphasizing the role of interhemispheric crosstalk in the formation of viewpoint-invariant face perception. Faces are among the most salient objects we encounter during our everyday activities. Moreover, we are remarkably adept at identifying people at a glance, despite the diversity of viewpoints during our social encounters. Here, we investigate the cortical mechanisms underlying this ability by focusing on effects of viewpoint symmetry, i.e., the invariance of neural responses to mirror-symmetric facial viewpoints. We did this by temporarily disrupting neural processing in the occipital face area (OFA) using transcranial magnetic

  4. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  5. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.

    2014-09-24

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  6. Entropía proporcional de la dinámica cardiaca aplicada al diagnóstico de pacientes de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de sistemas dinámicos cuantifica los estados y la evolución de los sistemas. Con base en esta teoría se creó una nueva metodología que cuantifica parejas ordenadas de frecuencias cardiacas en el espacio de fases de mediante la probabilidad y proporciones de la entropía, diferenciando clínicamente normalidad, enfermedad crónica, aguda, y evolución. Se registraron frecuencias cardiacas y latidos totales cada hora en 40 Holter de pacientes hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios, se realizó una simulación computacional para construir atractores caóticos y se evaluó la probabilidad, la entropía no equiprobable, y las proporciones de la entropía para la ocupación espacial de cada atractor, realizando comparaciones entre el diagnóstico clínico y el obtenido a través de la metodología físico matemática. Se evidenció que la metodología detecta en todos los casos el estado patológico de la dinámica, obteniendo valores de sensibilidad y especificidad de 100% y coeficiente Kappa de 1, evidenciando que es posible además establecer cuantitativamente la gravedad del mismo. Los resultados confirman que la autoorganización física y matemática de la dinámica cardiaca reflejada en el atractor dinámico geométrico, permite establecer predicciones de aplicación clínica en pacientes de la Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios.

  7. Important roles of enthalpic and entropic contributions to CO2 capture from simulated flue gas and ambient air using mesoporous silica grafted amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W

    2014-09-24

    The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0-0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less efficient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  8. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  9. Spiritual Health in Nursing From the Viewpoint of Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-06-01

    In order to gain a more detailed insight into the concept of spiritual health, a hybrid model of concept analysis was used to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of spiritual health in Islamic and Iranian contexts. The purpose of this study was to clarify the meaning and nature of the spiritual health concept in the context of the practice of Islam among Iranian patients. The current concept analysis was undertaken according to the modified traditional hybrid model, which consists of five phases: theoretical phase, initial fieldwork phase, initial analytical phase, and final fieldwork and final analytical phase. In the theoretical phases of the study, the concept of spiritual health was described based on a literature review of publications dealing with the Islamic viewpoint (years: from 2013 to 2014, Databases and search engines: Pubmed, SID, Magiran, Noormax, Google Scholar, Google and IranMex, Languages: English and Persian, Keywords: spiritual health AND (Islam OR Quran), spirituality AND (Islam OR Quran), complete human AND Islam, healthy heart (Galb Salim) AND Islam, healthy life (Hayat tayebeh) AND Islam, calm soul (Nafse motmaeneh) And Islam and healthy wisdom (Aghle Salim) AND Islam). Purposive sampling was conducted and nine participants were selected. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted periodically for data collection after obtaining informed consent. Observational, theoretical, and methodological notes were made. Then, using MAXQUDA 7 software, the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The relevant literature in the theoretical phase uncovered the attributes of the concept of spiritual health, including love of the Creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. These attributes were explored in depth in later stages. Finally, the definition of spiritual health was developed. Islam has a unique perspective on spiritual health as it

  10. Family planning in Santiageo, Chile: the male viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M F

    1971-07-01

    To obtain the male viewpoint toward family planning in the Chilean population, 561 men (aged 18-54) in Santiago from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic levels were interviewed on their birth control attitudes and practices and compared with a random probability sample of 240 men from a nearby rural village. Tabulation of the interviews showed that a majority of both unmarried and married men identified themselves as active participants in birth control discussions. Younger husbands tended to have had more experience with contraception than older husbands, and respondents in higher socioeconomic levels showed a greater use of contraception (75%) than men in the lower class or village sample (35%). 23% of those in the village sample who did not use contraception cited reasons such as lack of knowledge and money or fear of harmful effects, while only 2% of the upper class in the urban sample cited such reasons. Approval of abortion for their wives was expressed by around 40% of all respondents. Approval of abortion in general ranged from 81% in cases of probable fetal deformity to 31% in single girls. Questions on sexual relations revealed that the median age for the first sexual intercourse was 16 years. 91% of the unmarried men were sexually active at a median frequence of once every 2 weeks, and contraception, if used, was most frequently oral or male devices. Among married men, sexual relations occurred at a median frequency of once every 4 days, with contraception, if used, most likely being an intrauterine device. All of the respondents tended to favor dissemination of contraceptive information more readily to men than women. Approval of providing this information to single girls was directly related to economic status. The schools were readily accepted as a forum for contraceptive discussion. The father was by far the preferred principal source of information for a son (44%) rather than friends (6%), but the respondents themselves got their information from

  11. The ion-acoustic soliton: A gas-dynamic viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J. F.

    2002-03-01

    The properties of fully nonlinear ion-acoustic solitons are investigated by interpreting conservation of total momentum as the structure equation for the proton flow in the wave. In most studies momentum conservation is regarded as the first integral of the Poisson equation for the electric potential and is interpreted as being analogous to a particle moving in a pseudo-potential well. By adopting an essentially gas-dynamic viewpoint, which emphasizes momentum conservation and the properties of the Bernoulli-type energy equations, the crucial role played by the proton sonic point becomes apparent. The relationship (implied by energy conservation) between the electron and proton speeds in the transition yields a locus—the hodograph of the system-which shows that, in the first half of the soliton, the electrons initially lag behind the protons until the charge neutral point is reached, after which they run ahead of the protons. The system reaches an equilibrium point (the center of the soliton) before the proton flow goes sonic. It follows that the critical ion-acoustic Mach number, Mc, above which smooth, continuous solitons cannot be constructed, stems from the requirement that the two equilibrium points of the structure equation coalesce at the proton sonic point of the flow. In general the range of the ion-acoustic Mach numbers, Mep, in which solitons exist, is extended beyond the classical range 1

  12. The impact of conventional and novel metaphor in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  13. The impact of conventional and novel metaphors in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  14. Entropías de la movilidad urbana en el espacio metropolitano de Guadalajara: Transporte privado y calidad del aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quevedo García

    2017-07-01

    homeostasis de la ciudad provocando entropía, lo que conlleva al uso de medios de transporte sostenibles y a trabajar colectivamente para la sustitución sistemática del automóvil.

  15. Review of Acceleration Methods for Seismic Analysis of Through-Wall Cracked Piping from the Viewpoint of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Yong Woo [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Two acceleration methods, an effective force method (or inertia method) and a large mass method, have been applied for performing time history seismic analysis. The acceleration methods for uncracked structures have been verified via previous studies. However, no study has identified the validity of these acceleration methods for cracked piping. In this study, the validity of the acceleration methods for through-wall cracked piping is assessed via time history implicit dynamic elastic seismic analysis from the viewpoint of linear elastic fracture mechanics. As a result, it is identified that both acceleration methods show the same results for cracked piping if a large mass magnitude and maximum time increment are adequately selected.

  16. Review of Acceleration Methods for Seismic Analysis of Through-Wall Cracked Piping from the Viewpoint of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Yong Woo

    2014-01-01

    Two acceleration methods, an effective force method (or inertia method) and a large mass method, have been applied for performing time history seismic analysis. The acceleration methods for uncracked structures have been verified via previous studies. However, no study has identified the validity of these acceleration methods for cracked piping. In this study, the validity of the acceleration methods for through-wall cracked piping is assessed via time history implicit dynamic elastic seismic analysis from the viewpoint of linear elastic fracture mechanics. As a result, it is identified that both acceleration methods show the same results for cracked piping if a large mass magnitude and maximum time increment are adequately selected

  17. Defining Execution Viewpoints for a Large and Complex Software-Intensive System

    OpenAIRE

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; America, Pierre; Avgeriou, Paris

    2009-01-01

    An execution view is an important asset for developing large and complex systems. An execution view helps practitioners to describe, analyze, and communicate what a software system does at runtime and how it does it. In this paper, we present an approach to define execution viewpoints for an existing large and complex software-intensive system. This definition approach enables the customization and extension of a set of predefined viewpoints to address the requirements of a specific developme...

  18. Mental rotation versus invariant features in object perception from different viewpoints: An fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrie, Jan; Béatse, Erik; Wagemans, Johan; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Paul

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that object perception can proceed through different routes, which can be situated on a continuum ranging from complete viewpoint-dependency to complete viewpoint-independency, depending on the objects and the task at hand. Although these different routes have been extensively demonstrated on the behavioral level, the corresponding distinction in the underlying neural substrate has not received the same attention. Our goal was to disentangle, on the behavioral and the neu...

  19. A practical implementation of free viewpoint video system for soccer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Ryo; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Tezuka, Tomoyuki; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Takahashi, Keita; Fujii, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a free viewpoint video generation system with billboard representation for soccer games. Free viewpoint video generation is a technology that enables users to watch 3-D objects from their desired viewpoints. Practical implementation of free viewpoint video for sports events is highly demanded. However, a commercially acceptable system has not yet been developed. The main obstacles are insufficient user-end quality of the synthesized images and highly complex procedures that sometimes require manual operations. In this work, we aim to develop a commercially acceptable free viewpoint video system with a billboard representation. A supposed scenario is that soccer games during the day can be broadcasted in 3-D, even in the evening of the same day. Our work is still ongoing. However, we have already developed several techniques to support our goal. First, we captured an actual soccer game at an official stadium where we used 20 full-HD professional cameras. Second, we have implemented several tools for free viewpoint video generation as follow. In order to facilitate free viewpoint video generation, all cameras should be calibrated. We calibrated all cameras using checker board images and feature points on the field (cross points of the soccer field lines). We extract each player region from captured images manually. The background region is estimated by observing chrominance changes of each pixel in temporal domain (automatically). Additionally, we have developed a user interface for visualizing free viewpoint video generation using a graphic library (OpenGL), which is suitable for not only commercialized TV sets but also devices such as smartphones. However, practical system has not yet been completed and our study is still ongoing.

  20. The Electromotive Force in Different Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Charles L.

    2018-05-01

    The electromotive force (EMF) is the work per unit charge around a wire loop caused by a time-varying magnetic flux threading the loop. It is due to a force moving the charges around the loop. This is true whether the change in flux is due to the wire loop being stationary and the field changing in time, or the loop moving through a spatially varying field. In the first case, we say that the time-varying magnetic field induces an electric field that provides the force; in the second, we say that the force is due to the magnetic field acting on the charges in the moving loop. The theory of relativity states that both viewpoints must be equivalent, but it is sometimes difficult to harmonize them.

  1. Replenishment policy for Entropic Order Quantity (EnOQ model with two component demand and partial back-logging under inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanupriya Dash

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replenishment policy for entropic order quantity model with two component demand and partial backlogging under inflation is an important subject in the stock management. Methods: In this paper an inventory model for  non-instantaneous  deteriorating items with stock dependant consumption rate and partial back logged in addition the effect of inflection and time value of money on replacement policy with zero lead time consider was developed. Profit maximization model is formulated by considering the effects of partial backlogging under inflation with cash discounts. Further numerical example presented to evaluate the relative performance between the entropic order quantity and EOQ models separately. Numerical example is present to demonstrate the developed model and to illustrate the procedure. Lingo 13.0 version software used to derive optimal order quantity and total cost of inventory. Finally sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to different parameters of the system carried out. Results and conclusions: The obtained inventory model is very useful in retail business. This model can extend to total backorder.

  2. Hyperdynamics for entropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Yi; Kremer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    We develop a generalized hyperdynamics method, which is able to simulate slow dynamics in atomistic general (both energy and entropy-dominated) systems. We show that a few functionals of the pair correlation function, involving two-body entropy, form a low-dimensional collective space, which is a...

  3. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  4. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  5. Visuospatial viewpoint manipulation during full-body illusion modulates subjective first-person perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Schmutz, Valentin; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    Self-consciousness is based on multisensory signals from the body. In full-body illusion (FBI) experiments, multisensory conflict was used to induce changes in three key aspects of bodily self-consciousness (BSC): self-identification (which body 'I' identify with), self-location (where 'I' am located), and first-person perspective (from where 'I' experience the world; 1PP). Here, we adapted a previous FBI protocol in which visuotactile stroking was administered by a robotic device (tactile stroking) and simultaneously rendered on the back of a virtual body (visual stroking) that participants viewed on a head-mounted display as if filmed from a posterior viewpoint of a camera. We compared the effects of two different visuospatial viewpoints on the FBI and thereby on these key aspects of BSC. During control manipulations, participants saw a no-body object instead of a virtual body (first experiment) or received asynchronous versus synchronous visuotactile stroking (second experiment). Results showed that within-subjects visuospatial viewpoint manipulations affected the subjective 1PP ratings if a virtual body was seen but had no effect for viewing a non-body object. However, visuospatial viewpoint had no effect on self-identification, but depended on the viewed object and visuotactile synchrony. Self-location depended on visuospatial viewpoint (first experiment) and visuotactile synchrony (second experiment). Our results show that the visuospatial viewpoint from which the virtual body is seen during FBIs modulates the subjective 1PP and that such viewpoint manipulations contribute to spatial aspects of BSC. We compare the present data with recent data revealing vestibular contributions to the subjective 1PP and discuss the multisensory nature of BSC and the subjective 1PP.

  6. Should Attendance Be Required in Lecture Classrooms in Dental Education? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Attendance in the Lecture Classroom Should Be Required and Viewpoint 2: Attendance Should Not Be Required in the Lecture Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Christopher W; Parise, Mary; Seminario, Ana Lucia; Mendez, Maria Jose Cervantes; Piskorowski, Wilhelm; Silva, Renato

    2016-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint discusses the long-argued debate over whether lecture attendance in dental school at the predoctoral level should be required. Current educational practice relies heavily on the delivery of content in a traditional lecture style. Viewpoint 1 asserts that attendance should be required for many reasons, including the positive impact that direct contact of students with faculty members and with each other has on learning outcomes. In lectures, students can more easily focus on subject matter that is often difficult to understand. A counter viewpoint argues that required attendance is not necessary and that student engagement is more important than physical classroom attendance. This viewpoint notes that recent technologies support active learning strategies that better engage student participation, fostering independent learning that is not supported in the traditional large lecture classroom and argues that dental education requires assimilation of complex concepts and applying them to patient care, which passing a test does not ensure. The two positions agree that attendance does not guarantee learning and that, with the surge of information technologies, it is more important than ever to teach students how to learn. At this time, research does not show conclusively if attendance in any type of setting equals improved learning or ability to apply knowledge.

  7. A Dialogic Vaccine to Bridge Opposing Cultural Viewpoints Based on Bakhtin's Views on Dialogue and Estrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Today, we face global conflicts between opposing ideologies that may be described in terms of cultural viewpoints and value judgments. It is difficult for individuals to determine whether ideologies are right or wrong because each ideology has its own worldview and sense of justice. Psychologists have an urgent mission to defuse the likelihood of fatal clashes between opposing cultural perspectives (ideologies), and to propose paradigms for peaceful coexistence. This paper examines the series of papers (Oh, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Sakakibara, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 2017; Watanabe, Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 51, 2017) contributed to this volume that investigate the effects of high school and university educational programs promoting productive dialogue aimed at bridging, or transcending, conflicting perspectives among Japanese, Chinese, and Korean students. Here, I have evaluated the capacity of these educational programs to coordinate opposing cultural ideologies using the framework of Bakhtin's theories of dialogue and estrangement. Bakhtin viewed discourse with others who had opposing viewpoints as an opportunity to learn to overcome the one-sidedness of ideology, which ensues from automatic value judgments made by each speaker according to their culture, and he affirmed the value of flexible attitudes toward opposing viewpoints. In this paper, I review Bakhtin's theories relating to communication in a context of different cultural viewpoints, assess the general values of the educational practices mentioned above, and propose new concepts for applying these methods to other educational fields in the future using Bakhtin's theoretical viewpoints.

  8. Testing the reliability of hands and ears as biometrics: the importance of viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Walpole, Catherine; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue M

    2015-11-01

    Two experiments are presented to explore the limits when matching a sample to a suspect utilising the hand as a novel biometric. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that novice participants were able to match hands at above-chance levels as viewpoint changed. Notably, a moderate change in viewpoint had no notable effect, but a more substantial change in viewpoint affected performance significantly. Importantly, the impact of viewpoint when matching hands was smaller than that when matching ears in a control condition. This was consistent with the suggestion that the flexibility of the hand may have minimised the negative impact of a sub-optimal view. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed that training via a 10-min expert video was sufficient to reduce the impact of viewpoint in the most difficult case but not to remove it entirely. The implications of these results were discussed in terms of the theoretical importance of function when considering the canonical view and in terms of the applied value of the hand as a reliable biometric across viewing conditions.

  9. Giving the force direction: Analysis of speed skater push off forces with respect to an inertial coordinate system

    OpenAIRE

    van der Kruk, E.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schwab, A.L.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pushoff in speed skating requires an extensive motion strategy. During speed skating the skater continuously changes the lean and steering angle of the skate and therewith the direction of push-off, The forces in an inertial coordinate system can give insight into what amount of the push-off force is directed into the forward motion. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a study on the global forces in speed skating. From a mechanical viewpoint, increasing the lean angle of the ...

  10. Viewpoints of fertile women on gestational surrogacy in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Howard, Fuchsia; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Ferguson, Caleb; Asgari, Afsaneh; Ebrahimi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to investigate the viewpoint of fertile Iranian women on gestational surrogacy. A convenience sample of 230 fertile women was invited to participate in the study and 185 consented. Data were collected via a 22-item scale that assessed the viewpoints of the participants in five domains related to gestational surrogacy. The viewpoints reported by the women were positive. However, a significant percentage of them believed that commissioning couples are not the biological owners of the baby, religious barriers need to be overcome prior to legal barriers, children born through surrogacy may face emotional issues, and the adoption of children may be a better option than surrogacy. The negative views of the women on some key aspects make it clear that public education is needed to increase the acceptability of gestational surrogacy.

  11. Re-identification of persons in multi-camera surveillance under varying viewpoints and illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Borsboom, Sander; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; Worring, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for surveillance and forensics alike. However, it is laborious to do over multiple cameras. Therefore, an automated system is desirable. In literature several methods have been proposed, but their robustness against varying viewpoints and illumination is limited. Hence performance in realistic settings is also limited. In this paper, we present a novel method for the automatic re-identification of persons in video from surveillance cameras in a realistic setting. The method is computationally efficient, robust to a wide variety of viewpoints and illumination, simple to implement and it requires no training. We compare the performance of our method to several state-of-the-art methods on a publically available dataset that contains the variety of viewpoints and illumination to allow benchmarking. The results indicate that our method shows good performance and enables a human operator to track persons five times faster.

