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Sample records for entrance co-production plant decentralized

  1. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a cooperative agreement with the USDOE to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US that produces ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP will emphasize on reclaiming and gasifying low-cost coal waste and/or its mixture as the primary feedstocks. The project consists of three phases. Phase I objectives include conceptual development, technical assessment, feasibility design and economic evaluation of a Greenfield commercial co-production plant and a site specific demonstration EECP to be located adjacent to the existing WMPI Gilberton Power Station. There is very little foreseen design differences between the Greenfield commercial coproduction plant versus the EECP plant other than: The greenfield commercial plant will be a stand alone FT/power co-production plant, potentially larger in capacity to take full advantage of economy of scale, and to be located in either western Pennsylvania, West Virginia or Ohio, using bituminous coal waste (gob) and Pennsylvania No.8 coal or other comparable coal as the feedstock; The EECP plant, on the other hand, will be a nominal 5000 bpd plant, fully integrated into the Gilbertson Power Company's Cogeneration Plant to take advantage of the existing infrastructure to reduce cost and minimize project risk. The Gilberton EECP plant will be designed to use eastern Pennsylvania anthracite coal waste and/or its mixture as feedstock

  2. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania

  3. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Rich

    2001-03-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power and Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co--product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases: Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's third quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from October 1, 2001 through December 31, 2001.

  5. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  6. Decentralized production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons with reduced CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most of the industrial hydrogen production is based on steam methane reforming process that releases significant amount of CO 2 into the atmosphere. CO 2 sequestration is one approach to solving the CO 2 emission problem for large centralized hydrogen plants, but it would be impractical for decentralized H 2 production units. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas without (or drastically reduced) CO 2 emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermo-catalytic decomposition (TCD) of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane) to hydrogen gas and elemental carbon. The paper discusses some technological aspects of the TCD process development: (1) thermodynamic analysis of TCD using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (2) heat input options to the endothermic process, (3) catalyst activity issues, etc. Production of hydrogen and carbon via TCD of methane was experimentally verified using carbon-based catalysts. (authors)

  7. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  8. Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil extraction plants. Handbook. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.; Herstellung von Rapsoelkraftstoff in dezentralen Oelgewinnungsanlagen. Handbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmele, Edgar [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ) im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing oil prices, the dependence on petroleum imports and the desire to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions, are arguments to accelerate the production and utilization of biofuels. In 2007, 3.3 million tons of biodiesel and 772,000 tons of vegetable oil were used as fuel. The technically and economically successful production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills requires a quality assurance. Specifically, the brochure under consideration reports on the following: (1) Oilseed processing; (2) Centralized oil production in Germany; (3) Design of a decentralized oil mill; (4) Production of rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized systems; (5) Quality assurance for rapeseed oil fuel in decentralized oil mills; (6) Properties of rapeseed oil fuel; (7) Quality of rapeseed oil fuel from decentralized oil mills; (8) Economic aspects of decentralized oil extraction; (9) Legal framework conditions.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Abughazaleh; Mushtaq Ahmed; Ashok Anand; John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Fred D. Brent; Thomas E. Chance; William K. Davis; Raymond F. Drnevich; Larry Hall; Ming He; Stephen A. Lang; David Mintner; Wendy Moore; Jimmy O. Ong; George Potoczniak; Adela G. Sanchez; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; Kalapi D. Sheth; Phil J. Shires; Rae Song

    2001-05-17

    The overall objective of this project is the three-phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) that produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: Electric power (or heat); Fuels; and Chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or some other carbonaceous feedstock, such as petroleum coke. The objective of Phase I was to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site and to develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II. This objective has now been accomplished. A specific site, Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas, has been selected as the location best suited for the EECP. The accomplishments of Phase I are discussed in detail in this Phase I Concept Report. A RD and T Plan and a preliminary project financing plan have been developed and are submitted separately from this report.

  10. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William K. Davis

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals. The objective is to have these products produced by technologies capable of using synthesis gas derived from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD and T) Plan for implementation in Phase II; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD and T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology that produces high-value products, particularly those that are critical to our domestic fuel and power requirements. The project will resolve critical knowledge and technology gaps on the integration of gasification and downstream processing to coproduce some combination of power, fuels, and chemicals from coal and/or other carbonaceous feedstocks. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation

  11. Substation interference on gas entrance of industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Paulo Edmundo; Giacommelo, Claudinei [PAIOL Engenharia, Paulinia, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Industrial plants often have medium or high voltage electrical power entrance and also gas feeders. Often the main substation is located near the gas entrance, in the utilities area. When the occurrence of a phase to ground short-circuit in the substation, the pipeline and gas entrance that serves the plant may be exposed to high voltage soil potential, of the order of a few kilovolts, due to resistive coupling with the substation ground mesh. The consequences of this situation are reflected in various risks, with emphasis on: damage to the protective coating of the duct, due to the increased soil potential, in excess of its dielectric supportability (typically on the order of 5 kV); spread of potentially hazardous to duct exposed parts (valves, measuring place etc.); and damage to cathodic protection system components, as rectifier and insulating joins at gas entrance. This paper presents the investigations conducted in a factory that has a 69 kV main substation very close to the gas entrance, the order of a few meters away. The substation phase to ground short-circuit current is 7 kA, what causes a 9 kV soil potential near the gas pipe. It is presented the methodology for modeling the various elements involved in this process, the results of simulations made, arrangements been taken to reduce soil potential next to the duct to levels below 5 kV, and the measures for people and insulating joins protection. It is important to note that such problems usually will be solved with measures involving the entire grounding system of the industrial complex and also close to the duct (outside the industrial plant). The gas distribution companies should require from customers where this situation occurs, to ensure safety for people who have access to elements of its network, and for the integrity of their own ducts and cathodic protection components. The computer simulations developed for this work were made with the software Auto Grid, developed by the Canadian company Safe

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; J. Erwin; Matthew G. Banks; Terry L. Ullman

    2004-01-12

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). Phase II RD&T Task 2.6 identified as potential technical risks to the EECP the fuel/engine performance and emissions of the F-T diesel fuel products. Hydrotreating the neat F-T diesel product reduces potentially reactive olefins, oxygenates, and acids

  13. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  14. Methods for planning and operating decentralized combined heat and power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, H.

    2000-02-01

    In recent years, the number of decentralized combined heat and power (DCHP) plants, which are typically located in small communities, has grown rapidly. These relatively small plants are based on Danish energy resources, mainly natural gas, and constitute an increasing part of the total energy production in Denmark. The topic of this thesis is the analysis of DCHP plants, with the purpose to optimize the operation of such plants. This involves the modelling of district heating systems, which are frequently connected to DCHP plants, as well as the use of heat storage for balancing between heat and power production. Furthermore, the accumulated effect from increasing number of DCHP plants on the total power production is considered. Methods for calculating dynamic temperature response in district heating (DH) pipes have been reviewed and analyzed numerically. Furthermore, it has been shown that a tree-structured DH network consisting of about one thousand pipes can be reduced to a simple chain structure of ten equivalent pipes without loosing much accuracy when temperature dynamics are calculated. A computationally efficient optimization method based on stochastic dynamic programming has been designed to find an optimum start-stop strategy for a DCHP plant with a heat storage. The method focuses on how to utilize heat storage in connection with CHP production. A model for the total power production in Eastern Denmark has been applied to the accumulated DCHP production. Probability production simulations have been extended from the traditional power-only analysis to include one or several heat supply areas. (au)

  15. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred D. Brent; Lalit Shah; Earl Berry; Charles H. Schrader; John Anderson; Ming He; James F. Stevens; Centha A. Davis; Michael Henley; Jerome Mayer; Harry Tsang; Jimell Erwin; Jennifer Adams; Michael Tillman; Chris Taylor; Marjan J. Roos; Robert F. Earhart

    2004-01-27

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems was assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was developed to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The potential technical and economic risks to the EECP from Task 2.5 can be mitigated by demonstrating that the end-use products derived from the upgrading of the F-T synthesis total liquid product can meet or exceed current specifications for the

  16. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  17. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  18. Centralized or decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, H.A. de.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low overall efficiency in electric power generation, it is argued that energy provision based on gas, combined with locally decentralized electricity production, saves for the Netherlands slightly more fossile fuel than nuclear technologies and makes the country independent of uranium resources. The reason the Netherlands persues this approach is that a big part of the energy is finally used for heating in the normal or moderate temperatures

  19. Towards a (Decentralization-Based Typology of Peer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Dulong de Rosnay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online peer-production platforms facilitate the coordination of creative work and services. Generally considered as empowering participatory tools and a source of common good, they can also be, however, alienating instruments of digital labour. This paper proposes a typology of peer-production platforms, based on the centralization/decentralization levels of several of their design features. Between commons-based peer-production and crowdsourced, user-generated content “enclosed” by corporations, a wide range of models combine different social, political, technical and economic arrangements. This combined analysis of the level of (decentralization of platform features provides information on emancipation capabilities in a more granular way than a market-based qualification of platforms, based on the nature of ownership or business models only. The five selected features of the proposed typology are: ownership of means of production, technical architecture/design, social organization/governance of work patterns, ownership of the peer-produced resource, and value of the output.

  20. The plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity with reduced CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kler, A.M.; Tyurina, E.A.; Mednikov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk (Russian Federation). Energy Systems Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Consideration is given to the prospective technologies for combined production of synthetic fuel (SF) and electricity. The mathematical models of plant for co-production of synfuel and electricity (PCSE) intended for combined production of electricity and synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether or membrane-based hydrogen production from coal were developed. They were used in the optimization studies on the installations. As a result of the studies, the design characteristics for the plant elements, the relationships between the SF and electricity productions, etc. were determined. These data were used to identify the ranges of SF price for various prices of fuel, electricity and equipment, and estimate the profitability of SF production. Special attention is paid to modeling of CO{sub 2} removal system as part of PCSE and studies on PCSE optimization. The account is taken of additional capital investments and power consumption in the systems.

  1. Decentralized production management: telecommunication and coordination schemes validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caire, R.; Retiere, N.; Hadjsaid, N.

    2005-01-01

    Decentralized production development is a reality in the majority of the power networks all over the world. The deregulation of the market of energy, ecological constraints as well as the technological developments of small power production encourage this development. Distribution networks represent the portion of the power system where the development of this production is the most awaited. Some studies carried out on the interconnection of decentralized production on a large scale ratio have shown significant effects and impacts on operation of the entire electric system. Indeed, the entire distribution network is going to be deeply modified by the introduction of new functions of remote control, of specific architectures, of intelligent protection systems and of telecommunication and information technologies. With these new paradigms the ability of testing and simulating the Distribution Management Systems is more and more necessary. Also, this is a crucial requirement for new communication means in order to better define the new management strategies of the production units within the distribution networks. The aim of this paper is to present a new real time experimental bench able to validate control strategies and communication devices included in Distribution Management Systems (DMS). (authors)

  2. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  3. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Turrion-Gomez, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  4. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  5. [Territory and decentralization in the agenda for productive transformation with equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, A

    1991-08-01

    The regional perspective and the decentralization in Latin American and Caribbean countries was examined in light of technological changes and transformation of economic production to boost productivity. National population policies were not the major cause of redistribution of the population, rather such transformation significantly changed the comparative regional and urban advantages in the use of territory affecting the spatial distribution of the population. Hypotheses were advanced using the transformation of production, regional development, and decentralization on the retention, attraction, and migration of population in different areas with varying economic conditions. Spurious competitiveness means global strategies of enterprises that establish foreign operations by means of factor sourcing. Flexible specialization is a company strategy of permanent innovation based on flexible equipment and a qualified work force. The increasing transnationalization of capital is the source of skills and technology that sustain competitive advantages. Decentralization can resolve local demand, facilitate access to information, mobilize resources, and exercise control over local operations. In Japan, Germany, and Italy vs. the US and France there is a social contract among companies, trade unions, universities, and regional administrations in the interest of capital and the work force. There is no direct relationship between technology and region, the industrial cluster exhibits systemic competitiveness in developed countries (the Emilian model in Italy affirms the ability of small enterprises to develop new products), the regional impact is diverse relative to new technologies (some deprived rural economic areas have potential as in central and northern Italy), and population and region are linked (regional and rural-urban differences in the growth of population and migratory flows account for spatial distribution of the population). Decentralization and systemic

  6. Thermodynamic and economic evaluation of co-production plants for electricity and potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA's activities related to seawater desalination using nuclear energy, a need was identified for developing criteria and methodologies in order to facilitate comparative economic evaluations of nuclear and fossil fuelled energy sources for desalination and generation of electricity. The aspect of costing of electricity and potable water from co-production plants is of particular interest. In response to these needs, the IAEA carried out a study to establish methodologies for allocating costs to the two final products of co-production plants based on thermodynamic criteria and to enable economic ranking of co-production plant alternatives. This publication describes the methodologies and presents the results obtained from analyzing a reference case, taken as an example. This publication has been discussed and reviewed at a consultants meeting convened by the IAEA in September 1996 in Vienna. The methodologies have been incorporated in an EXCEL spreadsheet routine which is available upon request from the IAEA. The IAEA staff member responsible for this publication is L. Breidenbach of the Division of Nuclear Power and the Fuel Cycle. 30 refs, figs, tabs

  7. Harmonised GHG accounting of decentralized rapeseed fuel production in Bavaria; Harmonisierte THG-Bilanzierung der dezentralen Rapsoelkraftstoffproduktion in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, Daniela [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ), Straubing (Germany); Engelmann, Karsten; Remmele, Edgar; Thuneke, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Directive 2009/28/EG (RED) requires a minimum level of greenhouse gas reduction for biofuels to be marketed. Site-specific production conditions are not considered in default values, which are specified by RED for calculating the greenhouse gas emissions. However, calculations of regional and farm specific GHG balances in accordance to the method of ExpRessBio for the production of rape seed show a considerable range of GHG-emissions in CO{sup 2}-eq (25.2-43.6 g MJ{sup -1}). For the complete product system of decentralized rapeseed oil fuel production in Bavaria a GHG reduction of 58 % can be achieved. This is slightly higher than the default value of 57 % as specified in Directive 2009/28/EG. The reason for this is that the default value under Directive 2009/28/EG is based on an industrial oil production process whereas decentralized production leads to less GHG emissions. In comparison to the application of the energy allocation method the substitution method for the assessment of rape seed cake as protein feed leads to a distinct higher GHG reduction rate of 85%.

  8. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO 2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO 2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO 2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO 2 , butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO 2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  9. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  10. Decentralized power plants. Steam engines in an agriculture cooperative in Paraguay, plant extension in cooperation with the GTZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    About 1 cent are the running costs to generate 1 kWh - less than three years is the time for return of investment: tThat are the facts of steam engines using tungfruit shells as a fuel. The more oil prices are rising the more efficiently will such plants work. The way an agricultural cooperative in Paraquay changed their power supply is a good example for varying decentralized power plants - and how to save oil.

  11. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  12. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, S.; Cotone, P.; Davison, J. [Foster Wheeler Italiana (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study carried out by Foster Wheeler for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme that focused on different IGCC configurations with CO{sub 2} capture and H{sub 2} production. The three following main cases are compared: production of hydrogen, with minimum amount of electricity for a stand-alone plant production; co-production of the optimum hydrogen/electricity ratio; and co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a flexible plant that varies the hydrogen/electricity ratio. The paper reviews three available gasification technologies and presents the results of a more detailed evaluation of the selected one. The scope of this paper is to underline possible advantages of hydrogen and electricity co-production from coal, that is likely going to replace natural gas and petroleum as a source of hydrogen in the long term. Expected advantage of co-production will be the ability to vary the hydrogen/electricity ratio to meet market demands. A natural gas, diesel and gasoline demand market analysis has been performed for the Netherlands and the USA to determine the expected future hydrogen demand. Plant performance and costs are established and electric power production costs are evaluated. Electricity and hydrogen co-production plants are compared to plants that produce electricity only, with and without CO{sub 2} capture, to evaluate the costs of CO{sub 2} avoidance. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Steelmaking plants: towards lower energy consumption and lower CO2 production using more electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolle, R.

    2010-01-01

    Production processes of integrated steel plants, mostly based on coal as an energy source, produce about 2 tons of CO 2 per ton of steel. As specific CO 2 production has to be decreased by 20% in the mid-term (2020), immediate action is required to further decrease the specific energy consumption. The integrated plant is not energy self-sufficient as extra electricity must be bought from outside, but on the other hand, produces an excess of process gas that has to be used within the plant. Optimisation of the use of the internally produced gases is a key issue as either they are burned at the power plant with a conversion yield to electricity of about 40% and often much lower, or might be valued in the plant internal heat exchangers with a much higher efficiency such as ∼90% in the hot stoves or ∼65% or more in the present reheating furnaces. This paper shows that using the high-value coke oven gas as a chemical reactant (for DRI production) leads to significant extra metal production. From a global viewpoint, this extra metal production is almost carbon-free, as it requires only electricity for its manufacture. (author)

  14. Decentralized control using compositional analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control strategies aim at achieving a global control target by means of distributed local controllers acting on individual subsystems of the overall plant. In this sense, decentralized control is a dual problem to compositional analysis where a global verification task is decomposed

  15. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  16. Optimizing decentralized renewable energy production by combining potentials and integrated environmental impact analysis. A case study in the Hannover region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Siewert, Almut [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, the integration of decentralized renewable energy production in regional planning processes plays a crucial role. In particular, regions face a major challenge in order to set up renewable decentralized energy systems and incorporate them into the electricity grid. This paper presents a methodological concept and preliminary tests of applications in order to create an optimization model for an improved renewable energy development and planning practice: firstly, the energy potentials of micro renewable resources are estimated, and secondly the outcomes are combined with an estimation of resulting environmental impacts. Including these data into the spatial analysis, different scenarios can be developed in order to support decision making in landscape planning on the basis of environmental and landscape criteria as well as energy issues, including technical aspects and costs. The case study area is the Hannover region. First results show good energy potentials, which will be in a next step evaluated and combined with environmental impacts in order to improve energy efficiency by integrated renewable, decentralized power plants and energy mix. (orig.)

  17. Benefits of production extension and shifting with thermal storage for a 1MW CSP-ORC plant in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennouna, El Ghali; Mimet, Abdelaziz; Frej, Hicham

    2016-05-01

    The importance of thermal storage for commercial CSP (concentrated Solar Power) plants has now become obvious, this regardless of the solar technology used and the power cycle. The availability of a storage system to a plant operator brings a lot of possibilities for production management, cash flow optimization and grid stabilizing. In particular, and depending on plant location and local grid strategy, thermal storage can contribute, when wisely used, to control production and adapt it to the demand and / or power unbalances and varying prices. Storage systems design, sizing and configuration are proper to each power plant, hence systems that are now widely installed within large commercial solar plants are not necessarily suited for small scale decentralized production, and will not have the same effects. In this paper the benefits of thermal storage are studied for a 1MWe CSP plant with an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle), this plant has many specific features which call for a detail analysis about the appropriate storage design and optimum operating strategies for decentralized solutions.

  18. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9 - will

  19. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9

  20. Decentralized Biogas Technology of Anaerobic Digestion and Farm Ecosystem: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junye, E-mail: junyew@athabascau.ca [Faculty of Science and Technology, Athabasca University, Athabasca, AB (Canada)

    2014-03-26

    Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials (e.g., animal manure, crop straw, and by-products from food industries) as feedstocks. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich, which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for farm ecosystem. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion is win–win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer. Finally, we discuss issues of deployment of decentralized biogas technology for farm ecosystem. Economic and technological barriers still exist for large scale deployment of biogas technology in rural region. Two national scale deployments in China and Nepal showed that the operational status of biogas digesters is not optimal and up to 50% of plants are non-functional after a short operation period regardless of the social and economic factors. Main barriers are a wide variation of feedstocks and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) over space and time. It becomes clear that the experimental conditions of the pilot plants need to be adjusted and calibrated to the local feedstocks and climate. Also, more research needs to be done in cold fermentation technology. Thus, collaboration of all relevant designers, farmers, stakeholders, and regulators is proposed as the way forward, particularly as their complexity has been identified as the major hurdle

  1. Decentralized Biogas Technology of Anaerobic Digestion and Farm Ecosystem: Opportunities and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junye

    2014-01-01

    Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials (e.g., animal manure, crop straw, and by-products from food industries) as feedstocks. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich, which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for farm ecosystem. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion is win–win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer. Finally, we discuss issues of deployment of decentralized biogas technology for farm ecosystem. Economic and technological barriers still exist for large scale deployment of biogas technology in rural region. Two national scale deployments in China and Nepal showed that the operational status of biogas digesters is not optimal and up to 50% of plants are non-functional after a short operation period regardless of the social and economic factors. Main barriers are a wide variation of feedstocks and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) over space and time. It becomes clear that the experimental conditions of the pilot plants need to be adjusted and calibrated to the local feedstocks and climate. Also, more research needs to be done in cold fermentation technology. Thus, collaboration of all relevant designers, farmers, stakeholders, and regulators is proposed as the way forward, particularly as their complexity has been identified as the major hurdle

  2. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  3. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-01-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  4. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  5. Centralized vs. Decentralized Wage Formation: The Role of Firms' Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; Merkl, Christian; Müller, Steffen; Schnabel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first to show theoretically and empirically how firms' production technology affects the choice of their preferred wage formation regime. Our theoretical framework predicts, first, that the larger the total factor productivity of a firm, the more likely it is to opt for centralized wage formation where it can hide behind less productive firms. Second, the larger a firm's scale elasticity, the higher its incentive to choose centralized rather than decentralized wage setting d...

  6. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  7. Comparison of centralized and decentralized energy supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich; Voß, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Communal energy programs are often embedded in a conception of a decentralized energy supply system where electricity is produced by a number of smaller power plants. For a comprehensive survey the question arises whether these decentralized systems are more advantageous than centralized systems with regard to the criterions energy consumption, safety of supply, environmental compatibility and economy. In the following, after a definition of the term "decentralized", the present structure of ...

  8. Evaluation of the Kerma at the entrance of the labyrin thin in facilities with Co-60 HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujades, M. C.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Vijande, J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the kerma's collision at the entrance of the labyrinth adapting the methodology of the NCRP-151 to a bunker of brachytherapy with Co-60, similar to the one carried out in a previous work with HDR Ir-192. To validate the result is simulated using techniques Monte Carlo (MC) two typical designs of HDR with Co-60 bunker. (Author)

  9. Versatile and on-demand biologics co-production in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jicong; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Lowenhaupt, Ky; Wu, Ming-Ru; Purcell, Oliver; de la Fuente-Nunez, Cesar; Lu, Timothy K

    2018-01-08

    Current limitations to on-demand drug manufacturing can be addressed by technologies that streamline manufacturing processes. Combining the production of two or more drugs into a single batch could not only be useful for research, clinical studies, and urgent therapies but also effective when combination therapies are needed or where resources are scarce. Here we propose strategies to concurrently produce multiple biologics from yeast in single batches by multiplexing strain development, cell culture, separation, and purification. We demonstrate proof-of-concept for three biologics co-production strategies: (i) inducible expression of multiple biologics and control over the ratio between biologic drugs produced together; (ii) consolidated bioprocessing; and (iii) co-expression and co-purification of a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies. We then use these basic strategies to produce drug mixtures as well as to separate drugs. These strategies offer a diverse array of options for on-demand, flexible, low-cost, and decentralized biomanufacturing applications without the need for specialized equipment.

  10. Feasibility study for co-locating and integrating ethanol production plants from corn starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McAloon, Andrew [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Yee, Winnie [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation.

  11. CO2 balance in production of energy based on biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Holm-Nielsen, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  12. Technical feasibility and carbon footprint of biochar co-production with tomato plant residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Massana, Pere; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Peña, Javier; Rieradevall, Joan; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Puy, Neus

    2017-09-01

    World tomato production is in the increase, generating large amounts of organic agricultural waste, which are currently incinerated or composted, releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere. Organic waste is not only produced from conventional but also urban agricultural practices due recently gained popularity. An alternative to current waste management practices and carbon sequestration opportunity is the production of biochar (thermally converted biomass) from tomato plant residues and use as a soil amendment. To address the real contribution of biochar for greenhouse gas mitigation, it is necessary to assess the whole life cycle from the production of the tomato biomass feedstock to the actual distribution and utilisation of the biochar produced in a regional context. This study is the first step to determine the technical and environmental potential of producing biochar from tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum arawak variety) waste biomass and utilisation as a soil amendment. The study includes the characterisation of tomato plant residue as biochar feedstock (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and metal content); feedstock thermal stability; and the carbon footprint of biochar production under urban agriculture at pilot and small-scale plant, and conventional agriculture at large-scale plant. Tomato plant residue is a potentially suitable biochar feedstock under current European Certification based on its lignin content (19.7%) and low metal concentration. Biomass conversion yields of over 40%, 50% carbon stabilization and low pyrolysis temperature conditions (350-400°C) would be required for biochar production to sequester carbon under urban pilot scale conditions; while large-scale biochar production from conventional agricultural practices have not the potential to sequestrate carbon because its logistics, which could be improved. Therefore, the diversion of tomato biomass waste residue from incineration or composting to biochar production for use as a soil amendment

  13. Feasibility Study for Co-Locating and Integrating Ethanol Production Plants from Corn Starch and Lignocellulosic Feedstocks (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.; Ibsen, K.; McAloon, A.; Yee, W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the feasibility of co-locating corn-grain-to-ethanol and lignocellulosic ethanol plants and potential savings from combining utilities, ethanol purification, product processing, and fermentation. Although none of the scenarios identified could produce ethanol at lower cost than a straight grain ethanol plant, several were lower cost than a straight cellulosic ethanol plant.

  14. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  15. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  16. Hydrogen co-production from subcritical water-cooled nuclear power plants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, N.; Ryland, D.; Suppiah, S., E-mail: gnanapragasamn@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Subcritical water-cooled nuclear reactors (Sub-WCR) operate in several countries including Canada providing electricity to the civilian population. The high-temperature-steam-electrolysis process (HTSEP) is a feasible and laboratory-demonstrated large-scale hydrogen-production process. The thermal and electrical integration of the HTSEP with Sub-WCR-based nuclear-power plants (NPPs) is compared for best integration point, HTSEP operating condition and hydrogen production rate based on thermal energy efficiency. Analysis on integrated thermal efficiency suggests that the Sub-WCR NPP is ideal for hydrogen co-production with a combined efficiency of 36%. HTSEP operation analysis suggests that higher product hydrogen pressure reduces hydrogen and integrated efficiencies. The best integration point for the HTSEP with Sub-WCR NPP is upstream of the high-pressure turbine. (author)

  17. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Nadine; Yildiz, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  18. Optimizing decentralized production-distribution planning problem in a multi-period supply chain network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourifar, Raheleh; Mahdavi, Iraj; Mahdavi-Amiri, Nezam; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-09-01

    Decentralized supply chain management is found to be significantly relevant in today's competitive markets. Production and distribution planning is posed as an important optimization problem in supply chain networks. Here, we propose a multi-period decentralized supply chain network model with uncertainty. The imprecision related to uncertain parameters like demand and price of the final product is appropriated with stochastic and fuzzy numbers. We provide mathematical formulation of the problem as a bi-level mixed integer linear programming model. Due to problem's convolution, a structure to solve is developed that incorporates a novel heuristic algorithm based on Kth-best algorithm, fuzzy approach and chance constraint approach. Ultimately, a numerical example is constructed and worked through to demonstrate applicability of the optimization model. A sensitivity analysis is also made.

  19. Decentralized Bribery and Market Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    I propose a bribery model that examines decentralized bureaucratic decision-making. There are multiple stable equilibria. High levels of bribery reduce an economy's productivity because corruption suppresses small business, and reduces the total graft, even though the size of an individual bribe might increase. Decentralization prevents movement towards a Pareto-dominant equilibrium. Anticorruption efforts, even temporary ones, might be useful to improve participation, if they lower the bribe...

  20. A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince-Richard, S.; Whale, M.; Djilali, N. [Victoria Univ., Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-09-01

    Hydrogen from decentralized water electrolysis is one of the main fuelling options considered for future fuel cell vehicles. In this study, a model is developed to determine the key technical and economic parameters influencing the competitive position of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen. This model incorporates the capital, maintenance and energy costs of water electrolysis, as well as a monetary valuation of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is used to analyze the competitive position of electrolytic hydrogen in three specific locations with distinct electricity mix: Vancouver, Los Angeles and Paris. Using local electricity prices and fuel taxes, electrolytic hydrogen is found to be commercially viable in Vancouver and Paris. Hydrogen storage comes out as the most important technical issue. But more than any technical issue, electricity prices and fuel taxes emerge as the two dominant issues affecting the competitive position of electrolytic hydrogen. The monetary valuation of GHG emissions, based on a price of $20/ton of CO{sub 2}, is found to be generally insufficient to tilt the balance in favor of electrolytic hydrogen. (Author)

  1. Process design of a hydrogen production plant from natural gas with CO2 capture based on a novel Ca/Cu chemical loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, I.; Romano, M.C.; Fernández, J.R.; Chiesa, P.; Murillo, R.; Abanades, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Process design of a H 2 production plant based on a novel Ca/Cu looping process is presented. • CuO reduction with syngas provides energy for CaCO 3 calcination. • The effect of operating conditions on plant performance indexes is analysed. • Carbon capture efficiencies of around 94% are obtained. • Around 6% points of equivalent H 2 efficiency improvement on conventional reforming. - Abstract: A detailed and comprehensive design of a H 2 production plant based on a novel Ca/Cu chemical looping process is presented in this work. This H 2 production process is based on the sorption-enhanced reforming concept using natural gas together with a CaO/CaCO 3 chemical loop. A second Cu/CuO loop is incorporated to supply energy for the calcination of the CaCO 3 via the reduction of CuO with a fuel gas. A comprehensive energy integration description of the different gas streams available in the plant is provided to allow a thermodynamic assessment of the process and to highlight its advantages and drawbacks. Hydrogen equivalent efficiencies of up to 77% are feasible with this novel Ca/Cu looping process, using an active reforming catalyst based on Pt, high oxidation temperatures and moderate gas velocities in the fixed bed system, which are around 6% points above the efficiency of a reference H 2 production plant based on conventional steam reforming including CO 2 capture with MDEA. Non-converted carbon compounds in the reforming stage are removed as CO 2 in the calcination stage of the Ca/Cu looping process, which will be compressed and sent for storage. Carbon capture efficiencies of around 94% can be obtained with this Ca/Cu looping process, which are significantly higher than those obtained in the reference plant that uses MDEA absorption (around 85%). Additional advantages, such as its compact design and the use of cheaper materials compared to other commercial processes for H 2 production with CO 2 capture, confirm the potential of the Ca

  2. Preliminary safety analysis of a PBMR supplying process heat to a co-located ethylene production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Cisneros, Anselmo T.; Koutchesfahani, Tawni; Hong, Rada; Peterson, Per F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the safety analysis and licensing approach for co-locating a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) to provide process heat to an ethylene production unit. The PBMR is an advanced nuclear reactor design that provides 400 MW of thermal energy. Ethylene production is an energy intensive process that utilizes large gas furnaces to provide the heat for the process. Coupling a PBMR with an ethylene production plant would open a new market for nuclear power, and would provide the chemical industry with a cleaner power source, helping to achieve the Clean Air Act standards, and eliminating the 0.5 ton of CO 2 emissions per ton of produced ethylene. Our analysis uses the Chevron Phillips chemical plant in Sweeney, TX as a prototypical site. The plant has four ethylene production trains, with a total power consumption of 2.4 GW, for an ethylene output of 3.7 million tons per year, 4% of the global ethylene production capacity. This paper proposes replacement of the gas furnaces by low-emission PBMR modules, and presents the safety concerns and risk mitigation and management options for this coupled system. Two coupling design options are proposed, and the necessary changes to the design basis events and severe accidents for the PBMR licensing application are discussed. A joint effort between the chemical and the nuclear entities to optimize the coupling design, establish preventive maintenance procedures, and develop emergency response plans for both of the units is recommended.