  12. Management of Canadian mineral resources: an industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, A

    1976-03-01

    Federal and provincial governments in Canada are developing strategies for a national mineral policy, the theme being to obtain optimum benefit for Canada from present and future use of minerals. The provisions of the British North America Act, the centerpiece of Canada's constitution, place ownership of natural resources under the jurisdiction of the province in which they are found, although it retains exclusive authority for the Federal government over the export and interprovincial trade of such resources. Contradiction and challenges are now being experienced between these two levels of government, resulting in excess taxation policies in the minerals industry. Mr. Powis discussed these issues at the 32nd Annual Conference of Provincial Ministers of Mines in Saskatoon on September 15, 1975. The roles of the private sector and governments, the Economic Council of Canada trade strategy report, the mineral area planning study, and the public and political perceptions are reviewed. Options for the future are summarized. Mr. Powis concludes that the atmosphere of confrontation in Canadian mineral policy leads to irrational management of Canadian resources; further, he sees a lack of communication between industry and government as complicating the issue. The Canadian mining industry also faces the other serious problems: (1) mining problems in inhospitable areas; (2) continuing difficulty in attracting and retaining trained labor forces; (3) increasing costs of exploration and transport; (4) competing with larger and more accessible deposits in other parts of the world; and (5) the impact of inflation in all areas of the industry. (MCW)

  13. Mental rotation versus invariant features in object perception from different viewpoints: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrie, Jan; Béatse, Erik; Wagemans, Johan; Sunaert, Stefan; Van Hecke, Paul

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that object perception can proceed through different routes, which can be situated on a continuum ranging from complete viewpoint-dependency to complete viewpoint-independency, depending on the objects and the task at hand. Although these different routes have been extensively demonstrated on the behavioral level, the corresponding distinction in the underlying neural substrate has not received the same attention. Our goal was to disentangle, on the behavioral and the neurofunctional level, a process associated with extreme viewpoint-dependency, i.e. mental rotation, and a process associated with extreme viewpoint-independency, i.e. the use of viewpoint-invariant, diagnostic features. Two sets of 3-D block figures were created that either differed in handedness (original versus mirrored) or in the angles joining the block components (orthogonal versus skewed). Behavioral measures on a same-different judgment task were predicted to be dependent on viewpoint in the rotation condition (same versus mirrored), but not in the invariance condition (same angles versus different angles). Six subjects participated in an fMRI experiment while presented with both conditions in alternating blocks. Both reaction times and accuracy confirmed the predicted dissociation between the two conditions. Neurofunctional results indicate that all cortical areas activated in the invariance condition were also activated in the rotation condition. Parietal areas were more activated than occipito-temporal areas in the rotation condition, while this pattern was reversed in the invariance condition. Furthermore, some areas were activated uniquely by the rotation condition, probably reflecting the additional processes apparent in the behavioral response patterns.

  14. Telecommuters: the work force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancer, D A; Moe, J K

    1995-01-01

    Telecommuters are the work force of the future. The dawning of the information age, with its explosion of telecommunication technology, presents new opportunities for healthcare agencies to extend their borders far beyond traditional physical boundaries. The virtual workplace can become a reality and position healthcare agencies to be geographically dispersed throughout their community. The authors describe a pioneering effort to use telecommunications to retain a valuable employee and create a healthcare agency's first virtual workplace. Strategies for success in telecommuting also are provided from both the telecommuter's and the manager's viewpoints.

  15. Self-management of chronic low back pain: Four viewpoints from patients and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Paul; Cross, Vinnette; McCrum, Carol; McGowan, Janet; Defever, Emmanuel; Lloyd, Phil; Poole, Robert; Moore, Ann P

    2015-07-01

    A move towards self-management is central to health strategy around chronic low back pain, but its concept and meaning for those involved are poorly understood. In the reported study, four distinct and shared viewpoints on self-management were identified among people with pain and healthcare providers using Q methodology. Each construes self-management in a distinctive manner and articulates a different vision of change. Identification of similarities and differences among the viewpoints holds potential for enhancing communication between patients and healthcare providers and for better understanding the complexities of self-management in practice.

  16. Self-management of chronic low back pain: Four viewpoints from patients and healthcare providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stenner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A move towards self-management is central to health strategy around chronic low back pain, but its concept and meaning for those involved are poorly understood. In the reported study, four distinct and shared viewpoints on self-management were identified among people with pain and healthcare providers using Q methodology. Each construes self-management in a distinctive manner and articulates a different vision of change. Identification of similarities and differences among the viewpoints holds potential for enhancing communication between patients and healthcare providers and for better understanding the complexities of self-management in practice.

  17. Mental Health Promotion in School: Schoolchildren’s and Families’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Puolakka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While developing mental health work in schools, it is very important to consider the viewpoint of pupils. Parents can also give remarkable information on their children’s viewpoint. The purpose of this study was to produce a description of the concepts used by schoolchildren aged 12–16 years and their families associated with promoting mental health in schools. The research material comprised interviews with schoolchildren and mothers, and verbal answers from the school well-being profile survey (n=426. The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method as introduced by Strauss. The study was conducted in a Finnish comprehensive school.

  18. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  19. Advantages and Limitations of Integrated Management System: the Theoretical Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Giedrė Raišienė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The goal of the paper is to discuss the potential benefits and to highlight the drawbacks of integrated management system for organizations that seek to improve management process.Methodology. Methods of the research were used: analysis of a scientific and special literature that presents the requirements, models and results of integrated management systems studies, and analysis of statistical data to assess actuality of integrated management systems for enterprises in Lithuania.Findings. Summarizing research findings, it should be stated that the implementation of management system integration should be based on provision of social responsibility and holistic approach to the organization. It requires the long-term united efforts of leaders in a strategic hierarchical level and high organizational maturity to ensure the fluency of the running stages of planning management system integration, preparing documentations, implementing and realizing integrated management system. Also it is necessary to purify the conception of integrated management system in organizational context. Theoretical analysis of integrated management systems show, that all of the management systems can not be well integrated in principle. They can only be partly integrated and coordinated. A need to question the level of integration of managementsystems is very important as in scientific discourse as in practice. It is important to mark, that the number of organizations, that seek to optimize management processes by implementing the integrated management systems is rapidly increasing in Lithuania, too. It shows that benefit associated with integration of management systems is apprehensible in Lithuania. Advantages of integrated management systems can certainly become even stronger if scientists and practicians join their forces in search of methods of organizational management development.Research limitations. The research limitations related to a lack of integrated

  20. Defining Execution Viewpoints for a Large and Complex Software-Intensive System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callo Arias, Trosky B.; America, Pierre; Avgeriou, Paris

    2009-01-01

    An execution view is an important asset for developing large and complex systems. An execution view helps practitioners to describe, analyze, and communicate what a software system does at runtime and how it does it. In this paper, we present an approach to define execution viewpoints for an

  1. Regularity of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyeong-Ohk

    2018-04-01

    The regularity of 2D Navier-Stokes flow is well known. In this article we study the relationship of 3D and 2D flow, and the regularity of the 3D Naiver-Stokes equations with viewpoint of 2D equations. We consider the problem in the Cartesian and in the cylindrical coordinates.

  2. Re-identification of persons in multi-camera surveillance under varying viewpoints and illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Borsboom, A.S.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Landsmeer, S.H.; Worring, M.

    2012-01-01

    The capability to track individuals in CCTV cameras is important for surveillance and forensics alike. However, it is laborious to do over multiple cameras. Therefore, an automated system is desirable. In literature several methods have been proposed, but their robustness against varying viewpoints

  3. Theoretical Analysis of Occupational Development Aspects from the Viewpoint of the Personality's Constant Individual Traits Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsz, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personality's constant individual traits and its significance, as well as implications for problems connected with choosing an occupation have been presented in the paper. Selected theories of occupational development have been analyzed from the concept viewpoint and certain traits of occupational personality presented by authors of…

  4. Students' Viewpoint of Computer Game for Training in Indonesian Universities and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudin, Didin; Hasegawa, Shinobu; Kamaludin, Apep

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the survey--conducted in Indonesian universities (UNIV) and high schools (HS)--whose concern is to examine preferences and influences of computer game for training. Comparing the students' viewpoint between both educational levels could determine which educational level would satisfy the need of MAGNITUDE--mobile serious game…

  5. Hierarchical 2.5D scene alignment for change detection with large viewpoint differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wouw, D.; Dubbelman, G.; de With, P.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Change detection from mobile platforms is a relevant topic in the field of intelligent vehicles and has many applications, such as countering improvised explosive devices (C-IED). Existing real-time C-IED systems are not robust against large viewpoint differences, which are unavoidable under

  6. Viewpoint - IWRM and I: A reflexive travelogue of the Flows and Practices research team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.; Alba, R.

    2016-01-01

    viewpoint article critically discusses how IWRM travelled to each of the researchers of the Flows and Practices team, through which networks they personally engaged with IWRM, what opportunities the IWRM saga offered these researchers and how they tried to translate the concept and policy idea of

  7. IMMUNE NUTRIENTS IN CHILDREN'S FEEDING FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF THE EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    E.S. Kiseleva

    2008-01-01

    In the article, the author considers the clinical effects of preandprobiotics in formulas for the artificial feeding from the viewpoint of the evidence based medicine, their effect on the gut and immune system.Key words: immune nutrients, artificial feeding, children.

  8. Viewpoint: The History Manifesto and the History of Science. Editor's Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H Floris

    2016-06-01

    This "Viewpoint" section takes up the question of what, if anything, historians of science can learn from The History Manifesto, initially published in the fall of 2014. One summary, two essay reviews, and nine short comments are followed by remarks by the authors of the manifesto, Jo Guldi and David Armitage.

  9. Mirror representations innate versus determined by experience: a viewpoint from learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Martin A

    2014-04-01

    From the viewpoint of pattern recognition and computational learning, mirror neurons form an interesting multimodal representation that links action perception and planning. While it seems unlikely that all details of such representations are specified by the genetic code, robust learning of such complex representations likely requires an appropriate interplay between plasticity, generalization, and anatomical constraints of the underlying neural architecture.

  10. Evaluation of the Changes in the Regulation of Secondary Education Institutions According to Teachers' Viewpoints (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Mucahit; Sozen, Erol

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate teachers' viewpoints about the changes made in the regulation of passing lesson at schools, which became active in 2013 to 2014 academic year. The pass grade applied depends on this regulation, common exams, shortening of the absenteeism durations, and assigning students with performance tasks according to…

  11. Massive Open Online Courses in Dental Education: Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Massive Open Online Courses Offer Transformative Technology for Dental Education and Viewpoint 2: Massive Open Online Courses Are Not Ready for Primetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rachel C; Premaraj, Sundaralingam; Smith, Becky M; Olson, Gregory W; Williamson, Anne E; Romanos, Georgios

    2016-02-01

    This point/counterpoint article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of incorporating Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) into dental education, focusing on whether this relatively new educational modality could impact traditional dental curricula. Viewpoint 1 asserts that MOOCs can be useful in dental education because they offer an opportunity for students to learn through content and assessment that is delivered online. While specific research on MOOCs is limited, some evidence shows that online courses may produce similar learning outcomes to those in face-to-face courses. Given that MOOCs are intended to be open source, there could be opportunities for dental schools with faculty shortages and financial constraints to incorporate these courses into their curricula. In addition to saving money, dental schools could use MOOCs as revenue sources in areas such as continuing education. Viewpoint 2 argues that the hype over MOOCs is subsiding due in part to weaker than expected evidence about their value. Because direct contact between students, instructors, and patients is essential to the dental curriculum, MOOCs have yet to demonstrate their usefulness in replacing more than a subset of didactic courses. Additionally, learning professionalism, a key component of health professions education, is best supported by mentorship that provides significant interpersonal interaction. In spite of the potential of early MOOC ideology, MOOCs in their current form require either further development or altered expectations to significantly impact dental education.

  12. The Viewpoints of Physics Teacher Candidates towards the Concepts in Special Theory of Relativity and Their Evaluation Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Umit; Gurbuz, Fatih; Salar, Riza; Toman, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the viewpoints of physics teacher candidates at undergraduate level towards the concepts in special theory of relativity and the interpretations they made about these concepts were investigated. The viewpoints of the teacher candidates towards the concepts in the subject of special theory of relativity were revealed with six open…

  13. Theory of high-force DNA stretching and overstretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, C; Nelson, P C

    2003-05-01

    Single-molecule experiments on single- and double-stranded DNA have sparked a renewed interest in the force versus extension of polymers. The extensible freely jointed chain (FJC) model is frequently invoked to explain the observed behavior of single-stranded DNA, but this model does not satisfactorily describe recent high-force stretching data. We instead propose a model (the discrete persistent chain) that borrows features from both the FJC and the wormlike chain, and show that it resembles the data more closely. We find that most of the high-force behavior previously attributed to stretch elasticity is really a feature of the corrected entropic elasticity; the true stretch compliance of single-stranded DNA is several times smaller than that found by previous authors. Next we elaborate our model to allow coexistence of two conformational states of DNA, each with its own stretch and bend elastic constants. Our model is computationally simple and gives an excellent fit through the entire overstretching transition of nicked, double-stranded DNA. The fit gives the first value for the bend stiffness of the overstretched state. In particular, we find the effective bend stiffness for DNA in this state to be about 12 nm k(B)T, a value quite different from either the B-form or single-stranded DNA.

  14. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.

    1979-07-01

    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references

  15. Reintroducing the concept of force into relativity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S.; Qadir, A.; Valanju, P.

    1979-07-01

    It is suggested that re-introducing forces into relativity theory may provide new insights and results. A look at the Kerr-Newmann geometry, and special cases of it, from this viewpoint indicates that there can be a short range repulsion in general. This repulsion suggests that naked singularities may be physically feasible. It is also found that there is a gravito-electric repulsion which would be important to consider in a grand unification scheme of strong, weak and electromagnetic forces. 8 references.

  16. Optimized molecular dynamics force fields applied to the helix-coil transition of polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Robert B; Hummer, Gerhard

    2009-07-02

    Obtaining the correct balance of secondary structure propensities is a central priority in protein force-field development. Given that current force fields differ significantly in their alpha-helical propensities, a correction to match experimental results would be highly desirable. We have determined simple backbone energy corrections for two force fields to reproduce the fraction of helix measured in short peptides at 300 K. As validation, we show that the optimized force fields produce results in excellent agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for folded proteins and short peptides not used in the optimization. However, despite the agreement at ambient conditions, the dependence of the helix content on temperature is too weak, a problem shared with other force fields. A fit of the Lifson-Roig helix-coil theory shows that both the enthalpy and entropy of helix formation are too small: the helix extension parameter w agrees well with experiment, but its entropic and enthalpic components are both only about half the respective experimental estimates. Our structural and thermodynamic analyses point toward the physical origins of these shortcomings in current force fields, and suggest ways to address them in future force-field development.

  17. Using Multi-Viewpoint Contracts for Negotiation of Embedded Software Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönke Holthusen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the issue of change after deployment in safety-critical embedded system applications. Our goal is to substitute lab-based verification with in-field formal analysis to determine whether an update may be safely applied. This is challenging because it requires an automated process able to handle multiple viewpoints such as functional correctness, timing, etc. For this purpose, we propose an original methodology for contract-based negotiation of software updates. The use of contracts allows us to cleanly split the verification effort between the lab and the field. In addition, we show how to rely on existing viewpoint-specific methods for update negotiation. We illustrate our approach on a concrete example inspired by the automotive domain.

  18. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    with increasingly finer structures in order to improve properties and sustainability. The structural scale of interest in such materials is therefore reduced to the nanometer range, which means that characterization and modeling of nanostructured metals now address an audience including not only physicists...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result......The theme of two viewpoint sets has been nanostructured metals: one in 2003 on “Mechanical properties of fully dense nanocrystalline metals” (Scripta Materialia 2003;49:625–680) and one in 2004 on “Metals and alloys with a structural scale from the micrometer to the atomic dimensions” (Scripta...

  19. EDF's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serviere, G.

    2009-01-01

    After a period when several types of power reactors were operated, the most part of the French nuclear power plants were built in a 10 years time on the basis of a PWR design. This very important effort allowed France to face the oil crisis and an increase of power demand. Today nuclear energy keeps all its relevance in the French energy mix but a larger contribution of renewable energies is expected progressively. Light water reactors will stay dominant in the 2, 3 decades to come because of their important feedback experience and their economical competitiveness. The emergence of the 4. generation is not sure, it will depend strongly on: -) the available resources of uranium, -) the extend of the use of nuclear energy in the world, and -) its competitiveness compared to the 3. generation. This series of slides is divided into 3 parts: 1) the nuclear power in the French energy mix, 2) 3. generation reactors versus 4. generation ones, and 3) The EPR at Flamanville and in the world (China, Usa and Great-Britain). (A.C.)

  20. Viewpoint Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It reveals how social learning brings about deep meaning as students ... that some participants had, as a result of the action research project, been able to emerge from the culture of ... Poor education that places great importance on passing the final examination (Lesotho ... multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary learning.

  1. Viewpoint Paper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education is essentially a process leading to forms of social change and that an ... development has been widely seen as a new and improved version of ... 1993, but it had to be revised to reflect changing thinking in environmental education.

  2. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  3. A review of studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi; Kimura, Kenichi; Makino, Koshi; Higuchi, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review studies on persuasion from the viewpoint of the Elaboration Likelihood Model based on Petty & Wegener (1998). The paper consists of the following four parts. 1. Introduction. 2. Multiple roles for persuasion variables. 3. Source variables: (1) credibility (expertise, trustworthiness), (2) attractiveness/likableness, (3) power, (4) additional source factors related to credibility, liking and power (speed of speech, demographic variables, majority/minorit...

  4. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals’ ground: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Methods Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study...

  5. A viewpoint on considering physiological principles to study stress resistance and resilience with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Seals, Douglas R; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2017-09-01

    Adaptation to stress is identified as one of the seven pillars of aging research. Our viewpoint discusses the importance of the distinction between stress resistance and resilience, highlights how integration of physiological principles is critical for further understanding in vivo stress resistance and resilience, and advocates for the use of early warning signs to prevent a tipping point in stress resistance and resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Allocentric Spatial Recall from New Viewpoints in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Heywood-Everett, Edward; Roome, Hannah E.; Nardini, Marko

    2018-01-01

    Using landmarks and other scene features to recall locations from new viewpoints is a critical skill in spatial cognition. In an immersive virtual reality task, we asked children 3.5-4.5 years old to remember the location of a target using various cues. On some trials they could use information from their own self-motion. On some trials they could…

  7. The evaluation of properties of coal mass from the viewpoint of environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foniok, R.; Lukes, M. [Research Mining Inst., Ostrava-Radvanice (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of several various coal kinds from the Czech coalfields from the viewpoint of the development of thermal processes in coal mass due to their tendency towards self- ignition during storing. In such a case that no self-ignition during storing occurs, gaseous products are liberated into air, the quantity and composition of which depend upon fuel type and its temperature as well. From the environmental viewpoint, substances washed from stored coal are of a certain interest, too. In accordance with this fact, the importance of measures against self-heating of stored coal mass and the importance of a detailed observation of coal quality are concluded. The tables, which compare various coal kinds from the viewpoint of their behavior at self-ignition processes, are the integral part of this presented paper. Our greatest attention is paid to both the quantity and composition of gases being liberated in dependence upon the temperature of coal mass, and at its crushing with regard to selected methods and means of milling circuits before and explosion. Oxygen sorption by means of coal mass is also observed, being of a great importance for self-inertization of closed tanks. All the above-mentioned processes are demonstrated in form of graphic plots. Qualitative signs of coal mass are the basic means for its assessment from the viewpoint of emissions at burning/combustion, and the evaluation of explosive properties. A great attention is paid to explosion-proof means being produced in the Czech Republic. These means can be used for protection of milling circuits of power plants and heating plants or for safety systems of combustion chamber by means of insulation to secondary air main. Explosion-proof quci-acting valves, a special type of safety membrane and device for explosion suppression nip in the bud do represent the latest explosion-proof means.

  8. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Huppert

    2013-06-01

    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  9. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery and viewpoint transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiret eDhindsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g. O’Keefe (1976; Ekstrom et al. (2003; King et al. (2002. According to our BBB model (Byrne et al. (2007, these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal ’window’. Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, where it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al. (2012; Zhang et al. (2012 supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object 1 from visuospatial working memory (we assume working memory due to the order of tasks and the consistency viewpoint, but long-term memory is also possible, 2 after a rotation of viewpoint, or 3 after a rotation and translation (judgement of relative direction. We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation in the core medial temporal to medial parietal. These results are consistent with the BBB model and shed further light on the mechanisms underlying spatial memory, mental imagery and viewpoint

  10. The cognitive viewpoint on information science and processing information in cognitive psychology - a vision for interdisciplinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Guimarães Pimenta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst the ‘user’, ‘information’, and ‘text’ is of interest to Information Science although it has deserved insufficient attention in the literature. This issue is addressed by this paper whose main purpose is to contribute to the discussion of theoretical affinity between the cognitive viewpoint in Information Science and the information processing approach in Cognitive Psychology. Firstly, the interdisciplinary nature of Information Science is discussed and justified as a means to deepen and strengthen its theoretical framework. Such interdisciplinarity helps to avoid stagnation and keep pace with other disciplines. Secondly, the discussion takes into consideration the cognitive paradigm, which originates the cognitive viewpoint approach in Information Science. It is highlighted that the cognitive paradigm represented a change in the Social Sciences due to the shift of focus from the object and the signal to the individual. Besides that, it sheds light to the notion of models of worlds, i.e., the systems of categories and concepts that guide the interaction between the individual and his/her environment. Thirdly, the theoretical assumptions of the cognitive viewpoint approach are discussed, with emphasis on the concept of ‘information’, as resulting of cognitive processes and as related to the notion of ‘text’. This approach points out the relevance of understanding the interaction amongst users, information, and text. However, it lacks further development. Using notions which are common to both approaches, some of the gaps can be fulfilled. Finally, the concept of ‘text’, its constituents and structures are presented from the perspective of text comprehension models and according to the information processing approach. As a concluding remark, it is suggested that bringing together the cognitive viewpoint and the information processing approach can be enriching and fruitful to the both Information

  11. Viewpoints of Nurses about Productivity and the Effects of Current Evaluation Process on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid Dehghan Nayeri

    2006-02-01

    Findings: Nurses consider productivity both quantitatively (efficiency and qualitatively (effectiveness. But most of them think about productivity from qualitative view. They consider the effective care which they provide to patients. One of the factors facilitating or impeding productivity is evaluation. Effective evaluation can increase productivity, and current barriers impede nursing team productivity from their viewpoint. Conclusion: Effective evaluation can improve productivity. Thus, it is suggested that current evaluation process be revised extensively.

  12. Music goes social! : music startups' viewpoints on marketing communications, social media and music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vermasheinä, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...

  13. Viewpoints of working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists on role balance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kiah L; Girdler, Sonya J; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Richmond, Janet E; Wagman, Petra; Millsteed, Jeannine; Falkmer, Marita

    2017-09-01

    Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.

  14. THE VIEWPOINT OF STAKEHOLDERS ON THE CAUSES OF FOREST AND LAND FIRES IN RIAU PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badri M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Riau Province is one of the prone areas of forest and land fires in Indonesia. Fires began to grow since the 1980s as deforestation and the clearing of palm oil plantations occured. The peak of a major fire was happened before the study was taken from 2014 to 2015 and caused a smoke haze for months. This study aims to determine the factors causing forest and land fires in Riau in the viewpoint of stakeholders. The research is conducted by using qualitative methods by exploring stakeholder viewpoint through semi-structured interviews on actors representing government, companies, research institutions, NGOs, mass media and community groups. The results show that all stakeholders have the same viewpoint regarding the cause of human-fire perpetrators. Burning is largely done intentionally in open access areas, disputes, concessions, corporate land, and community lands. Fires continue to occur due to lack of oversight by authorities, massive peatland clearance, deforestation, increased permission for forest or land management for political costs, land disputes, human negligence and weak law enforcement.

  15. Entropic uncertainty for spin-1/2 XXX chains in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and its steering via weak measurement reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-09-01

    The uncertainty principle configures a low bound to the measuring precision for a pair of non-commuting observables, and hence is considerably nontrivial to quantum precision measurement in the field of quantum information theory. In this letter, we consider the entropic uncertainty relation (EUR) in the context of quantum memory in a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. Specifically, we explore the dynamics of EUR in a practical scenario, where two associated nodes of a one-dimensional XXX-spin chain, under an inhomogeneous magnetic field, are connected to a thermal entanglement. We show that the temperature and magnetic field effect can lead to the inflation of the measuring uncertainty, stemming from the reduction of systematic quantum correlation. Notably, we reveal that, firstly, the uncertainty is not fully dependent on the observed quantum correlation of the system; secondly, the dynamical behaviors of the measuring uncertainty are relatively distinct with respect to ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism chains. Meanwhile, we deduce that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically correlated with the mixedness of the system, implying that smaller mixedness tends to reduce the uncertainty. Furthermore, we propose an effective strategy to control the uncertainty of interest by means of quantum weak measurement reversal. Therefore, our work may shed light on the dynamics of the measuring uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus be important to quantum precision measurement in various solid-state systems.

  16. The generic nature of the global and non-entropic arrow of time and the dual role of the energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, Mario [CONICET-Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, Olimpia [CONICET-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-04-16

    In this paper we adopt a generic, global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the arrow of time is a generic, intrinsic and geometrical property of spacetime. We demonstrate that the arrow of time so defined is generic in the sense that any spacetime with physically reasonable properties (e.g. time-orientability and global time) will be endowed with an arrow of time. The only exceptions are very special cases belonging to a subset of zero measure of the set of all possible spacetimes. We also show the dual role played by the energy-momentum tensor in the context of our approach. On one hand, the energy-momentum tensor is the intermediate step that permits us to turn the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe into a local arrow of time manifested as a time-asymmetric energy flow. On the other hand, the energy-momentum tensor supplies the basis for deducing the time-asymmetry of quantum field theory, posed as an axiom in this theory.

  17. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  18. Invisible force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Astronomers have compiled evidence that what we always thought of as the actual universe- all the planets, stars, galaxies and matter in space -represents a mere 4% of what's out there. The rest is dark: 23% is called dark matter, 73% dark energy. Scientists have ideas about what dark matter is, but hardly any understanding about dark energy. This has led to rethinking traditional physics and cosmology. Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Australian National University, analysed the universe's growth and to their surprise both concluded that the universe expansion is not slowing but speeding up. If the dominant force of evolution isn't gravity what is it?

  19. Examining the role of the temporo-parietal network in memory, imagery, and viewpoint transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Kiret; Drobinin, Vladislav; King, John; Hall, Geoffrey B; Burgess, Neil; Becker, Suzanna

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) focuses on its role in episodic memory. However, some of the underlying functions of the MTL can be ascertained from its wider role in supporting spatial cognition in concert with parietal and prefrontal regions. The MTL is strongly implicated in the formation of enduring allocentric representations (e.g., O'Keefe, 1976; King et al., 2002; Ekstrom et al., 2003). According to our BBB model (Byrne et al., 2007), these representations must interact with head-centered and body-centered representations in posterior parietal cortex via a transformation circuit involving retrosplenial areas. Egocentric sensory representations in parietal areas can then cue the recall of allocentric spatial representations in long-term memory and, conversely, the products of retrieval in MTL can generate mental imagery within a parietal "window." Such imagery is necessarily egocentric and forms part of visuospatial working memory, in which it can be manipulated for the purpose of planning/imagining the future. Recent fMRI evidence (Lambrey et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012) supports the BBB model. To further test the model, we had participants learn the locations of objects in a virtual scene and tested their spatial memory under conditions that impose varying demands on the transformation circuit. We analyzed how brain activity correlated with accuracy in judging the direction of an object (1) from visuospatial working memory (we assume transient working memory due to the order of tasks and the absence of change in viewpoint, but long-term memory retrieval is also possible), (2) after a rotation of viewpoint, or (3) after a rotation and translation of viewpoint (judgment of relative direction). We found performance-related activity in both tasks requiring viewpoint rotation (ROT and JRD, i.e., conditions 2 and 3) in the core medial temporal to medial parietal circuit identified by the BBB model. These results are consistent with the

  20. Covalent bond force profile and cleavage in a single polymer chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Lionel; Gauthier-Manuel, Bernard; van der Vegte, Eric W.; Snijders, Jaap; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2000-08-01

    We present here the measurement of the single-polymer entropic elasticity and the single covalent bond force profile, probed with two types of atomic force microscopes (AFM) on a synthetic polymer molecule: polymethacrylic acid in water. The conventional AFM allowed us to distinguish two types of interactions present in this system when doing force spectroscopic measurements: the first interaction is associated with adsorption sites of the polymer chains onto a bare gold surface, the second interaction is directly correlated to the rupture process of a single covalent bond. All these bridging interactions allowed us to stretch the single polymer chain and to determine the various factors playing a role in the elasticity of these molecules. To obtain a closer insight into the bond rupture process, we moved to a force sensor stable in position when measuring attractive forces. By optimizing the polymer length so as to fulfill the elastic stability conditions, we were able for the first time to map out the entire force profile associated with the cleavage of a single covalent bond. Experimental data coupled with molecular quantum mechanical calculations strongly suggest that the breaking bond is located at one end of the polymer chain.

  1. Examining the origins of the hydration force between lipid bilayers using all-atom simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilcore, Anastasia N; Michaud-Agrawal, Naveen; Crozier, Paul S; Stevens, Mark J; Woolf, Thomas B

    2010-05-01

    Using 237 all-atom double bilayer simulations, we examined the thermodynamic and structural changes that occur as a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer stack is dehydrated. The simulated system represents a micropatch of lipid multilayer systems that are studied experimentally using surface force apparatus, atomic force microscopy and osmotic pressure studies. In these experiments, the hydration level of the system is varied, changing the separation between the bilayers, in order to understand the forces that the bilayers feel as they are brought together. These studies have found a curious, strongly repulsive force when the bilayers are very close to each other, which has been termed the "hydration force," though the origins of this force are not clearly understood. We computationally reproduce this repulsive, relatively free energy change as bilayers come together and make qualitative conclusions as to the enthalpic and entropic origins of the free energy change. This analysis is supported by data showing structural changes in the waters, lipids and salts that have also been seen in experimental work. Increases in solvent ordering as the bilayers are dehydrated are found to be essential in causing the repulsion as the bilayers come together.

  2. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting priorizations and is viewpoint-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  3. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting prioritizations and is viewpoint-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  4. Trust in the Almighty God from the Viewpoint of Psychology and its Relationship with Self-Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyedali Mostajaboldavati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Religious behaviors, among which Trust in the Almighty God is a major representation, play a key role in giving meaning to life, generation of hope, and mental relaxation. The present study was conducted aimed at examination of the subject Trust in the Almighty God and analysis of the concept Trust from the perspective of psychology, delineating its relationship with self-confidence. In this study, therefore, Trust in the Almighty God is addressed from three cognitive, mental, and behavioral dimensions as well as mental etymology of Trust in the Almighty God and the relationship between trust and self-confidence. Methods: This study is a review-descriptive research that has made use of library and digital resources to collect its required data. Results: In examination of the subject Trust in the Almighty God from the viewpoint of psychology and delineation of the relationship between trust and self-confidence, it is found that trust in the Almighty God is not a barrier to self-confidence. What is more, it is an effective factor in its recovery, stabilization, and reinforcement. Conclusion: Religious behaviors, among which Trust in the Almighty God is a major representation, play a key role in giving meaning to life, generation of hope, and mental relaxation. Psychologically speaking, Trust in the Almighty God has three cognitive, mental, and behavioral dimensions. Cognitive aspect of trust in the Almighty God is associated with understanding the creator-creature relationship, the world, and the phenomena in the universe. In the emotional aspect, humankinds, relying on the Almighty God’s power, feel an inner serenity within themselves. Finally, application of this intrinsic force is materialized in the behavioral dimension of trust in the Almighty God.

  5. It is all me: the effect of viewpoint on visual-vestibular recalibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Tesch, Joachim; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2011-09-01

    Participants performed a visual-vestibular motor recalibration task in virtual reality. The task consisted of keeping the extended arm and hand stable in space during a whole-body rotation induced by a robotic wheelchair. Performance was first quantified in a pre-test in which no visual feedback was available during the rotation. During the subsequent adaptation phase, optical flow resulting from body rotation was provided. This visual feedback was manipulated to create the illusion of a smaller rotational movement than actually occurred, hereby altering the visual-vestibular mapping. The effects of the adaptation phase on hand stabilization performance were measured during a post-test that was identical to the pre-test. Three different groups of subjects were exposed to different perspectives on the visual scene, i.e., first-person, top view, or mirror view. Sensorimotor adaptation occurred for all three viewpoint conditions, performance in the post-test session showing a marked under-compensation relative to the pre-test performance. In other words, all viewpoints gave rise to a remapping between vestibular input and the motor output required to stabilize the arm. Furthermore, the first-person and mirror view adaptation induced a significant decrease in variability of the stabilization performance. Such variability reduction was not observed for the top view adaptation. These results suggest that even if all three viewpoints can evoke substantial adaptation aftereffects, the more naturalistic first-person view and the richer mirror view should be preferred when reducing motor variability constitutes an important issue.

  6. Communicating laboratory results through a Web site: Patients' priorities and viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahi, Azam; Ahmadian, Leila; Mirzaee, Moghademeh

    2018-02-28

    Patients can access laboratory results using various technologies. The aim of this study was to integrate the laboratory results into the hospital Web site based on patients' viewpoints and priorities and to measure patients' satisfaction. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in 2015. First, a questionnaire was distributed among 200 patients to assess patients' priorities to receive laboratory results through the Web site. Second, those who agreed (n = 95) to receive their laboratory results through the Web site were identified. Then, the required changes were made to the hospital Web site based on patients' viewpoints and priorities. Third, patients were divided into two groups. The first group received their laboratory results through the Web site on the date had been announced during their visit to the laboratory. The second group was informed by SMS once their results were shown on the Web site. After receiving laboratory results, patients' satisfaction was evaluated. More than half of the participants (n = 53, 55.8%) were highly satisfied with receiving the results electronically. The higher number of people in SMS group (n = 9, 20.9%) reported that they were satisfied with time-saving compared to other group (n = 2, 3.8%) (P = .04). Participants after receiving the results through the Web site considered the functionalities of reprinting (P Web site based on the patients' viewpoints and priorities can improve patient satisfaction and lower the patients' concern regarding confidentiality of their results. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The demise of the last emperor: its influence on Japanese society from a thanatological viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y

    1989-10-01

    Emperor Hirohito of Japan died of cancer at the age of 87 on January 7, 1989. He was once worshipped as a god incarnate. After World War II, he renounced his divinity and became the symbol of both the state and the unity of the people. His demise brought into focus some unique aspects of the Japanese view of life and death. This paper discusses three topics pertaining to what the Emperor's death highlighted from a thanatological viewpoint: (1) junshi, or following one's master into death, (2) the disclosure of the nature of a malignant illness, and (3) death with dignity.

  8. NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zeleneva

    2013-01-01

    NEW APPROACHES TO ENERGY SECURITY IN THE BALTIC SEA REGION: RUSSIAN VIEWPOINT By 2050, we can expect dramatic changes in the global energy balance. At the beginning of 21st century, the configuration of the global energy market has begun to change due to a wide variety of both political and economic reasons. The formation of a European common gas market in the world of fierce competition among world exporters for short-term and long-term contracts, the growth of energy consumption in China, J...

  9. THE VIEWPOINT OF STAKEHOLDERS ON THE CAUSES OF FOREST AND LAND FIRES IN RIAU PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Badri M.; Lubis D.P.; Susanto D.; Suharjito D.

    2018-01-01

    Riau Province is one of the prone areas of forest and land fires in Indonesia. Fires began to grow since the 1980s as deforestation and the clearing of palm oil plantations occured. The peak of a major fire was happened before the study was taken from 2014 to 2015 and caused a smoke haze for months. This study aims to determine the factors causing forest and land fires in Riau in the viewpoint of stakeholders. The research is conducted by using qualitative methods by exploring stakeholder vie...

  10. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  11. Orientation Encoding and Viewpoint Invariance in Face Recognition: Inferring Neural Properties from Large-Scale Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Fernando M

    2018-05-01

    Viewpoint-invariant face recognition is thought to be subserved by a distributed network of occipitotemporal face-selective areas that, except for the human anterior temporal lobe, have been shown to also contain face-orientation information. This review begins by highlighting the importance of bilateral symmetry for viewpoint-invariant recognition and face-orientation perception. Then, monkey electrophysiological evidence is surveyed describing key tuning properties of face-selective neurons-including neurons bimodally tuned to mirror-symmetric face-views-followed by studies combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analyses to probe the representation of face-orientation and identity information in humans. Altogether, neuroimaging studies suggest that face-identity is gradually disentangled from face-orientation information along the ventral visual processing stream. The evidence seems to diverge, however, regarding the prevalent form of tuning of neural populations in human face-selective areas. In this context, caveats possibly leading to erroneous inferences regarding mirror-symmetric coding are exposed, including the need to distinguish angular from Euclidean distances when interpreting multivariate pattern analyses. On this basis, this review argues that evidence from the fusiform face area is best explained by a view-sensitive code reflecting head angular disparity, consistent with a role of this area in face-orientation perception. Finally, the importance is stressed of explicit models relating neural properties to large-scale signals.

  12. Dense Trajectories and DHOG for Classification of Viewpoints from Echocardiogram Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In echo-cardiac clinical computer-aided diagnosis, an important step is to automatically classify echocardiography videos from different angles and different regions. We propose a kind of echocardiography video classification algorithm based on the dense trajectory and difference histograms of oriented gradients (DHOG. First, we use the dense grid method to describe feature characteristics in each frame of echocardiography sequence and then track these feature points by applying the dense optical flow. In order to overcome the influence of the rapid and irregular movement of echocardiography videos and get more robust tracking results, we also design a trajectory description algorithm which uses the derivative of the optical flow to obtain the motion trajectory information and associates the different characteristics (e.g., the trajectory shape, DHOG, HOF, and MBH with embedded structural information of the spatiotemporal pyramid. To avoid “dimension disaster,” we apply Fisher’s vector to reduce the dimension of feature description followed by the SVM linear classifier to improve the final classification result. The average accuracy of echocardiography video classification is 77.12% for all eight viewpoints and 100% for three primary viewpoints.