  3. Preliminary safety analysis of a PBMR supplying process heat to a co-located ethylene production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlat, Raluca O., E-mail: rscarlat@nuc.berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cisneros, Anselmo T. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Koutchesfahani, Tawni [University of California, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 201 Gilman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Rada; Peterson, Per F. [University of California Berkeley, Nuclear Engineering, 4118 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This paper considers the safety analysis and licensing approach for co-locating a pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) to provide process heat to an ethylene production unit. The PBMR is an advanced nuclear reactor design that provides 400 MW of thermal energy. Ethylene production is an energy intensive process that utilizes large gas furnaces to provide the heat for the process. Coupling a PBMR with an ethylene production plant would open a new market for nuclear power, and would provide the chemical industry with a cleaner power source, helping to achieve the Clean Air Act standards, and eliminating the 0.5 ton of CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of produced ethylene. Our analysis uses the Chevron Phillips chemical plant in Sweeney, TX as a prototypical site. The plant has four ethylene production trains, with a total power consumption of 2.4 GW, for an ethylene output of 3.7 million tons per year, 4% of the global ethylene production capacity. This paper proposes replacement of the gas furnaces by low-emission PBMR modules, and presents the safety concerns and risk mitigation and management options for this coupled system. Two coupling design options are proposed, and the necessary changes to the design basis events and severe accidents for the PBMR licensing application are discussed. A joint effort between the chemical and the nuclear entities to optimize the coupling design, establish preventive maintenance procedures, and develop emergency response plans for both of the units is recommended.

  4. The impact of cooperation and competition on the performance of flexible decentralized manufacturing networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Song Ding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the mismatch between the order of costumers and the production capacity resulting from demand uncertainty, product shortages or wastes of production capacity occur. In response, the subcontracting of production among the plants occurs to diminish the influence of this mismatch on expected profits. Using a small-and medium-sized firm industrial district, the decentralized decision-making process for flexibility investment is studied using the cooperative subcontracting mechanism based on a contract net protocol and is compared with centralized decision making on the flexibility investment problem. Through simulation, it is concluded that although flexibility can increase the opportunities to obtain additional orders, the distributed decision-making mechanism increases the competition among plants during the bidding process. Plants should tradeoff these two aspects to make decisions about investments in flexibility.

  5. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, Ciprian; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  6. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  7. Bioethanol production potential from Brazilian biodiesel co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Evan Michael; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Marcio Aredes [Departamento de Engenharia Agricola, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Campus Universitario 36570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Steward, Brian L. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, 214D Davidson Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    One major problem facing the commercial production of cellulosic ethanol is the challenge of economically harvesting and transporting sufficient amounts of biomass as a feedstock at biorefinery plant scales. Oil extraction for biodiesel production, however, yields large quantities of biomass co-products rich in cellulose, sugar and starch, which in many cases may be sufficient to produce enough ethanol to meet the alcohol demands of the transesterification process. Soybean, castor bean, Jatropha curcas, palm kernel, sunflower and cottonseed were studied to determine ethanol production potential from cellulose found in the oil extraction co-products and also their capacity to meet transesterification alcohol demands. All crops studied were capable of producing enough ethanol for biodiesel production and, in the case of cottonseed, 470% of the transesterification demand could be met with cellulosic ethanol production from oil extraction co-products. Based on Brazilian yields of the crops studied, palm biomass has the highest potential ethanol yield of 108 m{sup 3} km{sup -2} followed by J. curcas with 40 m{sup 3} km{sup -2}. A total of 3.5 hm{sup 3} could be produced from Brazilian soybean oil extraction co-products. (author)

  8. Opportunities for co-fermentation of residual products at sewage treatment plant; Moeglichkeiten der Co-Vergaerung von Reststoffen auf Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, C.; Rolin, P. [Weber-Ingenieure (Germany); Grothkopp, H. [Linde-KCA-Dresden GmbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    At the Radeberg sewage treatment plant of the local administration union (AZV) 'Obere Roeder', the first entirely joint co-fermentation facility for sewage sludge, organic waste and organic trade waste to have been erected in all Germany went operative. Expected turnover rates and gas yields of the fermentation plant could be attained subject to the concentrations of materials processed during the start-up phase. The advantages of co-fermentation at sewage treatment plant lie in the perfect matching of sewage treatment and sludge digestion on the one hand with organic waste fermentation on the other hand, so that the respective advantages complement each other while the disadvantages are balanced out by the combination. In terms of environmentally compatible, sustainable processing of organic waste and production residues, co-fermentation at sewage treatment plant represents a convenient and economical solution. (orig.) [German] Auf der Klaeranlage des AZV 'Obere Roeder' in Radeberg ist zum ersten Mal in Deutschland eine vollstaendig gemeinsame Covergaerung von Klaerschlamm, Bioabfaellen und gewerblichen organischen Reststoffen in Betrieb gegangen. Erwartete Umsatzleistungen und Gasausbeuten der Vergaerungsanlage konnten entsprechend der erzielten Stoffkonzentrationen in der Inbetriebnahmephase erreicht werden. Die Vorteile der Covergaerung auf Klaeranlagen liegen in der perfekten Abstimmung zwischen Klaeranlage und Klaerschlammfaulung einerseits und der Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen andererseits, so dass sich die Vorteile der jeweiligen Verfahren ergaenzen, bzw. sich die Nachteile durch die Kombination beider Verfahren aufheben. Im Hinblick auf oekologische, nachhaltige Verwertung organischer Abfaelle und Produktionsreststoffe bietet die Covergaerung auf Klaeranlagen eine sinnvolle, sich auch wirtschaftlich rechnende Loesung. (orig.)

  9. Development of sustainable CO2 conversion processes for the methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Nguyen, Tuan B.H.; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2015-01-01

    reforming process has to be integrated with the existing conventional methanol plant to obtain a reduced CO2 emission as well as lowered production costs. On the other hand, the CO2 hydrogenation based methanol plant could achieve a reduction of net CO2 emission at a reasonable production cost only......Utilization of CO2 feedstock through CO2 conversion for producing valuable chemicals as an alternative to sequestration of the captured CO2 is attracting increasing attention in recent studies. Indeed, the methanol production process via thermochemical CO2 conversion reactions is considered a prime...... candidate for commercialization. The aim of this study is to examine two different options for a sustainable methanol plant employing the combined reforming and CO2 hydrogenation reactions, respectively. In addition, process improvement strategies for the implementation of the developed processes are also...

  10. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  11. CO{sub 2} neutral steam production for the production of bioethanol; CO{sub 2}-neutrale Dampferzeugung fuer die Bioethanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Christof; Bruegging, Elmar; Baumkoetter, Daniel [Fachhochschule Muenster (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional plants for the production of bioethanol use fossil fuels such as heating oil or lignite for the supply of process energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a tightly connection of an agricultural company with a biogas plant with a distillery by means an energy center consisting of two cogeneration plants and a steam generator. With this, a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel is produced from a CO{sub 2} neutral vapor.

  12. Reply to Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Complementing centralized water-related infrastructure with decentralized facilities is being considered in some communities and a life-cycle perspective is needed for informed decision making. Our 2012 study presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems. While the analysis framework could be applied to cases with a variety of sizes, we evaluated two currently operating systems in California, one decentralized and one centralized plant with a much larger capacity. The disparate scales of the two plants represent an ‘off-the-grid’ suburban neighborhood-scale system compared with a similarly sized neighborhood connecting to an adjacent large centralized plant. Deciding whether or not to connect expanding developments to nearby centralized plants is a realistic scenario for future growth, making the treatment plants evaluated in our study a realistic choice for comparison. (reply)

  13. Remote handling of decentralized power generation plants; Fernwirken von dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Michael [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Entwicklung-Prozessautomatisierung; Thomas, Ralf [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany). Bereich Business Development und Marketing

    2011-05-15

    The incresing number of decentral power generation systems requires new grid solutions, i.e. the so-called smart grids. One important function is the monitoring and control, e.g. of decentral PV, wind power and cogeneration systems. The data interfaces used are highly diverse and as a rule are taken from measuring and automation technology, i.e. they must be adapted to the data models and transmission procedures of remote control and guidance systems. A compact protocol gateway enables standardized control and diagnosis.

  14. WASHBACK OF THE ENGLISH SECTION OF COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAM ON THE STUDENTS’ PRODUCTIVE AND RECEPTIVE SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Wulandari Wulandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exam plays a powerful role in educational system and exerts significant washback onstudents’ learning. Washback, the impact of exams on education in general andlanguage examining in particular, has become a popular area of study withineducational research. This paper focuses on the washback effects of college entranceexam on students’ productive and receptive skills in STKIP MuhammadiyahPringsewu Lampung. The main concern of the study was to investigate the impact ofcollege entrance exam on productive and receptive language skills in STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. 53 first year students at English EducationDepartment in the academic year of 2015-2016 of STKIP Muhammadiyah PringsewuLampung attended the study. A 26-item questionnaire was designed and administeredto 53 students. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis including descriptivestatistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. It has been found outthat the exam has some negative effects on students’ language productive andreceptive skills on the first year students at English Education Department of STKIPMuhammadiyah Pringsewu Lampung. Some changes to exam that might be gratefulare discussed in the last section of the paper.Keywords: washback effect, college entrance exam, students’ productive skills

  15. Innovative CO{sub 2} separation of biogas by polymer resins: operation of a continuous lab-scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Katharina; Lamprecht, Martina; Brechtel, Kevin; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2012-06-15

    Upgrading biogas allows for the injection of biomethane into the natural gas grid and thus a decentralized use. Since the currently available techniques have a high energy demand, there is a high potential to improve biogas upgrading. Innovative CO{sub 2} separation of biogas by the use of polymer resins can reduce the energy demand, the capital expenditure, and the operational costs. In this study, we show the ability of polymer resin to selectively adsorb CO{sub 2}. Desorption tests showed the potential for continuous use of the resin. In a continuous lab-scale plant, numerous variations of process parameters were carried out and optimization possibilities were demonstrated. Methane purity up to 98% was achieved. The favorable estimated energy demand indicates the great potential of the demonstrated improved process. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH 8 Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Co-digestion of municipal sludge and external organic wastes for enhanced biogas production under realistic plant constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-12-15

    A bench-scale investigation was conducted to select external organic wastes and mixing ratios for co-digestion with municipal sludge at the F. Wayne Hill Water Resources Center (FWHWRC), Gwinnett County, GA, USA to support a combined heat and power (CHP) project. External wastes were chosen and used subject to two constraints: a) digester retention time no lower than 15 d; and b) total biogas (methane) production not to exceed a specific target level based on air permit constraints on CO2 emissions. Primary sludge (PS), thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and digested sludge collected at the FWHWRC, industrial liquid waste obtained from a chewing gum manufacturing plant (GW) and dewatered fat-oil-grease (FOG) were used. All sludge and waste samples were characterized and their ultimate digestibility was assessed at 35 °C. The ultimate COD to methane conversion of PS, TWAS, municipal sludge (PS + TWAS; 40:60 w/w TS basis), GW and FOG was 49.2, 35.2, 40.3, 72.7, and 81.1%, respectively. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with GW, FOG or both, was evaluated using four bench-scale, mesophilic (35 °C) digesters. Biogas production increased significantly and additional degradation of the municipal sludge between 1.1 and 30.7% was observed. Biogas and methane production was very close to the target levels necessary to close the energy deficit at the FWHWRC. Co-digestion resulted in an effluent quality similar to that of the control digester fed only with the municipal sludge, indicating that co-digestion had no adverse effects. Study results prove that high methane production is achievable with the addition of concentrated external organic wastes to municipal digesters, at acceptable higher digester organic loadings and lower retention times, allowing the effective implementation of CHP programs at municipal wastewater treatment plants, with significant cost savings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decentralized Wastewater Management Solutions for Improved Public Health Protection and Reclamation: Optimization and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Kartiki Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban or industrial areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers. Alternatively, the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation is called decentralized wastewater treatment. Smaller decentralized plants with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularization of expansion and minimum capital investment can mee...

  18. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.; Benque, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a great number of inhabitants without electricity, living in areas of low population density, with modest energy requirements and low income provides a major potential market for decentralized renewable energy sources. Ademe and EDF in 1993 made two agreements concerning the development of Renewable Energy Sources. The first aims at promoting their decentralized use in France in pertinent cases. The second agreement concerns other countries and has two ambitions: facilitate short-term developments and produce in the longer term a standardised proposal for decentralized energy production using Renewable Energy Sources to a considerable extent. These ideas are explained, and the principles behind the implementation of both Ademe-EDF agreements as well as their future prospects are described. (R.P.)

  19. Active versus passive screening for entrance control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of different entrance control actions are quantitatively assessed by defining a relative improvement index for the screening activity. Three classes of entrance control measures are investigated: the use of a purely active screening measure (such as a portal monitor), the use of a purely passive screening measure (such as personality typing), and the combined use of active and passive measures. Active entrance control measures have been studied previously [McCormick and Erdmann, Nucl. Mat. Manag. 4, (1975)] where it was determined that the relative improvement index is approximately related to the nondetection probability factor r for the protective system by (1-r + r ln r). It is shown here that the relative improvement index for a purely passive screening system also can be approximately expressed in a convenient manner. Because the probability is very small that a sabotage or diversion action would be attempted, the result for passive screening, multiplied by r, may be combined with the factor (1-r + r ln r) to give the relative improvement index for a combined, active-and-passive entrance control system. Results from simple example calculations indicate that passive screening of nuclear plant personnel or applicants for such positions is orders-of-magnitude less effective than portal monitors or reasonable improvements in them. 5 tables

  20. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production.

  1. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

  2. ADRES : autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G.; Einfalt, A.; Leitinger, C.; Tiefgraber, D. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems (ADRES) research project demonstrates that decentralized network independent microgrids are the target power systems of the future. This paper presented a typical structure of a microgrid, demonstrating that all types of generation available can be integrated, from wind and small hydro to photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass or biogas operated stirling motors and micro turbines. In grid connected operation the balancing energy and reactive power for voltage control will come from the public grid. If there is no interconnection to a superior grid, it will form an autonomous micro grid. In order to reduce peak power demand and base energy, autonomous microgrid technology requires highly efficient appliances. Otherwise large collector design, high storage and balancing generation capacities would be necessary, which would increase costs. End-use energy efficiency was discussed with reference to demand side management (DSM) strategies that match energy demand with actual supply in order to minimize the storage size needed. This paper also discussed network controls that comprise active and reactive power. Decentralized robust algorithms were investigated with reference to black-start ability and congestion management features. It was concluded that the trend to develop small decentralized grids in parallel to existing large systems will improve security of supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Decentralized grids will also increase energy efficiency because regenerative energy will be used where it is collected in the form of electricity and heat, thus avoiding transport and the extension of transmission lines. Decentralized energy technology is now becoming more economic by efficient and economic mass production of components. Although decentralized energy technology requires energy automation, computer intelligence is becoming increasingly cost efficient. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings in Belgrade: 1918-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik Vladana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the two world wars Belgrade saw a surge in housing construction, including many rental apartment buildings, so-called 'luxury city palaces'. In addition to richly decorated street façades in the style of academism, eclecticism and Art Deco, architects paid much attention to the design of entrances and entrance halls. The entrance frequently was the main element of the façade even in buildings in a moderate modernist style. Since this aspect of architectural design is scantily documented, this paper seeks to identify its main trends in the 1920s and 1930s and to establish a typology of entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings. It also outlines the parameters and social circumstances that played a role in giving special attention to this element of residential buildings, and examines whether Belgrade architects pursued a sort of total design inspired by European models.

  4. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffel, B.; Boer, W.W. de

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  5. Whole-plant growth and N utilization in transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content under different CO2 partial pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Emi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2014-11-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) strongly limits photosynthesis at lower CO2 concentration [CO2] whereas [corrected] Rubisco limitation is cancelled by elevated [CO2]. Therefore, increase or reduction in Rubisco content by transformation with a sense or an antisense RBCS construct are expected to alter the biomass production under different CO2 levels. RBCS-sense (125% Rubisco of wild-type) and -antisense (35% Rubisco of wild-type) rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were grown for 63 days at three different CO2 levels: low [CO2] (28 Pa), normal [CO2] (40 Pa) and elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). The biomass of RBCS-sense plants was 32% and 15% greater at low [CO2] and normal [CO2] than that of the wild-type plants, respectively, but did not differ at elevated [CO2]. Conversely, the biomass of RBCS-antisense plants was the smallest at low [CO2]. Thus, overproduction of Rubisco was effective for biomass production at low [CO2]. Greater biomass production at low [CO2] in RBCS-sense plants was caused by an increase in the net assimilation rate, and associated with an increase in the amount of N uptake. Furthermore, Rubisco overproduction in RBCS-sense plants was also promoted at low [CO2]. Although it seems that low [CO2]-growth additionally stimulates the effect of RBCS overexpression, such a phenomenon observed at low [CO2] was mediated through an increase in total leaf N content. Thus, the dependence of the growth improvement in RBCS-sense rice on growth [CO2] was closely related to the degree of Rubisco overproduction which was accompanied not only by leaf N content but also by whole plant N content. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Virus infection mediates the effects of elevated CO2 on plants and vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trębicki, Piotr; Vandegeer, Rebecca K.; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A.; Powell, Kevin S.; Dader, Beatriz; Freeman, Angela J.; Yen, Alan L.; Fitzgerald, Glenn J.; Luck, Jo E.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased significantly and is projected to double by 2100. To increase current food production levels, understanding how pests and diseases respond to future climate driven by increasing CO2 is imperative. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on the interactions among wheat (cv. Yitpi), Barley yellow dwarf virus and an important pest and virus vector, the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), by examining aphid life history, feeding behavior and plant physiology and biochemistry. Our results showed for the first time that virus infection can mediate effects of eCO2 on plants and pathogen vectors. Changes in plant N concentration influenced aphid life history and behavior, and N concentration was affected by virus infection under eCO2. We observed a reduction in aphid population size and increased feeding damage on noninfected plants under eCO2 but no changes to population and feeding on virus-infected plants irrespective of CO2 treatment. We expect potentially lower future aphid populations on noninfected plants but no change or increased aphid populations on virus-infected plants therefore subsequent virus spread. Our findings underscore the complexity of interactions between plants, insects and viruses under future climate with implications for plant disease epidemiology and crop production. PMID:26941044

  7. Decentralized biogas technology of anaerobic digestion and farm ecosystem: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junye eWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials (e.g., animal manure, crop straw and by-products from food industries as feedstocks. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for ecosystem farm. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion (AD is win-win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer. Finally, we discuss issues of deployment of decentralized biogas technology for ecosystem farms. Economic and technological barriers still exist for large scale deployment of biogas technology. Two national scale deployments in China and Nepal showed that the operational status of biogas digesters is not optimal and up to 50% of plants are non-functional after a short operation period regardless of the social and economic factors. Main barriers are a wide variation of feedstocks and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature over space and time. It becomes clear that the experimental conditions of the pilot plants need to be adjusted and calibrated to the local feedstocks and climate. Also, more research needs to be done in cold fermentation technology.

  8. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette

    2015-01-01

    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  9. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  10. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shazia; Aslam, Hina; Ahmad, Aqeel; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Sohail, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE), in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP) for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  11. Decentralized hydrogen production for fuel cells; Dezentrale Wasserstoffproduktion fuer Brennstoffzellen. Entwicklung eines Kompaktreformers fuer erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellenheizgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimis, Dimosthenis; Anger, Stephan [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Gas- und Waermetechnische Anlagen; Otto, Bert; Nitzsche, Joerg [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH Freiberg (Germany); Grosser, Katrin [Riesaer Brennstoffzellentechnik GmbH, Glaubitz (Germany); Krause, Hartmut [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH Freiberg (Germany); DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The reconstruction of energy-supply towards more sustainability has reached the boiler rooms. More and more innovative heating systems come into the market like heat pumps, solar-thermal applications and last but not least decentralized cogeneration plants like Sterling- or internal combustion engines. With fuel cells another high-performance technology is introduced, which comes along with especially high electrical efficiencies at low acoustic and noxious emissions. Efficient fuel processing systems are needed as an essential component of such devices. (orig.)

  12. Policy Implementation Decentralization Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardin M. Simanjuntak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization in Indonesia is that reforms not completed and until the current implementation is not maximized or have not been successful. The essence of decentralization is internalising cost and benefit' for the people and how the government closer to the people. That's the most important essence of essence 'decentralization’. However, the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia is still far from the expectations. It is shown that only benefits of decentralization elite and local authorities, decentralization is a neo-liberal octopus, decentralization of public services are lacking in character, decentralization without institutional efficiency, decentralization fosters corruption in the area, and quasi-fiscal decentralization.

  13. Mini/micro cogeneration, basis for installation. Dimensioning, accounting and potential. Project report 1; Mini/mikrokraftvarme, forudsaetninger for installation. Dimensionering, afregningsforhold og potentiale. Projektrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, J. de; Iskov, H.

    2005-11-15

    Cogeneration is quite spread in Denmark. Approx. 50 % of the power supply and 80 % of the district heating supply come from cogeneration. Combined heat and power is produced on both centralized (large) plants and decentralized plants. Decentralized combined heat and power plants (typically based on natural gas) use gas motors or gas turbines for power and heat production. Cogeneration of heat and power saves primary fuels and a directly derived effect from cogeneration is CO{sub 2} emission reduction. If fuels with higher specific CO{sub 2} emission than natural gas (e.g. coal, oil) are substituted, additional CO{sub 2} reduction can be reached. (BA)

  14. The future technologies for decentralized power generation. Prospective aspects; Les techniques futures de production d`electricite decentralisee. Elements prospectifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquet, A [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Meyer, J L [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-07-01

    Due to a favorable context (fuel costs, environmental concerns, deregulation...), decentralized power production, and more especially cogeneration, is presently developing in many countries, notably in France. An overlook on the main decentralized power generation technologies that may shows a likely commercial development in the near future, and their performance enhancement programs, are presented: combustion turbines, advanced gas turbines, micro gas turbines, regenerative gas turbines, cogeneration fuel cells, Stirling engines and solar dish Stirling systems, natural gas driven alternative engines, and wind turbines. Their development for on site power production in large commercial and small industrial sites, for collective or insular power networks, or for cogeneration in interconnected or large industrial sites, are discussed, and issues related to network management due to the abundance of power injection points in the low-voltage network are outlined

  15. Process flow sheet evaluation of a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking plant applying very high temperature reactors for efficient steel production with less CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Seiji, E-mail: kasahara.seiji@jaea.go.jp; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Masuro

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} emissions from a nuclear hydrogen steelmaking system was 13–21% of that from a blast furnace steelmaking system. • Heat input to shaft furnace in hydrogen steelmaking was large with much H{sub 2} consumption in the part. • Though hydrogen production thermal efficiency had influence on total heat input to hydrogen steelmaking, the effect on the CO{sub 2} emissions was small. • Steelmaking scale of a nuclear hydrogen steelamking plant with 2 VHTRs was a little smaller than that of the largest Midrex{sup ®} steelmaking plants. - Abstract: Recently, CO{sub 2} reduction is an important problem for steelmaking. Substitution of coal, presently used as a reducing agent of iron ore in blast furnaces, to hydrogen produced by non-fossil energy is a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, the idea of nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) system was investigated using very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine–sulfur (IS) process. Heat input and CO{sub 2} emissions including material production, material transportation, and electricity generation were evaluation criteria. Results of the NHS system were compared with those of a conventional blast furnace steelmaking (BFS) system. Influence of heat input options to the steelmaking process and hydrogen production thermal efficiency of IS process were investigated for the NHS system. Though heat input to the NHS system was 130–142% of that to the BFS system, CO{sub 2} emissions of the system were 13–21%. Pre-heating of hydrogen by coal combustion before blowing to a shaft furnace was effective to decrease heat input, although CO{sub 2} emissions increased. Direct pre-heating by nuclear heat was also effective without increase of CO{sub 2} emissions if close location of the nuclear reactor to the steelmaking plant was publicly accepted. Hydrogen production thermal efficiency had a significant influence on the heat input. Conceptual design of a

  16. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution...... that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  17. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  19. Effectiveness of Indoor Plant to Reduce CO2 in Indoor Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Mohd Mahathir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern country strongly emphasizes on indoor air quality (IAQ because it can effect on human health and productivity. Numerous efforts were performed to make sure that sustainability of IAQ is guaranteed. In the last 4th decade, researchers discover that indoor plants have abilities to reduce indoor air pollution. Generally, plants, carbon dioxide (CO2, light, and temperature involve in the photosynthesis process. This paper intends to study the effectiveness of seven indoor plants (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plant, Spider Plant, and Syngonium to reduce CO2 with different light level. This study was conducted in one cubic meter of chamber, and each plant was put into the chamber individually with CO2 concentration in the chamber is set at 1000±50ppm, and light intensities is set at 300 and 700 lux, while temperature were fixed at 25±1°C. Based on the results, only the Spider Plant was not able to absorb CO2 during the test at 300 lux of light intensity. Meanwhile, Prayer Plant performed well when tested at 300 or 700 lux of light intensity compare to other investigates plants. This study can conclude that light intensity play an important role for the plant to absorb CO2 effectively. All the indoor plants absorbed more CO2, when the light intensity is increased.

  20. Coenzyme Q10 production in plants: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Jaiwal, Anjali; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2015-06-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or Ubiquinone10 (UQ10), an isoprenylated benzoquinone, is well-known for its role as an electron carrier in aerobic respiration. It is a sole representative of lipid soluble antioxidant that is synthesized in our body. In recent years, it has been found to be associated with a range of patho-physiological conditions and its oral administration has also reported to be of therapeutic value in a wide spectrum of chronic diseases. Additionally, as an antioxidant, it has been widely used as an ingredient in dietary supplements, neutraceuticals, and functional foods as well as in anti-aging creams. Since its limited dietary uptake and decrease in its endogenous synthesis in the body with age and under various diseases states warrants its adequate supply from an external source. To meet its growing demand for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, there is a great interest in the commercial production of CoQ10. Various synthetic and fermentation of microbial natural producers and their mutated strains have been developed for its commercial production. Although, microbial production is the major industrial source of CoQ10 but due to low yield and high production cost, other cost-effective and alternative sources need to be explored. Plants, being photosynthetic, producing high biomass and the engineering of pathways for producing CoQ10 directly in food crops will eliminate the additional step for purification and thus could be used as an ideal and cost-effective alternative to chemical synthesis and microbial production of CoQ10. A better understanding of CoQ10 biosynthetic enzymes and their regulation in model systems like E. coli and yeast has led to the use of metabolic engineering to enhance CoQ10 production not only in microbes but also in plants. The plant-based CoQ10 production has emerged as a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach capable of supplying CoQ10 in ample amounts. The current strategies, progress and constraints of

  1. The Business of Co-Production: Assessing Efforts to Bridge Science and Decision-Making for Adaptation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, S.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    The last decades have seen scholars argue for a greater integration of science and decision-making in order to more effectively respond to climate change. It has been suggested that overcoming the gap between science, on the one hand, and policy-making and management, on the other, requires building bridges through methods of co-production, creating actionable science, or through boundary organizations. In this paper, we review attempts at co-production for policy-making and management in the context of climate change adaptation in California. Building on field research, including numerous interviews conducted with scientists and decision-makers who are co-producers of adaptation projects, we make three arguments. First, we show that an emphasis on co-production and science-informed climate change adaptation decision-making has bolstered a contract-oriented, and decentralized network-based model of producing climate science. Second, reviewing successes and failures in co-production - as reported in interviews - indicates that it is principally in cases of neatly defined, and spatially and temporarily narrow decision-making contexts, and with highly motivated decision-makers, that climate science is used. Finally, we suggest that the ideas of co-production and actionable science may have increased the institutional and organizational burden at the science-decision interface, lengthening the boundary-organization-chain rather than necessarily facilitating adaptive policy-making and management.

  2. CO2 emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO 2 emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO 2 emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO 2 emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO 2 emission homogenizing approach [it

  3. Testing simulations of intra- and inter-annual variation in the plant production response to elevated CO(2) against measurements from an 11-year FACE experiment on grazed pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frank Yonghong; Newton, Paul C D; Lieffering, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem models play a crucial role in understanding and evaluating the combined impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and changing climate on terrestrial ecosystems. However, we are not aware of any studies where the capacity of models to simulate intra- and inter-annual variation in responses to elevated CO2 has been tested against long-term experimental data. Here we tested how well the ecosystem model APSIM/AgPasture was able to simulate the results from a free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment on grazed pasture. At this FACE site, during 11 years of CO2 enrichment, a wide range in annual plant production response to CO2 (-6 to +28%) was observed. As well as running the full model, which includes three plant CO2 response functions (plant photosynthesis, nitrogen (N) demand and stomatal conductance), we also tested the influence of these three functions on model predictions. Model/data comparisons showed that: (i) overall the model over-predicted the mean annual plant production response to CO2 (18.5% cf 13.1%) largely because years with small or negative responses to CO2 were not well simulated; (ii) in general seasonal and inter-annual variation in plant production responses to elevated CO2 were well represented by the model; (iii) the observed CO2 enhancement in overall mean legume content was well simulated but year-to-year variation in legume content was poorly captured by the model; (iv) the best fit of the model to the data required all three CO2 response functions to be invoked; (v) using actual legume content and reduced N fixation rate under elevated CO2 in the model provided the best fit to the experimental data. We conclude that in temperate grasslands the N dynamics (particularly the legume content and N fixation activity) play a critical role in pasture production responses to elevated CO2 , and are processes for model improvement. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Utilizing primary energy savings and exergy destruction to compare centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espirito Santo, Denilson Boschiero do; Gallo, Waldyr Luiz Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Rising energy conversion processes efficiencies reduces CO_2 emissions and global warming implications. Decentralized electricity production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems can save primary energy if it operates with high efficiency. High efficiency is obtained when the system produces electricity and a substantial amount of the energy rejected by the prime mover is used to meet site thermal demands. Environmental concerns and international agreements are directing governments of different countries to incentive high efficiency solutions. Centralized thermal plants and cogeneration/trigeneration efficiency are compared through efficiency indicators using the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. This paper proposes the use of the primary energy savings analysis and the exergy destruction analysis to compare decentralized power production through cogeneration/trigeneration systems and centralized thermal plants. The analysis concluded that both methods achieve the same results if the thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare the methods. The analysis also revealed that trigeneration systems with the same energy input are comparable with quite different thermal efficiency centralized thermal plants. Case 1 is comparable to a 53% thermal efficiency power plant and case 2 is comparable to a 77% thermal efficiency power plant. - Highlights: • Trigeneration and thermal plants are compared using PES and exergy destruction. • The thermal efficiency indicator is used to compare both methods. • The same equivalent thermal efficiency is achieved by both methods. • Same energy input trigeneration is similar to different thermal efficiency plants. • Evaluated trigeneration are comparable to a 53–77% thermal efficiency power plant.

  5. On decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Liu, Chao; Su, Housheng; Zhang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller. In addition, robust adaptive technique is integrated in the decentralized chattering free sliding control design in order to handle unknown bounded uncertainties, without requirements for assuming a priori knowledge of bounds on the system uncertainties as stated in conventional chattering free control methods. Subsequently, system robustness as well as stability of the decentralized full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs is synthesized. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework to achieve robust 3D formation flight of the multi-UAV system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Junginger, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  7. A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince-Richard, S.; Whale, M.; Djilali, N.

    2000-01-01

    Fueling is a central issue in the development of fuel cell systems, especially for transportation applications. Which fuels will be used to provide the necessary hydrogen and what kind of production / distribution infrastructure will be required are key questions for the large scale market penetration of fuel cell vehicles. Methanol, gasoline and hydrogen are currently the three most seriously considered fuel options. Primarily because of economic considerations, these energy currencies would all be largely produced from fossil fuel sources in the near future. One problem in using fossil fuel sources as a feedstock is their associated emissions, in particular greenhouse gases. This paper presents some elements of a study currently underway to assess the techno-economic prospects of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

  8. Feasibility study on production of Co-60 in PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Han, Hyon Soo; Joo, Po Kook

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the safeties and the economics for Co-60 production from Wolsung PHWR and to verify the feasibility on the manufacturing of the final Co-60 source for industrial irradiation. The feasibility of reactor conversion was carried out with KEPCO collaboration. Through the site survey on the experience of Gentililly-2 in Canada, a feasibility of plant conversion, changes in design, equipment and tools for Co-60 production was verified. It was estimated that the reactor conversion would not impose adverse impact on plant safety. For the encapsulation of radiation source and storage of the final products, a modification of concrete hot cell at KAERI was primary concerns. The installation and improvement of facilities are needed to avoid cross contamination and extra radiation exposure. Main items for these are pressure gauge, separated HEPA filter the ceiling separation, extra-shielding and ceiling hoist system. At present, storage pool has got admission based on 400 kCi. But it is necessary to seismic analysis and design improvement of shielding to store 10 MCi (Co-60) which is the estimated Co-60 capacity produced by 3 PHWRs. According to present investigation, a production of Co-60 by PHWR and RIPE was seemed to be an economically feasible business and it was also expected that a joint venture will be able to realize by cooperation with MDS Nordion Co.

  9. Feasibility study on production of Co-60 in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Han, Hyon Soo; Joo, Po Kook

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the safeties and the economics for Co-60 production from Wolsung PHWR and to verify the feasibility on the manufacturing of the final Co-60 source for industrial irradiation. The feasibility of reactor conversion was carried out with KEPCO collaboration. Through the site survey on the experience of Gentililly-2 in Canada, a feasibility of plant conversion, changes in design, equipment and tools for Co-60 production was verified. It was estimated that the reactor conversion would not impose adverse impact on plant safety. For the encapsulation of radiation source and storage of the final products, a modification of concrete hot cell at KAERI was primary concerns. The installation and improvement of facilities are needed to avoid cross contamination and extra radiation exposure. Main items for these are pressure gauge, separated HEPA filter the ceiling separation, extra-shielding and ceiling hoist system. At present, storage pool has got admission based on 400 kCi. But it is necessary to seismic analysis and design improvement of shielding to store 10 MCi (Co-60) which is the estimated Co-60 capacity produced by 3 PHWRs. According to present investigation, a production of Co-60 by PHWR and RIPE was seemed to be an economically feasible business and it was also expected that a joint venture will be able to realize by cooperation with MDS Nordion Co

  10. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  11. Decentralized energy aware co-optimization of mobility and communication in multiagent systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal is to design decentralized coordination strategies that enable agents to achieve global performance guarantees while minimizing the energy cost of their actions with an emphasis on feasibility for real-time implementation. As a motivating

  12. Plants for water recycling, oxygen regeneration and food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    During long-duration space missions that require recycling and regeneration of life support materials the major human wastes to be converted to usable forms are CO2, hygiene water, urine and feces. A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) relies on the air revitalization, water purification and food production capabilities of higher plants to rejuvenate human wastes and replenish the life support materials. The key processes in such a system are photosynthesis, whereby green plants utilize light energy to produce food and oxygen while removing CO2 from the atmosphere, and transpiration, the evaporation of water from the plant. CELSS research has emphasized the food production capacity and efforts to minimize the area/volume of higher plants required to satisfy all human life support needs. Plants are a dynamic system capable of being manipulated to favour the supply of individual products as desired. The size and energy required for a CELSS that provides virtually all human needs are determined by the food production capacity. Growing conditions maximizing food production do not maximize transpiration of water; conditions favoring transpiration and scaling to recycle only water significantly reduces the area, volume, and energy inputs per person. Likewise, system size can be adjusted to satisfy the air regeneration needs. Requirements of a waste management system supplying inputs to maintain maximum plant productivity are clear. The ability of plants to play an active role in waste processing and the consequence in terms of degraded plant performance are not well characterized. Plant-based life support systems represent the only potential for self sufficiency and food production in an extra-terrestrial habitat.

  13. Diverse urban plantings managed with sufficient resource availability can increase plant productivity and arthropod diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon eMuller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Buildings structures and surfaces are explicitly being used to grow plants, and these ‘urban plantings’ are typically designed for aesthetic value. Urban plantings also have the potential to contribute significant ‘ecological values’ by increasing urban habitat for animals such as arthropods and by increasing plant productivity. In this study, we evaluated how the provision of these additional ecological values is affected by plant species richness; the availability of essential resources for plants, such as water, light, space; and soil characteristics. We sampled 33 plantings located on the exterior of three buildings in the urban centre of Brisbane, Australia (subtropical climatic region over two, six week sampling periods characterised by different temperature and rainfall conditions. Plant cover was estimated as a surrogate for productivity as destructive sampling of biomass was not possible. We measured weekly light levels (photosynthetically active radiation, plant CO2 assimilation, soil CO2 efflux, and arthropod diversity.Differences in plant cover were best explained by a three-way interaction of plant species richness, management water regime and sampling period. As the richness of plant species increased in a planter, productivity and total arthropod richness also increased significantly - likely due to greater habitat heterogeneity and quality. Overall we found urban plantings can provide additional ecological values if essential resources are maintained within a planter such as water, light and soil temperature. Diverse urban plantings that are managed with these principles in mind can contribute to the attraction of diverse arthropod communities, and lead to increased plant productivity within a dense urban context.

  14. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  15. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  16. Effects of CO 2 concentration and light intensity on photosynthesis of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllumdemersum L., used for aquatic food production in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Okayama, T.; Murakami, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    In addition to green microalgae, aquatic higher plants are likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feed for fish, converting CO 2 to O 2 and remedying water quality. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the net photosynthetic rate of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for maximal function of plants in food production modules including both aquatic plant culture and fish culture systems. The net photosynthetic rate in plants was determined by the increase in dissolved O 2 concentrations in a closed vessel containing a plantlet and water. The water in the vessel was aerated sufficiently with a gas containing a known concentration of CO 2 gas mixed with N 2 gas before closing the vessel. The CO 2 concentrations in the aerating gas ranged from 0.3 to 10 mmol mol -1. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the vessel ranged from 0 (dark) to 1.0 mmol M -2 s -1, which was controlled with a metal halide lamp. Temperature was kept at 28°C. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing PPFD levels and was saturated at 0.2 and 0.5 mmol m -2 s -1 PPFD under CO 2 levels of 1.0 and 3.0 mmol mol -1, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing CO 2 levels from 0.3 to 3.0 mmol mol -1 showing the maximum value, 75 nmolO 2 gDW -1 s -1, at 2-3 mmol mol -1 CO 2 and gradually decreased with increasing CO 2 levels from 3.0 to 10 mmol mol -1. The results demonstrate that C. demersum could be an efficient CO 2 to O 2 converter under a 2.0 mmol mol -1 CO 2 level and relatively low PPFD levels in aquatic food production modules.

  17. Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.

  18. Federalism and Decentralization of Education in Argentina. Unintended Consequences of Decentralization of Expenditures in a Federal Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Tulia G.

    By analyzing the process of decentralization of education in Argentina, this paper complements the existing literature on decentralization and federalism in two ways: (1) it studies the impact of federal institutions on the origins and evolution of decentralization; and (2) it analyzes a case of decentralization of education that, in a way not…

  19. Temperature versus plant effects on diel dynamics of soil CO2 production and efflux: a controlled environment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinthaler, David; Roy, Jacques; Landais, Damien; Piel, Clement; Resco de Dios, Victor; Bahn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    effect of photosynthetically active radiation on Rs in 15 out of 35 cases, but no such effect in 20 cases. Thus, our study suggests that while effects of photosynthetic plant activity on diel patterns of soil CO2 production and efflux may occur, they are not consistent and play a comparatively minor role relative to those of soil temperature.

  20. The Two Edge Knife of Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khoirul Umam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A centralistic government model has become a trend in a number of developing countries, in which the ideosycretic aspect becomes pivotal key in the policy making. The situation constitutes authoritarianism, cronyism, and corruption. To break the impasse, the decentralized system is proposed to make people closer to the public policy making. Decentralization is also convinced to be the solution to create a good governance. But a number of facts in the developing countries demonstrates that decentralization indeed has ignite emerges backfires such as decentralized corruption, parochialism, horizontal conflict, local political instability and others. This article elaborates the theoretical framework on decentralization's ouput as the a double-edge knife. In a simple words, the concept of decentralization does not have a permanent relationship with the creation of good governance and development. Without substantive democracy, decentralization is indeed potential to be a destructive political instrument threating the state's future.

  1. Decentralized neural control application to robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, Ramon; Sanchez, Edgar N; Alanis, Alma y; Ruz-Hernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a decentralized approach for the identification and control of robotics systems. It also presents recent research in decentralized neural control and includes applications to robotics. Decentralized control is free from difficulties due to complexity in design, debugging, data gathering and storage requirements, making it preferable for interconnected systems. Furthermore, as opposed to the centralized approach, it can be implemented with parallel processors. This approach deals with four decentralized control schemes, which are able to identify the robot dynamics. The training of each neural network is performed on-line using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The first indirect decentralized control scheme applies the discrete-time block control approach, to formulate a nonlinear sliding manifold. The second direct decentralized neural control scheme is based on the backstepping technique, approximated by a high order neural network. The third control scheme applies a decentralized neural i...

  2. Analysis of the technical impact of decentralized independent production based on cogeneration, in public distribution systems; Analise do impacto tecnico da producao independente descentralizada baseada em cogeracao em redes de distribuicao de servico publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose L. Pereira da; Lopes, J.A. Pecas [Universidade do Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia; Pascoal, Jose A.F. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology adopted and the results obtained in the evaluation of the impact of decentralized independent production plants based on cogeneration in the distribution system of Portugal Public Service. The analysis concerns with impact on a medium voltage network where the significant integration of these units occurs. The methodology involved the definition of various exploration scenarios, specifically the recent regulations related to the reactive energy to be supplied to the network, during peak and full hours, by the independent production. This work also presents the global results of impact no the system, considering voltage profiles, branching congestion and network losses.

  3. Gas power plant with CO2 handling. A study of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolland, Olav; Hagen, Roger I.; Maurstad, Ola; Tangen, Grethe; Juliussen, Olav; Svendsen, Hallvard

    2002-01-01

    The report documents a study which compares 12 different technologies for gas power plants with CO 2 handling. The additional costs in removing the CO 2 in connection with electricity production is calculated to at least 18-19 oere /kWh compared to conventional gas power production without CO 2 capture. The calculated extra costs are somewhat higher than previously published figures. The difference is mainly due to that the estimated costs for pipelines and injection system for CO 2 are higher than in other studies. The removal of CO 2 in connection with gas power production implies increased use of natural gas. The most developed technologies would lead to a procentual increase in the gas consumption per kWh electricity of 18-25%. Gas power plants based on the present technologies would have efficiencies in the size of 46-49%. The efficiency of power plants without CO 2 handling is supposed to be 58%. There is no foundation for pointing out a ''winner's' among the compared technologies in the study. The present available technologies excepted, there are no technology which stands out as better than the others from an economic viewpoint. Gas turbine with membrane based separation of oxygen from air (AZEP) has a potential for lower costs but implies challenging technological development and thence considerable technological risks. Two technologies, capture of carbon from natural gas previous to combustion and exhaust gas purification based on absorption, may be employed in 3 - 4 years. The other technologies require more development and maturing. Three of the technologies may be particularly interesting because hydrogen may be produced as a byproduct. Demonstration plant and choice of technology: 1) There is a limited need for demonstration plants with respect to technology development. 2) It is important for the technology development to be able to test various technologies in a laboratory or in a flexible pilot plant. 3) Many technologies and components may be

  4. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-06-01

    The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant-plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant's lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant-plant interactions was analysed. Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant-plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly driven by plastic and not by genotypic responses to changes in

  5. Cogeneration and CO2 emissions. Impact of the low power decentralized cogeneration development on the CO2 emissions in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Facing the economic growth leading the increase of the energy demand, the new european organization of the electric Industry and the development of the renewable energies sources, the cogeneration is developing in France. The aim of this study is the impacts of these cogeneration technologies on the raw materials consumption and on the environment. In a first part the energy profile of the buildings, agriculture and Industry sectors are evaluated. Each sector is divided in sectoral parts of specific thermal and electrical needs. In a second part scenario, established in the study, present significant developments of decentralized technologies of simultaneous production of heat and electric power in the range of few kW to 1 MW. (A.L.B.)

  6. Convergent evolution: floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Giurfa, Martin; Koedam, Dirk; Potts, Simon G.; Joel, Daniel M.; Dafni, Amots

    2005-09-01

    Several recent hypotheses, including sensory drive and sensory exploitation, suggest that receiver biases may drive selection of biological signals in the context of sexual selection. Here we suggest that a similar mechanism may have led to convergence of patterns in flowers, stingless bee nest entrances, and pitchers of insectivorous plants. A survey of these non-related visual stimuli shows that they share features such as stripes, dark centre, and peripheral dots. Next, we experimentally show that in stingless bees the close-up approach to a flower is guided by dark centre preference. Moreover, in the approach towards their nest entrance, they have a spontaneous preference for entrance patterns containing a dark centre and disrupted ornamentation. Together with existing empirical evidence on the honeybee's and other insects’ orientation to flowers, this suggests that the signal receivers of the natural patterns we examined, mainly Hymenoptera, have spontaneous preferences for radiating stripes, dark centres, and peripheral dots. These receiver biases may have evolved in other behavioural contexts in the ancestors of Hymenoptera, but our findings suggest that they have triggered the convergent evolution of visual stimuli in floral guides, stingless bee nest entrances, and insectivorous pitchers.

  7. Towards a revolution in operational strategy——Co-engaging Production%经营战略的革命——合作生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jurgen Poesche; Timo Nyberg; 鲍森; 徐兴; Mark Nelson; 熊刚; Ilkka Kauranen

    2017-01-01

    A revolution in operational strategy is emerging because of the renaissance of decentralized production and the renaissance of non-Occidental engineering and science.The contribution of this conceptual paper is that it (i) assesses the revolution in its historical context,(ii) defines the contemporary iteration of decentralized production in addition to establishing the revolution's foundations for innovation,legitimization,ethics and morals,(iii) shows that business theories on competences,resources and competitive advantage developed for firms engaged in centralized production are inadequate for decentralized production in fluid networks,(iv) identifies the cognitive challenge in taking full advantage of the diverse knowledge in decentralized production,and (v) finds that legal instruments which have developed alongside centralized production impede the revolution in operational strategy.The objective of this paper is to explore the impact of the renaissance of decentralized production,in the form of Co-engaging Production,on the dynamics of competences,resources and innovation in the emerging multipolar world.%随着分散生产和非西方工程、科学的复兴,一场经营战略的革命正在崭露头角.这篇理论性论文的贡献在于:(i)评估了革命所处的历史背景;(ii)定义了分散生产的当前迭代,同时建立本次革命创新性、合法化与道德伦理的基础;(iii)表明了关于开发能力、资源和竞争优势的集中生产企业的商业理论,不适用于流体网络中的分散生产;(iv)识别了充分利用分散生产的多样化知识过程中遇到的认知挑战;(v)发现了与集中生产共同发展的法律文书阻碍了经营战略的革命.本研究旨在探讨以合作生产形式进行的分散生产的复兴对新兴多极世界的能力、资源和创新动力的影响.

  8. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  9. Does a decade of elevated [CO2] affect a desert perennial plant community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newingham, Beth A; Vanier, Cheryl H; Kelly, Lauren J; Charlet, Therese N; Smith, Stanley D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on plant community structure is crucial to predicting ecosystem responses to global change. Early predictions suggested that productivity in deserts would increase via enhanced water-use efficiency under elevated [CO2], but the response of intact arid plant communities to elevated [CO2 ] is largely unknown. We measured changes in perennial plant community characteristics (cover, species richness and diversity) after 10 yr of elevated [CO2] exposure in an intact Mojave Desert community at the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility. Contrary to expectations, total cover, species richness, and diversity were not affected by elevated [CO2]. Over the course of the experiment, elevated [CO2] had no effect on changes in cover of the evergreen C3 shrub, Larrea tridentata; alleviated decreases in cover of the C4 bunchgrass, Pleuraphis rigida; and slightly reduced the cover of C3 drought-deciduous shrubs. Thus, we generally found no effect of elevated [CO2] on plant communities in this arid ecosystem. Extended drought, slow plant growth rates, and highly episodic germination and recruitment of new individuals explain the lack of strong perennial plant community shifts after a decade of elevated [CO2]. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Process analysis of an oxygen lean oxy-fuel power plant with co-production of synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Fredrik; Thunman, Henrik; Johnsson, Filip

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates new possibilities and synergy effects for an oxy-fuel fired polygeneration scheme (transportation fuel and electricity) with carbon capture and co-firing of biomass. The proposed process has the potential to make the oxy-fuel process more effective through a sub-stoichiometric combustion in-between normal combustion and gasification, which lowers the need for oxygen within the process. The sub-stoichiometric combustion yields production of synthesis gas, which is utilised in an integrated synthesis to dimethyl ether (DME). The process is kept CO 2 neutral through co-combustion of biomass in the process. The proposed scheme is simulated with a computer model with a previous study of an oxy-fuel power plant as a reference process. The degree of sub-stoichiometric combustion, or amount of synthesis gas produced, is optimised with respect to the overall efficiency. The maximal efficiency was found at a stoichiometric ratio just below 0.6 with the efficiency for the electricity producing oxy-fuel process of 0.35 and a DME process efficiency of 0.63. It can be concluded that the proposed oxygen lean combustion process constitutes a way to improve the oxy-fuel carbon capture processes with an efficient production of DME in a polygeneration process

  11. Hierarchy and decentralization of I/C-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherschmidt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The technological process of a nuclear power plant is subdivided into approx. 300 systems, 200 of which are provided with I and C equipment. By means of a functional decentralization, a hierarchical structure i.e. by creation of subsystems as small as possible, the organization of the entire plant becomes highly transparent. The control room facilities are arranged according these organizational aspects. This principles offer the following advantages: - design, manufacture, erection, commissioning can be carried out in steps and independent - the degree of automation can be selected individually for each functional group - fault and disturbances stay limited to small sectional areas. (orig.)

  12. Life-Cycle Cost and Environmental Assessment of Decentralized Nitrogen Recovery Using Ion Exchange from Source-Separated Urine through Spatial Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Tarpeh, William A; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-11-07

    Nitrogen standards for discharge of wastewater effluent into aquatic bodies are becoming more stringent, requiring some treatment plants to reduce effluent nitrogen concentrations. This study aimed to assess, from a life-cycle perspective, an innovative decentralized approach to nitrogen recovery: ion exchange of source-separated urine. We modeled an approach in which nitrogen from urine at individual buildings is sorbed onto resins, then transported by truck to regeneration and fertilizer production facilities. To provide insight into impacts from transportation, we enhanced the traditional economic and environmental assessment approach by combining spatial analysis, system-scale evaluation, and detailed last-mile logistics modeling using the city of San Francisco as an illustrative case study. The major contributor to energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was the production of sulfuric acid to regenerate resins, rather than transportation. Energy and GHG emissions were not significantly sensitive to the number of regeneration facilities. Cost, however, increased with decentralization as rental costs per unit area are higher for smaller areas. The metrics assessed (unit energy, GHG emissions, and cost) were not significantly influenced by facility location in this high-density urban area. We determined that this decentralized approach has lower cost, unit energy, and GHG emissions than centralized nitrogen management via nitrification-denitrification if fertilizer production offsets are taken into account.

  13. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  14. Decentralized energy aware co-optimization of mobility and communication in multiagent systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan

    2017-01-05

    Our goal is to design decentralized coordination strategies that enable agents to achieve global performance guarantees while minimizing the energy cost of their actions with an emphasis on feasibility for real-time implementation. As a motivating scenario that illustrates the importance of introducing energy awareness at the agent level, we consider a team of mobile nodes that are assigned the task of establishing a communication link between two base stations with minimum energy consumption. We formulate this problem as a dynamic program in which the total cost of each agent is the sum of both mobility and communication costs. To ensure that the solution is decentralized and real time implementable, we propose multiple suboptimal policies based on the concepts of approximate dynamic programming. To provide performance guarantees, we compute upper bounds on the performance gap between the proposed suboptimal policies and the global optimal policy. Finally, we discuss merits and demerits of the proposed policies and compare their performance using simulations.

  15. Staffing, qualification and organization for centralized and decentralized training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holyoak, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper covers an extensive area. First a brief history of the training at Commonwealth Edison is presented so that the reader can get some idea of why some of the problems mentioned exist. Next is a discussion of the centralized and decentralized Commonwealth Edison production training organization. A brief review of the development of the Instructor Qualification Program and the training of instructors follows. Finally, a review of the problems and some solutions related to managing a centralized/decentralized training system is included

  16. Exergy Analysis of a CO2 Recovery Plant for a Brewery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Rønne; Elmegaard, Brian; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A large number of new and old breweries around the world experience increasing energy cost associated with the production of beer. Large heating and cooling demands in the brewing process and a wide use of utilities for assisting the processes necessitate a detailed analysis of individual...... efficiencies for processes and the different utility plants. One considerable utility plant is the CO2 recovery plant, which purifies/purges the CO2 generated in the fermentation process in order to reuse it in the brewery site or sell it to customers who demand high quality CO2. In the paper a detailed model...

  17. Coupling Solid Oxide Electrolyser (SOE) and ammonia production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Giovanni; Frattini, Domenico; Jannelli, Elio; Desideri, Umberto; Bidini, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative NH 3 production plant was designed. • CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are studied in three different designs. • High temperature electrolysis allows to achieve high efficiency and heat recovery. • The coupling permits storage of electricity into a liquid carbon free chemical. - Abstract: Ammonia is one of the most produced chemicals worldwide and is currently synthesized using nitrogen separated from air and hydrogen from natural gas reforming with consequent high consumption of fossil fuel and high emission of CO 2 . A renewable path for ammonia production is desirable considering the potential development of ammonia as energy carrier. This study reports design and analysis of an innovative system for the production of green ammonia using electricity from renewable energy sources. This concept couples Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOE), for the production of hydrogen, with an improved Haber Bosch Reactor (HBR), for ammonia synthesis. An air separator is also introduced to supply pure nitrogen. SOE operates with extremely high efficiency recovering high temperature heat from the Haber-Bosch reactor. Aspen was used to develop a model to study the performance of the plant. Both the SOE and the HBR operate at 650 °C. Ammonia production with zero emission of CO 2 can be obtained with a reduction of 40% of power input compared to equivalent plants.

  18. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  19. Productivity of selected plant species adapted to arid regions. [Crassulacean metabolizing plants; Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The biomass potential of selected arid region species for alcohol production merits careful consideration. The basis for this interest is the current low agronomic use of arid lands and the potential productivity of certain species adapted to these lands. Plants displaying Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are particularly interesting with reference to biomass for fuel in regions with low rainfall, because plants with this photosynthetic process are strikingly efficient in water requirements. For CAM plants, CO/sub 2/ fixation occurs primarily at night, when tissue surface temperature and hence transpirational water loss is less than daytime values. For Agave deserti in the Sonoran desert, the water-use efficiency (mass of CO/sub 2/ fixed/mass of water transpired) over an entire year is an order of magnitude or more larger than for C-3 and C-4 plants. This indicates how well adapted CAM species are to arid regions. The potential productivity per unit land area of CAM plants is fairly substantial and, therefore, of considerable economic interest for arid areas where growth of agricultural plants is minimal.

  20. Effects of Co2 Concentrations and light intensity on photosynthesis of a rootless submerged plant, ceratophyllum demersum L., used for aquatic food production in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Okayama, T.; Murakami, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    Aquatic higher plants are likely to play an important role in aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative systems for producing feeds for fish, converting CO2 to O2 and remedying water quality in addition to green microalgae. In the present study, the effects of culture conditions on the net photosynthetic rate of a rootless submerged plant, Ceratophyllum demersum L., was investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions for plant function in aquatic food production modules including both plant culture and fish culture systems . The net photosynthetic rate in plants was determined by the increase in dissolved O2 concentrations in a closed vessel containing a plantlet and water. The water in the vessel was aerated sufficiently with a gas containing a known level CO 2 gas mixed with N2 gas before closing the vessel. The CO 2 concentrations in the aerating gas ranged from 0.3 to 100 mmol mol-1 . Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in the vessel ranged from 0 (dark) to 1.0 mmol m-2 s-1 , which was controlled with a metal halide lamp. Temperature was kept at 28 C. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing PPFD levels and was saturated at 0.2 and 0.5 mmol m-2 s-1 PPFD under CO 2 levels of 1.0 and 3.0 mmol mol-1 , respectively. The net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing CO2 levels from 0.3 to 3.0 mmol mol-1 showing the maximum value, 70 nmolO 2 gDW s at 3.0 mmol mol-1 CO2 and gradually decreased with increasing CO 2 levels from 3.0 to 100 mmol mol-1 . The results demonstrate that Ceratophyllum demersum L. could be an efficient CO 2 to O2 converter under a 3.0 mmol mol-1 CO2 level and relatively low PPFD levels in aquatic food production modules.

  1. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  2. A network approach to decentralized coordination of energy production-consumption grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodei, Elisa; Arenas, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Energy grids are facing a relatively new paradigm consisting in the formation of local distributed energy sources and loads that can operate in parallel independently from the main power grid (usually called microgrids). One of the main challenges in microgrid-like networks management is that of self-adapting to the production and demands in a decentralized coordinated way. Here, we propose a stylized model that allows to analytically predict the coordination of the elements in the network, depending on the network topology. Surprisingly, almost global coordination is attained when users interact locally, with a small neighborhood, instead of the obvious but more costly all-to-all coordination. We compute analytically the optimal value of coordinated users in random homogeneous networks. The methodology proposed opens a new way of confronting the analysis of energy demand-side management in networked systems.

  3. Correlation between plant physiology and CO2 removable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Shamsuri, Mohd Mahathir Suhaimi; Hariri, Azian; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Idris, Ahmad Fu'ad; Afandi, Azizi

    2017-09-01

    Certain plants that are able to live in the building are known as indoor plants. Plants have tolerance with indoor environment in order to survive. Usually these plants are able to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) by plants is one of the indicators that plants are still alive during photosynthesis process. The possibility of plants structure (plant physiology) to affect CO2 absorption had been the concerns of former researchers. This research intends to study the significant of plant structure (leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight) that leads to reducing the concentration of CO2 by seven plant species (Anthurium, Dumb Cane, Golden Pothos, Kadaka Fern, Prayer Plants, Spider Plants, and Syngonium). The data of CO2 reduction by plants has been obtained from previous studies. Based on results show that, the leaf area is the most contributing the significant effect to the plant absorb CO2 compare to fresh weight and dry weight. It can be prove by Pearson Correlation, where only the value of leaf area is more than 0.5 for every four conditions. This study can be conclude that the leaf area is quite plays an important role to the plant treat air from CO2, while concentration of light and CO2 will become catalytic factor for the plants improve their photosynthesis process.

  4. (DeCentralization of the Global Informational Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Möller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Centralization and decentralization are key concepts in debates that focus on the (antidemocratic character of digital societies. Centralization is understood as the control over communication and data flows, and decentralization as giving it (back to users. Communication and media research focuses on centralization put forward by dominant digital media platforms, such as Facebook and Google, and governments. Decentralization is investigated regarding its potential in civil society, i.e., hacktivism, (encryption technologies, and grass-root technology movements. As content-based media companies increasingly engage with technology, they move into the focus of critical media studies. Moreover, as formerly nationally oriented companies now compete with global media platforms, they share several interests with civil society decentralization agents. Based on 26 qualitative interviews with leading media managers, we investigate (decentralization strategies applied by content-oriented media companies. Theoretically, this perspective on media companies as agents of (decentralization expands (decentralization research beyond traditional democratic stakeholders by considering economic actors within the “global informational ecosystem” (Birkinbine, Gómez, & Wasko, 2017. We provide a three-dimensional framework to empirically investigate (decentralization. From critical media studies, we borrow the (decentralization of data and infrastructures, from media business research, the (decentralization of content distribution.

  5. Modelling plant responses to elevated CO2: how important is leaf area index?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewert, F.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims The problem of increasing CO2 concentration [CO2] and associated climate change has [CO2] on plants. While variation in growth and productivity is generated much interest in modelling effects of closely related to the amount of intercepted radiation, largely determined by leaf

  6. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  7. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  8. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  9. A Decentralized Eigenvalue Computation Method for Spectrum Sensing Based on Average Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jafar; Limmer, Steffen; Stańczak, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers eigenvalue estimation for the decentralized inference problem for spectrum sensing. We propose a decentralized eigenvalue computation algorithm based on the power method, which is referred to as generalized power method GPM; it is capable of estimating the eigenvalues of a given covariance matrix under certain conditions. Furthermore, we have developed a decentralized implementation of GPM by splitting the iterative operations into local and global computation tasks. The global tasks require data exchange to be performed among the nodes. For this task, we apply an average consensus algorithm to efficiently perform the global computations. As a special case, we consider a structured graph that is a tree with clusters of nodes at its leaves. For an accelerated distributed implementation, we propose to use computation over multiple access channel (CoMAC) as a building block of the algorithm. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the performance of the two algorithms.

  10. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management (Paper in Non-EPA Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond just water abatement. Inst...

  11. Supplier’s Joint Investments in Cost Reduction and Quality Improvement in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a decentralized supply chain with a downstream manufacturer and an upstream supplier. The upstream supplier sells a product to the manufacturer, who faces a quality and price sensitive demand. The supplier has a chance to invest in both cost reduction and quality improvement of its product. We derive the optimal investment and pricing decisions for the supply chain members. We do so in both the centralized and the decentralized supply chains. We show that the optimal investment and pricing decisions in the decentralized supply chain may deviate from that in the centralized supply chain. We develop a mechanism to coordinate the decentralized supply chain. The developed mechanism contains four policies: wholesale price, sharing of revenue, sharing of cost reduction investment cost, and sharing of quality improvement investment cost. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can lead to Pareto improvement.

  12. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  13. Plant-soil distribution of potentially toxic elements in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Benjamin D; Dijkstra, Paul; Natali, Susan M; Megonigal, J Patrick; Ketterer, Michael E; Drake, Bert G; Lerdau, Manuel T; Gordon, Gwyneth; Anbar, Ariel D; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of contaminant elements within ecosystems is an environmental concern because of these elements' potential toxicity to animals and plants and their ability to hinder microbial ecosystem services. As with nutrients, contaminants are cycled within and through ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally increases plant productivity and alters nutrient element cycling, but whether CO2 causes similar effects on the cycling of contaminant elements is unknown. Here we show that 11 years of experimental CO2 enrichment in a sandy soil with low organic matter content causes plants to accumulate contaminants in plant biomass, with declines in the extractable contaminant element pools in surface soils. These results indicate that CO2 alters the distribution of contaminant elements in ecosystems, with plant element accumulation and declining soil availability both likely explained by the CO2 stimulation of plant biomass. Our results highlight the interdependence of element cycles and the importance of taking a broad view of the periodic table when the effects of global environmental change on ecosystem biogeochemistry are considered.

  14. What supervisors want to know about decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Belton, P

    1991-06-01

    Many organizations in various industries have tended to move away from strict centralization, yet some centralization is still vital to top management. With 19 of the 22 executives interviewed favoring or implementing some form of decentralization, it is probable that traditionally centralized organizations will follow the trend and begin to decentralize their organizational structures. The incentives and advantages of decentralization are too attractive to ignore. Decentralization provides responsibility, clear objectives, accountability for results, and more efficient and effective decision making. However, one must remember that decentralization can be overextended and that centralization is still viable in certain functions. Finding the correct balance between control and autonomy is a key to decentralization. Too much control and too much autonomy are the primary reasons for decentralization failures. In today's changing, competitive environment, structures must be continuously redefined, with the goal of finding an optimal balance between centralization and decentralization. Organizations are cautioned not to seek out and install a single philosopher-king to impose unified direction, but to unify leadership goals, participation, style, and control to develop improved methods of making all responsible leaders of one mind about the organization's needs and goals.