  13. Viewpoints of the interns on their future career in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asefzadeh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The imbalance between the public needs and the number of the medical graduates has created problems in recruitment of young physicians who are trained to provide medical and health services in the country. Purpose To assess the attitudes of interns at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences toward'i their future profession in 200I-2002. Methods This descriptive study assesses the viewpoints of all I20 interns through a self-administered questionnaire. Results The findings indicated that 77.5% of the students were in the age range of 22 to 27 with the average of 26. ./ years. of all cases 67.5% wished to continue their training to become a specialist and 6.7% decided to work as a general practitioner. of all students, 95.8% expected their future income to be low, to an extent which will not provide a comfortable life for them. of all cases. 89.2% believed that the present system of medical education does not give them the necessary capabilities and skills to practice efficiently in the future. Conclusion. The students• viewpoints on fulfillment of their economic needs and provision of a comfortable life for them and their families were negative; however, regarding fulfillment of their mental and emotional needs and participation in a scientific field, they were positive. Key word: intern, Medical profession

  14. Participatory assessment of the environment from children's viewpoints: development of a method and its trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, M; Suwa, T; Kabuto, M; Fukushima, T

    2001-02-01

    To understand the actual viewpoints of children about daily life and the environment, the authors, adopting a participatory strategy, visited 21 classes of Japanese school children, improved in a stepwise process their ways of question-asking, and developed "WIFY"(what is important for you); a set of interactive questions composed of a basic question and three accompanying instructions. In applying WIFY, 59 fourth graders, 22 in Nagasaki, Japan and 37 in Beijing, China, reported their viewpoints in each of classroom settings. In both settings, when children were allowed to communicate with each other by the use of WIFY answering sheet, spontaneous exchanges arose and continued. WIFY itself is supposed to bring out and enhance mutual collaboration and spontaneous networking. In this instance, WIFY functioned as a communication tool. When answering sheets were collected and obtained responses were analyzed as cases, a rather materialistic view was suggested among Japanese children and a more disciplined view, which put much value on school and home, was suggested among Chinese children. Further studies are needed to confirm the changing environmental views of children from the collaborative research framework.

  15. Evaluation of Non-Medical Services’ Responsiveness Using a National Model: Patients’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Askari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Responsiveness is the main indicator of high performance in every health system. This study was conducted to assess non-medical services’ responsiveness from patients’ viewpoint through applying a localized responsiveness model in Iran. Methods This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted in three hospitals of Yazd province in 2015. To collect data, a standardized questionnaire was used and data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software package, through applying descriptive statistical tests, T-test, correlation and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The study findings revealed that a mean score for responsiveness from patients’ viewpoint was 2.48 ± 0.26 at a public hospital, 2.14 ± 0.26 at a private and 2 ± 0.27 at a charity hospital representing an average level for hospitals under study. The highest and lowest mean scores among different aspects of responsiveness belonged to dignity (2.5 ± 0.36 and informed choice (1.9 ± 0.43. Conclusions Given that responsiveness was evaluated at an average level, appropriate policy interventions and necessary reforms are proposed to increase its status in under study hospitals.

  16. Índices para medir las desigualdades de salud de carácter social basados en la noción de entropía Indices based on the notion of entropy for measuring social inequalities in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacallao

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Los índices descritos en la literatura para medir las desigualdades de salud de carácter social tienen facetas positivas pero también algunas insuficiencias, según las circunstancias de su aplicación. El objetivo de este artículo es proponer y demostrar, en los planos teórico y práctico, las ventajas de las mediciones de la desigualdad basadas en la noción de entropía, conocida ampliamente en la física y la teoría de la información. Se definen y exponen las principales propiedades de los índices basados en las nociones de entropía y redundancia. Se ilustra su aplicación en dos conjuntos de datos ficticios y en datos reales, derivados de los indicadores básicos de salud para las Américas, de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Los índices basados en la noción de entropía poseen, entre otras, las siguientes propiedades: a no varían con los cambios de escala; b son simétricos; c incorporan la dimensión social, y d son fáciles de interpretar gracias a la condición de equivalencia entre la entropía y un sistema con dos clases.As described in the scientific literature, indices used to measure social inequalities in health have positive features, but they also have shortcomings, depending on how they are applied. The objective of this article is to put forward and to demonstrate, in both theoretical and practical terms, the advantages of measurements of inequality based on the notion of entropy, which is well known in physics and in information theory. The article defines and presents the main properties of indices based on the notions of entropy and redundancy. The application of the indices is illustrated with two fictitious data sets and also with real data derived from basic health indicators for the Americas, from the Pan American Health Organization. Indices based on the notion of entropy have properties that include: a not varying with scale changes, b being symmetrical, c incorporating a socioeconomic dimension

  17. Short-range components of nuclear forces: Experiment versus mythology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V. I.; Platonova, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The present-day situation around the description of various (central, spin-orbit, and tensor) components of short-range nuclear forces is discussed. A traditional picture of these interactions based on the idea of one-meson exchange is contrasted against numerous results of recent experiments. As is shown in the present study, these results often deviate strongly from the predictions of traditional models. One can therefore state that such models are inapplicable to describing short-range nuclear forces and that it is necessary to go over from a traditional description to some alternative QCD-based (or QCD-motivated) picture. This means that, despite the widespread popularity of traditional concepts of short-range nuclear forces and their applicability in many particular cases, these concepts are not more than scientific myths that show their inconsistency when analyzed from the viewpoint of the modern experiment

  18. Handbook of force transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, Dan Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Part I introduces the basic ""Principles and Methods of Force Measurement"" acording to a classification into a dozen of force transducers types: resistive, inductive, capacitive, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, electrodynamic, magnetoelastic, galvanomagnetic (Hall-effect), vibrating wires, (micro)resonators, acoustic and gyroscopic. Two special chapters refer to force balance techniques and to combined methods in force measurement. Part II discusses the ""(Strain Gauge) Force Transducers Components"", evolving from the classical force transducer to the digital / intelligent one, with the inco

  19. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; van Exel, Job; Mason, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values, evidence from preference elicitation studies is mixed and in-depth research has shown there are different societal viewpoints. Few studies elicit preferences for policies directly or combine different approaches to understand preferences. Survey questions were designed to investigate support for NICE EoL guidance at national and regional levels. These 'Decision Rule' and 'Treatment Choice' questions were administered to an online sample of 1496 UK respondents in May 2014. The same respondents answered questions designed to elicit their agreement with three viewpoints (previously identified and described) in relation to provision of EoL treatments for terminally ill patients. We report the findings of these choice questions and examine how they relate to each other and respondents' viewpoints. The Decision Rule questions described three policies: DA - a standard 'value for money' test, applied to all health technologies; DB - giving special consideration to all treatments for terminal illnesses; and DC - giving special consideration to specific categories of treatments for terminal illnesses e.g. life extension (as in NICE EoL guidance) or those that improve quality-of-life (QoL). Three Treatment Choices were presented: TA - improving QoL for patients with a non-terminal illness; TB - extending life for EoL patients; and TC - improving QoL at the EoL. DC received most support (45%) with most respondents giving special consideration to EoL only when treatments improved QoL. The most commonly preferred treatment choices were TA (51%) and TC (43%). Overall, this study challenges claims about public support for NICE's EoL guidance and the focus on life extension at EoL and substantiates

  20. Modeling of forced vibration phenomenon by making an electrical analogy with ANSYS finite element software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing mechanical systems which are submitted to vibration requires calculation methods which are very different to those u-sed in other disciplines because, when this occurs, the magnitude of the forces becomes secondary and the frequency with which the force is repeated becomes the most important aspect. It must be taken care of, given that smaller periodic forces can prompt disasters than greater static forces. The article presents a representative problem regarding systems having forced vibration, the mathematical treatment of differential equations from an electrical and mechanical viewpoint, an electrical analogy, numerical modeling of circuits using ANSYS finite element software, analysis and comparison of numerical modeling results compared to test values, the post-processing of results and conclusions regarding electrical analogy methodology when analysing forced vibra-tion systems.

  1. Driving force for hydrophobic interaction at different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2011-03-17

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the driving force for the hydrophobic interaction between graphene sheets of different sizes down to the atomic scale. Similar to the prediction by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks for hard-sphere solvation [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570-4577], we find the driving force to be length-scale dependent, despite the fact that our model systems do not exhibit dewetting. For small hydrophobic solutes, the association is purely entropic, while enthalpy favors dissociation. The latter is demonstrated to arise from the enhancement of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules around small hydrophobes. On the other hand, the attraction between large graphene sheets is dominated by enthalpy which mainly originates from direct solute-solute interactions. The crossover length is found to be inside the range of 0.3-1.5 nm(2) of the surface area of the hydrophobe that is eliminated in the association process. In the large-scale regime, different thermodynamic properties are scalable with this change of surface area. In particular, upon dimerization, a total and a water-induced stabilization of approximately 65 and 12 kJ/mol/nm(2) are obtained, respectively, and on average around one hydrogen bond is gained per 1 nm(2) of graphene sheet association. Furthermore, the potential of mean force between the sheets is also scalable except for interplate distances smaller than 0.64 nm which corresponds to the region around the barrier for removing the last layer of water. It turns out that, as the surface area increases, the relative height of the barrier for association decreases and the range of attraction increases. It is also shown that, around small hydrophobic solutes, the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds is longer than in the bulk, while around large hydrophobes it is the same. Nevertheless, the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network for both length-scale regimes is slower than in bulk water. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Open Source Software Success Model for Iran: End-User Satisfaction Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niknafs

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The open source software development is notable option for software companies. Recent years, many advantages of this software type are cause of move to that in Iran. National security and international restrictions problems and also software and services costs and more other problems intensified importance of use of this software. Users and their viewpoints are the critical success factor in the software plans. But there is not an appropriate model for open source software case in Iran. This research tried to develop a measuring open source software success model for Iran. By use of data gathered from open source users and online survey the model was tested. The results showed that components by positive effect on open source success were user satisfaction, open source community services quality, open source quality, copyright and security.

  3. Multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based Learning System for Solar Movement Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Tian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding solar movement (e.g., solar diurnal motion is difficult for those are beginning to learn about astronomy. Previous research has revealed that observation-based learning can help make astronomical phenomena clearer to understand for such learners. In this research, Smartphone Augmented Reality (AR technology and 3D content were used to develop a multi-viewpoint Smartphone AR-based learning system (M-VSARLS for solar movement observations that can be used in the real-world environment. The goal of this research is to assess the usefulness of the system, usability of the AR function and 3D content, and the overall effect of the system on the learner’s motivation through task-based experiments with follow-up questionnaires. The results show that the M-VSARL system is effective in improving the observational skills and learning ability of learners, and in enhancing their motivation to learn about solar movement.

  4. A new viewpoint on the evolution of sexually dimorphic human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren; Sulikowski, Danielle

    2010-10-21

    Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt), simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.

  5. Attachment theory and psychoanalysis: some remarks from an epistemological and from a Freudian viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2006-12-01

    The author examines Bowlby's attachment theory and more recent versions of it from an epistemological viewpoint and subjects it to questioning on whether they are in line with central concepts of Freudian psychoanalysis. He argues that Bowlby's basic tenets regarding attachment theory, which later attachment theorists never seriously questioned, do not conform to scientific standards, and that psychoanalytic issues such as the dynamic unconscious, internal conflicts, interaction of drive wishes and the role of defence in establishing substitutive formations are either ignored or not treated in sufficient depth. In the light of this, Fonagy's assertion that psychoanalytic criticism of attachment theory arose from mutual misunderstandings and ought nowadays to be seen as outdated is reversed: psychoanalytic criticism can only be regarded as outdated if either basic tenets of Freudian psychoanalysis, or attachment theory or both are misunderstood.

  6. Students' socio-scientific reasoning on controversies from the viewpoint of education for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, Laurence; Simonneaux, Jean

    2009-09-01

    In this article, we study third-year university students' reasoning about three controversial socio-scientific issues from the viewpoint of education for sustainable development: local issues (the reintroduction of bears in the Pyrenees in France, wolves in the Mercantour) and a global one (global warming). We used the theoretical frameworks of social representations and of socio-scientific reasoning. Students' reasoning varies according to the issues, in particular because of their emotional proximity with the issues and their socio-cultural origin. About this kind of issues, it seems pertinent to integrate into the operations of socio-scientific reasoning not only the consideration of values, but also the analysis of the modes of governance and the place given to politics.

  7. System, economy and ecology viewpoints of the Krsko NPP lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novsak, M.; Spiler, J.; Zagar, T.; Pirs, B.; Bole, A.; Bregar, Z.; Cuhalev, I.; Derganc, B.; Ivanjko, S.; Matvoz, D.; Sustersic, A.; Valencic, L.; Zabric, I.; Zlatarev, G.; Babuder, M.

    2007-01-01

    Krsko NPP plant life extension was analysed and evaluated with respect to system, economy and ecology viewpoints. From the system perspective it was established that also in the extended lifetime the plant will remain in operation as a base load electricity supplier. The systematic review was performed to determine its overall competitiveness against advanced coal, gas and new nuclear units. The analysis considered also hydro and renewable sources. Analysis and evaluations resulted in the conclusion that the Krsko NPP lifetime extension is the most effective alternative for base load production due to small additional capital investments, low fuel costs, no new siting requirements, lowest climate and environmental impact, and reliable and safe operation. (author)

  8. Fault detection and diagnosis in nonlinear systems a differential and algebraic viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Guerra, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The high reliability required in industrial processes has created the necessity of detecting abnormal conditions, called faults, while processes are operating. The term fault generically refers to any type of process degradation, or degradation in equipment performance because of changes in the process's physical characteristics, process inputs or environmental conditions. This book is about the fundamentals of fault detection and diagnosis in a variety of nonlinear systems which are represented by ordinary differential equations. The fault detection problem is approached from a differential algebraic viewpoint, using residual generators based upon high-gain nonlinear auxiliary systems (‘observers’). A prominent role is played by the type of mathematical tools that will be used, requiring knowledge of differential algebra and differential equations. Specific theorems tailored to the needs of the problem-solving procedures are developed and proved. Applications to real-world problems, both with constant an...

  9. [Factors of the drive for thinness and dieting: from the viewpoint of impression management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro

    2012-12-01

    Thinness is considered as one type of adornment; as such, it has a psychological function for others. Thus the drive for thinness and dieting were investigated from the viewpoint of impression management. Study 1 investigated a model that the need for approval affects dieting through the outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results of structural equation modeling indicated high validity for this model. Study 2 investigated the moderating role of self-esteem in the relationship between positive/negative outcome expectancies of others' evaluations and the drive for thinness. The results showed that self-esteem did not act as a moderator between the two components and the drive for thinness.

  10. Numerical modeling of thermal fatigue cracks from the viewpoint of eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Virkkunen, Iikka; Kemppainen, Mika

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses a suitable numerical modeling of a thermal fatigue crack from the viewpoint of eddy current testing. Five artificial thermal fatigue cracks, introduced into type 304L austenitic stainless steel plates with a thickness of 25 mm, are prepared; and eddy current inspections are carried out to gather signals using an absolute type pancake probe and a differential type plus point probe. Finite element simulations are then carried out to evaluate a proper numerical model of the thermal fatigue cracks. In the finite element simulations, the thermal fatigue cracks are modeled as a semi-elliptic planar region on the basis of the results of the destructive tests. The width and internal conductivity are evaluated by the simulations. The results of the simulations reveal that the thermal fatigue cracks are regarded as almost nonconductive when the internal conductivity is assumed to be uniform inside. (author)

  11. An Comparative Study of Jane Eyre's Fate and Tess's Fate from Femi?nist Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; HE Ling-jing

    2017-01-01

    In"Jane Eyre", Charlotte Bronte's masterpiece the heroine, Jane Eyre has fully reflected her self-esteem, equality, and pure personality, which are also reflected in her concept of love vividly. However, Thomas Hardy's Tess is poor and kind, but she does not have a complete love like Jane Eyre, and she is described by his criticism of the old moral character with good vir-tues in the traditional sense. She is a new image of modern feminism who suffered from the old moral sense and gradually has re-volt consciousness. From the feminism viewpoint, this paper attempts to analysis the causes of their different fate from different points and reveal the impact of social background on their fates.

  12. Frequency of futile care in viewpoint of ICU nurses in province of Qazvin (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yekefallah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Futile care is provided many complicated challenges for nursing in intensive care units in Iran. Objective: This study aimed to study prevalence of futile care from the viewpoints of nurses that working ICU. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on totally 210 nurses working in all ICU of academic, public, and private hospitals of Qazvin city in 2014. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and Friedman tests. Findings: The most prevalence of providing futile care was in teaching hospital (51.98±23.2, and the least prevalence was in charity hospital (37.3±12.77. There was significant difference between mean of futile care in different hospitals (P<0.007. Conclusion: As the key role of nurses in the managing futile care, awareness about prevalence of this kind of care, could be initial step for providing benefit care plans in ICU.

  13. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-05-01

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Viewpoint on the Evolution of Sexually Dimorphic Human Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Burke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces show marked sexual shape dimorphism, and this affects their attractiveness. Humans also show marked height dimorphism, which means that men typically view women's faces from slightly above and women typically view men's faces from slightly below. We tested the idea that this perspective difference may be the evolutionary origin of the face shape dimorphism by having males and females rate the masculinity/femininity and attractiveness of male and female faces that had been manipulated in pitch (forward or backward tilt, simulating viewing the face from slightly above or below. As predicted, tilting female faces upwards decreased their perceived femininity and attractiveness, whereas tilting them downwards increased their perceived femininity and attractiveness. Male faces tilted up were judged to be more masculine, and tilted down judged to be less masculine. This suggests that sexual selection may have embodied this viewpoint difference into the actual facial proportions of men and women.

  15. JT-60 power tests from mechanical and thermal viewpoints of tokamak machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    1986-01-01

    JT-60 power tests were carried out, to demonstrate, in advance of actual plasma operation, satisfactory performance of the tokamak machine, power suppliers and control system in combination. The tests began with low power ones of individual coil systems, progressed to full power ones and concluded successfully. The present paper describes the principal results of JT-60 power tests from mechanical and thermal viewpoints of tokamak machine. All of the coil systems were raised up to full power operation in combination and system performance was verified including thermal and mechanical integrity of tokamak machine. Measured strain and displacement showed good agreements with those predicted in the design, which was an evidence that electromagnetic loads were supported adequately as expected in the design. Vibration of the vacuum vessel was found to be large up to 48 m/s/sup 2/ and caused excessive vibration of the lateral port gate-valves. A few limitations to machine operation were also made clear quantatively

  16. A Survey on Security and Privacy in Emerging Sensor Networks: From Viewpoint of Close-Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New generation sensor networks are found in a growing number of applications and have received increasing attention from many inter-disciplines. Opportunities and challenges in the design, analysis, verification and validation of sensor networks co-exists, among which security and privacy are two important ingredients. This paper presents a survey on some recent results in the security and privacy aspects of emerging sensor networks from the viewpoint of the closed-loop. This paper also discusses several future research directions under these two umbrellas. PMID:27023559

  17. Viewpoint: Telecommunications and Internet Broadband Policy: Sorting Out the Pieces for Telerehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D. Seelman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological change is accelerating and with it regulatory upheaval.  Most of us agree that providing universal telecommunication services to all our citizens is a worthy ideal.  Nonetheless, many of us do not agree that regulation should be the means to make broadband Internet services widely available. This Viewpoint begins sorting out pieces of the emerging United States, regulatory and policy puzzle for broadband Internet with an eye to the interests of telerehabilitation providers and consumers. Just how might changes in legal authority, regulation and agency jurisdictions impact us?Key words: telecommunications regulation, telerehabilitation, Federal Communications Commission (FCC, Telecommunications Act of 1996, National Broadband Plan; Comcast vs. FCC; electronic health records (EHR; personal health records (PHR; health information technology (HIT, 

  18. The Personal Viewpoint on the Meaning of Tranquility Affects the Appraisal of the Urban Park Soundscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Filipan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that tranquil areas in the city, such as urban parks, are usually perceived as positive and have a restorative effect on visitors. However, visitors could experience these spaces differently depending on the meaning they assign to the concept of tranquility. To investigate how individuals’ personal views on tranquility affect their perception of the sonic environment, a soundscape study was conducted in several city parks in Antwerp, Belgium. Mobile sound measurements were combined with a questionnaire survey amongst 660 park visitors. Within the survey, the participants’ viewpoint on tranquility was evaluated using their agreement with a set of previously established prototypical statements, categorizing them into one out of three main tranquility viewpoint groups: people that associate tranquility with silence, those that associate it with hearing natural sounds, or those that associate it with social relationships. Next to this, the sounds that participants had heard during their visit were noted, and their perception of the overall quality of the soundscape and the degree to which it matched their expectation were assessed. Results show that the park visitors who associate tranquility with natural sounds or to silence are more often found amongst those that report hearing mechanical sounds a lot. The same groups of visitors rate the overall quality of the sonic environment of the park more often bad to very bad. These findings suggest that park visitors pay attention more to the sounds they do not expect to hear, and that the higher their expectations about the soundscape, the more critical they become in their appraisal of the soundscape.