  15. Evolutionary history and novel biotic interactions determine plant responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wooliver

    Full Text Available A major frontier in global change research is predicting how multiple agents of global change will alter plant productivity, a critical component of the carbon cycle. Recent research has shown that plant responses to climate change are phylogenetically conserved such that species within some lineages are more productive than those within other lineages in changing environments. However, it remains unclear how phylogenetic patterns in plant responses to changing abiotic conditions may be altered by another agent of global change, the introduction of non-native species. Using a system of 28 native Tasmanian Eucalyptus species belonging to two subgenera, Symphyomyrtus and Eucalyptus, we hypothesized that productivity responses to abiotic agents of global change (elevated CO2 and increased soil N are unique to lineages, but that novel interactions with a non-native species mediate these responses. We tested this hypothesis by examining productivity of 1 native species monocultures and 2 mixtures of native species with an introduced hardwood plantation species, Eucalyptus nitens, to experimentally manipulated soil N and atmospheric CO2. Consistent with past research, we found that N limits productivity overall, especially in elevated CO2 conditions. However, monocultures of species within the Symphyomyrtus subgenus showed the strongest response to N (gained 127% more total biomass in elevated CO2 conditions, whereas those within the Eucalyptus subgenus did not respond to N. Root:shoot ratio (an indicator of resource use was on average greater in species pairs containing Symphyomyrtus species, suggesting that functional traits important for resource uptake are phylogenetically conserved and explaining the phylogenetic pattern in plant response to changing environmental conditions. Yet, native species mixtures with E. nitens exhibited responses to CO2 and N that differed from those of monocultures, supporting our hypothesis and highlighting that both

  16. Mechanisms of glacial-to-future atmospheric CO2 effects on plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alex; Pétriacq, Pierre; Schwarzenbacher, Roland E; Beerling, David J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2018-04-01

    The impacts of rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations on plant disease have received increasing attention, but with little consensus emerging on the direct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity. Furthermore, the impact of sub-ambient CO 2 concentrations, which plants have experienced repeatedly over the past 800 000 yr, has been largely overlooked. A combination of gene expression analysis, phenotypic characterisation of mutants and mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling was used to determine development-independent effects of sub-ambient CO 2 (saCO 2 ) and elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) on Arabidopsis immunity. Resistance to the necrotrophic Plectosphaerella cucumerina (Pc) was repressed at saCO 2 and enhanced at eCO 2 . This CO 2 -dependent resistance was associated with priming of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent gene expression and required intact JA biosynthesis and signalling. Resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) increased at both eCO 2 and saCO 2 . Although eCO 2 primed salicylic acid (SA)-dependent gene expression, mutations affecting SA signalling only partially suppressed Hpa resistance at eCO 2 , suggesting additional mechanisms are involved. Induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at saCO 2 corresponded to a loss of resistance in glycolate oxidase mutants and increased transcription of the peroxisomal catalase gene CAT2, unveiling a mechanism by which photorespiration-derived ROS determined Hpa resistance at saCO 2 . By separating indirect developmental impacts from direct immunological effects, we uncover distinct mechanisms by which CO 2 shapes plant immunity and discuss their evolutionary significance. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Decentralized portfolio management

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Paulo; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda

    2003-01-01

    We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equiva...

  18. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  19. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Huo Hong; Arora, Salil

    2011-01-01

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  20. Methods of dealing with co-products of biofuels in life-cycle analysis and consequent results within the U.S. context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael, E-mail: mqwang@anl.gov [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Huo Hong [Institute of Energy, Environment, and Economics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Arora, Salil [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Products other than biofuels are produced in biofuel plants. For example, corn ethanol plants produce distillers' grains and solubles. Soybean crushing plants produce soy meal and soy oil, which is used for biodiesel production. Electricity is generated in sugarcane ethanol plants both for internal consumption and export to the electric grid. Future cellulosic ethanol plants could be designed to co-produce electricity with ethanol. It is important to take co-products into account in the life-cycle analysis of biofuels and several methods are available to do so. Although the International Standard Organization's ISO 14040 advocates the system boundary expansion method (also known as the 'displacement method' or the 'substitution method') for life-cycle analyses, application of the method has been limited because of the difficulty in identifying and quantifying potential products to be displaced by biofuel co-products. As a result, some LCA studies and policy-making processes have considered alternative methods. In this paper, we examine the available methods to deal with biofuel co-products, explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method, and present biofuel LCA results with different co-product methods within the U.S. context.

  1. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker......'s wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression......, we also find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems....

  2. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  3. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  4. Increase of conversion efficiency and energy efficiency by coupling of the biomass conversion process and modulating operated biogas production with a decentralized energy supply; Steigerung der Wandlungs- und Energieeffizienz durch Kopplung von Biomassekonversionsverfahren und modulierend betriebene Biogasproduktion mit dezentraler Energiebereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Only certain parts of cultivated plants can be used in the production of biofuels. The production of biogas enables a full utilization of crops, but supplies only a limited storable energy source. A full utilization of crops can be achieved when the conversion paths for biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel can be coupled via their source streams, and if the process energy is provided by a straw power plant. A modulating production of biogas improves the energy supply meeting the demands. Using a simulation model for the presentation of conversion plants, decentralized power supply, industrial load periphery and soil resource it can be shown that the energy output of arable land may be increased significantly. The variances of the electrical loads for the public electricity grid can be reduced by a modulating operation of the biogas plant in conjunction with the local energy supply. Due to the application of the digestate and fate of straw fractions in arable fields, the material cycles of nitrogen and carbon are closed to a large extent.

  5. Enhancement of biogas production at the municipal wastewater treatment plant by co-digestion with poultry industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budych-Gorzna, Magdalena; Smoczynski, Marcin; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory and full-scale trials on co-digestion of sludge and poultry waste were performed. • Successful scaling-up of the results from laboratory to full-scale was accomplished. • Incremental addition of poultry waste to the full-scale anaerobic digesters did not cause any inhibition of the process. • WWTP energy dependency can be reduced significantly by co-digestion of sludge and external source of waste. - Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are energy-intensive and thus cost-intensive facilities; therefore, it is crucial to increase energy production directly at the WWTP. Enhancement of biogas production by addition of external substrates is one of the solutions to increase energy self-sufficiency of the WWTPs with an additional benefit of cutting down the greenhouse gas emission. The main aim of the work was to investigate full utilization of the capacity of full-scale digesters at the municipal WWTP by addition of poultry industry waste. At first, laboratory trials were conducted in order to identify the most suitable dose for co-digestion with primary and waste activated sludge and finally, based on the achieved laboratory results, full-scale trials were carried out directly at the municipal WWTP. Poultry industrial waste yielded between 0.39 and 0.88 m 3 of methane per kg of volatile solids during laboratory trials, depending on the added concentration. During full-scale investigation yield of 0.81 m 3 /kg VS was achieved. Enhanced biogas production improved WWTP energy self-sufficiency bringing closer to the aim of increasing the share of self-produced energy up to 80%.

  6. Comparison of programmed and cabled re-entrance systems. Elaboration of cabled re-entrance system for a CII 90.40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraudeau, Jean

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study problems related to re-entrance, and, more particularly, to study a re-entrance system for a CII 90.40 computer. Such a system can be realised under a programmed or cabled form, and both approaches are described and compared. A generalisation of this comparison is briefly proposed. As the computer already possesses a programmed re-entrance system, the author focuses on the study of the cabled re-entrance system which results in an improvement of performance and possibilities provided by this computer, particularly for its use in real time. The design, realisation and development of such a cabled system are reported. A first part reports a theoretical study on re-entrance (definition, problems, applications), a presentation of the computer, a description of the programmed re-entrance system, a presentation of the principle of the chosen cabled re-entrance system, a definition of the structure and operating mode of the cabled pile and a description of its various components, and a flowchart analysis of function execution. The second part reports the practical realisation: definition, technological overview, technology used in the cabled pile, sequencing and multiplexing principle, impulse transmission, logical layouts, and circuit adjustments. The third part presents practical example. An assessment and perspectives are finally discussed

  7. Contribution of seagrass plants to CO2 capture in a tropical seagrass meadow under experimental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyanova, Diana; Gullström, Martin; Lyimo, Liberatus D; Dahl, Martin; Hamisi, Mariam I; Mtolera, Matern S P; Björk, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Coastal vegetative habitats are known to be highly productive environments with a high ability to capture and store carbon. During disturbance this important function could be compromised as plant photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and/or growth are reduced. To evaluate effects of disturbance on CO2 capture in plants we performed a five-month manipulative experiment in a tropical seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) meadow exposed to two intensity levels of shading and simulated grazing. We assessed CO2 capture potential (as net CO2 fixation) using areal productivity calculated from continuous measurements of diel photosynthetic rates, and estimates of plant morphology, biomass and productivity/respiration (P/R) ratios (from the literature). To better understand the plant capacity to coping with level of disturbance we also measured plant growth and resource allocation. We observed substantial reductions in seagrass areal productivity, biomass, and leaf area that together resulted in a negative daily carbon balance in the two shading treatments as well as in the high-intensity simulated grazing treatment. Additionally, based on the concentrations of soluble carbohydrates and starch in the rhizomes, we found that the main reserve sources for plant growth were reduced in all treatments except for the low-intensity simulated grazing treatment. If permanent, these combined adverse effects will reduce the plants' resilience and capacity to recover after disturbance. This might in turn have long-lasting and devastating effects on important ecosystem functions, including the carbon sequestration capacity of the seagrass system.

  8. Coalition or decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdiraji, Hannan Amoozad; Govindan, Kannan; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras

    2014-01-01

    retailers. The Nash equilibrium and definition are used bearing in mind inventory and pricing and marketing cost as decision variables for this matter. This paper studies a three-echelon supply chain network and focuses on the value of integrating a pair of partners in the chain. In the decentralized case......, the supplier sets its own price, the manufacturer points out order quantity, wholesale price and backorder quantity, and the retailer charges the final retail price of the product and marketing product. Though there are multiple players at a single echelon level, each manufacturer supplies only a specific...... to enforce marketing effort any more. Supplier-manufacturer integration brings similar benefits. Under each scenario, all parties involved simultaneously set their strategies. Through a numerical experiment, 17 design cases (through designing experiments) have been developed and the total profit...

  9. Re-assessment of plant carbon dynamics at the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site: interactions of atmospheric [CO2] with nitrogen and water availability over stand development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Kurt H Johnsen; Anne Gallet-Budynek; Seth G. Pritchard; Charles W Cook; Shannon L. LaDeau; Robert B. Jackson; Adrien C. Finzi

    2010-01-01

    The potential for elevated [CO2]-induced changes to plant carbon (C) storage, through modifications in plant production and allocation of C among plant pools, is an important source of uncertainty when predicting future forest function. Utilizing 10 yr of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site, we evaluated the...

  10. A contingency approach to decentralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Hulst, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    After decades of centralization, in 1980 the central government of the Netherlands embarked upon an ambitious project to decentralize the administrative system. It proclaimed a series of general decentralization measures that aimed to improve the performance of the administrative system and to boost

  11. On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We empirically analyze the impact of fiscal and political decentralization on subjective well-being in a cross-section of 60,000 individuals from 66 countries. More spending or revenue decentralization raises well-being while greater local autonomy is beneficial only via government consumption sp...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of CO2 capture processes for power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Biyouki, Zeinab Amrollahi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis work presents an evaluation of various processes for reducing CO2 emissions from natural-gas-fired combined cycle (NGCC) power plants. The scope of the thesis is to focus mainly on post-combustion chemical absorption for NGCC. For the post-combustion capture plant, an important interface is the steam extraction from the steam turbine in order to supply the heat for solvent regeneration. The steam extraction imposes a power production penalty. The thesis includes analysis and compa...

  13. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    in the individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems......This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation...

  14. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimor, Hans; Arya, Anil; Mittendorf, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied and conf......The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied...... and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  15. Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tantawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches.

  16. Plant adaptation or acclimation to rising CO2 ? Insight from first multigenerational RNA-Seq transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Lazowski, Alexander; Lin, Yunan; Miglietta, Franco; Edwards, Richard J; Chapman, Mark A; Taylor, Gail

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) directly determines the rate of plant photosynthesis and indirectly effects plant productivity and fitness and may therefore act as a selective pressure driving evolution, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Using Plantago lanceolata L. seed collected from a naturally high CO 2 spring and adjacent ambient CO 2 control site, we investigated multigenerational response to future, elevated atmospheric CO 2 . Plants were grown in either ambient or elevated CO 2 (700 μmol mol -1 ), enabling for the first time, characterization of the functional and population genomics of plant acclimation and adaptation to elevated CO 2 . This revealed that spring and control plants differed significantly in phenotypic plasticity for traits underpinning fitness including above-ground biomass, leaf size, epidermal cell size and number and stomatal density and index. Gene expression responses to elevated CO 2 (acclimation) were modest [33-131 genes differentially expressed (DE)], whilst those between control and spring plants (adaptation) were considerably larger (689-853 DE genes). In contrast, population genomic analysis showed that genetic differentiation between spring and control plants was close to zero, with no fixed differences, suggesting that plants are adapted to their native CO 2 environment at the level of gene expression. An unusual phenotype of increased stomatal index in spring but not control plants in elevated CO 2 correlated with altered expression of stomatal patterning genes between spring and control plants for three loci (YODA, CDKB1;1 and SCRM2) and between ambient and elevated CO 2 for four loci (ER, YODA, MYB88 and BCA1). We propose that the two positive regulators of stomatal number (SCRM2) and CDKB1;1 when upregulated act as key controllers of stomatal adaptation to elevated CO 2 . Combined with significant transcriptome reprogramming of photosynthetic and dark respiration and enhanced growth in spring plants

  17. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  18. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  19. CO{sub 2} uptake by the Kalanchoe plant; CO{sub 2}-opname bij Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study on the assimilation of the Kalanchoe plant are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal time period of a natural day (24 hours) to supply carbon dioxide to a Kalanchoe plant. A Kalanchoe plant originally is a so-called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant: CO{sub 2} uptake at night and chemical conversion of CO{sub 2} into malic acid. By day the fixed CO{sub 2} is used for photosynthesis. It appears that a Kalanchoe plant also takes up CO{sub 2} by day, which is directly used for photosynthesis. For Dutch horticulture conditions (20C, sufficient moisture) extra CO{sub 2} supply by day in the spring results in an increase of both the fresh weight and the dry weight compared to no extra CO{sub 2} supply. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs., 4 appendices

  20. Co-sputtered amorphous Nb–Ta, Nb–Zr and Ta–Zr coatings for corrosion protection of cyclotron targets for [{sup 18}F] production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarova, Hanna, E-mail: Hanna.Skliarova@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Azzolini, Oscar, E-mail: Oscar.Azzolini@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Johnson, Richard R., E-mail: richard.johnson@teambest.com [BEST Cyclotron Systems Inc., 8765 Ash Street Unit 7, Vancouver, BC V6P 6T3 (Canada); Palmieri, Vincenzo, E-mail: Vincenzo.Palmieri@lnl.infn.it [National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Legnaro National Laboratories, Viale dell’Università, 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padua (Italy); University of Padua, Padua (Italy)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • Nb–Ta, Nb–Zr and Ta–Zr alloy films were deposited by co-sputtering. • Co-sputtered Nb–Zr and Nb–Ta alloy coatings had crystalline microstructures. • Diffusion barrier efficiency of Nb–Zr and Nb–Ta decreased with the increase of Nb %. • Co-sputtered Ta–Zr films with 30–73 at.% Ta were amorphous. • Sputtered amorphous Ta–Zr films showed superior diffusion barrier efficiency. - Abstract: Protective corrosion resistant coatings serve for decreasing the amount of ionic contaminants from Havar® entrance foils of the targets for [{sup 18}F] production. The corrosion damage of coated entrance foils is caused mainly by the diffusion of highly reactive products of water radiolysis through the protective film toward Havar® substrate. Since amorphous metal alloys (metallic glasses) are well-known to perform a high corrosion resistance, the glass forming ability, microstructure and diffusion barrier efficiency of binary alloys containing chemically inert Nb, Ta, Zr were investigated. Nb–Ta, Nb–Zr and Ta–Zr films of different alloy composition and ∼1.5 μm thickness were co-deposited by magnetron sputtering. Diffusion barrier efficiency tests used reactive aluminum underlayer and protons of acid solution and gallium atoms at elevated temperature as diffusing particles. Though co-sputtered Nb–Ta and Nb–Zr alloy films of different contents were crystalline, Ta–Zr alloy was found to form dense amorphous microstructures in a range of composition with 30–73% atomic Ta. The diffusion barrier efficiency of Nb–Zr and Nb–Ta alloy coatings decreased with increase of Nb content. The diffusion barrier efficiency of sputtered Ta–Zr alloy coatings increased with the transition from nanocrystalline columnar microstructure to amorphous for coatings with 30–73 at.% Ta.

  1. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...... local models. The results of this report are especially useful, but not limited, to design a decentralized wind farm controller, since in centralized controller design one can also use the model and update it in a central computing node.......Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...

  2. Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Shirehjini, A.A.; Rühl, C.; Noll, S.

    2003-01-01

    The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodology to decentralized expert and Knowledge Management, cooperation, and enterprise resource planning.

  3. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Lau, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in atmospheric [CO2] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO2] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO2] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO2] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO2]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO2] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO2] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO2]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO2] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO2] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO2] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO2]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C4 photosynthesis into C3 leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration of plant responses to varying

  4. Evolutionary context for understanding and manipulating plant responses to past, present and future atmospheric [CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Andrew D B; Lau, Jennifer A

    2012-02-19

    Variation in atmospheric [CO(2)] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO(2)] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO(2)] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO(2)] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO(2)]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO(2)] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and trait-based approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO(2)] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO(2)]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO(2)] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO(2)] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO(2)] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO(2)]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C(4) photosynthesis into C(3) leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration

  5. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2 : an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Marloes P; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may

  6. Entrance C - Meyrin site: new access conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C on the Meyrin site, which drivers of motorised vehicles can use Mondays to Fridays from 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. and from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., has been altered to include a turnstile to allow cyclists and pedestrians to use their access card to get in and out of the site from 6 a.m. until 10 p.m.   The following video illustrates how to use the new turnstile: A new type of entrance gate fitted with a number plate reader similar to that installed at the entrance to the Prévessin site should, once fully tested, allow drivers of motorised vehicles to access the site. For the time being, the conditions of use of Entrance C remain unchanged. Further information on the entry into force of new arrangements will be issued in due course. For further information about CERN entrances: CERN opening hours CERN control access GS Department

  7. Query Optimizations over Decentralized RDF Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Mansour, Essam; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Applications in life sciences, decentralized social networks, Internet of Things, and statistical linked dataspaces integrate data from multiple decentralized RDF graphs via SPARQL queries. Several approaches have been proposed to optimize query

  8. Novel multifunctional plant growth-promoting bacteria in co-compost of palm oil industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clament Fui Seung; Furuya, Yoshihide; Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sakai, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Previously, a unique co-compost produced by composting empty fruit bunch with anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent, which contributed to establishing a zero-emission industry in Malaysia. Little was known about the bacterial functions during the composting process and fertilization capacity of this co-compost. We isolated 100 strains from the co-compost on 7 types of enumeration media and screened 25 strains using in vitro tests for 12 traits, grouping them according to three functions: plant growth promoting (fixation of nitrogen; solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and silicate; production of 3-indoleacetic acid, ammonia, and siderophore), biocontrolling (production of chitinase and anti-Ganoderma activity), and composting (degradation of lignin, xylan, and cellulose). Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 25 strains with strong or multi-functional traits were found belong to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Kosakonia. Furthermore, several strains of Citrobacter sedlakii exhibited a plant growth-stimulation in vivo komatsuna plant cultivation test. In addition, we isolated several multifunctional strains; Bacillus tequilensis CE4 (biocontrolling and composting), Enterobacter cloacae subsp. dissolvens B3 (plant growth promoting and biocontrolling), and C. sedlakii CESi7 (plant growth promoting and composting). Some bacteria in the co-compost play significant roles during the composting process and plant cultivation after fertilization, and some multifunctional strains have potential for use in accelerating the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass, protecting against Ganoderma boninense infection, and increasing the yield of palm oil. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decentralization and the local development state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Rony Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the politics of decentralization and state-peasant encounters in rural Oromiya, Ethiopia. Breaking with a centralized past, the incumbent government of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) committed itself to a decentralization policy in the early 1990......s and has since then created a number of new sites for state-citizen interactions. In the context of electoral authoritarianism, however, decentralization has been interpreted as a means for the expansion of the party-state at the grass-roots level. Against this backdrop, this article attempts...... between the 2005 and 2010 elections. Based on ethnographic field research, the empirical case presented discloses that decentralization and state-led development serve the expansion of state power into rural areas, but that state authority is simultaneously constituted and undermined in the course...

  10. The influence of CO2 proceding from plant residue decomposition in the soil on isotopic ratio 13C/12c and plant development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, D.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effect of plant incorporated in the soil on the microclimate of plant growth, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse and then under field conditions. Plant residue of C-3 crops δ 13 C = - 27.6 0 /00, was incorporated in the soil. This altered the isotopic composition of the CO 2 in soil air and in atmospheric air of soil layers adjacent to the surface. The soil air CO 2 isotopic composition showed that approximately 79% carbon was from the incorporated organic matter and 50% to 3% in O to 30 cm layers, respectively, in the atmospheric air adjacent to the surface. The isotopic ratio 13 C/ 12 C of plants cultivated in soil with incorporated organic matter was determined and it was noted that the envolved CO 2 was photosynthetically absorved by the plants during growth. CO 2 contribution from organic matter to the isotopic composition of C-4 plants varied from 33% to 13% during growth. Plants cultivated in soil with organic matter had a better development than those cultivated in natural soil. Productivity was on average 50% greater than the control plants. (author) [pt

  11. BioBoost. Biomass based energy intermediates boosting bio-fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebel, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)

    2013-10-01

    To increase the share of biomass for renewable energy in Europe conversion pathways which are economic, flexible in feedstock and energy efficient are needed. The BioBoost project concentrates on dry and wet residual biomass and wastes as feedstock for de-central conversion by fast pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization to the intermediate energy carriers oil, coal or slurry. Based on straw the energy density increases from 2 to 20-30 GJ/m{sup 3}, enabling central GW scale gasification plants for bio-fuel production. A logistic model for feedstock supply and connection of de-central with central conversion is set up and validated allowing the determination of costs, the number and location of de-central and central sites. Techno/economic and environmental assessment of the value chain supports the optimization of products and processes. The utilization of energy carriers is investigated in existing and coming applications of heat and power production and synthetic fuels and chemicals. (orig.)

  12. Coordination in the Decentralized Assembly System with Dual Supply Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a decentralized assembly system that consists of one assembler and two independent suppliers; wherein one supplier is perfectly reliable for the production, while the other generates yield uncertainty. Facing the random market demand, the assembler has to order the components from one supplier in advance and meanwhile requires the other supplier to deliver the components under VMI mode. We construct a Nash game between the supplier and the assembler so as to derive their equilibrium procurement/production strategies. The results show that the channel’s performance is highly undermined by the decentralization between players and also the combination of two supply modes. Compared to the centralized system, we propose an advance payment contract to perfectly coordinate the supply chain performance. The numerical examples indicate some management implications on the supply mode comparison and sensitivity analysis.

  13. Decentralized or Centralized Systems for Colleges and Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydinger, Richard B.; Norris, Donald M.

    1979-01-01

    Arguments for and against decentralization of data management, analysis, and planning systems are presented. It is suggested that technological advances have encouraged decentralization. Caution in this direction is urged and the development of an articulated decentralization program is proposed. (SF)

  14. Application of optimal design methodologies in retrofitting natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ming; Aziz, Farah; Li, Baohong; Perry, Simon; Zhang, Nan; Bulatov, Igor; Smith, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new approach is proposed for retrofitting NGCC power plants with CO2 capture. • HTI techniques are developed for improving heat recovery in NGCC power plants. • EGR techniques are developed to increase the process overall energy efficiency. • The proposed methods are efficient for practical application. - Abstract: Around 21% of the world’s power production is based on natural gas. Energy production is considered to be the significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions. This has a significant effect on the global warming. Improving power plant efficiency and adding a CO_2 capture unit into power plants, have been suggested to be a promising countermeasure against global warming. This paper presents a new insight to the application of energy efficient technologies in retrofitting natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants with CO_2 capture. High fidelity models of a 420 MW NGCC power plant and a CO_2 capture plant with CO_2 compression train have been built and integrated for 90% capture level. These models have been then validated by comparisons with practical operating data and literature results. The novelty of the paper is to propose optimal retrofitting strategies to minimize the efficiency penalty caused by integrating carbon capture units into the power plant, including (1) implementing heat transfer intensification techniques to increase energy saving in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) of the power plant; (2) extracting suitable steam from the HRSG to supply the heat required by the capture process, thus on external heat is purchased; (3) employing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to increase the overall energy efficiency of the integrated process, which can benefit both power plant (e.g. increasing power plant efficiency) and capture process (e.g. reducing heat demands). Compared with the base case without using any integrating and retrofitting strategies, the optimal solution based on the proposed approaches

  15. Emission of CO2 Gas and Radioactive Pollutant from Coal Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, N.Finahari; Djati-HS; Heni-Susiati

    2006-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plant in Indonesia is still depending on burning fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gaseous fuel. The direct burning of coal produces CO 2 gas that can cause air pollution, and radioactive pollutant that can increase natural radioactive dosage. Natural radionuclide contained in coal is in the form of kalium, uranium, thorium and their decay products. The amount of CO 2 gas emission produced by coal fired power plant can be reduced by equipping the plant with waste-gas treatment facility. At this facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide producing calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate then can be used as basic material in food, pharmaceutical and construction industries. The alternative method to reduce impact of air pollution is by replacing coal fuel with nuclear fuel or new and renewable fuel. (author)

  16. Decentralization and Economic Growth per capita in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crucq, Pieter; Hemminga, Hendrik-Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between decentralization and economic growth is investigated. The focus is on decentralization from the national government to the highest substate level in a country, which we define as regional decentralization. Section 2 discusses the different dimensions of

  17. Impacts of CO2 Enrichment on Productivity and Light Requirements of Eelgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. C.; Kohrs, D. G.; Steller, D. L.; Alberte, R. S.

    1997-10-01

    Seagrasses, although well adapted for submerged existence, are CO2-limited and photosynthetically inefficient in seawater. This leads to high light requirements for growth and survival and makes seagrasses vulnerable to light limitation. We explored the long-term impact of increased CO2 availability on light requirements, productivity, and C allocation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Enrichment of seawater CO2 increased photosynthesis 3-fold, but had no long-term impact on respiration. By tripling the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis, CO2 enrichment reduced the daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (Hsat) that is required for the maintenance of positive whole-plant C balance from 7 to 2.7 h, allowing plants maintained under 4 h of Hsat to perform like plants growing in unenriched seawater with 12 h of Hsat. Eelgrass grown under 4 h of Hsat without added CO2 consumed internal C reserves as photosynthesis rates and chlorophyll levels dropped. Growth ceased after 30 d. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll, and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity of CO2-enriched plants showed no acclimation to prolonged enrichment. Thus, the CO2-stimulated improvement in photosynthesis reduced light requirements in the long term, suggesting that globally increasing CO2 may enhance seagrass survival in eutrophic coastal waters, where populations have been devastated by algal proliferation and reduced water-column light transparency.

  18. Investigating the interactions of decentralized and centralized wastewater heat recovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenfrei, Robert; Hillebrand, Sebastian; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    In the urban water cycle there are different sources for extracting energy. In addition to potential and chemical energy in the wastewater, thermal energy can also be recovered. Heat can be recovered from the wastewater with heat exchangers that are located decentralized and/or centralized at several locations throughout the system. It can be recovered directly at the source (e.g. in the showers and bathrooms), at building block level (e.g. warm water tanks collecting all grey water), in sewers or at the wastewater treatment plant. However, an uncoordinated installation of systems on such different levels can lead to competing technologies. To investigate these interactions, a modelling environment is set up, tested and calibrated based on continuous sewer temperature and flow measurements. With that approach different heat recovery scenarios on a household level (decentralized) and of in-sewer heat recovery (centralized) are investigated. A maximum performance drop of 40% for a centralized energy recovery system was estimated when all bathrooms are equipped with decentralized recovery systems. Therefore, the proposed modelling approach is suitable for testing different future conditions and to identify robust strategies for heat recovery systems from wastewater.

  19. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Energy saving in tunnel entrance lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Swart, L.

    1993-01-01

    Tunnel entrances may present themselves during the day as a "black hole" in which no details can be perceived. In order to ensure safe and comfortable driving at high speeds, the entrance zone must be lit to a high luminance level. Modern tunnel lighting technology is focused on two aspects:

  1. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decentralization has a variety of expressions, but the meaning generally accepted refers to the transfer of authority and responsibility of the public functions from central government to sub-national public entities or even to the private sector. Decentralization process is complex, affecting many aspects of social and economic life and public management, and its design and implementation cover several stages, depending on the cyclical and structural developments of the country. From an economic perspective, decentralization is seen as a means of primary importance in terms of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of public services and macroeconomic stability due to the redistribution of public finances while in a much closer logic of the government policy objectives. But the decentralization process behaves as well some risks, because it involves the implementation of appropriate mechanisms for the establishment of income and expenditure programming at the subnational level, which, if is not correlated with macroeconomic policy imperatives can lead to major imbalances, both financially as in termes of economic and social life. Equally, ensuring the balance of the budget at the local level is imperative to fulfill, this goal imposing a legal framework and specific procedures to size transfers of public funds, targeted or untargeted. Also, public and local authorities have to adopt appropriate laws and regulations such that sub-national public entities can access loans - such as bank loans or debentures from domestic or external market - in terms of a strict monitoring national financial stability. In all aspects of decentralization - political, administrative, financial -, public authorities should develop and implement the most effective mechanisms to coordinate macroeconomic objectives and both sectoral and local interests and establish clear responsibilities - exclusive or shared - for all parties involved in the

  2. A New Process for Co-production of Ammonia and Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new process for co-production of ammonia and methanol is proposed. The process involves the production of synthesis gas by oxygen blown auto thermal reformer (ATR) at a pressure of 40-100 bars, a methanol synthesis loop at a pressure of 50-100 bars and an ammonia synthesis loop at a pressure of 200-300 bars. The oxygen required for the ATR is supplied by an air separation plant. The synthesis gases from the ATR are cooled and compressed, in a first stage compression, to the required methanol loop pressure. The purge stream from the methanol loop is sent to an intermediate temperature shift converter ITSC followed by a physical solvent CO 2 removal unit and them purified in a pressure Swing Adsorber (PSA). The purified hydrogen from the PSA together with the almost pure nitrogen from the air separation plant are re compressed, in a second stage compression

  3. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  4. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Noboru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  5. Performance Analysis of the Decentralized Eigendecomposition and ESPRIT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Wassim; Pesavento, Marius; Zoubir, Abdelhak M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider performance analysis of the decentralized power method for the eigendecomposition of the sample covariance matrix based on the averaging consensus protocol. An analytical expression of the second order statistics of the eigenvectors obtained from the decentralized power method which is required for computing the mean square error (MSE) of subspace-based estimators is presented. We show that the decentralized power method is not an asymptotically consistent estimator of the eigenvectors of the true measurement covariance matrix unless the averaging consensus protocol is carried out over an infinitely large number of iterations. Moreover, we introduce the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm which yields fully decentralized direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates. Based on the performance analysis of the decentralized power method, we derive an analytical expression of the MSE of DOA estimators using the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm. The validity of our asymptotic results is demonstrated by simulations.

  6. Interpreting plant-sampled ¿14CO2 to study regional anthropogenic CO2 signals in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bozhinova, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    "Interpreting plant-sampled Δ14CO2 to study regional anthropogenic CO2 signals in Europe" Author: Denica Bozhinova This thesis investigates the quantitative interpretation of plant-sampled ∆14CO2 as an indicator of fossil fuel CO2 recently added to the atmosphere. We present a methodology to calculate the ∆14CO2 that has accumulated in a plant over its growing period, based on a modeling framework consisting of a plant growth model (SUCROS) and an atmospheric transport model (WRF-Chem). We ve...

  7. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. (De)centralization of the global informational ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Johanna; Rimscha, M. Bjørn von

    2017-01-01

    Centralization and decentralization are key concepts in debates that focus on the (anti)democratic character of digital societies. Centralization is understood as the control over communication and data flows, and decentralization as giving it (back) to users. Communication and media research focuses on centralization put forward by dominant digital media platforms, such as Facebook and Google, and governments. Decentralization is investigated regarding its potential in civil society, i.e., h...

  9. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Plant–plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant’s lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant–plant interactions was analysed. Methods Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. Key Results It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. Conclusion The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant–plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly

  11. Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, María C; Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; López-Marín, Josefa; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2016-08-01

    The assimilation and availability of nitrogen in its different forms can significantly affect the response of primary productivity under the current atmospheric alteration and soil degradation. An elevated CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) triggers changes in the efficiency and efficacy of photosynthetic processes, water use and product yield, the plant response to stress being altered with respect to ambient CO2 conditions (a[CO2]). Additionally, NH4(+) has been related to improved plant responses to stress, considering both energy efficiency in N-assimilation and the overcoming of the inhibition of photorespiration at e[CO2]. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the response of sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) receiving an additional supply of NH4(+) (90/10 NO3(-)/NH4(+)) to salinity stress (60mM NaCl) under a[CO2] (400μmolmol(-1)) or e[CO2] (800μmolmol(-1)). Salt-stressed plants grown at e[CO2] showed DW accumulation similar to that of the non-stressed plants at a[CO2]. The supply of NH4(+) reduced growth at e[CO2] when salinity was imposed. Moreover, NH4(+) differentially affected the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency and the leaf Cl(-), K(+), and Na(+) concentrations, but the extent of the effects was influenced by the [CO2]. An antioxidant-related response was prompted by salinity, the total phenolics and proline concentrations being reduced by NH4(+) at e[CO2]. Our results show that the effect of NH4(+) on plant salinity tolerance should be globally re-evaluated as e[CO2] can significantly alter the response, when compared with previous studies at a[CO2]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Decentralization of Health System in Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Kabir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of peripheral area, service or action. Basically decentralized governance, if properly planned and implemented, offers important opportunities for enhanced human development. The studies about this issue in different countries show that most of the decentralizations have been implemented in European countries and in comparison, the Middle East countries have been utilized lower degrees of the decentralization process. In fact, decentralization in the health system is a policy pursued for a variety of purposes including; increase in service delivery effectiveness and equity, improving efficiency and quality, fairness of financial contribution and planning for choosing the most appropriate interventions for the health priorities in peripheral regions. To implement decentralized governance, there is a spectrum of different choices that the government should regulate their degrees. Providing an appropriate atmosphere for decentralization is essential, otherwise lack of planning and achievement can result in complications for the system.

  13. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  14. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  15. Identification of plant compounds involved in the microbe-plant communication during the co-inoculation of soybean with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Delftia sp. JD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagide, Celica; Riviezzi, Braulio; Minteguiaga, Manuel; Morel, Maria; Castro-Sowinski, Susana

    2018-05-30

    Delftia sp. JD2 is a Betaproteobacterium characterized as a plant growth-promoting bacterium with a "helper" function, enhancing the performance of rhizobial inoculant strains during the co-inoculation of alfalfa and clover. In this work we analyzed: (i) the effect of the co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Delftia sp. JD2 strains on the performance of soybean plants and, (ii) the production of a few secondary plant metabolites that would explain the positive effect of co-inoculation on the growth and development of soybean plants. The results showed a beneficial effect of co-inoculation on soybean growth, nodulation rate and pulse yield, with the concomitant benefit for the agricultural economy. In addition, based on a metabolomics approach, we demonstrated that a different pattern of plant metabolites is being produced at different stages of plant growth. The new information suggests that the co-inoculation of soybean changes the primary and secondary metabolism of the plant, including changes in the metabolic status of main and secondary nodules within the plant. The relevance of producing a different pattern of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments, flavonoids, organic acids and carbohydrates are discussed. Finally, we propose that JD2 could be used, together with bradyrhizobia, to manipulate the chemical composition of plant tissues, promoting the nutritional benefits and health of soybean.

  16. H2 production by reforming route in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphaelle Imbault

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the most common way to produce hydrogen is the Steam Methane Reforming route from natural gas. With the pressure of new environmental rules, reducing CO 2 emissions becomes a key issue. The European project Ulcos (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) has targeted to reduce of at least 50% the CO 2 emissions in steelmaking. The H 2 route (and in particular the reforming process) is one of the solutions which have been explored. The results of this study have shown that the two main ways (which can be combined) of limiting CO 2 emissions in H 2 production are to improve the energetic efficiency of the plant or to capture CO 2 . With the first way, a reduction of 20% of emissions compared to conventional plant can be reached. The second one enables to achieve a decrease of 90%. However the CO 2 capture is much more expensive and this kind of solution can be economically competitive only if high CO 2 taxes are implemented (≥40 Euros/ton). (author)

  17. CO{sub 2}-EQ emissions of forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, Arto; Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWh in 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho Oy's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 230,000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 73 million litres and petrol 1.7 million litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 17 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Less than 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.026 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.019 to 0.038 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant

  18. DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SYSTEM OF NATIONAL ECONOMY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepaniuk Nataliia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Article deals with the investigation of the theoretical approaches to the notion of decentralization in the system of management of the national economy. Purpose. It has been found that for the effective functioning of the state it is necessary to achieve a rational relationship between centralization and decentralization, change the role, responsibility and powers for local self-government and executive authority. Results. t is substantiated that most of the scientific works are devoted to the study of the issue of decentralization of power, the implementation of reform of public finances, the transfer of power to the place as a guarantee of the development of the national economy. It is emphasized that the main idea of decentralization is to transfer competence to local government to address local needs issues. Consequently, decentralization is closely linked to the organization of public administration, promotes the building of effective relations between state authorities and local government. The main advantages of decentralization are: simplified management on the local area, establishing closer connection with civil society, increasing transparency of managerial decisions and raising the level of responsibility to the territorial community. Considered organizational and legal aspects of introduction of decentralization in Ukraine. It is noted that the course on decentralization outlines both prospects and implementation problems. Among the main risks of decentralization are the inconsistencies of the development of separate territorial units and strategic goals, the loss of state mobility, reduction of workplaces of the state apparatus, risks of complication of coordination between levels of management. Conclusions. It has been determined that for efficiency and effectiveness of the reform decentralization principles are necessary for wide introduction in the administrative, political, budgetary, financial and social spheres

  19. Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, A.

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, a radiatively-active ({open_quotes}green-house{close_quotes}) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing land use practices, particularly deforestation. Climate changes resulting from such elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, in addition to the direct effects of increased CO{sub 2}, are expected to modify the productivity of forests and alter species distributions. Elevated levels of CO{sub 2} have been shown, in some cases, to lead to enhanced growth rates in plants, particularly those with C{sub 3} metabolism - indicating that plant growth is CO{sub 2}-limited in these situations. Since the major process underlying growth is CO{sub 2} assimilation via photosynthesis in leaves, plant growth represents a potential for sequestering atmospheric carbon into biomass, but this potential could be hampered by plant carbon sink size. Carbon sinks are utilization sites for assimilated carbon, enabling carbon assimilation to proceed without potential inhibition from the accumulation of assimilate (photosynthate). Plant growth provides new sinks for assimilated carbon which permits greater uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, sinks are, on the whole, reduced in size by stress events due to the adverse effects of stress on photosynthetic rates and therefore growth. This document reviews some of the literature on plant responses to increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and to inadequate nutrient supply rates, and with this background, the potential for nutrient-limited plants to respond to increasing carbon dioxide is addressed. Conclusions from the literature review are then tested experimentally by means of a case study exploring carbon-nitrogen interactions in seedlings of loblolly pine.

  20. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  1. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  2. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Hennings, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  3. Forty years of the Weglopochodne Enterprise for Sale of Coal-Derived Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkowski, Z.

    1986-02-01

    Organizational structure of trade in coal-derived products in Poland from 1945 to 1985 is discussed. Fluctuations of organizational structures reflecting phases of centralization and decentralization of the national economy are analyzed. Coordinating role of the Weglopochodne Enterprise in the coking and chemical industries is stressed. Types of products produced by coking plants in Poland, trade and exports are discussed. Effects of organizational structures on development of coking plants are also discussed (increasing wear of coking plants, insufficient investment etc.). 3 references.

  4. Decentralized Decision Making Toward Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William W.; Johnson, Homer M.

    This monograph provides guidelines to help those school districts considering a more decentralized form of management. The authors discuss the levels at which different types of decisions should be made, describe the changing nature of the educational environment, identify different centralization-decentralization models, and suggest a flexible…

  5. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  6. Computing for Decentralized Systems (lecture 1)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    With the rise of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies it is becoming apparent the paradigm shift towards decentralized computing. Computer engineers will need to understand this shift when developing systems in the coming years. Transferring value over the Internet is just one of the first working use cases of decentralized systems, but it is expected they will be used for a number of different services such as general purpose computing, data storage, or even new forms of governance. Decentralized systems, however, pose a series of challenges that cannot be addressed with traditional approaches in computing. Not having a central authority implies truth must be agreed upon rather than simply trusted and, so, consensus protocols, cryptographic data structures like the blockchain, and incentive models like mining rewards become critical for the correct behavior of decentralized system. This series of lectures will be a fast track to introduce these fundamental concepts through working examples and pra...

  7. Computing for Decentralized Systems (lecture 2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    With the rise of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies it is becoming apparent the paradigm shift towards decentralized computing. Computer engineers will need to understand this shift when developing systems in the coming years. Transferring value over the Internet is just one of the first working use cases of decentralized systems, but it is expected they will be used for a number of different services such as general purpose computing, data storage, or even new forms of governance. Decentralized systems, however, pose a series of challenges that cannot be addressed with traditional approaches in computing. Not having a central authority implies truth must be agreed upon rather than simply trusted and, so, consensus protocols, cryptographic data structures like the blockchain, and incentive models like mining rewards become critical for the correct behavior of decentralized system. This series of lectures will be a fast track to introduce these fundamental concepts through working examples and pra...

  8. CO2 control technology effects on IGCC plant performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chao; Rubin, Edward S.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the USDOE's Carbon Sequestration Program, an integrated modeling framework has been developed to evaluate the performance and cost of alternative carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies for fossil-fueled power plants in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements. This paper uses the newly developed model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant to analyze the effects of adding CCS to an IGCC system employing a GE quench gasifier with water gas shift reactors and a Selexol system for CO 2 capture. Parameters of interest include the effects on plant performance and cost of varying the CO 2 removal efficiency, the quality and cost of coal, and selected other factors affecting overall plant performance and cost. The stochastic simulation capability of the model is also used to illustrate the effect of uncertainties or variability in key process and cost parameters. The potential for advanced oxygen production and gas turbine technologies to reduce the cost and environmental impacts of IGCC with CCS is also analyzed

  9. CO[sub 2] exchange and growth of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant opuntia ficus-indica under elevated CO[sub 2] in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism species, were studied at CO[sub 2] concentrations of 370, 520, and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] in open-top chambers during a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 76 and 98% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Eight weeks after daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35 and 49% higher at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, than at 370 L L[sup [minus]1]. Daily water-use efficiency was 88% higher under elevated CO[sub 2] for basal cladodes and 57% higher for daughter cladodes. The daily net CO[sub 2] uptake capacity for basal cladodes increased for 4 weeks after planting and then remained fairly constant, whereas for daughter cladodes, it increased with cladode age, became maximal at 8 to 14 weeks, and then declined. The percentage enhancement in daily net CO[sub 2] uptake caused by elevated CO[sub 2] was greatest initially for basal cladodes and at 8 to 14 weeks for daughter cladodes. The chlorophyll content per unit fresh weight of chlorenchyma for daughter cladodes at 8 weeks was 19 and 62% lower in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, compared with 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Despite the reduced chlorophyll content, plant biomass production during 23 weeks in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 21 and 55% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. The root dry weight nearly tripled as the CO[sub 2] concentration was doubled, causing the root/shoot ratio to increase with CO[sub 2] concentration. During the 23-week period, elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production of O. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Decentralization or centralization: striking a balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschel, K M

    1994-09-01

    An Executive Vice President for Nursing can provide the necessary link to meet diverse clinical demands when encountering centralization--decentralization decisions. Centralized communication links hospital departments giving nurses a unified voice. Decentralization acknowledges the need for diversity and achieves the right balance of uniformity through a responsive communications network.

  11. Electrification Using Decentralized Micro-Hydro Power Plants in Northern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Bhandari

    2015-03-01

    In order to identify the operational status of installed MHP plants in four North-eastern provinces (i.e. Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh and Takhar and to assess their socio-economic impacts, an extensive field monitoring had been carried out. The major parameters studied were spatial distribution of MHP plants, investment costs, operational models, end user electricity tariffs, productive use of electricity, community satisfaction, etc. Altogether, 421 MHP installations (about 11 MW installed capacity were visited. The outcomes obtained from those surveys are presented in detail in this paper.

  12. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  13. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentz, Jeremy A.; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2005-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of 14 C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% 14 CO 2 when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates

  14. Abstract flexibility description for virtual power plant scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhling, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the ongoing paradigm shift of the energy market from big power plants to more and more small and decentralized power plants, virtual power plants (VPPs) play an important role. VPPs bundle the capacities of the small and decentralized resources (DER). Planing of VPP operation, that is also called scheduling, relies on the flexibilities of controllable DER in the VPP, e.g., combined heat and power plants (CHPs), heat pumps and batteries. The aim of this thesis is the development of an abstr...

  15. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  16. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  17. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  18. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  19. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  20. About the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood in fluidized bed reactor for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants; Zur Vergasung von Rest- und Abfallholz in Wirbelschichtreaktoren fuer dezentrale Energieversorgungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, H.

    2005-10-20

    This dissertation examines the thermochemical conversion (gasification) of untreated scrap and waste wood in combustible gases for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants of low output (1 to 10 MW fuel power). A general section goes into the basics of the energetic utilization of solid biomass, the subprocesses of thermochemical conversion being described in more detail. Special attention is given to the processes and state of the art of biomass gasification in decentralized plants. A theoretical section analyzes the gasification models for solid biomass presented in the literature. Based on this analysis, a simplified kinetic model is derived for the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood with air in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. It includes a fluid mechanic analysis of the fluidized bed based on HILLIGARDT, an empirical pyrolysis model and a global kinetic approach to the main chemical reaction taken from the literature. An experimental section describes the tests of the gasification of forest scrap wood in a semi-industrial fluidized bed gasification test plant with 150 kW fuel power and presents the significant test results. The gasification model derived is applied to check the test plant's standard settings and compare them with measured values. Furthermore, the model is employed to explain basic reaction paths and zones and to perform concluding parameter simulations. (orig.)

  1. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  2. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  3. Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.

  4. Trends in research on forestry decentralization policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Ribot, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    institutions; studies focusing on power and the role of elites in forestry decentralization, and; studies that historicize and contextualize forestry decentralization as reflective of broader societal phenomena. We argue that these strands reflect disciplinary differences in values, epistemologies, and methods...

  5. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  6. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  7. Use of MgO to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 production in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Brush, L.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in a salt bed in southern New Mexico, is designed by US Department of Energy to demonstrate the safe and permanent disposal of design-basis transuranic waste. WIPP performance assessment requires consideration of radionuclide release in brines in the event of inadvertent human intrusion. The mobility of radionuclides depends on chemical factors such as brine pmH (-log molality of H + ) and CO 2 fugacity. According to current waste inventory estimates, a large quantity (∼ 10 9 moles C) of organic materials will be emplaced in the WIPP. Those organic material will potentially be degraded by halophilic or halotolerant microorganisms in the presence of liquid water in the repository, especially if a large volume of brine is introduced into the repository by human intrusions. Organic material biodegradation will produce a large amount of CO 2 , which will acidify the WIPP brine and thus significantly increase the mobility of actinides. This communication addresses (1) the rate of organic material biodegradation and the quantity of CO 2 to be possibly generated, (2) the effect of microbial CO 2 production on overall WIPP performance, and (3) the mechanism of using MgO to mitigate this effect

  8. Energy saving technologies of the decentralized ventilation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The growing aspiration to energy saving and efficiency of energy leads to necessity to build tight enough buildings. As a result of this the quantity of infiltration air appears insufficient for realization of necessary air exchange in. One of decisions of the given problem is development and application for ventilation of premises of the decentralized forced-air and exhaust systems (DFAES) with recuperative or regenerative heat-exchangers. For an estimation of efficiency of DFAES following basic parameters have been certain: factor of energy saving; factor of efficiency of energy; factor of a heat transfer; factor of an effective utilization of a surface of heat exchange. Were estimated temperature of forced air; actual speed of an air jet on an entrance in a served zone; actual noise level; the charge of external air. Tests of DFAES were spent in natural conditions at which DFAES influenced all set of factors both an external climate, and an internal microclimate of a premise, and also the arrangement on a wind side or behind wind side of a building, influence of surrounding building, fluctuation of temperature of external air is considered. Proceeding from results and the analysis of the lead researches recommendations have been developed for development and manufacture of new sample of DFAES.

  9. Decentralization: Another Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robin

    1973-01-01

    This paper attempts to pursue the centralization-decentralization dilemma. A setting for this discussion is provided by noting some of the uses of terminology, followed by a consideration of inherent difficulties in conceptualizing. (Author)

  10. Benzo[a]pyrene co-metabolism in the presence of plant root extracts and exudates: Implications for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Jeremy A [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Alvarez, Pedro J.J. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Schnoor, Jerald L [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of {sup 14}C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% {sup 14}CO{sub 2} when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02. - Bacterial benzo[a]pyrene cometabolism, a plant-microbe interaction affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phytoremediation was demonstrated with Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 that utilized plant root extracts and exudates as primary substrates.

  11. Decentralized manufacturing of cell and gene therapies: Overcoming challenges and identifying opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Ruck, Steven; Medcalf, Nicholas; Rafiq, Qasim A

    2017-10-01

    Decentralized or "redistributed" manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the manufacturing approach for cell and gene therapies (CGTs), moving away from the "Fordist" paradigm, delivering health care locally, customized to the end user and, by its very nature, overcoming many of the challenges associated with manufacturing and distribution of high volume goods. In departing from the traditional centralized model of manufacturing, decentralized manufacturing divides production across sites or geographic regions. This paradigm shift imposes significant structural and organisational changes on a business presenting both hidden challenges that must be addressed and opportunities to be embraced. By profoundly adapting business practices, significant advantages can be realized through a democratized value chain, creation of professional-level jobs without geographic restriction to the central hub and a flexibility in response to external pressures and demands. To realize these potential opportunities, however, advances in manufacturing technology and support systems are required, as well as significant changes in the way CGTs are regulated to facilitate multi-site manufacturing. Decentralized manufacturing is likely to be the manufacturing platform of choice for advanced health care therapies-in particular, those with a high degree of personalization. The future success of these promising products will be enhanced by adopting sound business strategies early in development. To realize the benefits that decentralized manufacturing of CGTs has to offer, it is important to examine both the risks and the substantial opportunities present. In this research, we examine both the challenges and the opportunities this shift in business strategy represents in an effort to maximize the success of adoption. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-Design in co-production processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seravalli, Anna; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Hillgren, Per-Anders

    2017-01-01

    The public sector, increasingly acknowledging a need for change but strongly influenced by market logics, is experimenting with new forms of co-production of public services based on collaborations between public providers, citizens and societal actors. At the same time, Co-design researchers...

  13. Engineering management of gas turbine power plant co2 for microalgae biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Domoyi; Pilidis, Pericles; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel accounts for over 80% of the world`s primary energy, particularly in areas of transportation, manufacturing and domestic heating. However, depletion of fossil reserves, frequent threats to the security of fossil fuel supply, coupled with concerns over emissions of greenhouse gases associated with fossil fuel use has motivated research towards developing renewable and sustainable sources for energy fuels. Consequently, the use of microalgae culture to convert CO2 from power plants ...

  14. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  15. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  16. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. December 22, 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  17. CO{sub 2} capture and biofuels production with microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only biological process capable of directly utilizing power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of renewable fuels, such as biodiesel, thus mitigating the potential for global warming. Past and recent systems studies have concluded that in principle this concept could be economically feasible, but that this technology still requires both fundamental and applied long-term R&D.

  18. Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Papadopoulou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine decentralization in education according to the literature and previous research, and to discuss the applicability of educational decentralization practices in Turkey. The literature was reviewed for the study and findings reported. It has been observed that decentralization in education practices were realized in many countries after the 1980’s. It is obvious that the educational system in Turkey has difficulty in meeting the needs, and encounters many problems due to its present centralist state. Educational decentralization can provide effective solutions for stakeholder engagement, educational financing and for problems in decision making and operation within the education system. However, the present state of local governments, the legal framework, geographical, cultural and social features indicate that Turkey’s conditions are not ready for decentralization in education. A decentralization model realized in the long run according to Turkey’s conditions, and as a result of a social consensus, can help resolve the problems of the Turkish education system.

  19. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 uL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA. Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important ...

  20. Plant-plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Van Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant-plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated

  1. Decentralization in Botswana: the reluctant process | Dipholo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana\\'s decentralization process has always been justified in terms of democracy and development. Consequently, the government has always argued that it is fully committed to decentralization in order to promote popular participation as well as facilitating sustainable rural development. Yet the government does not ...

  2. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  3. The effects of fiscal decentralization in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Blerta Dragusha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “Basically decentralization is a democratic reform which seeks to transfer the political, administrative, financial and planning authority from central to local government. It seeks to develop civic participation, empowerment of local people in decision making process and to promote accountability and reliability: To achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the collection and management of resources and service delivery”1 The interest and curiosity of knowing how our country is doing in this process, still unfinished, served as a motivation forme to treat this topic: fiscal decentralization as a process of giving 'power' to local governments, not only in terms of rights deriving from this process but also on the responsibilities that come with it. Which are the stages before and after decentralization, and how has it affected the process in several key indicators? Is decentralization a good process only, or can any of its effects be seen as an disadvantage?

  4. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  5. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE DRC: EVIDENCE OFREVENUE ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationalefor central government to devolve resources for service provisionhas been debated in decentralization literature. Decentralization enhancesdemocracy,encouragesparticipation in local development initiativesandpromotes local political accountability.This discourse has been complemented bythe implementation of fiscal decentralization to increase the ability of sub-nationalgovernment in financing municipal service delivery. Fiscal decentralization hasoften been adopted by African statessince the onset ofthe New PublicManagement erain an effortto improvethe standard ofgovernance. The concernis that African states have taken minimal steps to adopt fiscal devolution thatpromotes revenue assignment which in turn limits sub-nationalgovernments’ability to generate own source revenues.This article examines the revenue assignment function of fiscal decentralization inthe Democratic Republic of Congo(DRCinthelight of decentralizationconcerns that have been raised by civil society, as the country charts its course todemocracy. The article is a desktop study that will consider documents andpoliciesin theDRCon thenational, provincialand locallevel as far asstaterevenue sourcesare concerned. Revenue assignment should enable DRC’sprovinces and local authoritiestogeneratesignificantrevenueindependently.However, post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts in the Great Lakesregion and in the DRC have largely isolated decentralization which wouldotherwise entrench local fiscalautonomy infinancing for local services anddevelopment. The article concludes that revenue generation for local authoritiesandtheprovinces in the DRC is still very centralised by the national government.Thearticleproposes policy recommendations that will be useful for the country toensurethatdecentralization effortsinclude fiscal devolution toenhance thefinancing for local development initiatives.

  6. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plants and plant products. 302.2 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS § 302.2 Movement of plants and plant products. Inspection or documentation of the plant health status of...

  7. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    Biogas is an essential biomass source for achieving a reduction of CO2 emission by 50% in year 2030 in Denmark. The physical potential for biogas production in Denmark is more than 10 times the present biogas production in Denmark. In Denmark the largest part of the biogas production is produced...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  8. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. The relativistic titls of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulfotouh, H.

    The tilts of Giza pyramids' entrance-passages have never been considered as if they were the result of relativistic mathematical equations, and never been thought to encode the Earth's obliquity parameters. This paper presents an attempt to retrieve the method of establishing the equations that the pyramids' designer used to quantify the entrance-passages' tilts of these architectonic masterpieces. It proves that the pyramids' designer was able to include the geographic, astronomical and time parameters in one relativistic equation, encoding the date of the design of the Giza pyramids in the tilt of the entrance passage of the great pyramid.

  10. Committed CO2 Emissions of China's Coal-fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of global warming is determined by the cumulative effects of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coal-fired power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, produce large amount of CO2 emissions during their lifetimes of operation (committed emissions), which thus influence the future carbon emission space under specific targets on mitigating climate change (e.g., the 2 degree warming limit relative to pre-industrial levels). Comprehensive understanding of committed CO2 emissions for coal-fired power generators is urgently needed in mitigating global climate change, especially in China, the largest global CO2emitter. We calculated China's committed CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generators installed during 1993-2013 and evaluated their impact on future emission spaces at the provincial level, by using local specific data on the newly installed capacities. The committed CO2 emissions are calculated as the product of the annual coal consumption from newly installed capacities, emission factors (CO2emissions per unit crude coal consumption) and expected lifetimes. The sensitivities about generators lifetimes and the drivers on provincial committed emissions are also analyzed. Our results show that these relatively recently installed coal-fired power generators will lead to 106 Gt of CO2 emissions over the course of their lifetimes, which is more than three times the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2010. More than 80% (85 Gt) of their total committed CO2 will be emitted after 2013, which are referred to as the remaining emissions. Due to the uncertainties of generators lifetime, these remaining emissions would increase by 45 Gt if the lifetimes of China's coal-fired power generators were prolonged by 15 years. Furthermore, the remaining emissions are very different among various provinces owing to local developments and policy disparities. Provinces with large amounts of secondary industry and abundant coal reserves have higher committed

  11. Integrating Waste Heat from CO2 Removal and Coal-Fired Flue Gas to Increase Plant Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, Nick [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Kowalczyk, Joseph [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-04-01

    In project DE-FE0007525, Southern Company Services demonstrated heat integration methods for the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide produced from pulverized coal combustion. A waste heat recovery technology (termed High Efficiency System) from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America was integrated into an existing 25-MW amine-based CO2 capture process (Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®1) at Southern Company’s Plant Barry to evaluate improvements in the energy performance of the pulverized coal plant and CO2 capture process. The heat integration system consists of two primary pieces of equipment: (1) the CO2 Cooler which uses product CO2 gas from the capture process to heat boiler condensate, and (2) the Flue Gas Cooler which uses air heater outlet flue gas to further heat boiler condensate. Both pieces of equipment were included in the pilot system. The pilot CO2 Cooler used waste heat from the 25-MW CO2 capture plant (but not always from product CO2 gas, as intended). The pilot Flue Gas Cooler used heat from a slipstream of flue gas taken from downstream of Plant Barry’s air heater. The pilot also included a 0.25-MW electrostatic precipitator. The 25-MW High Efficiency System operated for approximately six weeks over a four month time period in conjunction with the 25-MW CO2 capture facility at Plant Barry. Results from the program were used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of full-scale implementation of this technology. The test program quantified energy efficiency improvements to a host power plant that could be realized due to the High Efficiency System. Through the execution of this project, the team verified the integrated operation of the High Efficiency System and Kansai Mitsubishi Carbon Dioxide Recovery Process®. The ancillary benefits of the High Efficiency System were also quantified, including reduced water consumption

  12. Investigation of the feasibility of joint production of decentralized wind energy systems for the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, P.; Johnson, J.P.; Lundsager, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities and the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Commission have together supported the Decentralized Energy Systems for China Project. The paper presents the approach, methods and results of the wind/diesel part of the project, which aimed at supporting the establishment of a joint venture between a European wind turbine manufacturer and a Chinese industrial partner to produce wind/diesel systems for the local market. A comprehensive integrated approach to the project was chosen, the parts of which are discussed in the paper. The paper provides evidence of the good conditions for local production but also indicates why the joint venture has not been established. (Author)

  13. When municipalities lead co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    from research in governance and leadership, the paper analyses a critical case of co-production in the Danish Municipality of Holbæk. The main focus is on exploring how leadership interventions are enacted by civil servants and politicians, and how these shape the co-production process. The analysis...... points to the significant role played by municipalities as hands-off leaders of co-production processes, and identifies leadership dynamics which merit further exploration....

  14. Least-cost network evaluation of centralized and decentralized contributions to global electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    The choice between centralized and decentralized electricity generation is examined for 150 countries as a function of population distribution, electricity consumption, transmission cost, and the cost difference between decentralized and centralized electricity generation. A network algorithm is developed to find the shortest centralized transmission network that spans a given fraction of the population in a country. The least-cost combination of centralized and decentralized electricity that serves the country is determined. Case studies of Botswana, Uganda, and Bangladesh illustrate situations that are more and less suited for decentralized electrification. Specific maps for centralized and decentralized generation are presented to show how the least-cost option varies with the relative costs of centralized and decentralized generation and transmission cost. Centralized and decentralized fractions are calculated for 150 countries. For most of the world's population, centralized electricity is the least-cost option. For a number of countries, particularly in Africa, substantial populations and regions may be most cost-effectively served by decentralized electricity. - Highlights: ► Centralized and decentralized electrification are compared for 150 countries. ► A cost-optimized network algorithm finds the least-cost electrification system. ► Least-cost infrastructures combine centralized and decentralized portions. ► For most people, centralized electricity is cheapest option. ► In much of Africa, decentralized electricity may be cheaper than centralized.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Water Quality between the Runoff Entrance and Middle of Recycling Irrigation Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling irrigation reservoirs (RIRs are an emerging aquatic ecosystem of critical importance, for conserving and protecting increasingly scarce water resources. Here, we compare water quality between runoff entrance and middle of four RIRs in nurseries in Virginia (VA and Maryland (MD. Surface water temperature (T and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP were lower in the middle than at the entrance, while the trend was opposite for dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and chlorophyll a (Chla. The magnitude of these differences between the entrance and middle decreased with increasing depth. These differences were magnified by water stratification from April to October. Minimum differences were observed for electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and turbidity (TUR. Cluster analyses were performed on water quality difference data to evaluate whether the differences vary with respect to reservoirs. Two clusters were formed with one consisting primarily of VA reservoirs, and the other consisting mostly of MD reservoirs in both years. Water quality in the middle and at the entrance of RIRs was expected to vary greatly because of runoff inflow. The two-point water quality differences observed here, although statistically significant, are not large enough to cause significant impact on crop health and productivity for most water quality parameters except pH. Additional analysis of outlet data shows that the range and magnitude of water quality difference between the middle and the outlet are comparable to those between the middle and entrance of RIRs. These results indicate that monitoring at a single point is sufficient to obtain reliable water quality estimates for most water quality parameters in RIRs except pH. This is important when considering the cost of labor and equipment necessary for documenting water quality in agricultural production systems. However, additional pH measurements are still necessary to make practical water quality

  16. Responsiveness and flexibility in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    Today’s supply chains are not capable of managing the instabilities that is the case in the market. Instead, there is a need to develop supply chains that are capable of adapting to changes. Through a case study of LEGO, the authors suggest a possible solution: a decentralized supply chain serving...... independent and self-sufficient local factories. The decentralized supply chain is provided with materials, parts and pre-assembled elements from local suppliers and supplies the local market in return. Keywords: Decentralize, Responsiveness, Flexibility...

  17. An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, E.; Dennehy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m 3 /s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

  18. Bidirectional decentralized energy management in the low voltage grid based on centralized and decentralized informations; Bidirektionales dezentrales Energiemanagement im Niederspannungsnetz auf Basis zentraler und dezentraler Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Nestle, D.; Ringelstein, J. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Verein an der Univ. Kassel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Decentralized electrical generation units (DG units) are connected to the network in Europe with an increasing number and generation capacity. This includes renewable energy sources with fluctuating generation characteristics as well as more controllable generation from biomass and co-generation. Severe problems with grid operation are expected among experts when the share of DG without controllability exceeds approx. 20 to 25% of the total generation within the power system, so a new strategy for the integration of DG into grid operation will be required. This strategy will include energy management with controllable generators as well as controllable loads. Today, however, this potential in most cases cannot be activated due to lack of standards and missing economical incentives. In the concept presented in this work the grid connection point is extended by intelligent components to a Bidirectional Energy Management Interface (BEMI). This allows a technically efficienct design of an energy management system and avoids fundamental organizational changes to the current grid regime. The concept of decentralized decision based on information from a central control station covers the requirements of the system operators as well as the local customer. Using the same concept the management of a pool of devices, containing BEMI-equipped households as well as other decentralized resources is possible. This is expected to bring additional benefits for both system operators and local customers. Therefore an approach for upscaling the existing BEMI technology is outlined as an outlook. (orig.)