  19. PoV-GAME: PUNTOS DE VISTA MEDIANTE JUEGOS PoV-GAME: VIEWPOINTS THROUGH GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zapata-Jaramillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de proyectos de software considera importante la consistencia entre la información entregada por todos los interesados de una aplicación. En otras palabras, se procura llegar a acuerdos entre los diferentes puntos de vista de cada actor y llevarlos a cabo durante todo el proyecto. Con los métodos de enseñanza tradicionales se procura formar habilidades en este campo, pero no se afianzan mediante la práctica que, generalmente, se emplea para el aprendizaje en este campo. Por ello, en este artículo se propone ''PoV-GAME'', una nueva forma de ''jugar aprendiendo'', la cual busca fortalecer algunos conceptos básicos en la ingeniería de software como la consistencia en la información que se maneja a lo largo de un proyecto y afianzar la importancia de los puntos de vista en el desarrollo de un producto de software. Posteriormente, se analizan los resultados obtenidos luego de realizar el juego en diferentes grupos de estudiantes.Information for software applications is delivered by the stakeholders. Software development projects need consistency as an important aspect of such information. In other words, agreement among the different viewpoints must be reached in order to be implemented in the project. Well-known teaching methods try to create capabilities in this field, but they fail in reinforcing them in practice, which is commonly used for teaching in this field. Therefore, in this paper we propose ''PoV GAME'' a new way of ''play-to-learn''. We aim the reinforcement of some basic concepts about software engineering such as consistency in the information handled throughout the project, and the importance of viewpoints in the software product development. Subsequently, we analyze the results obtained after holding the game in several groups of students.

  20. Entropic corrections to Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M R; Momeni, D; Myrzakulov, R

    2012-01-01

    In this short paper, we calculate separately the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) and self-gravitational corrections to Newton's gravitational formula. We show that for a complete description of the GUP and self-gravity effects, both the temperature and entropy must be modified. (paper)

  1. Generalized Mixability via Entropic Duality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Reid; R.M. Frongillo; R.C. Williamson; N.A. Mehta (Nishant); P.D. Grünwald (Peter); E. Hazan; S. Kale

    2015-01-01

    textabstract Mixability is a property of a loss which characterizes when constant regret is possible in the game of prediction with expert advice. We show that a key property of mixability generalizes, and the $\\exp$ and $\\log$ operations present in the usual theory are not as special as

  2. Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero

    2018-03-01

    The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.

  3. Experimental violation of entropic inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovino, F.A.; Castagnoli, G.; Ekert, A.; Horodecki, P.; Alves, C.M.; Sergienko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We report the experimental evidence that polarization entangled photons violate the inequality based on Renyi entropy. Our experimental method is based on four-photon coincidences in photon bunching and antibunching effects. We introduce an additional 'phase marking' technique, which allow observing the violation of the inequalities even with non-deterministic sources of entangled photons. Our method can be applied to measure selected non-linear properties of bipartite quantum states, such as purity or entanglement. (author)

  4. Entropic Entanglement: Information Prison Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Yosifov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that certain nonviolent local quantum field theory (LQFT modification considered at the global horizon (r=2M of a static spherically symmetric black hole can lead to adiabatic leakage of quantum information in the form of Hawking particles. The source of the modification is (i smooth at r=2M and (ii rapidly vanishing at r≫2M. Furthermore, we restore the unitary evolution by introducing extra quanta which departs slightly from the generic Hawking emission without changing the experience of an infalling observer (no drama. Also, we suggest that a possible interpretation of the Bekenstein-Hawking bound as entanglement entropy may yield a nonsingular dynamical horizon behavior described by black hole thermodynamics. Hence, by treating gravity as a field theory and considering its coupling to the matter fields in the Minkowski vacuum, we derive the conjectured fluctuations of the background geometry of a black hole.

  5. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

  6. Two viewpoints for software failures and their relation in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    As the use of digital systems in nuclear power plants increases, the reliability of the software becomes one of the important issues in probabilistic safety assessment. In this paper, two viewpoints for a software failure during the operation of a digital system or a statistical software test are identified, and the relation between them is provided. In conventional software reliability analysis, a failure is mainly viewed with respect to the system operation. A new viewpoint with respect to the system input is suggested. The failure probability density functions for the two viewpoints are defined, and the relation between the two failure probability density functions is derived. Each failure probability density function can be derived from the other failure probability density function by applying the derived relation between the two failure probability density functions. The usefulness of the derived relation is demonstrated by applying it to the failure data obtained from the software testing of a real system. The two viewpoints and their relation, as identified in this paper, are expected to help us extend our understanding of the reliability of safety-critical software. (author)

  7. Interfacial force measurements using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, L.

    2018-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) can not only image the topography of surfaces at atomic resolution, but can also measure accurately the different interaction forces, like repulsive, adhesive and lateral existing between an AFM tip and the sample surface. Based on AFM, various extended techniques have

  8. A comparative analysis of rankine and absorption power cycles from exergoeconomic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokati, Naser; Ranjbar, Faramarz; Yari, Mortaza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Rankine and absorption power cycles are compared from exergoeconomic viewpoint. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest unit cost of electricity produced by turbine. • The LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. • In LiBr–H 2 O cycle, the generator has the maximum value regarding (C-dot) D,k +(C-dot) L,k +(Z-dot) k . - Abstract: In this paper LiBr–H 2 O and NH 3 –H 2 O absorption power cycles and Rankine cycle which produce 1 MW electrical power in same conditions of heat sources are compared from exergoeconomic point of view. Exergoeconomic analysis is performed using the specific exergy costing (SPECO) method. The results show that among these cycles, although the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the highest first law efficiency, but unit cost of electricity produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O cycle is more than that for Rankine cycle. This value is lowest for the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle. Moreover, the NH 3 –H 2 O cycle has the highest and the LiBr–H 2 O cycle has the lowest exergy destruction cost rate. The generator, the absorber and the boiler in all considered cycles have the maximum value of sum of cost rate associated with capital investment, operating and maintenance, exergy destruction and exergy losses. Therefore, these components should be taken into consideration from exergoeconomic viewpoint. In parametric study, it is observed that in the constant generator temperature, as the generator pressure increases, unit cost of power produced by turbine for LiBr–H 2 O and Rankine cycles decreases. This value for Rankine cycle is lower than for LiBr–H 2 O cycle whereas Rankine cycle efficiency is less than the efficiency of LiBr–H 2 O cycle. Also, in LiBr–H 2 O cycle, at constant temperature of the generator, the value of exergy destruction cost rate is minimized and exergoeconomic factor is maximized at particular values of generator pressure and the more absorber pressure results the minimum value of

  9. The summer school students’ viewpoints about important factors in learning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFCAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main goal of education is learning and change in behavior which has been revolutionized in the 21st century due to the rapid and widespread changes in science. The traditional approach to education does no longer meet the learners’ needs, necessitating new changes in educational curricula. This study was designed to determine the factors influencing learning in the 21st century and find out the students’ viewpoints on this issue. Methods: This is a descriptive study aiming at determining the students’ views on new approaches to learning in the 21st century. To do so, a researcher-made questionnaire was designed. It contained 30 questions in 3 sections including demographic data, background questions and two open questions about their suggestions and criticisms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire was pilot-tested and measured, which proved to be describable. 150 students participating in university summer schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. The questionnaires were sent to the students in person and through electronic mails. The students were asked to return the completed questionnaires to the given email address. The data were analyzed in SPSS, version 14, using descriptive statistics of frequency, mean, percentage and standard deviation and t-test. P<0. 05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: 150 questionnaires were appropriately filled out and given to the researchers. The results indicated that, according to the students, 6 factors including the use of computer in teaching, enhancement of virtual learning, the use of mobile in relations, enjoyment of electronic learning contexts, the learning focus on attitudes and the facilitating role of the lectures were the most influential factors in learning. On the other hand, the government’s responsibility and responsiveness, creativity and risk taking, increase in the social relationship among the learners, focus on

  10. Forces in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  11. Malaysia and forced migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzura Idris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  12. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  13. Three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)

  14. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    .... This runs counter to the popular belief that strategic lift is the limiting constraint. The study begins by highlighting the genesis of the military's current force projection strategy and the resulting importance of rapid force deployments...

  15. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Geke D S; van Rompay, Thomas J L; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people's well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research.

  16. Recent Research of Thorium Molten-Salt Reactor from a Sustainability Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts.

  17. Exploring experiences of intimacy from the viewpoint of individuals with traumatic brain injury and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Carol J; Sander, Angelle M; Robins, Nina; Mazzei, Diana K; Struchen, Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    To explore qualitatively the experience of intimacy from the viewpoint of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and their intimate partners. Qualitative interview study. Outpatient community. Eighteen persons with TBI and their intimate partners at a mean length of 4.78 years postinjury. Open-ended, semistructured, in-depth interviews regarding participants' experience of intimacy, factors impacting intimacy, and need for services. Factors that were perceived as helping relationships remain strong included unconditional commitment, spending time together, open communication, a strong preinjury relationship, bonding through surviving the injury together, social support, family bonds, spirituality, experience with overcoming hardship, and coping skills. Factors that were perceived as barriers to intimacy included injury-related changes, emotional reactions to changes, sexual difficulties, role conflict and strain, family issues, social isolation, and communication issues. Education regarding the impact of TBI on intimacy should be integrated into rehabilitation. Health professionals should be sensitized as to the needs that persons with TBI and their partners have regarding intimacy and how to make appropriate referrals to assist them.

  18. Signers and co-speech gesturers adopt similar strategies for portraying viewpoint in narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Pozos, David; Parrill, Fey

    2015-01-01

    Gestural viewpoint research suggests that several dimensions determine which perspective a narrator takes, including properties of the event described. Events can evoke gestures from the point of view of a character (CVPT), an observer (OVPT), or both perspectives. CVPT and OVPT gestures have been compared to constructed action (CA) and classifiers (CL) in signed languages. We ask how CA and CL, as represented in ASL productions, compare to previous results for CVPT and OVPT from English-speaking co-speech gesturers. Ten ASL signers described cartoon stimuli from Parrill (2010). Events shown by Parrill to elicit a particular gestural strategy (CVPT, OVPT, both) were coded for signers' instances of CA and CL. CA was divided into three categories: CA-torso, CA-affect, and CA-handling. Signers used CA-handling the most when gesturers used CVPT exclusively. Additionally, signers used CL the most when gesturers used OVPT exclusively and CL the least when gesturers used CVPT exclusively. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Review for the improvement of low alkaline cement from viewpoint of hydration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Harutake; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2006-01-01

    It is concerns that high pH pore water from cementitious materials will become harmful to barrier system such as bedrock and buffer materials in the radioactive repository. Then sulpho-aluminate type low alkaline cement 'LAC' was developed. But LAC concrete has some problems on its workability and initial crack due to high reactability. It is necessary for LAC to be improved to avoid these problems. In this study, the conventional knowledge on reactability and hardened properties of sulpho-aluminate cement were reviewed from the viewpoint of hydration controlling. From the results, the recipe for the improvement of 'LAC' was investigated. Early hydration of sulpho-aluminate were delayed by the decreasement of calcium hydroxide quantity and increasement of calcium sulphate in cement. Retarder delayed hydration of sulpho-aluminate more than composition of cement. The effect of cement admixture on the early hydration of sulpho-aluminate cement were not reported. Blast furnace slag as cement admixture affect on the long-term hydration and strength development. So, it was guess that sulpho-aluminate type low alkaline cement 'LAC' have good strength development by controlling recipi of additional ratio of blast furnace slag and be-lite content in the sulpho-aluminate cement. (author)

  20. Viewpoint – Better Management of Hydropower in an Era of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Pittock

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the World Commission on Dams (WCD report established new standards for the sustainable development of water infrastructure, but the hopes many of us had then for a new era of more thoughtful development have been attenuated by the resilience of the hydraulic bureaucracy and the emergence of new influences on the hydropower debate. Particularly important is the impact of climate change as a driver of government policies in favour of hydropower, water storage and inter-basin water transfers. As a former Director of Freshwater for WWF International and now as a researcher on the water-energy nexus, I spent much of the past decade seeking to influence the direction of water infrastructure development, and in this viewpoint I have been asked to reflect on the changes that have occurred, and the opportunities in an era of climate change to reduce the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development while maximising the benefits. Better outcomes are more likely with a renewed focus on limiting the perverse impacts of climate change policies, implementing standards for certification of more sustainable hydropower, building capacities within developing countries, and enhancing management of existing dams.

  1. Seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure from the viewpoint of energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Endo, Rokuro; Amemiya, Mitsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    In this study, vibration characteristics of mechanical structure having high natural frequency are investigated from the viewpoint of energy balance. Mechanical structures having high natural frequency in a nuclear power plant are generally designed statically and elastically. However it has been reported that fracture of ordinary piping is produced not by momentary large load but by cumulative fatigue damage. Therefore it is very important to grasp seismic performance dynamically by considering cyclic load. This paper deals with an investigation regarding seismic performance evaluation of high natural frequency mechanical structure. The energy balance equation that is one of valid methods for structural calculation is applied through the investigation. The main feature of the energy balance equation is that it explains accumulated information of motion. Therefore the energy balance equation is adequate for the investigation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. In this paper, vibration experiment and simulation using sinusoidal waves and artificial seismic waves were examined in order to investigate relationship between natural frequency of structure and energy. As a result, we found that input energy decreases with an increase in the natural frequency. (author)

  2. Energy efficiency in transport and mobility from an eco-efficiency viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Alfonso Aranda; Capilla, Antonio Valero; Bribian, Ignacio Zabalza; Scarpellini, Sabina; Sastresa, Eva Llera

    2011-01-01

    European Union countries' current energy policies for the transport sector promote, amongst other initiatives; urban mobility plans, the renewal of fleets of cars and industrial vehicles and the introduction of biofuel. From the point of view of eco-efficiency and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), energy policies must go further. The objective of this paper is to analyse the current transport model and the policies on energy efficiency being promoted in the EU from a LCA point of view. Special attention has been paid to private vehicles, in assessing the environmental impact of the various stages of manufacture, their use and disposal, and the consequences of plans to renew fleets. How old should a vehicle ideally be so that when it is changed, the embodied energy in the materials of the vehicle is less than the gain in energy efficiency due to changing the model for example? In addition the paper analyses the different means of transport in the energy consumption-time ratio from a LCA viewpoint. The fact that reducing transport times leads to greater energy consumption gives rise to the question: how long does nature take to repair the environmental damage caused?

  3. VIEWPOINTS OF EXAMINEE TOWARDS THE USE OF PROGRAM OF SPORT RECREATION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Nikolić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Testing the viewpoints of exaninees, users of tourist offer, about use of program of sport recreation in tourism, we came to categorical conclusions of imperativ of implementation of different spectrum of tourist attraction program of recreation in corpus of offer, in view of change of motives of modern tourist movements. In other words,most of the examinees said that they are not satisfied with presence of sport – recreative programs in torist offer.And thet their primary motivesare using, above all, sport – recreative components with use of physio- prophylaxes, and not accommodation in high-quality tourist facilities. Results show affection of examinees towards engaging of recreative attractions connected to activities in and on water, sport games and climbing in nature, first of all in summer and spring time with emphasis on evening hours as period of realization. As economical parametar of legitimacy of program of sport recreation in tourism appliance, distribution of frequencies on graph (chart 4 show that the biggest number of examinees is ready to pay additional 40 E for programs of recreation in tourist offer, with special emphasis on using program of physio-prophylaxes procedures. After looking down at the results we can conclude that directions of development of tourist offer are oriented towards implementation of different sport-recreative attractions in corpus of offer of accommodation, and that it is necessary to continue investigations and to define marketing strategy for appliance of these attractions in tourism

  4. Origins of native vascular plants of Antarctica: comments from a historical phytogeography viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosyakin, S L; Bezusko, L G; Mosyakin, A S

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the problem of origin of the only native vascular plants of Antarctica, Deschampsia antartica (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae), from the viewpoint of modern historical phytogeography and related fields of science. Some authors suggested the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica, while others favour their recent Holocene immigration. Direct data (fossil or molecular genetic ones) for solving this controversy is still lacking. However, there is no convincing evidence supporting the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica. Most probably D. antarctica and C. quitensis migrated to Antarctica in the Holocene or Late Pleistocene (last interglacial?) through bird-aided long-distance dispersal. It should be critically tested by (1) appropriate methods of molecular phylogeography, (2) molecular clock methods, if feasible, (3) direct paleobotanical studies, (4) paleoclimatic reconstructions, and (5) comparison with cases of taxa with similar distribution/dispersal patterns. The problem of the origin of Antarctic vascular plants is a perfect model for integration of modern methods of molecular phylogeography and phylogenetics, population biology, paleobiology and paleogeography for solving a long-standing enigma of historical plant geography and evolution.

  5. CME Simulations with Boundary Conditions Derived from Multiple Viewpoints of STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T.; Yalim, M. S.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are major drivers of extreme space weather conditions, which is a matter of huge concern for our modern technologically dependent society. Development of numerical approaches that would reproduce CME propagation through the interplanetary space is an important step towards our capability to predict CME arrival time at Earth and their geo-effectiveness. It is also important that CMEs are propagating through a realistic, data-driven background solar wind (SW). In this study, we use a version of the flux-rope-driven Gibson-Low (GL) model to simulate CMEs. We derive inner boundary conditions for the GL flux rope model using the Graduate Cylindrical Shell (GCS) method. This method uses viewpoints from STEREO A and B, and SOHO/LASCO coronagraphs to determine the size and orientation of a CME flux rope as it starts to erupt from Sun. A flux rope created this way is inserted into an SDO/HMI vector magnetogram driven SW background obtained with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS). Numerical results are compared with STEREO, SDO/AIA and SOHO/LASCO observations in particular in terms of the CME speed, acceleration and magnetic field structure.

  6. A study on boiling water reactor regional stability from the viewpoint of higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Yutaka; Takigawa, Yukio; Uematsu, Hitoshi

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative study on a mechanism for boiling water reactor regional stability has been carried out from the viewpoint of higher harmonics. In the mechanism, the gain decrease in the void-to-power transfer function can be explained by the higher harmonics mode subcriticality. It is shown that the thermal-hydraulic feedback effect can compensate for the gain decrease, and regional oscillation can be sustained that way. For quantitative evaluations, a three-dimensional higher harmonics analysis model has been developed. The results show that the first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality has a relatively small value under a regionally unstable condition. Comparing the subcriticality and the steady-state power distribution, it is shown that the distribution exists whose first azimuthal harmonics subcriticality takes a small value. A method of decomposition for the oscillated power responses into the harmonics modes is presented. The results show that the corewide oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the fundamental mode, and the regional oscillation power response consists almost entirely of the first azimuthal harmonics mode. This indicates that regional oscillation is a phenomenon in which the first azimuthal harmonics mode oscillates on the basis of the fundamental mode

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment from a Hydrogeochemical Viewpoint A Case Study of Sarab County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources are the most important sources of drinking water in many communities. The direct impact of water quality on public health warrants a thorough investigation of water quality and the factors involved from a hydrogeochemical viewpoint. In the present study, 25 villages of Sarab County in East Azerbayejan Province were selected and the quality of the drinking water supplied in the region was analyzed in terms of its physicochemical parameters along with heavy metals content including 20 different metals. The results were plotted using the Arc GIS for interpretation. The selected villages were subsequently categorized using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. Based on the result of study, the EC of the drinking water ranged over 220-2990µs/cm with an average value of 812.  A remarkable finding was the high level of dissolved solids in the Western parts of the study area. Arsenic in two villages and mercury in one village were also high. PCA results showed that the drinking water in the pilot villages could be divided into three categories. Based on certain water quality problems observed ij the region, it is suggested that substitute water supplies should be identified for some of the villages while a comprehensive investigation is also carried out on the arsenic anomaly and its health effects on water consumers in the contaminated villages.

  8. Religion, Spirituality and Speech-Language Pathology: A Viewpoint for Ensuring Patient-Centred Holistic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Bernice; Carey, Lindsay B; Carey-Sargeant, Christa L; Webb, Gwendalyn; Millar, CaraJane; Krikheli, Lilli

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a viewpoint concerning the largely neglected clinical relevance of spirituality and religious belief in speech-language pathology (SLP) assessments, interventions and outcomes across the lifespan. An overview of the refereed SLP literature is presented with regard to religion and spirituality. It was found that while there is increasing research with regard to spirituality, health and well-being, there is very little specific to SLP. What is available and clinically relevant, generally relates to holistic care and/or cultural and linguistic diversity. Amidst the health care literature, however, there is a growing number of recommended instruments (for religious/spiritual screening) sensitive to intercultural and interfaith issues that are currently available to medical, nursing, allied health and chaplaincy practitioners. These instruments can also be of value to SLPs to ensure holistic assessments and interventions. It would seem timely for SLPs (and other allied health practitioners) to consider including spiritual screenings/assessments as part of their clinical practice so as to ensure appropriate holistic care. This would also mean undertaking research and including relevant education within tertiary institutions and professional development programs.

  9. Investigations on forests from viewpoints of global environment; Shinrin no chikyu kankyoteki shiten kara no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Forests have become drawing attention as an absorption source of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse effect gas. This paper discusses significance of forests from viewpoints of their roles as diverse ecological systems and socio-economic values. Forest is a place for living and resting of all kinds of living organisms including plants, animals and microorganisms. Living forms in forests being affluent in kinds and large in amount bring great favor to human societies. Forests play diversified roles other than biological roles in addition to largely affecting heat distribution on the ground through evapotranspiration. These roles include suppression of erosion on ground surface, alleviation of micro climate by reducing wind velocity on the ground, and disaster prevention. Forests have an aspect of supply source of production resources for societies as well as an aspect of unused lands. Efficiency of converting solar energy by plants looks inferior to that of solar cells. Biomass may be regarded as regenerative energy limited to a case where excess production is utilized. 142 refs., 56 figs., 44 tabs.

  10. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundharam, Sakthivel Manikandan; Navet, Nicolas; Altmeyer, Sebastian; Havet, Lionel

    2018-02-20

    Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency). This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language), an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system.

  11. Strength and Stiffness Development in Soft Soils: A FESEM aided Soil Microstructure Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ho, M. H.; Bai, X.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    This paper opens with an overview of the debatable definition of soft soil that goes beyond a (CH) organic / inorganic clay and OH peat to include weakly cemented periglacial deposits of loess and alike. It then outlines the findings obtained from stiffness test on cement-stabilised soft clay. The findings are complemented with a microstructure viewpoint obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Research also comprised of making cylindrical stabilised clay samples, prepared in the laboratory with various rubber chips contents and cement, and then aged for 28 days. The samples were then subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test and observations were also made of its microstructure using the FESEM. The impact of the soil microstructure on the stiffness result was studied both with the stabilized soil and also of some of the natural undisturbed loess soils. Sustainability aspect and the potential of the use of rubber chips and sand as additives to cement stabilisation are also discussed. The overall test results indicated that rubber chips and sand contributed to the improvement in unconfined compressive strength (qu). The derogatory influence of moisture on the stiffness of the stabilised clay was studied simultaneously. SEM micrographs are presented that show bonding of cement, rubber chips/ sand and soft clay, granular units and aggregated / agglomerated units in loess. The paper concludes with observations on the dependence of soil microstructure on the soil strength and deformability and even collapsibility of the loess. Current practices adopted as engineering solutions to these challenging soils are outlined.

  12. Using Social Media to Target Cancer Prevention in Young Adults: Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Le, Gem M; Lyles, Courtney R; Ramo, Danielle; Linos, Eleni; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2018-06-05

    Focusing on primary cancer prevention can reduce its incidence. Changing health behaviors is critical to cancer prevention. Modifiable cancer risk factors include lifestyle behaviors related to vaccination, physical activity, weight control and maintenance, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use. These health habits are often formed in young adulthood, a life stage which currently intersects with the growing population of digital natives whose childhood occurred in the internet era. Social media is a critical communication medium to reach this population of digital natives. Using a life course perspective, the purpose of this viewpoint paper is to describe the current landscape of nascent research using social media to target cancer prevention efforts in young adults and propose future directions to strengthen the scientific knowledge supporting social media strategies to promote cancer prevention behaviors. Leveraging social media as a health promotion tool is a promising strategy to impact modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer and warrants further research on developing effective communication strategies in young adults to prevent cancer in the future generations. ©Urmimala Sarkar, Gem M Le, Courtney R Lyles, Danielle Ramo, Eleni Linos, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.06.2018.

  13. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  14. [How can we prevent alveolar echinococcosis? Ecosystem and risk management viewpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Keita; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao; Doi, Rikuo; Tamashiro, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding epidemiological features of alveolar echinococcosis and discussing its prevention and control, especially from a viewpoint of the ecosystem and risk management. Publications on alveolar echinococcosis throughout the world were systematically reviewed with special reference to ecology, epidemiology and countermeasures. Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by accidental infection with larva of the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis is fatal to humans unless diagnosed at an early stage. No effective control measures have been identified so far because it is difficult to fully understand the ecology of the parasite and its intermediate and definitive hosts. It is also not easy to determine the precise infection route to humans mainly because of the long latent period. In Hokkaido, infection rates among red foxes have recently risen even in low endemic districts. Not only stray and domestic dogs but also some pigs in Hokkaido have been found to be infected. While the number of reported human cases is still small, around 10 cases per year, local residents seem to be threatened with the risk of infection. We predict that the incidence of alveolar echinococcosis among humans in Japan will increase in the near future if no effective preventive measures are conducted. In addition, Echinococcus multilocularis infection has the potential to affect the economy of Hokkaido because of its impact on the agricultural and tourist industries. Well-designed epidemiological surveys are therefore urgently required, in the context of ecosystem and risk management prior to large outbreaks. International collaboration is also desired.

  15. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navet, Nicolas; Havet, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency). This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language), an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system. PMID:29461489

  16. [Comparison of academic viewpoints between Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-qing; Bi, Li-juan; Yang, Xing-lin

    2010-07-01

    Both Yun Tie-qiao and Lu Yuan-lei are medical professionals coming from the literary field with versatile and in-depth knowledge and extensive experience in medical education and clinical practice, all closely related to modern TCM development. Yun, the elder, insisted on reforming TCM and was early to advocate the academic idea of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine; while Lu, the younger, insisted on the idea of "scientizing TCM" and was the representative of amalgamating western and traditional Chinese medicine in the later stage. They shared many common viewpoints, including venerating Zhang Zhongjing, stressing exogenous cold pathogens, advocating reformation and amalgamation of western medicine and TCM and objecting to the abolishment of TCM. However, there were discrepancies between them, including the relationship between the Inner Canon and the Essay on Exogenous Cold Diseases, warm disease theory, pulse theory, titles of TCM diseases and Japanese Kampo medicine. A comparison of them and noting their valuable contributions will be beneficial for the promotion of the development of TCM.

  17. A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Manikandan Sundharam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Model-Driven Engineering (MDE is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS. The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller, he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency. This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language, an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system.

  18. The effectiveness of educational supervisors from the viewpoints of nurse managers and clinical nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodayarian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The educational supervisors should attempt to plan and implement nurses’ development programs according to the principles of educational process. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of educational supervisors from the viewpoints of clinical nurses and nurse managers in 2007. Methods : 97 clinical nurses and 33 nurse managers in educational hospitals of Yazd participated in this cross sectional study. The questionnaire including 56 items related to expected professional competencies of educational supervisor was prepared and its validity and reliability was confirmed. Overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97 ranging from 0.77 to 0.96 for different dimensions which indicated internal consistency of the questionnaire. Results: The results showed 42.3% of nurses considered the function of their hospital as effective, 52.6% as ineffective, and 5.2% as relatively effective. One hundred percent of metrons considered the function of educational supervisors as effective. All the educational supervisors considered their function effective. The study samples reported that all the listed criteria were important in the effectiveness of educational supervisors’ function. Conclusion: In order to improve the effectiveness of educational supervisors’ function their management and leadership competencies should be developed. Competency-based approach is suggested in preparing educational supervisors for implementing the educational process from the problem solving skills. This will help nurse managers to make their work environments a learning and educational institute.

  19. Culture-bound syndrome and a culturally sensitive approach: from a viewpoint of medical anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, A; Miyakawa, T

    2000-08-01

    Some aspects of the culture-bound syndrome are presented for discussion. From the psychiatric and medical anthropological viewpoints, kamidaari is described as an initiatory illness for seeing a shaman, and focus on clinical realities developing between different therapeutic subcultures in the same culture and the complementary practices of two epistemological ones, namely, the shamanistic and modern psychiatric system in the shamanistic climate. It is suggested that the culture-bound syndrome that reflects cultural influences on disease patterns and renders them difficult to place in a universal classificatory system should be seen as a vernacular bricolage or as tactics used by people within the web of their own local culture of origin. Therapists who treat patients in a cross-epistemological milieu should be aware of the subcultural-epistemological issues that may affect the clinical process. It should be recognized that, depending on the nature of a particular psychiatric crisis, the clinical encounter is straddling the boundaries of multiple clinical realities. At every stage in the clinical field, there is an intersection, consonance, or interruption of rejoinders in the open dialog by all those engaged in the clinical time. Aspects of climatic, culturally sensitive psychotherapy will be described, and the concept of the culture-bound syndrome will be reconsidered. Our approach could be seen as 'situation- and fudo-bound'.

  20. The Link between Corporate Environmental and Corporate Financial Performance—Viewpoints from Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For more than 40 years, a tremendous number of studies have empirically explored the relationship between Corporate Environmental Performance (CEP and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP. This study considers the relationship from a new perspective—via a qualitative research approach based on expert interviews. First, practitioners are queried for their view on the link between CEP and CFP and how to measure it. Since the vast majority see a positive relationship, this study contributes with a new form of evidence that it pays to be green. The chosen qualitative approach also allows a more detailed analysis of underlying cause-and-effect mechanisms. For instance, interviewed practitioners emphasize a direct and indirect impact from CEP on CFP. Second, the study conducts interviews with experts from research and associations (non-practitioners and compares the viewpoints of the two interview groups. One prevalent difference refers to the fact that non-practitioners do not focus on the two impact levels. Moreover, business experts perceive the link between CEP and CFP as much less complex and reveal more pragmatically oriented considerations. The study then discusses how the interview results and identified differences can be used to direct future research and to support corporations in their move towards sustainability.

  1. Dressed photons from the viewpoint of photon localization: the entrance to the off-shell science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigo, Hayato; Ojima, Izumi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, a new aspect of the interplay is examined between mathematical-physical arguments and light-matter fusion technologies in terms of the concept of "effective mass", starting from a question: Who has seen a free photon? Owing to the general results due to Newton-Wigner and to Wightman, a position operator is absent for massless free particles with non-zero finite spins, and hence, we cannot observe free photons in any local space regions. To solve this paradox of "photon localization", the effective mass of a photon needs to be generated through the couplings of photons with matter. Here "polaritons" picture as a basic notion in optical and solid physics is shown to verify this viewpoint, which is seen to apply also to more general settings . Focusing on the role played by nanoparticles, we reach a new look at the notion of "dressed photons" as off-shell particles. The perspective above shows that essential mathematical structure of quantum field theory for the so-called elementary particles in subatomic scale can also be applied to certain phenomena in the nano-scale.

  2. Analysis of steady-state creep of Fe-Mo alloys from the viewpoint of recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, K.; Karashima, S.; Oikawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical equation to d evaluate the steady-state creep-rates, d epsilon/dtsub(s), based on a recovery creep model is derived: epsilonsub(s)/dt proportional to r/sigma 2 sub(a) x lambda 2 , where r is the recovery rate, which can be determined from results of stress-reduction tests, deltasub(a) the applied stress, and lambda the dislocation link-length. Two cases of recovery are considered, i.e., recovery of dislocation networks at sub-boundaries and that of three-dimensional networks within subgrains. The high-temperature steady-state creep of Fe-Mo solid solutions, creep characteristics of which have been reported to be well rationalized as viscous glide creep, is analyzed using this equation. It is shown that stress dependence of d epsilon/dtsub(s) is well explained from the viewpoint of recovery, in which the activation and the annihilation of dislocations at sub-boundaries are considered to take place. (orig.) [de

  3. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  4. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  5. Crossflow force transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-05-01

    A force transducer for measuring lift and drag coefficients for a circular cylinder in turbulent water flow is presented. In addition to describing the actual design and construction of the strain-gauged force- ring based transducer, requirements for obtained valid fluid force test data are discussed, and pertinent flow test experience is related

  6. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  7. Air Force Senior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force TV Radio Week in Photos About Us Air Force Senior Leaders SECAF CSAF CMSAF Biographies Adjunct Professors Senior Mentor Biographies Fact Sheets Commander's Call Topics CCT Archive CSAF Reading List 2017 Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > About Us > Air Force Senior Leaders

  8. Continuous 24-hour intravenous infusion of recombinant human growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-(1-44)-amide augments pulsatile, entropic, and daily rhythmic GH secretion in postmenopausal women equally in the estrogen-withdrawn and estrogen-supplemented states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W S; Anderson, S M; Hull, L T; Azimi, P P; Bowers, C Y; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-02-01

    How estrogen amplifies GH secretion in the human is not known. The present study tests the clinical hypothesis that estradiol modulates the stimulatory actions of a primary GH feedforward signal, GHRH. To this end, we investigated the ability of short-term (7- to 12-day) supplementation with oral estradiol vs. placebo to modulate basal, pulsatile, entropic, and 24-h rhythmic GH secretion driven by a continuous iv infusion of recombinant human GHRH-(1--44)-amide vs. saline in nine healthy postmenopausal women. Volunteers underwent concurrent blood sampling every 10 min for 24 h on four occasions in a prospectively randomized, single blind, within-subject cross-over design (placebo/saline, placebo/GHRH, estradiol/saline, estradiol/GHRH). Intensively sampled serum GH concentrations were quantitated by ultrasensitive chemiluminescence assay. Basal, pulsatile, entropic (feedback-sensitive), and 24-h rhythmic modes of GH secretion were appraised by deconvolution analysis, the approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic, and cosine regression, respectively. ANOVA revealed that continuous iv infusion of GHRH in the estrogen-withdrawn (control) milieu 1) amplified individual basal (P = 0.00011) and pulsatile (P < 10(-13)) GH secretion rates by 12- and 11-fold, respectively; 2) augmented GH secretory burst mass and amplitude each by 10-fold (P < 10(-11)), without altering GH secretory burst frequency, duration, or half-life; 3) increased the disorderliness (ApEn) of GH release patterns (P = 0.0000002); 4) elevated the mesor (cosine mean) and amplitude of the 24-h rhythm in serum GH concentrations by nearly 30-fold (both P < 10(-12)); 5) induced a phase advance in the clocktime of the GH zenith (P = 0.021); and 6) evoked a new 24-h rhythm in GH secretory burst mass with a maximum at 0018 h GH (P < 10(-3)), while damping the mesor of the 24-h rhythm in GH interpulse intervals (P < 0.025). Estradiol supplementation alone 1) increased the 24-h mean and integrated serum GH concentration

  9. Entanglement dynamics and position-momentum entropic uncertainty relation of a Λ-type three-level atom interacting with a two-mode cavity field in the presence of nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hooshmandasl, M. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the interaction between a $\\Lambda$-type three-level atom and two-mode cavity field is discussed. The detuning parameters and cross-Kerr nonlinearity are taken into account and it is assumed that atom-field coupling and Kerr medium to be $f$-deformed. Even though the system seems to be complicated, the analytical form of the state vector of the entire system for considered model is exactly obtained. The time evolution of nonclassical properties such as quantum entanglement and position-momentum entropic uncertainty relation (entropy squeezing) of the field are investigated. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters, generalized Kerr medium and intensity-dependent coupling on the latter nonclassicality signs are analyzed, in detail.

  10. Quantum entanglement and position–momentum entropic squeezing of a moving Lambda-type three-level atom interacting with a single-mode quantized field with intensity-dependent coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M J; Tavassoly, M K

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a moving Λ-type three-level atom and a single-mode cavity field in the presence of intensity-dependent atom–field coupling. After obtaining the state vector of the entire system explicitly, we study the nonclassical features of the system such as quantum entanglement, position–momentum entropic squeezing, quadrature squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics. According to the obtained numerical results we illustrate that the squeezed period, the duration of entropy squeezing and the maximal squeezing can be controlled by choosing the appropriate nonlinearity function together with entering the atomic motion effect by the suitable selection of the field-mode structure parameter. Also, the atomic motion, as well as the nonlinearity function, leads to the oscillatory behaviour of the degree of entanglement between the atom and field. (paper)

  11. Quantum entanglement and position-momentum entropic squeezing of a moving Lambda-type three-level atom interacting with a single-mode quantized field with intensity-dependent coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a moving Λ-type three-level atom and a single-mode cavity field in the presence of intensity-dependent atom-field coupling. After obtaining the state vector of the entire system explicitly, we study the nonclassical features of the system such as quantum entanglement, position-momentum entropic squeezing, quadrature squeezing and sub-Poissonian statistics. According to the obtained numerical results we illustrate that the squeezed period, the duration of entropy squeezing and the maximal squeezing can be controlled by choosing the appropriate nonlinearity function together with entering the atomic motion effect by the suitable selection of the field-mode structure parameter. Also, the atomic motion, as well as the nonlinearity function, leads to the oscillatory behaviour of the degree of entanglement between the atom and field.