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion plants for the revaluation of agricultural waste: Sustainable location sites from a GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamar, Cristina Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Aguayo, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish sustainably feasible areas for the implementation of anaerobic co-digestion plants for agricultural wastes (cattle/swine slurries and cereal crop wastes). The methodology was based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS), the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and map algebra generated from hedges related to environmental, social and economic constraints. The GIS model obtained was applied to a region of Chile (Bío Bío Region) as a case study showing the energy potential (205 MW-h) of agricultural wastes (swine/cattle manures and cereal crop wastes) and thereby assessing its energy contribution (3.5%) at country level (Chile). From this model, it was possible to spatially identify the influence of each factor (environmental, economic and social) when defining suitable areas for the siting of anaerobic co-digestion plants. In conclusion, GIS-based models establish appropriate areas for the location of anaerobic co-digestion plants in the revaluation of agricultural waste from the production of energy through biogas production. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijó, Lucía, E-mail: lucia.lijo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); González-García, Sara [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  1. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions

  2. Micro perspectives for decentralized energy supply. Proceedings of the international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martina; Kebir, Noara; Philipp, Daniel (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the proceedings of the international conference at the Technical University Berlin (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 7th and 8th April, 2011 the following scientific papers were presented: (1) Renewables in residential development: An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro renewable energy production in new settlement development (C. Palmas); (2) Optimisation of off-grid-energy systems by combined use of renewable energy and storage devices (F. Huneke); (3) Decentralized electricity production from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development? Qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany (B. Klagge); (4) An analytical model for small-scale rural bioenergy systems (M. Gaul); (5) Reality check: Biomass as a fuel for small-scale electricity supply in developing countries (E. Dimpl v.L.); (6) Influential factors for the implementation of biogas plants in rural areas of Burkina Faso (A. Aschaber); (7) Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in sub-saharian Africa (F. Koelling); (8) Current status of village level hydropower in eastern and southern Africa (W. Janker-Klunne), (9) Water desalination in micro grids based on renewable energies (K. Bognar); (10) The internal sphere of influence of peasant family farms in using biogas plants as part of sustainable development in rural areas of Germany (A. Bischoff); (11) A basic design for a multicriteria approach to efficient bioenergy production at regional level (Z. Hagen); (12) Ecological and economical evaluation of biogas feedstock from intercrops (N. Niemitz); (13) Energy recovery from sisal residues: A sustainable option for Tanzania? (J.C. Pfaff); (14) Opportunities and challenges for solar home systems in Tanzania for rural electrification (P.J. John); (15) The contribution of microenergy systems towards poverty reduction: Case study of an implementation strategy for solar home systems in Sri Lanka (D. Laufer); (16) Multi

  3. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  4. Gas at work. Vision on decentralized gas appliances in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gastel, M.; Hooijschuur, J.; De Jong, A.; De Visser, I.; Overdiep, H.; Bakker, E.J.; Van Wolferen, H.

    2008-04-01

    Various platforms operate within the SenterNovem programme Creative Energy. This report is the first version of the vision document of the working group Decentralized gas appliances of the Platform New Gas, in which the following aspects of the various promising innovative gas appliances are indicated: the development stage, the intended energy saving, the CO2 reduction, the bottlenecks for large scale market introduction and the solutions for these bottlenecks. [mk] [nl

  5. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Isotope studies on plant productivity. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    In order to explore this approach, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Isotope Studies for Increasing and Stabilizing Plant Productivity in Low Phosphate and Semi-arid and Sub-humid Soils of the Tropics and Sub-tropics was initiated in October 1989 and complete in October 1994. Almost half of the work carried out under this programme concentrated on water use efficiency and the rest on phosphate use efficiency. Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia focused on wheat; Nigeria and Sierra Leone on cowpea; Kenya, Sudan and the United Republic of Tanzania on nitrogen fixing trees such as Prosopis, Acacia and Gliricidia; and Viet Nam on rice. Experiments conducted in the field showed that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among the genotypes/provenances of crop and tree species in their capacity for uptake and use of phosphorus and water from soils limited in resources. Several elite genotypes/provenances were identified which are highly efficient in water or phosphate use. In a few cases, the high water use efficiency (or the high phosphorus use efficiency) feature was seen in the same genotype where the grain yield was also high. Morphological parameters responsible for making some genotypes superior in their capacity to use phosphorus or water have also been investigated. It is our hope that the findings reported in this publication will help agricultural scientists in the Member States, particularly in Africa, in their quest of finding solutions to problems of food security. Refs, figs, tabs.

  7. 35% of fracture in one of the Embalse nuclear power plant's entrance collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, A.V.; Marinucci, L.N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to simulate an accident of a 35% of fracture at the reactor's entrance collector with the FIREBIRD III code, Mod. 1.0, in order to compare the results obtained with those stated in the Safety Report, and besides, to verify the capacity to foresee the steam generator's secondary boundary behaviour on the basis of the actually available models. For this type of fractures, it is expected that this does not basically affect the Heat Transport Primary Loop behaviour since the main heat drain is the fracture. (Author)

  8. Effects of influent fractionation, kinetics, stoichiometry and mass transfer on CH4, H2 and CO2 production for (plant-wide) modeling of anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solon, Kimberly; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    simulation model no. 2 is used to quantify the generation of CH4, H2 and CO2. A comprehensive global sensitivity analysis based on (i) standardized regression coefficients (SRC) and (ii) Morris' screening's (MS's) elementary effects reveals the set of parameters that influence the biogas production......This paper examines the importance of influent fractionation, kinetic, stoichiometric and mass transfer parameter uncertainties when modeling biogas production in wastewater treatment plants. The anaerobic digestion model no. 1 implemented in the plant-wide context provided by the benchmark...

  9. Decentralized Portfolio Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equivalent. We use multivariate normal returns and a negative exponential function to solve the problem analytically. We generate the equivalence of solutions by assuming that different traders face different interest rates for borrowing and lending. This interest rate is dependent on the ratio of the degrees of risk aversion of the trader and the head trader, on the excess return, and on the correlation between asset returns.

  10. Reference costs of the electric power production; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  11. Control of a post-combustion CO2 capture plant during process start-up and load variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic and flexible operation of a carbon capture plant is important as thermal power plants must be operated very flexibly to accommodate large shares of intermittent energy sources such as wind and solar energy. To facilitate such operation, dynamic models for simulation, optimization...... and control system design are crucial. In this paper, we present a dynamic mathematical model for the absorption and desorption columns in a carbon capture plant. Moreover, we implement a decentralized proportional-integral (PI) based control scheme and we evaluate the performance of the control structure...... for various operational procedures, e.g. start-up, load changes, noise on the flue gas flow rate and composition. Note that the carbon capture plant is based on the solvent storage configuration. To the authors knowledge, this is the first paper addressing the issue of start-up operation and control of carbon...

  12. Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's Citizenship : a Comparative Study in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda - Phase II. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have adopted new land laws, policies and institutional arrangements to accommodate decentralization of land administration and management.

  13. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  14. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  15. Decentralized Blended Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of blending and deblending is reviewed, making use of traditional and dispersed source arrays. The network concept of distributed blended acquisition is introduced. A million-trace robot system is proposed, illustrating that decentralization may bring about a revolution in the way we

  16. North Plant co-generation project for South Davis County Sewer Improvement District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.S. [Aqua Environmental Services, Inc., Bountiful, UT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the summer of 1988, the South Davis County Sewer Improvement District (SDCSID) learned of a grant/loan program being administered by the Utah State Department of Energy(DOE) for projects that demonstrate new and innovative ways of conserving energy or utilizing renewable energy sources. The SDCSID applied for and received from the DOE both a grant and a no-interest loan to finance half of the cost of a co-generation project at the North Wastewater Treatment Plant. This co-generation project utilizes methane gas, a by-product of the anaerobic digestion process, to generate both electricity and heat that is used at the plant. The SDCSID calculated that at the current anaerobic gas production rate, a 140 KW engine generator could be run almost 24 hours a day. Approximately 75% of the current electrical needs at the North Plant are supplied by the 140 KW engine generator. Also, all of the heat necessary to raise the temperature of the incoming sludge to 95{degrees}F, and to heat four large buildings is supplied from the heat recovery system of the engine. The system utilizes an induction type generator to supply electricity, which is somewhat simpler to design and less expensive to install than a synchronous type system. An induction system utilizes the Electrical Utility`s incoming power to excite the generator to correct the phase so that is can be used by the loads in the plant. In addition, the SDCSID installed a second identical engine generator as a back-up and to peak shave. Plant effluent is used to cool the engines instead of air-cooling through radiators.

  17. A Comparative Study of Entrance in Traditional and Contemporary Houses of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Dehbandi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary houses in Iran, because of changes in the methods of designing and building houses, importance of entrance reduced to such level that now in contemporary houses entrance is just a door. Entrance correlates indoor safe space of house and outdoors. It`s importance lays in controlling entry, exit, territory and hierarchy. Since house owners were satisfied with traditional form of entrance, it is a good idea to learn from them in designing new entrances. The purpose of this research is to find a way for designing appropriate entrances for Iranian contemporary houses. To do this at first 40 traditional houses and 40 contemporary houses in Isfahan and Kashan were selected. These two cities are from margin of desert and the origin of traditional houses of Iran. Analysis showed that blockage of visual and phonic relation, creating a space between outdoor public space and indoor private space, creating access patterns to internal spaces and traits that separate in and out were the most significant properties of traditional entrances. All these traits are ignored in contemporary entrances. Suggestions made for design include creating public meeting space in yard and creating a separate entrance space for each house in apartments.

  18. Progress and challenges of engineering a biophysical CO2-concentrating mechanism into higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Benjamin D; Long, Benedict M; Förster, Britta; Nguyen, Nghiem D; Velanis, Christos N; Atkinson, Nicky; Hee, Wei Yih; Mukherjee, Bratati; Price, G Dean; McCormick, Alistair J

    2017-06-01

    Growth and productivity in important crop plants is limited by the inefficiencies of the C3 photosynthetic pathway. Introducing CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) into C3 plants could overcome these limitations and lead to increased yields. Many unicellular microautotrophs, such as cyanobacteria and green algae, possess highly efficient biophysical CCMs that increase CO2 concentrations around the primary carboxylase enzyme, Rubisco, to enhance CO2 assimilation rates. Algal and cyanobacterial CCMs utilize distinct molecular components, but share several functional commonalities. Here we outline the recent progress and current challenges of engineering biophysical CCMs into C3 plants. We review the predicted requirements for a functional biophysical CCM based on current knowledge of cyanobacterial and algal CCMs, the molecular engineering tools and research pipelines required to translate our theoretical knowledge into practice, and the current challenges to achieving these goals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Two Edge Knife of Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Umam, Ahmad Khoirul

    2011-01-01

    A centralistic government model has become a trend in a number of developing countries, in which the ideosycretic aspect becomes pivotal key in the policy making. The situation constitutes authoritarianism, cronyism, and corruption. To break the impasse, the decentralized system is proposed to make people closer to the public policy making. Decentralization is also convinced to be the solution to create a good governance. But a number of facts in the developing countries demonstrates that dec...

  20. The second green revolution? Production of plant-based biodegradable plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Biodegradable plastics are those that can be completely degraded in landfills, composters or sewage treatment plants by the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms. Truly biodegradable plastics leave no toxic, visible or distinguishable residues following degradation. Their biodegradability contrasts sharply with most petroleum-based plastics, which are essentially indestructible in a biological context. Because of the ubiquitous use of petroleum-based plastics, their persistence in the environment and their fossil-fuel derivation, alternatives to these traditional plastics are being explored. Issues surrounding waste management of traditional and biodegradable polymers are discussed in the context of reducing environmental pressures and carbon footprints. The main thrust of the present review addresses the development of plant-based biodegradable polymers. Plants naturally produce numerous polymers, including rubber, starch, cellulose and storage proteins, all of which have been exploited for biodegradable plastic production. Bacterial bioreactors fed with renewable resources from plants--so-called 'white biotechnology'--have also been successful in producing biodegradable polymers. In addition to these methods of exploiting plant materials for biodegradable polymer production, the present review also addresses the advances in synthesizing novel polymers within transgenic plants, especially those in the polyhydroxyalkanoate class. Although there is a stigma associated with transgenic plants, especially food crops, plant-based biodegradable polymers, produced as value-added co-products, or, from marginal land (non-food), crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), have the potential to become viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics and an environmentally benign and carbon-neutral source of polymers.

  1. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  2. In vivo dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters in radiotherapy: entrance and exit doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, C.; Lopes, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry, by entrance and exit dose measurements, is a vital part of a radiotherapy quality assurance program. The uncertainty associated with dose delivery is internationally accepted to be within 5% or inferior depending on the tumor pathology. Thermoluminescent dosimetry is one of the dosimetric techniques used to verify the agreement between delivered and prescribed doses. Nevertheless, it requires a very accurate calibration methodology. We have used LiF chips (4.5 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thick) calibrated towards a PTW ionization chamber of 0.3 cc, in three photon energies: Co-60, 4 and 6 MeV. The TLD reader used was a Rialto 688 from NE Technology and the annealing oven the Eurotherm type 815. The calibration methodology relies on the experimental determination of individual correction factors and on a correction factor derived from a control group of dosimeters. The exit and entrance dose measurements are performed in quite different situations. To be able to achieve those two quantities with TLD, these should be independently calibrated according to the measurement conditions. Alternatively, we can use a single calibration, in entrance dose, and convert the result to the exit dose value by introducing some correction factors. These corrections are related to the different measurement depths and to the different backscattering contributions. We have proved that within an acceptable error we can perform a single calibration and adopt the correction factors which are energy and field size dependent. (author)

  3. Study on the production mechanism of Co-60 in the primary loop of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shouang; Xie Feng; Li Hong; Cao Jianzhu; Li Fu; Wei Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Co-60 is an activated metallic erosion product, which is very important for waste management and decommissioning work of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. Recent measurement on the samples from the primary loop of HTR-10 indicates the existence of Co-60. In current paper, the preliminary experimental results in HTR-10 will be introduced, and the production mechanism of Co-60 in the pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors will be summarized and compared with that in PWRs and Germany High Temperature Nuclear Reactor (AVR). The further experiments with decomposing the post-irradiation graphite spheres of HTR-10 are put forward, which will promote the further study to testify the production sources of Co-60 and be of great significance in the waste minimization and the decommissioning work of HTR-10. (author)

  4. Decentralization : Local Partnerships for Health Services in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cameroon, like most other sub-Saharan African countries, has adopted laws devolving various responsibilities to local administrations. In the local political discourse, decentralization is seen as bringing essential services closer to the users, especially those in greatest need. However, the national decentralization program ...

  5. Decentralization and financial autonomy: a challenge for local public authorities in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the decentralization process currently taking place in the Republic of Moldova. The purpose of the research is to acquaint readers with the fundamental concept of decentralization, with the areas of administrative decentralization, with the forms of manifestation of financial decentralization: fiscal decentralization and budget decentralization. The priorities of the decentralization process are identified.

  6. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  7. Multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormos, Ana-Maria; Dinca, Cristian; Cormos, Calin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates multi-fuel multi-product operation of IGCC plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS). The investigated plant designs co-process coal with different sorts of biomass (e.g. sawdust) and solid wastes, through gasification, leading to different decarbonised energy vectors (power, hydrogen, heat, substitute natural gas etc.) simultaneous with carbon capture. Co-gasification of coal with different renewable energy sources coupled with carbon capture will pave the way towards zero emissions power plants. The energy conversions investigated in the paper were simulated using commercial process flow modelling package (ChemCAD) in order to produce mass and energy balances necessary for the proposed evaluation. As illustrative cases, hydrogen and power co-generation and Fischer–Tropsch fuel synthesis (both with carbon capture), were presented. The case studies investigated in the paper produce a flexible ratio between power and hydrogen (in the range of 400–600 MW net electricity and 0–200 MW th hydrogen considering the lower heating value) with at least 90% carbon capture rate. Special emphasis were given to fuel selection criteria for optimisation of gasification performances (fuel blending), to the selection criteria for gasification reactor in a multi-fuel multi-product operation scenario, modelling and simulation of whole process, to thermal and power integration of processes, flexibility analysis of the energy conversion processes, in-depth techno-economic and environmental assessment etc. - Highlights: • Assessment of IGCC-based energy vectors poly-generation systems with CCS. • Optimisation of gasification performances and CO 2 emissions by fuel blending. • Multi-fuel multi-product operation of gasification plants

  8. Co-digestion of solid waste: Towards a simple model to predict methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouas, Mokhles; Torrijos, Michel; Schmitz, Sabine; Sousbie, Philippe; Sayadi, Sami; Harmand, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    Modeling methane production is a key issue for solid waste co-digestion. Here, the effect of a step-wise increase in the organic loading rate (OLR) on reactor performance was investigated, and four new models were evaluated to predict methane yields using data acquired in batch mode. Four co-digestion experiments of mixtures of 2 solid substrates were conducted in semi-continuous mode. Experimental methane yields were always higher than the BMP values of mixtures calculated from the BMP of each substrate, highlighting the importance of endogenous production (methane produced from auto-degradation of microbial community and generated solids). The experimental methane productions under increasing OLRs corresponded well to the modeled data using the model with constant endogenous production and kinetics identified at 80% from total batch time. This model provides a simple and useful tool for technical design consultancies and plant operators to optimize the co-digestion and the choice of the OLRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference costs of the electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This study periodically realized by the DGEMP aims to compare the competitiveness of the different channels of electric power production, for different utilization conditions. The first part ''reference costs of the 2003 electric power production'' examines the prices of the electric power produced by different channels in particular in the framework of the industrial implementing in 2015. The nuclear and thermal power plants are concerned. The second part is devoted to the decentralized production channels (wind energy, photovoltaic, cogeneration heat-electricity) is under construction and will be presented next year. (A.L.B.)

  10. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  11. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  12. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  13. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus entrance into the dairy chain: Tracking S. aureus from dairy cow to cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kümmel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important contagious mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle. Due to its zoonotic potential, control of S. aureus is not only of great economic importance in the dairy industry but also a significant public health concern. The aim of this study was to decipher the potential of bovine udder associated S. aureus as reservoir for S. aureus contamination in dairy production and processing. From 18 farms, delivering their milk to an alpine dairy plant for the production of smeared semi-hard and hard cheese. 1176 quarter milk (QM samples of all cows in lactation (n = 294 and representative samples form bulk tank milk (BTM of all farms were surveyed for coagulase positive (CPS and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS. Furthermore, samples from different steps of the cheese manufacturing process were tested for CPS and CNS. As revealed by chemometric-assisted FTIR spectroscopy and molecular subtyping (spa typing and multi locus sequence typing, dairy cattle represent indeed an important, yet underreported, entrance point of S. aureus into the dairy chain. Our data clearly show that certain S. aureus subtypes are present in primary production as well as in the cheese processing at the dairy plant. However, although a considerable diversity of S. aureus subtypes was observed in QM and BTM at the farms, only certain S. aureus subtypes were able to enter and persist in the cheese manufacturing at the dairy plant and could be isolated from cheese until day fourteen of ripening. Farm strains belonging to the FTIR cluster B1 and B3, which show genetic characteristics (t2953, ST8, enterotoxin profile: sea/sed/sej of the recently described S. aureus genotype B, most successfully contaminated the cheese production at the dairy plant. Thus our study fosters the hypothesis that genotype B S. aureus represent a specific challenge in control of S. aureus in the dairy chain that requires effective clearance strategies and hygienic

  15. DECENTRALIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SERVICES – LEARNING BY DOING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena NICOLESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public services decentralization is a major concern for policy makers when it comes to identifying the optimum model for reorganizing these services, in light of the 3Es of the organizational performance. The field experiences show that this process is different both from one state to another, and depending on the targeted activity sector, out of which the local transport service is distinguished as an ‘institutional orphan’. Taking into account one of the smart-cities’ recognition criteria, the urban mobility, the paper aims at substantiating that, despite the specific incrementalism of the public services decentralization, having a negative impact upon the services’ efficiency, in the case of local transport service, recognizing the right to mobility and the need to ensuring the environment for exercising this right, impels the ‘bureaucratic apparatus’ to accelerate and consolidate the decentralization of this service. Therefore, the paper puts forward a case study on the impact of decentralization upon the local public transport service of Bucharest municipality.

  16. Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien-Yuan Lin; Joseph E. Jakes; Bryon S. Donohoe; Peter N. Ciesielski; Haibing Yang; Sophie-Charlotte Gleber; Stefan Vogt; Shi-You Ding; Wendy A. Peer; Angus S. Murphy; Maureen C. McCann; Michael E. Himmel; Melvin P. Tucker; Hui Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited,...

  17. [Mechanisms for allocating financial resources after decentralization in the state of Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Arredondo-López, Armando; Pelcastre, Blanca

    2006-01-01

    To analyze, from the decision maker's perspective, the financial resource allocation process of the health services of the state of Jalisco (SSJ, per its abbreviation in spanish), within the context of decentralization. Through a qualitative approximation using semi-structured individual interviews of key personnel in managerial positions as the method for compiling information, the experience of the SSJ in financial resource allocation was documented. From September to November 2003, the perception of managers and administrators regarding their level of autonomy in decision-making was explored as well as the process they follow for the allocation of financial resources, in order to identify the criteria they use and their justifications. From the point of view of decision-makers, autonomy of the SSJ has increased considerably since decentralization was implemented, although the degree of decision-making freedom remains limited due mainly to high adminstrative costs associated with salaries. In this sense, the implications attributable to labor situations that are still centralized are evident. Some innovative systems for financial resource allocation have been established in the SSJ for the sanitary regions and hospitals based upon administrative-managerial and productivity incentives. Adjustments were also made for degree of marginalization and population lag, under the equity criterion. General work conditions and decision-making autonomy of the sanitary regions constitute outstanding aspects pending decentralization. Although decentralization has granted more autonomy to the SSJ, the level of decision-making freedom for allocating financial resources has been held within the highest hierarchical levels.

  18. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  19. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Kasmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS, thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters.

  20. Study of CO2 capture processes in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, J.M.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO 2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO 2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO 2 . These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO 2 partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO 2 solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O 2 purity acts on the CO 2 concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO 2 pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  1. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... hydroxynitrile glucosides. This division has raised questions regarding possible evolutionary relationships between the biosynthetic pathways. The very rare co-occurrence of hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates found in Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, løgkarse) and Carica papaya (papaya) makes...

  2. Decentralization: A panacea for functional education and national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralization of power from the federal government to state and local governments is the way to go, especially in the management of our education system. Education can be best delivered at the state and local government levels. Decentralization of educational management in Nigeria will encourage creativity and ...

  3. Controllability and flexibility analysis of CO2 post-combustion capture using piperazine and MEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaspar, Jozsef; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a decentralized control scheme and investigate the performance of the piperazine (PZ) and monoethanolamine (MEA) CO2 capture process for industrially-relevant operation scenarios. The base for the design of the control schemes is Relative Gain Array (RGA) analysis...... indicates that the proposed PI-based control structure can handle large changes in the load provided that the manipulated variables, i.e. lean solvent flow or reboiler duty, do not reach their saturation limit. Additionally, we observed that shortage in the steam supply (reboiler duty) may represent...... a critical operational bottleneck, especially when PZ is being used. The MEA plant controllers drive the system towards drying out/flooding while the CO2 capture rate performance of the PZ plant reduces drastically in the presence of constraints in the availability of steam. These findings suggest the need...

  4. Decentralized flight trajectory planning of multiple aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Nobuhiro; 横山 信宏

    2008-01-01

    Conventional decentralized algorithms for optimal trajectory planning tend to require prohibitive computational time as the number of aircraft increases. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel decentralized trajectory planning algorithm adopting a constraints decoupling approach for parallel optimization. The constraints decoupling approach is formulated as the path constraints of the real-time trajectory optimization problem based on nonlinear programming. Due to the parallel...

  5. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the number of decentralized farm biogas plants has increased significantly in the EU. This development leads not only to an increasing amount of biogas produced, but also to a higher amount of digestate obtained. One of the most attractive options to manage the digestate......, on the eluate, with the using aquatic organisms and luminescent bacteria showed an LC50 value of 13.61% volume/volume percent, v/v) for D. magna and no toxicityfor Artemia sp. and V. fischeri.The ecotoxicological parameters obtained from the experimental activity have been analyzed so that they could serve...

  6. Entrance and peripheral dose measurements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Kappas, K.; Theodorou, K.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry of entrance dose was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in order to evaluate the clinical application of the build up caps in patient dose measurements and for different treatment techniques. Peripheral dose (thyroid and skin) was measured for patients during breast radiotherapy to evaluate the probability of secondary cancer induction. TLD-100 chips were used with different Copper build up caps (for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams from two linear accelerators. Entrance doses were measured for patients during radiotherapy course for breast, head and neck, abdomen and pelvis malignancies. The measured entrance dose for the different patients for 6 MV beams is found to be within the ±2.6% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at D max ). The same measurements for 15 MV beams are found to be ±3 %. The perturbation value can reach up to 20% of the D max , which acts as a limitation for entrance dose measurements. An average thyroid skin dose of 3.7% of the prescribed dose was measured per treatment session while the mean skin dose breast treatment session is estimated to be 42% of D max , for both internal and external fields. These results are comparable in those of the in vivo of reported in literature. The risk of fatality due to thyroid cancer per treatment course is 3x10 -3

  7. Traffic disruption at Entrance B -TRAM- related work

    CERN Multimedia

    Infrastructure and General Services Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to work being carried out for the TRAM we inform you that vehicles coming from Geneva will be prohibited from turning left into Entrance B. This restriction will be in place for approx. 10 weeks*) starting from Monday 30 August 2010. You are highly recommended to enter CERN through Entrance A during this period even though a diversion will be put in place to allow access to CERN from Entrance B (as shown in the attached sketch). In addition, approx. 20 car parking spaces will be temporarily unavailable at the western end of the flags car park. We thank you in advance for your kind understanding. ______________ *) The exact end date of the work will be communicated in due course. GS-SEM Group

  8. Lyapunov-based decentralized control of a rougher flotation phenomenological simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaskeur, A.R.; Desbiens, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to decentralized control of linear two-by-two plants is presented. The novelty lies in the use of a modified control function of Lyapunov and the introduction of an integral action in each manipulated variable, to ensure zero tracking errors. An appropriate choice of the regulated errors, allows the elimination of the cross terms in the obtained backstepping-based multivariable controller. It will be proven that if the H ∞ -norm of the plant interaction quotient is less than one, the centralized controller can be split up into two independent scalar output feedback regulators. Under these conditions, the global stability and zero tracking errors will still be guaranteed. The developed scheme is successfully applied to the control of a rougher flotation phenomenological simulator. (author)

  9. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N 2 O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  10. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization. PMID:27694684

  11. Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCristofaro, Nicholas [Solidia Technologies Inc., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    -core slabs, and aerated concrete were produced to verify the utility of the CO2-curing process. These products exhibited a range of part dimensions and densities that were representative of the precast concrete industry. In the subsequent Demonstration of Commercial Development phase, the characteristics and performance of Solidia Cement made at a LafargeHolcim cement plant were established. This Solidia Cement was then used to demonstrate the CO2-curing process within operating concrete plants. Pavers, concrete masonry units and roofing tiles were produced according to ASTM and manufacturer specifications. A number of attractive manufacturing economies were recognized when Solidia Cement-based concrete parts were compared to their Portland cement based counterparts. These include reduced raw materials waste, reduced dependence on admixtures to control efflorescence, shorter curing time to full concrete strength, faster equipment clean-up, reduced equipment maintenance, and improved inventory management. These economies make the adoption of the Solidia Cement / CO2-curing process attractive even in the absence of environmental incentives. The culminating activity of the Demonstration of Commercial Development phase was the conversion of 10% of the manufacturing capacity at a concrete paver and block company from Portland cement-based products to Solidia Cement-based products. The successful completion of the Demonstration of Commercial Development phase clearly illustrated the environmental benefits associated with Solidia Cement and Solidia Concrete technologies. The industrial production of Solidia Cement, as a low-lime alternative to traditional Portland cement, reduces CO2 emissions at the cement kiln from 816 kg of CO2 per tonne of Portland cement clinker to 570 kg per tonne of Solidia Cement clinker. Industrial scale CO2-curing of Solidia Concrete sequestered a net of 183 kg of CO2 per tonne of Solidia Cement used in concrete pavers. Taken together, these two effects

  12. Gas-steam turbine plant for cogenerative process at 'Toplifikacija' - Skopje (Joint-Stock Co. for district heating - Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, Andrijan

    2003-01-01

    The gas-steam power plant for combined heat and electric power production at A.D. 'Toplifikacija' Skopje - TO 'Zapad' is analyzed and determined. The analyzed plant is consisted of gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and condensate steam turbine with controlled steam extraction. It operates on natural gas as a main fuel source. The heating of the water for the district heating is dine in the heat exchanger, with // heat of controlled extraction from condensate turbine. The advantages of the both binary plant and centralized co generative production compared with the individual are analyzed. The natural gas consumption of for both specific heating and electrical capacity in join production as well as fuel savings compared to the separate production of the same quantity of energy is also analyzed. (Original)

  13. Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Six, J.; Hungate, B.; Kessel, van C.

    2006-01-01

    free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production,

  14. Study on O2 generation and CO2 absorption capability of four co-cultured salad plants in an enclosed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Shen, Yunze; Qin, Lifeng; Ma, Jialu; Zhu, Jingtao; Ren, Jin

    2014-06-01

    The ability to generate O2 and absorb CO2 of several co-cultured vegetable plants in an enclosed system was studied to provide theoretical reference for the future man-plant integrated tests. Four kinds of salad plants (Lactuca sativa L. var. Dasusheng, Lactuca sativa L. var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L.) were grown in the CELSS Integration Test Platform (CITP). The environmental factors including O2 and CO2 concentration were continuously monitored on-line and the plant biomass was measured at the end of the test. The changing rules of O2 and CO2 concentration in the system were basically understood and it was found that the O2 generated by the plants could satisfy the respiratory needs of 1.75 persons by calculation. It was also found that the plants could absorb the CO2 breathed out by 2 persons when the light intensity was raised to 550 mmol m-2 s-1 PPF. The results showed that the co-cultured plants hold good compatibility and excellent O2-generating and CO2-absorbing capability. They could also supply some fresh edible vegetable for a 2-person crew.

  15. A comparison of decentralized, distributed, and centralized vibro-acoustic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Kenneth D; Baumann, Oliver N; Gardonio, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Direct velocity feedback control of structures is well known to increase structural damping and thus reduce vibration. In multi-channel systems the way in which the velocity signals are used to inform the actuators ranges from decentralized control, through distributed or clustered control to fully centralized control. The objective of distributed controllers is to exploit the anticipated performance advantage of the centralized control while maintaining the scalability, ease of implementation, and robustness of decentralized control. However, and in seeming contradiction, some investigations have concluded that decentralized control performs as well as distributed and centralized control, while other results have indicated that distributed control has significant performance advantages over decentralized control. The purpose of this work is to explain this seeming contradiction in results, to explore the effectiveness of decentralized, distributed, and centralized vibro-acoustic control, and to expand the concept of distributed control to include the distribution of the optimization process and the cost function employed.

  16. Decentralization : Local Partnerships for Health Services in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, the national decentralization program is having a hard time getting on track. In the face of day-to-day difficulties Zenü Network, a nongovernmental organization, would like to make a contribution to this social project. The Network would like to demonstrate that civil society can work with decentralized government ...

  17. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Marginal CO2 reduction cost in ENERGY 2000 development. A socio-economic evaluation of the marginal cost for the alternative reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, H.

    1995-01-01

    The official Danish environmental plan involves a reduction of CO 2 within the next 30-50 years. This report describes the analysis of socio-economic cost/consequences of marginal CO 2 reduction by means of various technical solution models. Calculations by means of the special program subroutine SAMFOKO are based on energy balance in annual, monthly, daily and hourly scale. Heat and power savings as well as the development of decentralized power plants are considered in the supply model. Socio-economic consequences in form of charges and cost are discussed. (EG)

  19. The effect of social influence on cognitive development and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Eri, T J; Skinstad, A H

    1989-01-01

    Three months before school entrance a sample of 29 children and their mothers was tested for degree of decentred child educability and degree of decentred maternal teaching. Mother and child were tested in two different situations, thus preventing interdependency between the measures of mother and child. Four months after school entrance, teacher judgements of school performance were obtained. A strong correspondence between degree of decentred child educability and degree of decentred maternal teaching was demonstrated. Degree of decentred maternal teaching and degree of decentred child educability were found to be good predictors of school performance, accounting for respectively 45 and 33% of the variance in school performance. In contrast a test of school readiness only accounted for 2% of the variance. A test of intelligence given after the teacher judgement accounted for 31% of the variance. The fact that the mother seems to be a better predictor of her child's school performance than the child himself, supports the assumption that parents, particularly mothers, are important mediators between the child and the outer world.

  20. Plant concept of heat utilization of high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Co-generation and coal-gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonogouchi, M.; Maeda, S.; Ide, A.

    1996-01-01

    In Japan, JAERI is now constructing the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the new era is coming for the development and utilization of HTR. Recognizing that the heat utilization of HTR would mitigate problems of environment and resources and contribute the effective use and steady supply of the energy, FAPIG organized a working group named 'HTR-HUC' to study the heat utilization of HTR in the field other than electric power generation. We chose three kinds of plants to study, 1) a co-generation plant in which the existing power units supplying steam and electricity can be replaced by a nuclear plant, 2) Coal gasification plant which can accelerate the clean use of coal and contribute stable supply of the energy and preservation of the environment in the world and 3) Hydrogen production plant which can help to break off the use of the new energy carrier HYDROGEN and will release people from the dependence of fossil energy. In this paper the former two plants, Co-generation chemical plant and Coal-gasification plant are focussed on. The main features, process flow and safety assessment of these plants are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  1. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  2. Soil-plant transfer factors of Co-60 for alfalfa lettuce and spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Radu Octavian

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of Co-60 from soil into plants is a less studied problem. Soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60 known from literature vary by about four orders of magnitude for each kind of plants. We have calculated the average values and have determined the field of variability of the known transfer factors. These indicated us that alfalfa, lettuce and spinach have in this order the greatest absorption capacity of Co-60 from soil. We have determined the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the utilized soil. This is a brown reddish forest type soil. The plants have been cultivated in pots by plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. The results of our measurements of soil-to-plant transfer factors of 60-Co are the followings: 0.0612 ± 0.0047 for alfalfa, 0.0960 ± 0.0072 for lettuce and 0.1446 ± 0.0107 for spinach. These values prove the strong dependence of the type of soil and plant of the soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60. (author)

  3. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  4. Driving up Standards: Civil Service Management and Decentralization: Case Study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Nabaho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that decentralization by devolution leads to improved service delivery, but debate on the appropriate type of personnel arrangements for delivering decentralized services is far from over. Put differently, the discourse on whether civil service management should be decentralized or devolved still rages on. Little wonder that countries which started off with decentralized civil service management models in the 1990s are currently centralizing some aspects of personnel management while others are having centralized and decentralized personnel arrangements operating side by side in sub-national governments. The paper argues that civil service management should be decentralized whenever a country chooses the path of decentralization by devolution. Using Uganda’s example, the paper highlights two major challenges of managing the civil service under separate personnel arrangements: civil service appointments devoid of merit, and the perennial failure to attract and retain qualified human resource. The paper presents proposals on how to ensure meritocracy in appointments and how to bolster attraction and retention of human capital in local governments.

  5. Production of hydrogen through the carbonation-calcination reaction applied to CH4/CO2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Corradetti, A.; Desideri, U.

    2007-01-01

    The production of hydrogen combined with carbon capture represents a possible option for reducing CO 2 emissions in atmosphere and anthropogenic greenhouse effect. Nowadays the worldwide hydrogen production is based mainly on natural gas reforming, but the attention of the scientific community is focused also on other gas mixtures with significant methane content. In particular mixtures constituted mainly by methane and carbon dioxide are extensively used in energy conversion applications, as they include land-fill gas, digester gas and natural gas. The present paper addresses the development of an innovative system for hydrogen production and CO 2 capture starting from these mixtures. The plant is based on steam methane reforming, coupled with the carbonation and calcination reactions for CO 2 absorption and desorption, respectively. A thermodynamic approach is proposed to investigate the plant performance in relation to the CH 4 content in the feeding gas. The results suggest that, in order to optimize the hydrogen purity and the efficiency, two different methodologies can be adopted involving both the system layout and operating parameters. In particular such methodologies are suitable for a methane content, respectively, higher and lower than 65%

  6. Is the Korean public willing to pay for a decentralized generation source? The case of natural gas-based combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Seul-Ye; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Natural gas (NG)-based combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be installed near electricity-consuming areas and do not require large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. This paper attempts to assess the public's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for substituting consumption of a unit of electricity generated from nuclear power plant, currently a dominant power generation source in Korea, with that produced from NG-based CHP plant in terms of decentralized generation using the contingent valuation (CV) method. To this end, a CV survey of 1,000 households was implemented. The results show that the mean additional WTP for substituting nuclear power plant by NG-based CHP plant is estimated to be KRW 55.3 (USD 0.047) per kWh of electricity, which is statistically significant at the 1% level. This value amounts to 44.7% of the average price for electricity, KRW 123.69 (USD 0.106) in 2015, which implies that the public are ready to shoulder a significant financial burden to achieve the substitution. Moreover, the value can be interpreted as an external cost of nuclear power generation relative to NG-based CHP generation, or as an external benefit of NG-based CHP generation relative to nuclear power generation with a view to decentralized generation. - Highlights: • Combined heat and power (CHP) is a representative decentralized generation source. • Nuclear power requires large-scale and long-distance power transmission facilities. • We assess people's additional willingness to pay (WTP) for CHP over nuclear power. • We conduct a contingent valuation survey of 1,000 households in Korea. • The mean additional WTP amounts to 44.2% of the average price for electricity.

  7. Health and environmental effects of refuse derived fuel (RDF) production and RDF/coal co-firing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, J.J.; Wessels, T.E.; Lynch, J.F.; Fassel, V.A.; Lembke, L.L.; Kniseley, R.N.; Norton, G.A.; Junk, G.A.; Richard, J.J.; Dekalb, E.L.; Dobosy, R.J.

    1981-10-01

    Six facilities, representing the scope of different co-firing techniques with their associated RDF production systems were reviewed in detail for combustion equipment, firing modes, emission control systems, residue handling/disposal, and effluent wastewater treatment. These facilities encompass all currently operational or soon to be operational co-firing plants and associated RDF production systems. Occupational health and safety risks for these plants were evaluated on the basis of fatal and nonfatal accidents and disease arising from the respective fuel cycles, coal and RDF. Occupational risks include exposure to pathogenic organisms in the workplace. Unusual events that are life threatening in the RDF processing industry (e.g., explosions) are also discussed and remedial and safety measures reviewed. 80 refs., 4 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    OpenAIRE

    AnaLouise Keating; Kimberly Merenda

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories) into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1) A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream fe...

  9. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Badrudin, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  10. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  11. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  12. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  13. High CO2 Primes Plant Biotic Stress Defences through Redox-Linked Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Amna; Noctor, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Industrial activities have caused tropospheric CO 2 concentrations to increase over the last two centuries, a trend that is predicted to continue for at least the next several decades. Here, we report that growth of plants in a CO 2 -enriched environment activates responses that are central to defense against pathogenic attack. Salicylic acid accumulation was triggered by high-growth CO 2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plants such as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A detailed analysis in Arabidopsis revealed that elevated CO 2 primes multiple defense pathways, leading to increased resistance to bacterial and fungal challenge. Analysis of gene-specific mutants provided no evidence that activation of plant defense pathways by high CO 2 was caused by stomatal closure. Rather, the activation is partly linked to metabolic effects involving redox signaling. In support of this, genetic modification of redox components (glutathione contents and NADPH-generating enzymes) prevents full priming of the salicylic acid pathway and associated resistance by high CO 2 The data point to a particularly influential role for the nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic enzyme whose role in plants remains unclear. Our observations add new information on relationships between high CO 2 and oxidative signaling and provide novel insight into plant stress responses in conditions of increased CO 2 . © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Productivity growth patterns in US dairy products manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the productivity growth patterns in the US dairy products industry using the Census Bureau's plant-level data set. We decompose Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth into the scale and technical change components and analyse variability of plants' productivity by constructing transition

  15. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad; Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar

    2011-01-01

    An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set...

  16. Biological effects of activation products and other chemicals released from fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Poston, T.M.

    1976-09-01

    Literature reviews indicate that existing information is incomplete, often contradictory, and of questionable value for the prediction and assessment of ultimate impact from fusion-associated activation products and other chemical releases. It is still uncertain which structural materials will be used in the blanket and first wall of fusion power plants. However, niobium, vanadium, vanadium-chromium alloy, vanadium-titanium alloy, sintered aluminum product, and stainless steel have been suggested. The activation products of principal concern will be the longer-lived isotopes of 26 Al, 49 V, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55 Fe, 58 Co, 60 Co, 93 Nb, and 94 Nb. Lithium released to the environment either during the mining cycle, from power plant operation or accident, may be in the form of a number of compound types varying in solubility and affinity for biological organisms. The effects of a severe liquid metal fire or explosion involving Na or K will vary according to inherent abiotic and biotic features of the affected site. Saline, saline-alkaline, and sodic soils of arid lands would be particularly susceptible to alkaline stress. Beryllium released to the environment during the mining cycle or reactor accident situation could be in the form of a number of compound types. Adverse effects to aquatic species from routine chemical releases (biocides, corrosion inhibitors, dissolution products) may occur in the discharge of both fission and fusion power plant designs

  17. Co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to elevated [CO2] in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Matthew; Elliott-Kingston, Caroline; McElwain, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Plant stomata display a wide range of short-term behavioural and long-term morphological responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]). The diversity of responses suggests that plants may have different strategies for controlling gas exchange, yet it is not known whether these strategies are co-ordinated in some way. Here, we test the hypothesis that there is co-ordination of physiological (via aperture change) and morphological (via stomatal density change) control of gas exchange by plants. We examined the response of stomatal conductance (G(s)) to instantaneous changes in external [CO(2)] (C(a)) in an evolutionary cross-section of vascular plants grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)] (1,500 ppm) and sub-ambient [O(2)] (13.0 %) compared to control conditions (380 ppm CO(2), 20.9 % O(2)). We found that active control of stomatal aperture to [CO(2)] above current ambient levels was not restricted to angiosperms, occurring in the gymnosperms Lepidozamia peroffskyana and Nageia nagi. The angiosperm species analysed appeared to possess a greater respiratory demand for stomatal movement than gymnosperm species displaying active stomatal control. Those species with little or no control of stomatal aperture (termed passive) to C(a) were more likely to exhibit a reduction in stomatal density than species with active stomatal control when grown in atmospheres of elevated [CO(2)]. The relationship between the degree of stomatal aperture control to C(a) above ambient and the extent of any reduction in stomatal density may suggest the co-ordination of physiological and morphological responses of stomata to [CO(2)] in the optimisation of water use efficiency. This trade-off between stomatal control strategies may have developed due to selective pressures exerted by the costs associated with passive and active stomatal control.

  18. Emissions to the Atmosphere from Amine-Based Post Combustion CO2 Capture Plant - Regulatory Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzi, Merched; Angove, Dennys; Dave, Narendra; Day, Stuart; Do, Thong; Feron, Paul; Sharma, Sunil; Attalla, Moetaz; Abu Zahra, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Amine-based Post Combustion Capture (PCC) of CO 2 is a readily available technology that can be deployed to reduce CO 2 emissions from coal fired power plants. However, PCC plants will likely release small quantities of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere along with the treated flue gas. The possible environmental effects of these emissions have been examined through different studies carried out around the world. Based on flue gas from a 400 MW ultra-supercritical coal fired power plant Aspen-Plus PCC process simulations were used to predict the potential atmospheric emissions from the plant. Different research initiatives carried out in this area have produced new knowledge that has significantly reduced the risk perception for the release of amine and amine degradation products to the atmosphere. In addition to the reduction of the CO 2 emissions, the PCC technology will also help in reducing SO x and NO 2 emissions. However, some other pollutants such as NH 3 and aerosols will increase if appropriate control technologies are not adopted. To study the atmospheric photo-oxidation of amines, attempts are being made to develop chemical reaction schemes that can be used for air quality assessment. However, more research is still required in this area to estimate the reactivity of amino solvents in the presence of other pollutants such as NO x and other volatile organic compounds in the background air. Current air quality guidelines may need to be updated to include limits for the additional pollutants such as NH 3 , nitrosamines and nitramines once more information related to their emissions is available. This paper focuses on describing the predicted concentrations of major pollutants that are expected to be released from a coal fired power plant obtained by ASPEN-Plus PCC process simulations in terms of current air quality regulations and other regulatory aspects. (authors)

  19. Techno-economic study of CO2 capture from an existing coal-fired power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O2/CO2 recycle combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Douglas, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The existing fleet of modern pulverised coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years providing that efficient and economical CO 2 capture technologies are available for retrofit. One option is to separate CO 2 from the products of combustion using conventional approaches such as amine scrubbing. An emerging alternative, commonly known as O 2 /CO 2 recycle combustion, involves burning the coal with oxygen in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas. Both approaches can be retrofitted to existing units, however they consume significant amounts of energy to capture, purify and compress the CO 2 for subsequent sequestration. This paper presents a techno-economic comparison of the performance of the two approaches. The comparison was developed using the commercial process simulation packages, Hysys and Aspen Plus. The results show that both processes are expensive options to capture CO 2 from coal power plants, however O 2 /CO 2 appears to be a more attractive retrofit than MEA scrubbing. The CO 2 capture cost for the MEA case is USD 53/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 3.3 cents/kW h. For the O 2 /CO 2 case the CO 2 capture cost is lower at USD 35/ton of CO 2 avoided, which translates into 2.4 cents/kW h. These capture costs represent an approximate increase of 20-30% in current electricity prices

  20. Estimating CO2 gas exchange in mixed age vegetable plant communities grown on soil-like substrates for life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    If soil-like substrate (SLS) is to be used in human life support systems with a high degree of mass closure, the rate of its gas exchange as a compartment for mineralization of plant biomass should be understood. The purpose of this study was to compare variations in CO2 gas exchange of vegetable plant communities grown on the soil-like substrate using a number of plant age groups, which determined the so-called conveyor interval. Two experimental plant communities were grown as plant conveyors with different conveyor intervals. The first plant community consisted of conveyors with intervals of 7 days for carrot and beet and 14 days for chufa sedge. The conveyor intervals in the second plant community were 14 days for carrot and beet and 28 days for chufa sedge. This study showed that increasing the number of age groups in the conveyor and, thus, increasing the frequency of adding plant waste to the SLS, decreased the range of variations in CO2 concentration in the "plant-soil-like substrate" system. However, the resultant CO2 gas exchange was shifted towards CO2 release to the atmosphere of the plant community with short conveyor intervals. The duration of the conveyor interval did not significantly affect productivity and mineral composition of plants grown on the SLS.

  1. Centralization vs. Decentralization: A Location Analysis Approach for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Jeffrey; Shishko, Robert

    1972-01-01

    An application of location theory to the question of centralized versus decentralized library facilities for a university, with relevance for special libraries is presented. The analysis provides models for a single library, for two or more libraries, or for decentralized facilities. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  2. Removal of helminth eggs by centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho: health implications for direct and indirect exposure to the effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Isaac Dennis; Reddy, Poovendhree; Seidu, Razak; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2018-05-01

    Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho. The risk of ascariasis with exposure to effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants was also assessed using the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Eggs of Ascaris spp., hookworm, Trichuris spp., Taenia spp., and Toxocara spp. were commonly detected in the untreated wastewater. The DEWATS plants removed between 95 and 100% of the STH and Taenia sp. eggs, with centralized plants removing between 67 and 100%. Helminth egg concentrations in the final effluents from the centralized wastewater treatment plants were consistently higher than those in the WHO recommended guideline (≤ 1 helminth egg/L) for agricultural use resulting in higher risk of ascariasis. Therefore, in conclusion, DEWATS plants may be more efficient in reducing the concentration of helminth eggs in wastewater, resulting in lower risks of STH infections upon exposure.

  3. The Rhetoric of Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Diane

    1974-01-01

    Questions the rationale for and possible consequences of political decentralization of New York City. Suggests that the disadvantages--reduced level of professionalism, increased expense in multiple government operation, "stabilization" of residential segregation, necessity for budget negotiations because of public disclosure of tax…

  4. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  5. FINANCIAL CONSOLIDATION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL ENTITY IN THE LIGHT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana MANOLE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available „Should we head towards ‘self-government’ required by many of the participants, would that be a selfgovernmentof the citizens or the elect representatives? Whatever would happen, decentralization is, ina way, the book of our society, a book in which we find its aspirations, discrepancies and questions…It is well led from above, but it is well administered from the bottom.”(Xavier Frège, Paris, 1986 This article presents the results of study regarding the decentralization process, which is currentlyunderway in the Republic of Moldova. The purpose of the study is to highlight the fundamental concept ofdecentralization, the areas of administrative decentralization, the forms of manifestation of financialdecentralization (fiscal decentralization and budget decentralization, to identify the priorities of thedecentralization process, and to establish the indicators for measuring the degree of decentralization. Inbase of the statistical analysis and synthesis method, it was determined the current state of the art in theadministrative-territorial entities in the course of the decentralization process in relation to the publicfinance management reform. It were formulate proposals to accelerate the process of financialdecentralization and self-government.

  6. Does co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with endophytic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve plant growth in a polluted environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ważny, Rafał; Rozpądek, Piotr; Jędrzejczyk, Roman J; Śliwa, Marta; Stojakowska, Anna; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    Phytoremediation of polluted sites can be improved by co-inoculation with mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. In this study, the effects of single- and co-inoculation of Lactuca serriola with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and endophytic fungi, Mucor sp. or Trichoderma asperellum, on plant growth, vitality, toxic metal accumulation, sesquiterpene lactone production and flavonoid concentration in the presence of toxic metals were evaluated. Inoculation with the AM fungus increased biomass yield of the plants grown on non-polluted and polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. resulted in increased biomass yield of plants cultivated on the polluted substrate, whereas co-inoculation with T. asperellum and the AM fungus increased plant biomass on the non-polluted substrate. In the presence of Mucor sp., mycorrhizal colonization and arbuscule richness were increased in the non-polluted substrate. Co-inoculation with the AM fungus and Mucor sp. increased Zn concentration in leaves and roots. The concentration of sesquiterpene lactones in plant leaves was decreased by AM fungus inoculation in both substrates. Despite enhanced host plant costs caused by maintaining symbiosis with numerous microorganisms, interaction of wild lettuce with both mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi was more beneficial than that with a single fungus. The study shows the potential of double inoculation in unfavourable environments, including agricultural areas and toxic metal-polluted areas.

  7. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  8. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  9. Development of computer-aided design and production system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masanori

    1983-01-01

    The technically required matters related to the design and production of nuclear power stations tended to increase from the viewpoint of the safety and reliability, and it is indispensable to cope with such technically required matters skillfully for the rationalization of the design and production and for the construction of highly reliable plants. Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., has developed the computer-aided design data information and engineering system which performs dialogue type design and drawing, and as the result, the design-production consistent system is developed to do stress analysis, production design, production management and the output of data for numerically controlled machine tools consistently. In this paper, mainly the consistent system in the field of plant design centering around piping and also the computer system for the design of vessels and others are outlined. The features of the design works for nuclear power plants, the rationalization of the design and production management of piping and vessels, and the application of the CAD system to other general equipment and improvement works are reported. This system is the powerful means to meet the requirement of heightening quality and reducing cost. (Kako, I.)

  10. Synthetic biology approaches for the production of plant metabolites in unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Mehrshahi, Payam; Smith, Alison G; Goossens, Alain

    2017-07-10

    Synthetic biology is the repurposing of biological systems for novel objectives and applications. Through the co-ordinated and balanced expression of genes, both native and those introduced from other organisms, resources within an industrial chassis can be siphoned for the commercial production of high-value commodities. This developing interdisciplinary field has the potential to revolutionize natural product discovery from higher plants, by providing a diverse array of tools, technologies, and strategies for exploring the large chemically complex space of plant natural products using unicellular organisms. In this review, we emphasize the key features that influence the generation of biorefineries and highlight technologies and strategic solutions that can be used to overcome engineering pitfalls with rational design. Also presented is a succinct guide to assist the selection of unicellular chassis most suited for the engineering and subsequent production of the desired natural product, in order to meet the global demand for plant natural products in a safe and sustainable manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Near optimal decentralized H_inf control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    It is shown that foir a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinity dimentional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results, a heuri......It is shown that foir a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinity dimentional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results...

  12. The Bases of Federalism and Decentralization in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ornelas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the Weberian-type ideal to define the conceptual bases of federalism and the decentralization of education. Classic federalism, ficticious federalism (corporativism, the origins and the indigenous version of the new federalism are discussed. We conclude that Mexican constitutional federalism is baroque and ambiguous. Based on theory and the experiences of various countries, bureaucratic centralism and its main characteristics are defined. As a contrast, a typology of educational decentralization is developed. Taken into account are its political, judicial and administrative definitions; a distinction is made between delegation and decentralization. It is argued that with the signing of the Agreement for the Modernization of Basic Education, the Mexican government sought to increase its legitimacy without losing control of education.

  13. Co-generation and innovative heat storage systems in small-medium CSP plants for distributed energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Alberto; Montagnino, Fabio; Paredes, Filippo; Donato, Filippo; Caputo, Giampaolo; Mazzei, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    CSP technologies can be applied for distributed energy production, on small-medium plants (on the 1 MW scale), to satisfy the needs of local communities, buildings and districts. In this perspective, reliable, low-cost, and flexible small/medium multi-generative CSP plants should be developed. Four pilot plants have been built in four Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, and Italy) to demonstrate the approach. In this paper, the plant built in Italy is presented, with specific innovations applied in the linear Fresnel collector design and the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system, based on a single the use of molten salts but specifically tailored for small scale plants.

  14. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-[ 14 C]deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state

  15. Investigation of factors influencing biogas production in a large-scale thermophilic municipal biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Agnes; Jerome, Valerie; Freitag, Ruth [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair for Process Biotechnology; Burghardt, Diana; Likke, Likke; Peiffer, Stefan [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydrology; Hofstetter, Eugen M. [RVT Process Equipment GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany); Gabler, Ralf [BKW Biokraftwerke Fuerstenwalde GmbH, Fuerstenwalde (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    A continuously operated, thermophilic, municipal biogas plant was observed over 26 months (sampling twice per month) in regard to a number of physicochemical parameters and the biogas production. Biogas yields were put in correlation to parameters such as the volatile fatty acid concentration, the pH and the ammonium concentration. When the residing microbiota was classified via analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, most bacterial sequences matched with unidentified or uncultured bacteria from similar habitats. Of the archaeal sequences, 78.4% were identified as belonging to the genus Methanoculleus, which has not previously been reported for biogas plants, but is known to efficiently use H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} produced by the degradation of fatty acids by syntrophic microorganisms. In order to further investigate the influence of varied amounts of ammonia (2-8 g/L) and volatile fatty acids on biogas production and composition (methane/CO{sub 2}), laboratory scale satellite experiments were performed in parallel to the technical plant. Finally, ammonia stripping of the process water of the technical plant was accomplished, a measure through which the ammonia entering the biogas reactor via the mash could be nearly halved, which increased the energy output of the biogas plant by almost 20%. (orig.)

  16. About the development strategies of power plant in energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinea, Adelaida Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims at identifying and assessing the revenues and costs incurred by various modernization and modernization-development strategies for a power plant in order to optimize the electric and thermal energy are produced and to conduct a sensitivity analysis of the main performance indicators. The Romanian energy system and the energy market have gone a long transition way, from the vertically integrated model, the responsibility for the delivery of the electricity comes exclusively to a state monopoly, to a decentralized system, characterized by the decentralization of production and transport, respectively distribution activities. Romania chose the liberal market model where the relations between the actors in the market - producers and suppliers free to make sales and purchase transactions for electrical energy - are mostly governed by contracts, which may be either bilaterally negotiated or are already regulated. Therefore, the importance of understanding the development trend of the Romanian energy market lies in its economic effects upon the solutions which could be adopted for the evolution of the cogeneration power plant in question.

  17. Evolution and challenges of dynamic global vegetation models for some aspects of plant physiology and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, L F C; Arenque, B C; Aidar, S T; Moura, M S B; Von Randow, C; Tourigny, E; Menezes, R S C; Ometto, J P H B

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) simulate surface processes such as the transfer of energy, water, CO2, and momentum between the terrestrial surface and the atmosphere, biogeochemical cycles, carbon assimilation by vegetation, phenology, and land use change in scenarios of varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations. DGVMs increase the complexity and the Earth system representation when they are coupled with atmospheric global circulation models (AGCMs) or climate models. However, plant physiological processes are still a major source of uncertainty in DGVMs. The maximum velocity of carboxylation (Vcmax), for example, has a direct impact over productivity in the models. This parameter is often underestimated or imprecisely defined for the various plant functional types (PFTs) and ecosystems. Vcmax is directly related to photosynthesis acclimation (loss of response to elevated CO2), a widely known phenomenon that usually occurs when plants are subjected to elevated atmospheric CO2 and might affect productivity estimation in DGVMs. Despite this, current models have improved substantially, compared to earlier models which had a rudimentary and very simple representation of vegetation-atmosphere interactions. In this paper, we describe this evolution through generations of models and the main events that contributed to their improvements until the current state-of-the-art class of models. Also, we describe some main challenges for further improvements to DGVMs.

  18. Integrating Plant Science and Crop Modeling: Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Soybean and Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Nándor; Challinor, Andrew; Droutsas, Ioannis; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Zabel, Florian; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-11-01

    Increasing global CO2 emissions have profound consequences for plant biology, not least because of direct influences on carbon gain. However, much remains uncertain regarding how our major crops will respond to a future high CO2 world. Crop model inter-comparison studies have identified large uncertainties and biases associated with climate change. The need to quantify uncertainty has drawn the fields of plant molecular physiology, crop breeding and biology, and climate change modeling closer together. Comparing data from different models that have been used to assess the potential climate change impacts on soybean and maize production, future yield losses have been predicted for both major crops. When CO2 fertilization effects are taken into account significant yield gains are predicted for soybean, together with a shift in global production from the Southern to the Northern hemisphere. Maize production is also forecast to shift northwards. However, unless plant breeders are able to produce new hybrids with improved traits, the forecasted yield losses for maize will only be mitigated by agro-management adaptations. In addition, the increasing demands of a growing world population will require larger areas of marginal land to be used for maize and soybean production. We summarize the outputs of crop models, together with mitigation options for decreasing the negative impacts of climate on the global maize and soybean production, providing an overview of projected land-use change as a major determining factor for future global crop production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  19. Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jim; Furusjö, Erik; Wetterlund, Elisabeth; Lundgren, Joakim; Landälv, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomethanol from co-gasified black liquor and pyrolysis oil at different capacities. • Enables higher biofuel production for given available amount of black liquor. • Opportunity for cost efficient black liquor gasification also in small pulp mills. • The methanol can be cost competitive to 2nd generation ethanol and fossil fuels. • Fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to meet given biofuel demand. - Abstract: The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed. It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment

  20. Co-ordinating Product Developing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Søren Bendix

    1996-01-01

    The paper contains a presentation of research methods to be used in case studies in product development and a presentation on how to deal with Design Co-ordination according to litterature......The paper contains a presentation of research methods to be used in case studies in product development and a presentation on how to deal with Design Co-ordination according to litterature...

  1. The political economy of decentralization of health and social services in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalikis, G

    1989-01-01

    A trend to decentralization in Canada's 'welfare state' has received support from the Left and from the Right. Some social critics of the Left expect decentralization to result in holistic services adjusted to local needs. Others, moreover, feel we are in the dawn of a new epoch in which major economic transformations are to bring about, through new class alliances and conflict, decentralization of power and a better quality of life in communities. These assumptions and their theoretical pitfalls are discussed here following an historical overview of the centralization/decentralization issue in Canadian social policy. It is argued that recent proposals of decentralization are a continuation of reactionary tendencies to constrain social expenditures, but not a path to better quality of life.

  2. The interplay between decentralization and privacy: the case of blockchain technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Filippi , Primavera

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Decentralized architectures are gaining popularity as a way to protect one's privacy against the ubiquitous surveillance of states and corporations. Yet, in spite of the obvious benefits they provide when it comes to data sovereignty, decentralized architectures also present certain characteristics that—if not properly accounted for—might ultimately impinge upon users' privacy. While they are capable of preserving the confidentiality of data, decentralized architecture...

  3. Plant-soil interactions promote co-occurrence of three nonnative woody shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Classen, Aimée T; Call, Jaime J; Henning, Jeremiah A; Simberloff, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Ecosystems containing multiple nonnative plant species are common, but mechanisms promoting their co-occurrence are understudied. Plant-soil interactions contribute to the dominance of singleton species in nonnative ranges because many nonnatives experience stronger positive feedbacks relative to co-occurring natives. Plant-soil interactions could impede other nonnatives if an individual nonnative benefits from its soil community to a greater extent than its neighboring nonnatives, as is seen with natives. However, plant-soil interactions could promote nonnative co-occurrence if a nonnative accumulates beneficial soil mutualists that also assist other nonnatives. Here, we use greenhouse and field experiments to ask whether plant-soil interactions (1) promote the codominance of two common nonnative shrubs (Ligustrum sinense and Lonicera maackii) and (2) facilitate the invasion of a less-common nonnative shrub (Rhamnus davurica) in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. In the greenhouse, we found that two of the nonnatives, L. maackii and R. davurica, performed better in soils conditioned by nonnative shrubs compared to uninvaded forest soils, which. suggests that positive feedbacks among co-occurring nonnative shrubs can promote continued invasion of a site. In both greenhouse and field experiments, we found consistent signals that the codominance of the nonnatives L. sinense and L. maackii may be at least partially explained by the increased growth of L. sinense in L. maackii soils. Overall, significant effects of plant-soil interactions on shrub performance indicate that plant-soil interactions can potentially structure the co-occurrence patterns of these nonnatives.

  4. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  5. Analysis of Co-Effects on Air Pollutants and CO2 Emissions Generated by End-of-Pipe Measures of Pollution Control in China’s Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available China is now facing great challenges resulting from climate change and air pollution, driven by the processes of industrialization and urbanization. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions produced by the coal-fired power industry represent approximately 70% of the total emissions in China’s industrial sector. In this study, 39 coal-fired power plants built in China between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed in regards to the co-effects oncarbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions generated directly and indirectly by end-of-pipe measures of pollution control. After completing the quantitative analysis with input data from 83units of power plants, we found that co-effects were positive only for air pollutant reductions through the implementation of desulfurization, denitrification, and dedusting measures, but co-effects were negative for carbon dioxide production because of the corresponding electricity use and chemical reactions that led to the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. We also performed an assessment of the synergistic coefficients to better understand the degree of co-effects. It will be important for researchers to take a comprehensive view of China’s coal-fired power plants and look for solutions that can maximize positive co-effects and achieve overall co-benefits of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants.

  6. Centralization Versus Decentralization: A Location Analysis Approach for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Raffel, Jeffrey

    One of the questions that seems to perplex many university and special librarians is whether to move in the direction of centralizing or decentralizing the library's collections and facilities. Presented is a theoretical approach, employing location theory, to the library centralization-decentralization question. Location theory allows the analyst…

  7. Plant Growth Biostimulants, Dietary Feed Supplements and Cosmetics Formulated with Supercritical CO2 Algal Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review paper presents the use of algal extracts as safe and solvent-free components of plant growth biostimulants, dietary feed additives and cosmetics. Innovative technology that uses extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, as a method of isolation of biologically active compounds from algal biomass, is presented. An important part of the complete technology is the final formulation of the product. This enabled realization of the further step which was assessment of the utilitarian properties of the extract-based products. The extracts were analysed for the presence of biologically active molecules (e.g., plant hormones, polyphenols which provide useful properties such as antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. The bio-products were tested in germination tests and underwent field trials to search for plant growth biostimulatory properties. Tests on animals (laying hens experiments were conducted to assess pro-health properties of new dietary feed supplement. Another application were cosmetic formulations (dermatological tests. The results of the application tests were very promising, however further studies are required for the registration of the products and successful implementation to the market.

  8. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutakki Tirumala Uday Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

  9. Entrance radiation doses during paediatric cardiac catheterizations performed for diagnosis or the treatment of congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Yakoumakis, Em; Sandilos, P.; Thanopoulos, V.; Makri, Tr; Gialousis, G.; Houndas, D.; Yakoumakis, N.; Georgiou, Ev

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation exposure of children, during cardiac catheterizations for the diagnosis or treatment of congenital heart disease. Radiation doses were estimated for 45 children aged from 1 d to 13 y old. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were used to estimate the posterior entrance dose (D P ), the lateral entrance dose (D LAT ), the thyroid dose and the gonads dose. A dose-area product (DAP) meter was also attached externally to the tube of the angiographic system and gave a direct value in mGy cm 2 for each procedure. Posterior and lateral entrance dose values during cardiac catheterizations ranged from 1 to 197 mGy and from 1.1 to 250.3 mGy, respectively. Radiation exposure to the thyroid and the gonads ranged from 0.3 to 8.4 mGy to 0.1 and 0.7 mGy, respectively. Finally, the DAP meter values ranged between 360 and 33,200 mGy cm 2 . Radiation doses measured in this study are comparable with those reported to previous studies. Moreover, strong correlation was found between the DAP values and the entrance radiation dose measured with TLDs. (authors)

  10. Analysis of fractionation in corn-to-ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Camille

    As the dry grind ethanol industry has grown, the research and technology surrounding ethanol production and co-product value has increased. Including use of back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation. Front-end fractionation is pre-fermentation separation of the corn kernel into 3 fractions: endosperm, bran, and germ. The endosperm fraction enters the existing ethanol plant, and a high protein DDGS product remains after fermentation. High value oil is extracted out of the germ fraction. This leaves corn germ meal and bran as co-products from the other two streams. These 3 co-products have a very different composition than traditional corn DDGS. Installing this technology allows ethanol plants to increase profitability by tapping into more diverse markets, and ultimately could allow for an increase in profitability. An ethanol plant model was developed to evaluate both back-end oil extraction and front-end fractionation technology and predict the change in co-products based on technology installed. The model runs in Microsoft Excel and requires inputs of whole corn composition (proximate analysis), amino acid content, and weight to predict the co-product quantity and quality. User inputs include saccharification and fermentation efficiencies, plant capacity, and plant process specifications including front-end fractionation and backend oil extraction, if applicable. This model provides plants a way to assess and monitor variability in co-product composition due to the variation in whole corn composition. Additionally the co-products predicted in this model are entered into the US Pork Center of Excellence, National Swine Nutrition Guide feed formulation software. This allows the plant user and animal nutritionists to evaluate the value of new co-products in existing animal diets.