  12. Requerimientos sectoriales de energía eléctrica en México. Una aplicación del concepto de entropía de Theil al análisis insumo-producto

    OpenAIRE

    Gastélum Valdez, Martha Janet

    2009-01-01

    La investigación estima los requerimientos sectoriales de energía eléctrica en México. Se utilizan tres metodologías: 1) la que calcula los requerimientos de energía primaria a través de los balances energéticos; 2) las necesidades de energía eléctrica obtenido del modelo insumo-producto y 3) el uso del índice de Theil y una medida de concentración con vínculos hacia delante y hacia atrás que mide el grado de inter-conectividad. Los altos valores de las entropías confirman que la importancia ...

  13. Quantum fictitious forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I; Cirone, M.A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We present Heisenberg's equation of motion for the radial variable of a free non-relativistic particle in D dimensions. The resulting radial force consists of three contributions: (i) the quantum fictitious force which is either attractive or repulsive depending on the number of dimensions, (ii......) a singular quantum force located at the origin, and (iii) the centrifugal force associated with non-vanishing angular momentum. Moreover, we use Heisenberg's uncertainty relation to introduce a lower bound for the kinetic energy of an ensemble of neutral particles. This bound is quadratic in the number...... of atoms and can be traced back to the repulsive quantum fictitious potential. All three forces arise for a free particle: "Force without force"....

  14. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  15. Constipation due to Liver Disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine`s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Choopani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders.In many cases, there is no anatomic endocrineor metabolic cause in explanation of chronic constipation.More than 85% of them called functional or idiopathic.Constipation is one of the serious disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Besides the problem it causes, chronic constipation can be the origin of many disease. That is why, ithas been called Mother of disease.The purpose of this study is to investigate the Constipation in children and the role of other organs such as the liver by view of Iranian Traditional Medicine   Materials and Method: This study is a review through Iranian traditional medicine references. At first, all the main available traditional books were reviewed. All the data about therapies of vaginal discharge in ITM were collected then classified.   Results: In traditional medicine different reasons have been mentioned for constipation especially for childrenwhich most of them are similar to etiology in Modern Medicine.Constipation due to liver disorder is one of the causes of constipation.In Iranian Traditional medicine` viewpoint, one of the mechanism for excretion is existence of secreted bile in intestine.If by any reason,measure or quality of its which secreted in intestine through bile changes or if intestinal mucous secretion becomes barrier for absorbing the food,it will caused disorder in excretion and finally will lead to constipation.Well known Iranian Traditional Medicine scientists, has mentioned all reasons for liver disorders and changing quality& quantity of secreted bile .he has mentioned the solutions as well.   Conclusion: It is hoped that by paying attention to constipation and with advanced clinical research we will be able to explain idiopathic constipation and prepare new ways of treatments for constipation. New researches have approved the effectiveness of these foods and drugs for treating the constipation.   Keywords

  16. Factors Affecting Job Motivation from the Viewpoints of Staff and Managers in Semnan Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Alebouyeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regarding the type of service receivers as well as the technicality of the services provided, these services often bear high complexity and difficulty which can eventually lead to job burnout and shortage of motivation in the staffIn this study, the factors affecting job motivation from the viewpoints of staff and managers of Semnan Welfare Organization have been identified and possible differences have been analyzed. Methods: In the present study, based on Herzberg’s model of job motivation and considering several assessment tools produced according to this model, a draft of a researcher-designed questionnaire was prepared in order to determine the factors affecting job motivation in the staff and managers of the State Welfare Organization in Semnan province. The content and face validity of the questionnaire was determined and approved by 10 experts, 5 managers and 15 staff members of the Semnan Welfare Organization who were selected purposefully, using the Lawsche’s method. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed and approved by test-retest correlation coefficient determination. After informed consent was obtained, all staff and managers conforming to the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study and to complete the questionnaire. Results: In contrast to Herzberg’s theory which considers intrinsic factors as more important than extrinsic factors in causing motivation, our results demonstrated that staff and managers of Semnan Welfare Organization believed extrinsic factors provoked higher motivation. Discussion: The major motivation factors for staff and managers of Semnan Welfare province were somehow related to management practices of managers and staff, both of which are categorized as extrinsic factors.

  17. fMRI-adaptation studies of viewpoint tuning in the extrastriate and fusiform body areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Wiggett, Alison J; Downing, Paul E

    2010-03-01

    People are easily able to perceive the human body across different viewpoints, but the neural mechanisms underpinning this ability are currently unclear. In three experiments, we used functional MRI (fMRI) adaptation to study the view-invariance of representations in two cortical regions that have previously been shown to be sensitive to visual depictions of the human body--the extrastriate and fusiform body areas (EBA and FBA). The BOLD response to sequentially presented pairs of bodies was treated as an index of view invariance. Specifically, we compared trials in which the bodies in each image held identical poses (seen from different views) to trials containing different poses. EBA and FBA adapted to identical views of the same pose, and both showed a progressive rebound from adaptation as a function of the angular difference between views, up to approximately 30 degrees. However, these adaptation effects were eliminated when the body stimuli were followed by a pattern mask. Delaying the mask onset increased the response (but not the adaptation effect) in EBA, leaving FBA unaffected. We interpret these masking effects as evidence that view-dependent fMRI adaptation is driven by later waves of neuronal responses in the regions of interest. Finally, in a whole brain analysis, we identified an anterior region of the left inferior temporal sulcus (l-aITS) that responded linearly to stimulus rotation, but showed no selectivity for bodies. Our results show that body-selective cortical areas exhibit a similar degree of view-invariance as other object selective areas--such as the lateral occipitotemporal area (LO) and posterior fusiform gyrus (pFs).

  18. Protected area staff and local community viewpoints: A qualitative assessment of conservation relationships in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedza Ngonidzashe Mutanga

    Full Text Available With the increase in illegal resource harvesting in most protected areas (PAs, the need to understand the determinants and relationships between PAs and local communities to enhance wildlife conservation is increasingly becoming important. Using focus group discussions and interviews, we established the determinants of PA staff-community relationship from both PA staff and local communities' viewpoints, and assessedperceptions of their relationship with each other. The study was guided by the following main research question, 'What is the nature of the relationship between PA staff and local communities and what are the main factors influencing the relationship?' Data were collected through focus group discussions and interviews from four PAs and their adjacent communities in Zimbabwe between July 2013 and February 2014. Our results showed that a total of seven determinants were identified as influencing PA staff-community relationship, i.e., benefit-sharing, human-wildlife conflict, compensation for losses from wildlife attacks, communication between PA staff and local communities, community participation in the management of CAMPFIRE projects, lack of community participation in tourism in PAs, and community perceptions of PA staff or PA staff perceptions of the community. Of the seven, only one determinant, benefit-sharing, was recorded as the main factor that differentially influencesthe perceptions of community and PA staff on their relationship. Furthermore, both the communities and PA staff reported mixed perceptions on their relationship with each other. We conclude that both communities' and PA staff's views on determinants are largely similar in all studied PAs irrespective of PA ownership, management and/or land use. Our findings could be relevant in policy making especially in developing countries in developing PA-community relationship framework in natural resource conservation.

  19. Deriving and Constraining 3D CME Kinematic Parameters from Multi-Viewpoint Coronagraph Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Mei, H. F.; Barnes, D.; Colaninno, R. C.; Kwon, R.; Mays, M. L.; Mierla, M.; Moestl, C.; Richardson, I. G.; Verbeke, C.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the 3D properties of a coronal mass ejection using multi-viewpoint coronagraph observations can be a tremendously complicated process. There are many factors that inhibit the ability to unambiguously identify the speed, direction and shape of a CME. These factors include the need to separate the "true" CME mass from shock-associated brightenings, distinguish between non-radial or deflected trajectories, and identify asymmetric CME structures. Additionally, different measurement methods can produce different results, sometimes with great variations. Part of the reason for the wide range of values that can be reported for a single CME is due to the difficulty in determining the CME's longitude since uncertainty in the angle of the CME relative to the observing image planes results in errors in the speed and topology of the CME. Often the errors quoted in an individual study are remarkably small when compared to the range of values that are reported by different authors for the same CME. For example, two authors may report speeds of 700 +- 50 km/sec and 500+-50 km/sec for the same CME. Clearly a better understanding of the accuracy of CME measurements, and an improved assessment of the limitations of the different methods, would be of benefit. We report on a survey of CME measurements, wherein we compare the values reported by different authors and catalogs. The survey will allow us to establish typical errors for the parameters that are commonly used as inputs for CME propagation models such as ENLIL and EUHFORIA. One way modelers handle inaccuracies in CME parameters is to use an ensemble of CMEs, sampled across ranges of latitude, longitude, speed and width. The CMEs simulated in order to determine the probability of a "direct hit" and, for the cases with a "hit," derive a range of possible arrival times. Our study will provide improved guidelines for generating CME ensembles that more accurately sample across the range of plausible values.

  20. Can language acquisition be facilitated in cochlear implanted children? Comparison of cognitive and behavioral psychologists' viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshizadeh, Leila; Vameghi, Roshanak; Yadegari, Fariba; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Hashemi, Seyed Basir

    2016-11-08

    To study how language acquisition can be facilitated for cochlear implanted children based on cognitive and behavioral psychology viewpoints? To accomplish this objective, literature related to behaviorist and cognitive psychology prospects about language acquisition were studied and some relevant books as well as Medline, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge and Scopus databases were searched. Among 25 articles that were selected, only 11 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Based on the inclusion criteria, review articles, expert opinion studies, non-experimental and experimental studies that clearly focused on behavioral and cognitive factors affecting language acquisition in children were selected. Finally, the selected articles were appraised according to guidelines of appraisal of medical studies. Due to the importance of the cochlear implanted child's language performance, the comparison of behaviorist and cognitive psychology points of view in child language acquisition was done. Since each theoretical basis, has its own positive effects on language, and since the two are not in opposition to one another, it can be said that a set of behavioral and cognitive factors might facilitate the process of language acquisition in children. Behavioral psychologists believe that repetition, as well as immediate reinforcement of child's language behavior help him easily acquire the language during a language intervention program, while cognitive psychologists emphasize on the relationship between information processing, memory improvement through repetitively using words along with "associated" pictures and objects, motor development and language acquisition. It is recommended to use a combined approach based on both theoretical frameworks while planning a language intervention program.

  1. The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Evaluation from the viewpoint of magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Jun

    2003-01-01

    The etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome has not been clarified. A cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, flexor tendons, median nerve, and thickness of transverse carpal ligament were evaluated by MRI. Twenty-six patients who were electrophysiologically diagnosed with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were tested by MRI. All patients were females; the mean age was sixty-four years old. The cross sectional area of carpal tunnel, the median nerve area, the area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament were calculated. The following are of a seuere type carpal tunnel syndrome: Mean area of the flexor tendons and its synovium in carpal tunnel, 110.5±25.5 mm 2 (control group; 79.3±13.8 mm 2 ); ratio of flexor tendons and its synovium area to carpal tunnel area, 51.6±8.8% (control; 40.5±2.3%); and thickness of the transverse carpal ligament, 3.3±0.4 mm (control; 2.4±0.4 mm). These mean areas in severe carpal tunnel syndrome were significantly greater than those in mild type (p<0.05 or p<0.01). From the viewpoint of this result, it is possible that tenosynovitis is strongly to the etiology of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. In other words, synovium edema causes chronic high pressure environment in carpal tunnel. Moreover, we classified these MRI findings into the following subgroups: enlargement of cross sectional area of flexor tendon and its synovia (n=8; 25.8%), thickened transverse carpal ligament (n=11; 35.5%), and combined type (n=7; 22.6%). This classification by MRI imaging was related to a clinical course and electro-physiologic severity. The present study suggests that to evaluate the cross sectional, area of an MRI image is useful for diagnosis and cure of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)

  2. Common Ground on Climate Change: Pairing Opposing Viewpoints for Conversations about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, K. B.; Duggan-Haas, D.; Hayhoe, K.

    2017-12-01

    In American public discourse, people tend to strongly identify with the viewpoints held by their cultural and political tribes. However, entrenched positions do little to advance understanding, or work toward solving problems constructively. Worse yet, it has become commonplace to dismiss or demonize those coming from a different point of view - leading to the vitriolic stalemate that often characterizes social media and comment threads when it comes to climate change. One way to break this pattern is to invite people with opposing opinions to actually talk to one another. This presentation describes the lessons learned during the Common Ground on Climate Change project, in which people with contrasting views about climate change engage in a moderated interview with each other. Prior to the interview, participants complete a set of values-based questions. The goal is to reveal areas of common ground between apparent opposites, such as a sense of stewardship for Earth's resources, or an opinion that solutions to climate change will be more beneficial than harmful. The structure of the interviews is based on the hypothesis that if a conversation begins with an appreciation of common values, it becomes easier to broach areas of disagreement. Participants are matched up in one-on-one moderated interviews where they are encouraged to share their concerns, ideas, and priorities about the validity of climate science, the need for urgent action, and the types of solutions they find most tenable. Emerging themes from this series of interviews include the value of a diversity of outlooks, and the ability for moderated conversations to find surprising areas of agreement. Articles about the interviews also appear on the Yale Climate Connections website, https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/author/karin/.

  3. Factors Affecting the Choice of Professors as a Role Model from the Viewpoint of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Rahimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of professors as a model can have a beneficial impact on the mental, psychological and educational conditions of medical students. This also plays an important role in improving professionalism and academic achievements among medical students. Therefore, the present study was aimed at evaluating the standpoint of students on factors influencing the selection of professors as a role model. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the students of different disciplines studying in Jahrom University of Medical Sciences in 2016. A randomized sampling method was conducted on 217 students. Their viewpoints were collected using a 30- question researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, each containing ten items. In addition, this questionnaire was distributed among 20 people (as a pilot survey, the alpha coefficient of which was equal to 0.88; and its measurement was based on Likert scale "from very low to very high". Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and descriptive statistics. Most respondents were nursing students and the highest influence of professors as a role model was associated with their role as a research leader (future specialized courses in the clinical choices and selection of future specialized fields. The factors influencing the selection of professors as a role model included their respectful attitude toward students, and the high level of their knowledge and skills. On the other hand, the most important factors that caused professors not to be regarded as a role model included their inappropriate relationship with the students and refusing to listen to them. Role model professors can have a beneficial impact on the future of students and scientific communities, as far as the science and education is concerned. Therefore, it is necessary for professors to pay particular attention to strengthening their role as a model at universities.

  4. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  5. Force Balance and Substorm Effects in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Richard L.; Larson, Douglas J.; Kontodinas, Ioannis D.; Ball, Bryan M.

    1997-01-01

    A model of the quiet time middle magnetotail is developed using a consistent orbit tracing technique. The momentum equation is used to calculate geocentric solar magnetospheric components of the particle and electromagnetic forces throughout the current sheet. Ions generate the dominant x and z force components. Electron and ion forces almost cancel in the y direction because the two species drift earthward at comparable speeds. The force viewpoint is applied to a study of some substorm processes. Generation of the rapid flows seen during substorm injection and bursty bulk flow events implies substantial force imbalances. The formation of a substorm diversion loop is one cause of changes in the magnetic field and therefore in the electromagnetic force. It is found that larger forces are produced when the cross-tail current is diverted to the ionosphere than would be produced if the entire tail current system simply decreased. Plasma is accelerated while the forces are unbalanced resulting in field lines within a diversion loop becoming more dipolar. Field lines become more stretched and the plasma sheet becomes thinner outside a diversion loop. Mechanisms that require thin current sheets to produce current disruption then can create additional diversion loops in the newly thinned regions. This process may be important during multiple expansion substorms and in differentiating pseudoexpansions from full substorms. It is found that the tail field model used here can be generated by a variety of particle distribution functions. However, for a given energy distribution the mixture of particle mirror or reflection points is constrained by the consistency requirement. The study of uniqueness also leads to the development of a technique to select guiding center electrons that will produce charge neutrality all along a flux tube containing nonguiding center ions without the imposition of a parallel electric field.

  6. Survey of the Effective Methods of Decreasing Demands of Narcotic Substances from the Viewpoint of Hamadan People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Rahimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Addiction is a complex problem with different psychological, social and familial aspects, which strongly threaten the health of million people, and collapse the social and personal life. The aim of this study was to determine the effective methods of narcotic substances and decreasing demands from the viewpoint of Hamadan peopleMaterials & Methods: This research was a sectional-descriptive study. The participants consisted of 1456 individuals that were selected by stratified sampling. The data collected through a questionnaire consists of 3 parts; I. the demographic characteristics II. the questions about decreasing the demands and III. the questions related to the methods of narcotic substances campaign.Results: Outcome showed that 60.78% of the participants believe the best method to decrease demands to narcotic substances is the mass media and 51.92% believe to promote the religious believes and 44.5% to change people’s viewpoint about the narcotic substances. 78.85% agreed with using punishments on narcotics devisers and 40.1% agreed with punishment on users.Conclusion: From the viewpoint of Hamedan people mass media and religious believes effect in attitude of people about narcotic substances abuse and also they believed that punishment of users and opinion devisers were being useful.

  7. No childhood development of viewpoint-invariant face recognition: evidence from 8-year-olds and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Kate; Robbins, Rachel A

    2014-10-01

    Performance on laboratory face tasks improves across childhood, not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Debate surrounds the source of this development, with recent reviews suggesting that underlying face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood and that the improvement seen on experimental tasks instead results from general cognitive/perceptual development. One face processing mechanism that has been argued to develop slowly is the ability to encode faces in a view-invariant manner (i.e., allowing recognition across changes in viewpoint). However, many previous studies have not controlled for general cognitive factors. In the current study, 8-year-olds and adults performed a recognition memory task with two study-test viewpoint conditions: same view (study front view, test front view) and change view (study front view, test three-quarter view). To allow quantitative comparison between children and adults, performance in the same view condition was matched across the groups by increasing the learning set size for adults. Results showed poorer memory in the change view condition than in the same view condition for both adults and children. Importantly, there was no quantitative difference between children and adults in the size of decrement in memory performance resulting from a change in viewpoint. This finding adds to growing evidence that face processing mechanisms are mature early in childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-time free-viewpoint DIBR on GPUs for 3DTV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, G.; Do, Q.L.; Zinger, S.; With, de P.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-view 3D may succeed stereo 3DTV in multimedia and TV applications. To this end, the MPEG committee has installed a special task force to establish a standard for multi-view 3D coding. One focal point of our research work is on an efficient implementation of the rendering part of such a

  9. Surface force analysis of molecular interfacial interactions of proteins and lipids with polymeric biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton-Brown, P.; Griesser, H.J.; Meagher, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Adverse biological responses to biomedical devices are often caused by the irreversible accumulation of biological deposits onto the surfaces of devices. Such deposits cause blocking of artificial blood vessels, fibrous encapsulation of soft tissue regenerative devices, 'fouling' of contact lenses, secondary cataracts on intraocular lenses, and other undesirable events that interfere with the intended functions of biomedical devices. The formation of deposits is triggered by an initial stage in which various proteins and lipids rapidly adsorb onto the synthetic material surface; further biological molecules and ultimately cellular entities (e.g., host cells, bacteria) then settle onto the initial adsorbed layer. Hence, to avoid or control the accumulation of biological deposits, molecular understanding is required of the initial adsorption processes. Such adsorption is caused by attractive interfacial forces, which we are characterising by the use of a novel method. In the present study, polymeric thin film coatings, polyethylene oxide (PEO), and polysaccharide coatings have been analysed in terms of their surface forces and the ensuing propensity for protein and lipid adsorption. Interfacial forces are measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a colloid-modified tip in a liquid cell using solutions of physiological pH and ionic strength. The chemical composition and uniformity of the coatings was characterised by X-ray Photon Spectroscopy (XPS). For a polymeric solid coating, repulsive forces have been measured against a silica colloid probe, and the dominant surface force is electrostatic. For the highly hydrated, 'soft' PEO and polysaccharide coatings, on the other hand, steric/entropic forces are also significant and contribute to interfacial interactions with proteins and lipids. In one system we have observed a time dependence of the electrostatic surface potential, which affects interaction with charged proteins. Force measurements were

  10. StringForce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Börjesson, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the forced collaborative interaction game StringForce. StringForce is developed for a special education context to support training of collaboration skills, using readily available technologies and avoiding the creation of a "mobile bubble". In order to play String......Force two or four physically collocated tablets are required. These tablets are connected to form one large shared game area. The game can only be played by collaborating. StringForce extends previous work, both technologically and regarding social-emotional training. We believe String......Force to be an interesting demo for the IDC community, as it intertwines several relevant research fields, such as mobile interaction and collaborative gaming in the special education context....

  11. Quantum anticentrifugal force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirone, M.A.; Schleich, W.P.; Straub, F.; Rzazewski, K.; Wheeler, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-dimensional world, a free quantum particle of vanishing angular momentum experiences an attractive force. This force originates from a modification of the classical centrifugal force due to the wave nature of the particle. For positive energies the quantum anticentrifugal force manifests itself in a bunching of the nodes of the energy wave functions towards the origin. For negative energies this force is sufficient to create a bound state in a two-dimensional δ-function potential. In a counterintuitive way, the attractive force pushes the particle away from the location of the δ-function potential. As a consequence, the particle is localized in a band-shaped domain around the origin

  12. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  13. Should Student Evaluation of Teaching Play a Significant Role in the Formal Assessment of Dental Faculty? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Formal Faculty Assessment Should Include Student Evaluation of Teaching and Viewpoint 2: Student Evaluation of Teaching Should Not Be Part of Formal Faculty Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Susan; Newness, Elmer J; Tetradis, Sotirios; Prasad, Joanne L; Ko, Ching-Chang; Sanchez, Arlene

    2017-11-01

    Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is often used in the assessment of faculty members' job performance and promotion and tenure decisions, but debate over this use of student evaluations has centered on the validity, reliability, and application of the data in assessing teaching performance. Additionally, the fear of student criticism has the potential of influencing course content delivery and testing measures. This Point/Counterpoint article reviews the potential utility of and controversy surrounding the use of SETs in the formal assessment of dental school faculty. Viewpoint 1 supports the view that SETs are reliable and should be included in those formal assessments. Proponents of this opinion contend that SETs serve to measure a school's effectiveness in support of its core mission, are valid measures based on feedback from the recipients of educational delivery, and provide formative feedback to improve faculty accountability to the institution. Viewpoint 2 argues that SETs should not be used for promotion and tenure decisions, asserting that higher SET ratings do not correlate with improved student learning. The advocates of this viewpoint contend that faculty members may be influenced to focus on student satisfaction rather than pedagogy, resulting in grade inflation. They also argue that SETs are prone to gender and racial biases and that SET results are frequently misinterpreted by administrators. Low response rates and monotonic response patterns are other factors that compromise the reliability of SETs.

  14. Hydrostatic force sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.S.; Stoughton, R.S.; Kazerooni, H.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of a new kind of force sensor which detects forces by measuring an induced pressure change in a material of large Poisson's ratio. In this investigation we develop mathematical expressions for the sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth, and show that its sensitivity can be much larger and its bandwidth is usually smaller than those of existing strain-gage-type sensors. This force sensor is well-suited for measuring large but slowly varying forces. It can be installed in a space smaller than that required by existing sensors

  15. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  16. Intermolecular and surface forces

    CERN Document Server

    Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-01-01

    This reference describes the role of various intermolecular and interparticle forces in determining the properties of simple systems such as gases, liquids and solids, with a special focus on more complex colloidal, polymeric and biological systems. The book provides a thorough foundation in theories and concepts of intermolecular forces, allowing researchers and students to recognize which forces are important in any particular system, as well as how to control these forces. This third edition is expanded into three sections and contains five new chapters over the previous edition.· starts fr

  17. RSOI: Force Deployment Bottleneck

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Amato, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This study uses The Theory Of Constraints (TOC) management methodology and recent military missions to show that RSOI operations are generally the limiting constraint to force deployment operations...

  18. Air Force Academy Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communications Focal Point Contracting Squadron Force Support Squadron Mortuary Affairs Logistics Readiness Squadron Cadet Logistics Deployment and Distribution Material Management Operations PM Equipment Lab

  19. Simulation of a force on force exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.; Van Slyke, D.; Sheppard, T.; Brandrup, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Security Exercise Evaluation System (SEES) is under development for use in planning Force on Force exercises and as an aid in post-exercise evaluation. This study is part of the development cycle where the simulation results are compared to field data to provide guidance for further development of the model. SEES is an event-driven stochastic computer program simulating individual movement and combat within an urban terrain environment. The simulator models the physics of movement, line of sight, and weapon effects. It relies on the controllers to provide all knowledge of security tactics, which are entered by the controllers during the simulation using interactive color graphic workstations. They are able to develop, modify and implement plans promptly as the simulator maintains real time. This paper reports on how SEES will be used to develop an intrusion plan, test the security response tactics and develop observer logistics. A Force on Force field exercise will then be executed to follow the plan with observations recorded. An analysis is made by first comparing the plan and events of the simulation with the field exercise, modifying the simulation plan to match the actual field exercise, and then running the simulation to develop a distribution of possible outcomes

  20. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  1. NHS patients, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within a hospitals' ground: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alina; Franklin, Sarah; Mehta, Rashesh; Crosby, Scott; Lee, Diane; Edlin, Becky; Bewick, Bridgette M

    2014-09-29

    Smoking is a public health concern and an avoidable cause of morbidity and mortality. Widening tobacco control policies might help shift social norms, the acceptability of exposing others to second-hand smoke, and cultural attitudes towards smoking. This study explored patient, staff, and visitor viewpoints of smoking within the grounds of a National Health Service hospital. Analysis of free text responses given as part of a larger repeat cross sectional questionnaire study. Free text qualitative responses analysed using thematic analysis. Pinderfields Hospital, a UK National Health Service hospital in the county of Yorkshire, provides a health service to around half a million people living in the Wakefield and North Kirklees area. Surveys were distributed 10th-18th September and 17th-21st December 2012. Of the n=952 participants who completed an anonymous survey n=306 participants provided a response to the optional free text question. Thematic analysis revealed 5 distinct themes: (1) smoking is a dirty problem; (2) smokers are free to do as they wish; (3) the poor smoker; (4) smoke in our space: the battleground; and (5) no smoking please. Of the n=272 represented by the five themes, generally people accepted that smoking is socially unacceptable but their understanding of smoking behaviours and attitudes towards management and control of smoking differed. There was a strong sense that action is needed to separate the space smokers and non-smokers share. We identified a distinct group of participants that supported a hard line approach and suggested enforcing the no smoking policy through fines and monitoring. Smoking on hospital grounds remains a contentious issue. Participants acknowledge that smoking is an increasingly unacceptable social behaviour but their understanding and acceptance of smokers vary. There is a strong sense of dislike about the impact of smoke and smokers on the shared hospital environment, with a focus on the hospital entrance

  2. Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Mochalin, Vadym N [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  3. Formation, characterization, and dynamics of onion-like carbon structures for electrical energy storage from nanodiamonds using reactive force fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Kent, P. R. C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Mochalin, V. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2011-10-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbonnanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbonnanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about ~3.4 Å for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large (~29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  4. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force devel...

  5. The forces in Nature

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN AC

    1998-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies of phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  6. New force in nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, E.; Sudarsky, D.; Szafer, A.; Talmadge, C.; Aronson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical work dealing with the proposed fifth force. Further analysis of the original Eoetvoes experiments has uncovered no challenges to our original assertion that these data evidence a correlation characteristic of the presence of a new coupling to baryon number or hypercharge. Various models suggest that the proposed fifth force could be accomodated naturally into the existing theoretical framework

  7. The Study of Wilfred Cantwell Smith’Viewpoint on the Problem of Religious Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nazarpoor Najafabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of religious diversity, the religious truth and salvation of the followers of religions is one of the important issues of religious studies, especially philosophy of religion. On this issue there are three viewpoints: religious exclusivism, religious inclusivism and religious pluralism. This study reviews Cantwell Smith's viewpoint about the issue of religious diversity. Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1916-2000 is one of the contemporary scholars in religious studies and one of the thinkers of the twentieth century with extensive knowledge in various fields of the humanities. He is one of the best historians of the twentieth century in the comparative study of religion. The Study of Cantwell Smith's works and his views on religious diversity show that he is follower of religious pluralism. Smith's life, personal beliefs and communication with people of other faiths is an influential factor in shaping his pluralistic vision. His experience with other religions, kept him from general thinking about the other religions, and he gradually came to the conclusion that they are not unsaved and without God; but their lives, just like Christians, has religious features and traits. Type of his communication and administrative and social activities in convergence Christian sects and followers of different religions, reflects his pluralistic spirit and thought. According to Smith's personal approach in religious studies, his emphasis on the distinction between internal and external aspects of religion, emphasizing on the inner aspect of religion, i.e. faith, personal faith and incapacity of others in approve or reject faith, his pluralistic view can be inferred. According to Smith, the study of religion is to investigate the meaning of the appearances of religion in the eyes of those who believe in it, study people's faith and survey persons, not study data. Smith believes that the concepts of faith and cumulative tradition should be used instead of the

  8. Ponderomotive Forces in Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, R.; Guglielmi, A.

    2006-12-01

    This review is devoted to ponderomotive forces and their importance for the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Ponderomotive forces constitute time-averaged nonlinear forces acting on a media in the presence of oscillating electromagnetic fields. Ponderomotive forces represent a useful analytical tool to describe plasma acceleration. Oscillating electromagnetic fields are also related with dissipative processes, such as heating of particles. Dissipative processes are, however, left outside these discussions. The focus will be entirely on the (conservative) ponderomotive forces acting in space plasmas. The review consists of seven sections. In Section 1, we explain the rational for using the auxiliary ponderomotive forces instead of the fundamental Lorentz force for the study of particle motions in oscillating fields. In Section 2, we present the Abraham, Miller, Lundin-Hultqvist and Barlow ponderomotive forces, and the Bolotovsky-Serov ponderomotive drift. The hydrodynamic, quasi-hydrodynamic, and ‘`test-particle’' approaches are used for the study of ponderomotive wave-particle interaction. The problems of self-consistency and regularization are discussed in Section 3. The model of static balance of forces (Section 4) exemplifies the interplay between thermal, gravitational and ponderomotive forces, but it also introduces a set of useful definitions, dimensionless parameters, etc. We analyze the Alfvén and ion cyclotron waves in static limit with emphasis on the specific distinction between traveling and standing waves. Particular attention has been given to the impact of traveling Alfvén waves on the steady state anabatic wind that blows over the polar regions (Section~5). We demonstrate the existence of a wave-induced cold anabatic wind. We also show that, at a critical point, the ponderomotive acceleration of the wind is a factor of 3 greater than the thermal acceleration. Section 6 demonstrates various

  9. OOTW Force Design Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  10. Medical Interns’ and Clerkship Students’ Viewpoints on Nutrition Course in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghaderi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Background and purpose: Nutrition plays a key role in maintaining and promoting health and preventing diseases. In most medical schools, Nutrition education is not sufficient and only 26% of college students have proper nutritional education programs. Physicians should use their knowledge through education and counseling with patients and healthy people to increase people’s level of health. Poor eating habits are considered as a factor of chronic disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine medical interns and clerkship students’ viewpoint about nutrition course at a specific medical school.Methods: This study was descriptive and 87 interns and clerkship students of Birjand University of Medical Sciences participated. The data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire based on the existing topics in nutrition, the time allocated, their educational needs as well as the issues that physicians have the greatest exposure to. After completing the questionnaire, all of the data were collected, coded, and analyzed using SPSS software, version 15. The chi-square test was used to compare the views of interns and medical students.Results: Of the participants, 72.4% were female, 27.6% were male, 57.5% were medical students, and 42.5% were interns. According to these students, 51.7% considered one nutrition course in the second semester to be appropriate, and that the topic of improved nutrition in vulnerable groups was more effective during the clinical stage (63.2%. In addition, the need to learn about nutrition in vulnerable groups, foods and nutritious, diseases caused by malnutrition, and food health (66.7%, 57.5%, 54%, and 52.9%, respectively was considered to be more important. Moreover, 55.2% of the participants considered nutrition in vulnerable groups to be highly relevant, while 51.7% believed that malnutrition-related diseases was more relevant. Most of the students considered the topics of foods and nutrients

  11. IRSN's viewpoint on the safety and radiation protection of French nuclear power plants in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the viewpoint of the IRSN on the safety and radiation protection of EDF's nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation during 2007. It does not aim to be exhaustive but rather to highlight the points the IRSN considers important for safety. Contributing to maintaining a high level of safety and radiation protection in nuclear facilities in service is one of the seven challenges of the objectives contract signed between the French Government and the IRSN. Safety demands constant vigilance on the part of all the players involved. It is never definitively acquired and must remain a priority and continuously progress, with the plant operator remaining the first entity responsible for the safety of its facility. For the IRSN, part of this mission firstly involves carefully examining and taking into consideration national and international experience feedback, and new scientific knowledge resulting from research. The implementation of improvements, whether technical or organizational or relating to human skills, then comes secondly. This report comprises four sections. In the first section, the IRSN presents the main trends that emerged from its overall review of the safety of the in-service nuclear power plants. The second section addresses the events that have marked the year due to their impact on safety. It also presents a synthesis of the radiation protection events. The third section is devoted to anomalies displaying a generic nature for several power plants. The last section covers the significant changes implemented or scheduled. These are generally modifications or plans of action intended to improve safety performance in the operation or design of the facilities. In spite of sometimes significant disparities in the results between power plants, the IRSN draws the following conclusions from its global review of the year 2007. First of all, no event had serious consequences in the fields of either safety or radioprotection. This good result must

  12. Forced magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekstein, G.

    2017-10-01

    This is a tutorial-style selective review explaining basic concepts of forced magnetic reconnection. It is based on a celebrated model of forced reconnection suggested by J. B. Taylor. The standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory of this process has been pioneered by Hahm & Kulsrud (Phys. Fluids, vol. 28, 1985, p. 2412). Here we also discuss several more recent developments related to this problem. These include energetics of forced reconnection, its Hall-mediated regime, and nonlinear effects with the associated onset of the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability.

  13. Bi-Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Speicher, Nora K; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    of pairwise similarities. We first evaluated the power of Bi-Force to solve dedicated bicluster editing problems by comparing Bi-Force with two existing algorithms in the BiCluE software package. We then followed a biclustering evaluation protocol in a recent review paper from Eren et al. (2013) (A...... comparative analysis of biclustering algorithms for gene expressiondata. Brief. Bioinform., 14:279-292.) and compared Bi-Force against eight existing tools: FABIA, QUBIC, Cheng and Church, Plaid, BiMax, Spectral, xMOTIFs and ISA. To this end, a suite of synthetic datasets as well as nine large gene expression...

  14. Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    .... It looks at the manner in which security assistance guidance is developed and executed. An examination of national level policy and the guidance from senior military and civilian leaders highlights the important role of Security Force Assistance...

  15. Hanscom Air Force Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MIT Lincoln Laboratory occupies 75 acres (20 acres of which are MIT property) on the eastern perimeter of Hanscom Air Force Base, which is at the nexus of Lexington,...

  16. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  17. Expeditionary Warfare- Force Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Systems Engineering and Analysis students were tasked to develop a system of systems conceptual solution to provide force protection for the Sea Base conceptualized in the 2002 Expeditionary Warfare study...

  18. Herramientas para la implementación de mantenimiento proactivo en alcantarillados urbanos utilizando confiabilidad de inundación y conceptos de entropía de información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las bases de datos de alcantarillados urbanos existentes en ciudades de paises en vía de desarrollo presentan deficiencias en los registros de las características físicas de las tuberías, lo cual limita su utilización corno soporte para la implementación de herramientas de gestión de dicha infraestructura. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en proponer y emplear en 13 subcuencas pertenecientes a la cuenca El Salitre de Bogotá, comprendiendo un área de 4515 Ha, con un total de 12842 tuberías pluviales y combinadas, árboles de decisión y entropía de información para identificar tuberías con demanda de actividades de mantenimiento en la red corno limpieza, rehabilitación, reemplazo, etc., a partir de confiabilidades de inundación estimadas (para 2337 tuberías con cuyas características físicas se encontraban registradas de manera precisa . El modelo clasificatorio presentó una capacidad predictiva promedio de 62 %. Las tuberias fueron clasificadas mediante 28 reglas, según los valores de confiabilidad, identificando 3383 tuberías (26 % sobre el total con una priorización alta de mantenimiento proactivo.

  19. Number-phase entropic squeezing and nonclassical properties of a three-level atom interacting with a two-mode field: intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium, and detuning effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Javad; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we follow our presented model in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {\\bf 30}, 1109--1117 (2013), in which the interaction between a $\\Lambda$-type three-level atom and a quantized two-mode radiation field in a cavity in the presence of nonlinearities is studied. After giving a brief review on the procedure of obtaining the state vector of the atom-field system, some further interesting and important physical features (which are of particular interest in the quantum optics field of research) of the whole system state, i.e., the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation (based on the two-mode Pegg-Barnett formalism) and some of the nonclassicality signs consist of sub-Poissonian statistics, Cauchy-Schwartz inequality and two kinds of squeezing phenomenon are investigated. During our presentation, the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium and the detuning parameters on the depth and domain of each of the mentioned nonclassical criteria of the considered quantum system are studied, in detail. It is shown that each of the mentioned nonclassicality aspects can be obtained by appropriately choosing the related parameters.

  20. Investigation on water quality of zabol chahnimeh reservoirs from drinking water and agricultural viewpoint with focus on schuler & vilcoks diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homayoonnezhad, I.; Amirian, P.; Piri, I.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the water deficiency, people's requirements and high costs of refining especially in urban zones, water resources management is very essential. Zabol Chahnimeh reservoirs are three natural and big cavities in the south of Sistan Plain Located in South-Eastern Iran and It Includes 50 Millions square meter extent. Stored Water In These Cavities Are Used To Sistan Earth And For Providing Drink Water of Zabol And Zahedan Cities. Because of the drink and agricultural usage and for investigation of water quality of chah-nimeh reservoirs, this research has been done in one year. Methods: In this research density of Na"+ ,Mg"2"+, Ca"2"+ ,Cl"-, SO_4"2"- and EC, TDS,TH parameters have been analyzed in 9 stations, then results have been rebounded on schuler & vilcoks diagrams. Results: Results showed the quality of water in reservoirs viewpoint of drinking sited in acceptable stage and viewpoint of agricultural sited in C_3S_1 (average quality) stage. Discussion & conclusion: finally, if the texture of soil be light, we can use water of these reservoirs for agricultural activities.