  11. Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330 in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1 also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields.

  12. Temporary closure of Entrance A

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Entrance A to the CERN site will be temporarily closed to incoming traffic between 1.30 p.m. and 6.00 p.m. on Tuesday 30 January in order to allow the information signs to be changed. Thank you for your understanding. TS/CSE Group

  13. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Korneliussen, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  14. Development and design of plants for high-pressure extraction of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R; Tschiersch, R [Thyssen Industrie A.G., Witten (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    Criteria underlying the design of plant for recovery of carrier material or extract are reviewed, particularly in relation to the extraction of natural products with supercritical CO/sub 2/. The parameters to be determined in the planning of a large-scale plant are outlined and as an example of a typical process, the extraction of spices is discussed in detail. The plant components and equipment are presented together with their particular process and construction characteristics. Finally, the thermodynamic aspects are analyzed and methods of optimizing a large-scale plant and of reducing the power consumption are outlined. Particular attention is paid to the question of optimization with regard to the most economic method of operation of such a plant to be applied in the future.

  15. Choosing co-substrates to supplement biogas production from animal slurry - A life cycle assessment of the environmental consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croxatto Vega, Giovanna Catalina; Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Birkved, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Biogas production from animal slurry can provide substantial contributions to reach renewable energy targets, yet due to the low methane potential of slurry, biogas plants depend on the addition of co-substrates to make operations profitable. The environmental performance of three underexploited co......-substrates, straw, organic household waste and the solid fraction of separated slurry, were assessed against slurry management without biogas production, using LCA methodology. The analysis showed straw, which would have been left on arable fields, to be an environmentally superior co-substrate. Due to its low...

  16. On Deciding How to Decide: To Centralize or Decentralize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Issues concerning whether to centralize or decentralize decision-making are addressed, with applications for colleges. Centralization/decentralization (C/D) must be analyzed with reference to a particular decision. Three components of C/D are locus of authority, breadth of participation, and relative contribution by the decision-maker's staff. C/D…

  17. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  18. 50 CFR 25.53 - Establishment of single visit entrance fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fees. 25.53 Section 25.53 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.53 Establishment of single visit entrance fees. Entrance fees established for single visit...

  19. Trend of CO2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    The brochure on the trend of CO 2 emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO 2 emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO 2 emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  20. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  1. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  2. Comparative LCA of decentralized wastewater treatment alternatives for non-potable urban reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, Tamar; Friedler, Eran

    2016-11-01

    Municipal wastewater (WW) effluent represents a reliable and significant source for reclaimed water, very much needed nowadays. Water reclamation and reuse has become an attractive option for conserving and extending available water sources. The decentralized approach to domestic WW treatment benefits from the advantages of source separation, which makes available simple small-scale systems and on-site reuse, which can be constructed on a short time schedule and occasionally upgraded with new technological developments. In this study we perform a Life Cycle Assessment to compare between the environmental impacts of four alternatives for a hypothetical city's water-wastewater service system. The baseline alternative is the most common, centralized approach for WW treatment, in which WW is conveyed to and treated in a large wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and is then discharged to a stream. The three alternatives represent different scales of distribution of the WW treatment phase, along with urban irrigation and domestic non-potable water reuse (toilet flushing). The first alternative includes centralized treatment at a WWTP, with part of the reclaimed WW (RWW) supplied back to the urban consumers. The second and third alternatives implement de-centralized greywater (GW) treatment with local reuse, one at cluster level (320 households) and one at building level (40 households). Life cycle impact assessment results show a consistent disadvantage of the prevailing centralized approach under local conditions in Israel, where seawater desalination is the marginal source of water supply. The alternative of source separation and GW reuse at cluster level seems to be the most preferable one, though its environmental performance is only slightly better than GW reuse at building level. Centralized WW treatment with urban reuse of WWTP effluents is not advantageous over decentralized treatment of GW because the supply of RWW back to consumers is very costly in materials and

  3. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...

  4. /sup 60/Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapeznikov, A V; Trapeznikova, V N [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1979-03-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of /sup 60/Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of /sup 60/Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt.

  5. On 60Co accumulation by freshwater plants under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeznikov, A.V.; Trapeznikova, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    In search for effective bioindicators of radioactive contamination of cooler-reservoirs in atomic power plants the accumulation of 60 Co by four species of higher aquatic plants most widely distributed in the Urals was studied, namely by Elodea canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum, Lemna minor and Potamogeton pectinatus. It is shown that such plants as Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis having the accumulation coefficients of 60 Co 33,500 and 21,500, respectively, can be recommended as bioindicators of this radionuclide in reservoirs contaminated with radioactive cobalt

  6. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Collins, H.; Polley, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 µL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA . Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important because it indicates the potential effects of CO2 enrichment on genetic variability and the potential for evolutionary change in future generations. We examined whether the responses of inflorescence production to CO2 enrichment in four C4 grasses and a C3 forb were predicted their vegetative biomass, and by soil moisture, soil nitrogen, or light availability. Inflorescence production was studied in a long-term CO2 concentration gradient spanning pre-industrial to anticipated mid-21st century values (250 - 500 µL L-1) maintained on clay, silty clay and sandy loam soils common in the U.S. Southern Plains. We expected that CO2 enrichment would increase inflorescence production, and more so with higher water, nitrogen, or light availability. However, structural equation modeling revealed that vegetative biomass was the single consistent direct predictor of flowering for all species (p grass) and Solidago canadensis (C3 forb), direct CO2 effects on flowering were only weakly mediated by indirect effects of soil water content and soil NO3-N availability. For the decreasing species (Bouteloua curtipendula, C4 grass), the negative CO2-flowering relationship was cancelled (p = 0.39) by indirect effects of increased SWC and NO3-N on clay and silty clay soils. For the species with no CO2 response, inflorescence production was predicted only by direct water content (p grass) or vegetative biomass (p = 0.0009, Tridens albescens, C4 grass) effects. Light availability was unrelated to inflorescence production. Changes in inflorescence production are thus closely tied to direct and indirect effects of CO2 enrichment on vegetative biomass, and may either increase, decrease, or leave

  7. Effects of Magnetic Particles Entrance Arrangements on Mixing Efficiency of a Magnetic Bead Micromixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Kamali; Seyed Alireza Shekoohi; Alireza Binesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a computer code is developed to numerically investigate a magnetic bead micromixer under different conditions. The micromixer consists of a microchannel and numerous micro magnetic particles which enter the micromixer by fluid flows and are actuated by an alternating magnetic field normal to the main flow. An important feature of micromixer which is not considered before by researchers is the particle entrance arrangement into the micromixer. This parameter could effectively affect the micromixer efficiency. There are two general micro magnetic particle entrance arrangements in magnetic bead micromixers: determined position entrance and random position entrance. In the case of determined position entrances, micro magnetic particles enter the micromixer at specific positions of entrance cross section. However, in a random position entrance,particles enter the microchannel with no order. In this study mixing efficiencies of identical magnetic bead micromixers which only differ in particle entrance arrangement are numerically investigated and compared.The results reported in this paper illustrate that the prepared computer code can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the magnetic bead micromixer performance analysis. In addition, the results show that some features of the magnetic bead micromixer are strongly affected by the entrance arrangement of the particles.

  8. Down-regulation of tissue N:P ratios in terrestrial plants by elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qi; Hui, Dafeng; Luo, Yiqi; Elser, James; Wang, Ying-ping; Loladze, Irakli; Zhang, Quanfa; Dennis, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations generally alter element stoichiometry in plants. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the elevated CO2 impact on plant nitrogen: phosphorus (N:P) ratios and the underlying mechanism has not been conducted. We synthesized the results from 112 previously published studies using meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of elevated CO2 on the N:P ratio of terrestrial plants and to explore the underlying mechanism based on plant growth and soil P dynamics. Our results show that terrestrial plants grown under elevated CO2 had lower N:P ratios in both above- and belowground biomass across different ecosystem types. The response ratio for plant N:P was negatively correlated with the response ratio for plant growth in croplands and grasslands, and showed a stronger relationship for P than for N. In addition, the CO2-induced down-regulation of plant N:P was accompanied by 19.3% and 4.2% increases in soil phosphatase activity and labile P, respectively, and a 10.1% decrease in total soil P. Our results show that down-regulation of plant N:P under elevated CO2 corresponds with accelerated soil P cycling. These findings should be useful for better understanding of terrestrial plant stoichiometry in response to elevated CO2 and of the underlying mechanisms affecting nutrient dynamics under climate change.

  9. Entrance doses during lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior abdomen examinations: generator waveform dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.D.; Underwood, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    In North Trent, UK, an entrance dose survey of lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior (AP) abdomen examinations has been carried out in 17 radiology departments. The survey comprised 294 lateral lumbar spine and 322 AP abdomen entrance dose measurements. The mean entrance doses were found to be approximately half of the relevant national reference entrance dose levels of 30 mGy and 10 mGy, respectively. The effect of generator waveform on entrance dose was studied by separating the generators into two types: ''pulsating potential'' (PP) generators and ''constant potential'' (CP) generators for each examination. PP generators comprised 23% of the total number of examinations. The mean entrance dose and radiographic exposure factors from CP generators were found to be significantly lower than those from PP generators. The use of CP type generators, together with low attenuation components can significantly reduce patient entrance doses for these examinations. (author)

  10. Cleaning of biomass derived product gas for engine applications and for co-firing in PC-boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen-Luntama, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies; and others

    1997-10-01

    The conventional fluidized-bed combustion has become commercially available also to relatively small scale (5 MWe), but this technology has rather low power-to-heat ratio and consequently it`s potential is limited to applications where district or process heat is the main product. Thus, there seems to be a real need to develop more efficient methods for small-scale power production from biomass. Gasification diesel power plant is one alternative for the small-scale power production, which has clearly higher power-to-heat ratio than can be reached in conventional steam cycles. The main technical problem in this process is the gas cleaning from condensable tars. In addition to the diesel-power plants, there are several other interesting applications for atmospheric-pressure clean gas technology. One alternative for cost-effective biomass utilization is co-firing of biomass derived product gas in existing pulverized coal fired boilers (or other types of boilers and furnaces). The aim of the project is to develop dry gas cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass and waste gasification. The technical objectives of the project are as follows: To develop and test catalytic gas cleaning methods for engine. To study the removal of problematic ash species of (CFE) gasification with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers. To evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of different small-scale power plant concepts based on fixed-bed updraft and circulating fluidized- bed gasification of biomass and waste. (orig.)

  11. CO{sub 2} emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production; Prezzi delle emissioni di CO{sub 2} e competivita' gas/carbone per la produzione termoelettrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Federico [La Sapienza Univ., Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare e Conversioni dell' Energia

    2005-05-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO{sub 2} emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO{sub 2} emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO{sub 2} emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO{sub 2} emission homogenizing approach. [Italian] Si dimostra come un programma teso alla riduzione delle emissioni di CO{sub 2} possa mutare la competivita' tra le due tecnologie per la produzione termoelettrica che saranno dominanti nel prossimo futuro in Italia: le centrali a carbone USC e le centrali CCGT a gas naturale. Si calcola il prezzo delle emissioni di CO{sub 2} per valutare il costo marginale di breve periodo (o il costo marginale di lungo periodo) per entrambe le tecnologie, avvalendosi di un programma di emission trading e utilizzando un approccio di omogeneizzazione delle emissioni di CO{sub 2} specifiche di ogni impianto.

  12. CO2 Price Impacts on Nuclear Power Plant Competitiveness in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.; Pasicko, R.

    2010-01-01

    Long term power system planning faces growing number of concerns and uncertainties, which is especially true for nuclear power plants due to their high investment costs and financial risk. In order to analyze competitiveness of nuclear power plants and optimize energy mix, existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Croatia will join EU ETS (European Emission Trading Scheme) with accession to EU (probably in 2012). Thus, for Croatian electrical system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO 2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper is done by electricity market simulation model PLEXOS which was used for modelling Croatian electrical system during development of the Croatian Energy Strategy in 2008. Paper analyzes impacts of CO 2 price on competitiveness of nuclear power plant within Croatian power system between 2020 and 2025. Analyzes are focused on how nuclear power plant influences total emission from the power system regarding coal and gas prices, average electricity price regarding CO 2 , coal and gas prices price. Results of this paper are showing that with emissions from Energy strategy development scenario with two new coal power plants (600 MW each) and two new gas power plants (400 MW each) until 2020, Croatia does not meet Kyoto target due to this emissions from power system. On the other side, introduction of nuclear power plants presented in this paper (1000 MW instead of one coal and one gas power plant) means nearly 6.5 Mt CO 2 emissions less annually and gives possibility to achieve Kyoto target (as this reduced amount represents nearly 22 % of Croatian Kyoto target). Results are also showing how increase in CO 2 price is enhancing competitiveness of a nuclear power plant.(author).

  13. Do plant species influence soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in a diverse tropical forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L.M. van Haren; R.C. de Oliveira; N. Restrepo-Coupe; L. Hutyra; P. B. de Camargo; Michael Keller; S.R. Saleska

    2010-01-01

    [1] To test whether plant species influence greenhouse gas production in diverse ecosystems, we measured wet season soil CO2 and N2O fluxes close to 300 large (>35 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH)) trees of 15 species at three clay‐rich forest sites in central Amazonia. We found that soil CO2 fluxes were 38% higher near large trees than at control sites >10...

  14. The Wolf and the Caribou: Coexistence of Decentralized Economies and Competitive Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Freund

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with BitTorrent and then Bitcoin, decentralized technologies have been on the rise over the last 15+ years, gaining significant momentum in the last 2+ years with the advent of platform ecosystems such as the Blockchain platform Ethereum. New projects have evolved from decentralized games to marketplaces to open funding models to decentralized autonomous organizations. The hype around cryptocurrency and the valuation of innovative projects drove the market cap of cryptocurrencies to over a trillion dollars at one point in 2017. These high valued technologies are now enabling something new: globally scaled and decentralized business models. Despite their valuation and the hype, these new business ecosystems are frail. This is not only because the underlying technology is rapidly evolving, but also because competitive markets see a profit opportunity in exponential cryptocurrency returns. This extracts value from these ecosystems, which could lead to their collapse, if unchecked. In this paper, we explore novel ways for decentralized economies to protect themselves from, and coexist with, competitive markets at a global scale utilizing decentralized technologies such as Blockchain.

  15. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  16. A systematic review of co-creation and co-production: Embarking on the social innovation journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorberg, W.H.; Bekkers, V.J.J.M.; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of 122 articles and books (1987-2013) of co-creation/ co-production with citizens in public innovation. It analyses a) the objectives of co-creation and co-production, b) its influential factors and c) the outcomes of co-creation and co-production processes.

  17. On a Molecular Basis, Investigate Association of Molecular Structure with Bioactive Compounds, Anti-Nutritional Factors and Chemical and Nutrient Profiles of Canola Seeds and Co-Products from Canola Processing: Comparison Crusher Plants within Canada and within China as well as between Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Walaa M S; Mosaad, Gamal M; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-04-21

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) Use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify protein molecular structures in relation to its chemical profiles and bioenergy values in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. (2) Determine and compare: (a) protein molecular structure using Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy technique; (b) bioactive compounds, anti-nutritional factors, and chemical composition; and (c) bioenergy values in oil seeds (canola seeds), co-products (meal or pellets) from bio-oil processing plants in Canada in comparison with China. (3) Determine the relationship between protein molecular structural features and nutrient profiles in oil-seeds and co-products from bio-oil processing. Our results showed the possibility to characterize protein molecular structure using FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Processing induced changes between oil seeds and co-products were found in the chemical, bioenergy profiles and protein molecular structure. However, no strong correlation was found between the chemical and nutrient profiles of oil seeds (canola seeds) and their protein molecular structure. On the other hand, co-products were strongly correlated with protein molecular structure in the chemical profile and bioenergy values. Generally, comparisons of oil seeds (canola seeds) and co-products (meal or pellets) in Canada, in China, and between Canada and China indicated the presence of variations among different crusher plants and bio-oil processing products.

  18. Local Power -- Global Connections: linking the world to a sustainable future through decentralized energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, Richard; Sweet, David

    2007-07-01

    Various international dynamics are converging to increase the attractiveness of decentralized energy as a complement to existing centralized energy infrastructures. Decentralized energy (DE) technologies, including onsite renewables, high efficiency cogeneration and industrial energy recycling, offer considerable benefits to those seeking working alternatives to emerging challenges in the energy sector. DE is ideally suited to provide clean affordable energy to areas where modern energy services are currently lacking. Having smaller generators close to where energy is required ensures a safe, reliable and secure energy supply when the energy is required. Furthermore, because DE is a much cleaner alternative than conventional central power plants and the energy provided comes at a much smaller price tag DE is an increasingly acceptable alternative both in the developed and developing world. DE is sure to play a key role in any plan to build a sustainable energy future. (auth)

  19. Co-crystallization as a separation technology: controlling product concentrations by co-crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Jansens, P.J.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2010-01-01

    Co-crystallization is known as a product formulation technology, but it can also be used as a tool to solve crystallization problems. Product removal by co-crystallization in fermentations is used as a showcase to demonstrate the potential of co-crystallization as a separation technique. In

  20. Decentralization in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Mulugeta Debebbe

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia officially launched the District Level Decentralization Program (DLDP) by the year 2002. The program flagged core objectives such as institutionalizing viable development centers at local levels, deepening devolution of power, enhancing the democratization process through broad-based participatory strategy, promoting good governance and improving service delivery. Since the inception of this program two strategic planning terms (one strategic term is five years) have already elapsed ...

  1. China’s Entrance to the WTO and Financial Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Soon Park

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.

  2. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO{sub 2}) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO{sub 2} emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation

  3. Reference costs for power generation; Couts de reference de la production electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO{sub 2}) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO{sub 2} emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power

  4. Decentralized control and communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-10 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralization * communication * large-scale complex systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  5. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  6. Development and planning of plant for the high-pressure extraction of natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, R; Tschiersch, R [Thyssen Industrie A.G., Witten (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-11-01

    Important criteria in the designing of plant for the recovery of carrier or extract are reviewed, especially for the extraction of natural products with supercritical CO/sub 2/. The quantities to be determined in the planning of a large-scale plant are outlined and a typical process, the extraction of spices, is discussed in detail. The plant components and assemblies are presented together with their particular process engineering and construction characteristics. Finally, the thermodynamic aspects are dealt with in more detail and ways of optimizing a large-scale plant and reducing the power consumption are outlined. Particular attention is paid to the question of optimization regarding the most economic method of operation of such a plant in the future.

  7. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  8. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed; Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda

    2011-01-01

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  9. Application of personal computer to development of entrance management system for radiating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shouji

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a system for managing the entrance and exit of personnel to radiating facilities. A personal computer is applied to its development. Major features of the system is outlined first. The computer is connected to the gate and two magnetic card readers provided at the gate. The gate, which is installed at the entrance to a room under control, opens only for those who have a valid card. The entrance-exit management program developed is described next. The following three files are used: ID master file (random file of the magnetic card number, name, qualification, etc., of each card carrier), entrance-exit management file (random file of time of entrance/exit, etc., updated everyday), and entrance-exit record file (sequential file of card number, name, date, etc.), which are stored on floppy disks. A display is provided to show various lists including a list of workers currently in the room and a list of workers who left the room at earlier times of the day. This system is useful for entrance management of a relatively small facility. Though small in required cost, it requires only a few operators to perform effective personnel management. (N.K.)

  10. In Rio de Janeiro public entrance areas disappeared behind railings out of fear of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Friedrich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for safety leads to an increasing fencing of entrance areas and to a structural spatial segregation in Rio de Janeiro. Today’s passerby moves along high grids instead of walking on lavishly planted ways along noble entrance areas. In the scale of urban development the stronger variant of spatial demarcation is taking place. Gated communities arise as a total spatial exclusion, in a safe distance to existing favelas and disposing of abundant safety equipment.Precisely because the need for safety is important in dwelling, both trends are problematic from the urban perspective. The increasing fencing and demarcating destroys pleasant urban atmospheres and fosters the spreading of mono-functional resp. mono-social areas. However, trust and a peaceful togetherness are required for a socially and functionally mixed and spatially diversified public space. But these conditions can only be realised in the context of the entire society.

  11. Modelling the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 exchange in a semiarid ecosystem with high plant-interspace heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinnan; Wang, Ben; Jia, Xin; Feng, Wei; Zha, Tianshan; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli

    2018-01-01

    We used process-based modelling to investigate the roles of carbon-flux (C-flux) components and plant-interspace heterogeneities in regulating soil CO2 exchanges (FS) in a dryland ecosystem with sparse vegetation. To simulate the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of FS, the modelling considered simultaneously the CO2 production, transport and surface exchanges (e.g. biocrust photosynthesis, respiration and photodegradation). The model was parameterized and validated with multivariate data measured during the years 2013-2014 in a semiarid shrubland ecosystem in Yanchi, northwestern China. The model simulation showed that soil rewetting could enhance CO2 dissolution and delay the emission of CO2 produced from rooting zone. In addition, an ineligible fraction of respired CO2 might be removed from soil volumes under respiration chambers by lateral water flows and root uptakes. During rewetting, the lichen-crusted soil could shift temporally from net CO2 source to sink due to the activated photosynthesis of biocrust but the restricted CO2 emissions from subsoil. The presence of plant cover could decrease the root-zone CO2 production and biocrust C sequestration but increase the temperature sensitivities of these fluxes. On the other hand, the sensitivities of root-zone emissions to water content were lower under canopy, which may be due to the advection of water flows from the interspace to canopy. To conclude, the complexity and plant-interspace heterogeneities of soil C processes should be carefully considered to extrapolate findings from chamber to ecosystem scales and to predict the ecosystem responses to climate change and extreme climatic events. Our model can serve as a useful tool to simulate the soil CO2 efflux dynamics in dryland ecosystems.

  12. Biochar addition induced the same plant responses as elevated CO2 in mine spoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaling; Drigo, Barbara; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Menke, Carl; Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is one of the major constrain factors for biochar in improving plant growth, the same for elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Hence, we hypothesized that (1) biochar would induce the same plant responses as elevated CO 2 under N-poor conditions; (2) elevated CO 2 would decrease the potential of biochar application in improving plant growth. To test these hypotheses, we assessed the effects of pinewood biochar, produced at three pyrolytic temperatures (650, 750 and 850 °C), on C and N allocation at the whole-plant level of three plant species (Austrostipa ramossissima, Dichelachne micrantha and Isolepis nodosa) grown in the N poor mine spoil under both ambient (400 μL L -1 ) and elevated (700 μL L -1 ) CO 2 concentrations. Our data showed that biochar addition (1) significantly decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N (P < 0.05); (2) decreased leaf total N and δ 15 N more pronouncedly than those of root; and (3) showed more pronounced effects on improving plant biomass under ambient CO 2 than under elevated CO 2 concentration. Hence, it remained a strong possibility that biochar addition induced the same plant physiological responses as elevated CO 2 in the N-deficient mine spoil. As expected, elevated CO 2 decreased the ability of biochar addition in improving plant growth.

  13. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  14. Artificial versus Natural Reuse of CO2 for DME Production: Are We Any Closer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martín

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work uses a mathematical optimization approach to analyze and compare facilities that either capture carbon dioxide (CO2 artificially or use naturally captured CO2 in the form of lignocellulosic biomass toward the production of the same product, dimethyl ether (DME. In nature, plants capture CO2 via photosynthesis in order to grow. The design of the first process discussed here is based on a superstructure optimization approach in order to select technologies that transform lignocellulosic biomass into DME. Biomass is gasified; next, the raw syngas must be purified using reforming, scrubbing, and carbon capture technologies before it can be used to directly produce DME. Alternatively, CO2 can be captured and used to produce DME via hydrogenation. Hydrogen (H2 is produced by splitting water using solar energy. Facilities based on both photovoltaic (PV solar or concentrated solar power (CSP technologies have been designed; their monthly operation, which is based on solar availability, is determined using a multi-period approach. The current level of technological development gives biomass an advantage as a carbon capture technology, since both water consumption and economic parameters are in its favor. However, due to the area required for growing biomass and the total amount of water consumed (if plant growing is also accounted for, the decision to use biomass is not a straightforward one.

  15. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  16. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-09-01

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel connected dc-dc buck converters without communication. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work represents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving of paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  17. Pre-Combustion Capture of CO2 in IGCC Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    Pre-combustion capture involves reacting a fuel with oxygen or air and/or steam to give mainly a 'synthesis gas (syngas)' or 'fuel gas' composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The carbon monoxide is reacted with steam in a catalytic reactor, called a shift converter, to produce CO2 and more hydrogen. CO2 is then separated, usually by a physical or chemical absorption process, resulting in a hydrogen-rich fuel which can be used in many applications, such as boilers, furnaces, gas turbines, engines and fuel cells. Pre-combustion capture is suitable for use in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants especially since the CO2 partial pressures in the fuel gas are higher than in the flue gas. After the introduction there follows a short discussion of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. This is followed by chapters on the means of CO2 capture by physical and chemical solvents, solid sorbents, and membranes. The results and conclusions of techno-economic studies are introduced followed by a look at some of the pilot and demonstration plants relevant to pre-combustion capture in IGCC plants.

  18. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J.L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior–posterior (AP) and posterior–anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0–1 y, 1–5 y, 5–10 y, and 10–15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels. - Highlights: • The entrance surface air kerma of chest X-ray examinations in pediatric patients was estimated. • The data were analyzed for patients aged up to 15 y, stratified by age. • The doses of LAT examinations were 40% higher than of AP/PA because of kV used. • An increase in kV with a decrease in mAs leads to significant dose reduction

  19. Physiological and molecular alterations in plants exposed to high [CO2] under phosphorus stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Zinta, Gaurav; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Ahmad, Altaf; Jain, Vanita; Janssens, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric [CO2] has increased substantially in recent decades and will continue to do so, whereas the availability of phosphorus (P) is limited and unlikely to increase in the future. P is a non-renewable resource, and it is essential to every form of life. P is a key plant nutrient controlling the responsiveness of photosynthesis to [CO2]. Increases in [CO2] typically results in increased biomass through stimulation of net photosynthesis, and hence enhance the demand for P uptake. However, most soils contain low concentrations of available P. Therefore, low P is one of the major growth-limiting factors for plants in many agricultural and natural ecosystems. The adaptive responses of plants to [CO2] and P availability encompass alterations at morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. In general low P reduces growth, whereas high [CO2] enhances it particularly in C3 plants. Photosynthetic capacity is often enhanced under high [CO2] with sufficient P supply through modulation of enzyme activities involved in carbon fixation such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). However, high [CO2] with low P availability results in enhanced dry matter partitioning towards roots. Alterations in below-ground processes including root morphology, exudation and mycorrhizal association are influenced by [CO2] and P availability. Under high P availability, elevated [CO2] improves the uptake of P from soil. In contrast, under low P availability, high [CO2] mainly improves the efficiency with which plants produce biomass per unit P. At molecular level, the spatio-temporal regulation of genes involved in plant adaptation to low P and high [CO2] has been studied individually in various plant species. Genome-wide expression profiling of high [CO2] grown plants revealed hormonal regulation of biomass accumulation through complex transcriptional networks. Similarly, differential transcriptional regulatory networks are involved in P

  20. Knowledge Co-production at the Research-Practice Interface: Embedded Case Studies from Urban Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Lara A. Roman

    2016-01-01

    Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the...

  1. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D.; Gibson, Clark C.; Evans, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff. PMID:27956644

  2. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  3. Reduction of CO2 emission by INCAM model in Malaysia biomass power plants during the year 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin

    2018-03-01

    As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO 2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO 2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model. Each section emitting CO 2 in the power plant, known as the carbon accounting center (CAC), was measured for its carbon profile (CP) and carbon index (CI). The carbon performance indicator (CPI) included electricity, fuel and water consumption, solid waste and waste-water generation. The carbon emission index (CEI) and carbon emission profile (CEP), based on the total monthly carbon production, were determined across the CPI. Various innovative strategies resulted in a 20%-90% reduction of CO 2 emissions. The implementation of reduction strategies significantly reduced the CO 2 emission levels. Based on the model, utilization of EFB and POME in the facilities could significantly reduce the CO 2 emissions and increase the potential for waste to energy initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 30 CFR 18.29 - Access openings and covers, including unused lead-entrance holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lead-entrance holes. 18.29 Section 18.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... unused lead-entrance holes. (a) Access openings in explosion-proof enclosures will be permitted only... Figure 1 in Appendix II.) (c) Holes in enclosures that are provided for lead entrances but which are not...

  5. Decentralization of health care systems and health outcomes: Evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores; García-Gómez, Pilar

    2017-09-01

    While many countries worldwide are shifting responsibilities for their health systems to local levels of government, there is to date insufficient evidence about the potential impact of these policy reforms. We estimate the impact of decentralization of the health services on infant and neonatal mortality using a natural experiment: the devolution of health care decision making powers to Spanish regions. The devolution was implemented gradually and asymmetrically over a twenty-year period (1981-2002). The order in which the regions were decentralized was driven by political factors and hence can be considered exogenous to health outcomes. In addition, we exploit the dynamic effect of decentralization of health services and allow for heterogeneous effects by the two main types of decentralization implemented across regions: full decentralization (political and fiscal powers) versus political decentralization only. Our difference in differences results based on a panel dataset for the 50 Spanish provinces over the period 1980 to 2010 show that the lasting benefit of decentralization accrues only to regions which enjoy almost full fiscal and political powers and which are also among the richest regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understorey productivity in temperate grassy woodland responds to soil water availability but not to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A; Resco de Dios, Victor; Duursma, Remko A; Velasco, Sabrina; Boer, Matthias M

    2018-06-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, although rising [CO 2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO 2 interactions. We use repeat near-surface digital photography to quantify the effects of water availability and experimentally manipulated elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) on understorey live foliage cover and biomass over three growing seasons in a temperate grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesised that (i) understorey herbaceous productivity is dependent upon soil water availability, and (ii) that eCO 2 will increase productivity, with greatest stimulation occurring under conditions of low water availability. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) determined foliage cover and growth rates over the length of the growing season (August to March), with low VWC (productivity. However, eCO 2 did not increase herbaceous cover and biomass over the duration of the experiment, or mitigate the effects of low water availability on understorey growth rates and cover. Our findings suggest that projected increases in aridity in temperate woodlands are likely to lead to reduced understorey productivity, with little scope for eCO 2 to offset these changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Some theoretical perspectives of co-creation and co-production of value by customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nic S. Terblanche

    2014-05-01

    Motivation for the study: No real attention was paid to the concepts of co-production and co-creation by marketing academics after the initial introduction of the concepts. Only after the year 2000 did co-production and co-creation begin to receive the attention of marketing academics, with a substantial increase in publications over the past few years. Contribution/value-add: The objective of this article was to present an overview of the origin and development of co-creation and co-production in marketing, to draw a distinction between the two concepts and to address the implications of these concepts for various decision areas in marketing.

  8. Co-expression of peppermint geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit enhances monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Woon-Seng; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS.SSU) on production of monoterpene and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) diversities, and plant morphology by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and overexpression in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. We showed that MpGPS.SSU could enhance the production of various monoterpenes such as (-)-limonene, (-)-linalool, (-)-α-pinene/β-pinene or myrcene, in transgenic tobacco by elevating geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPS) activity. In addition, overexpression of MpGPS.SSU in tobacco caused early flowering phenotype and increased shoot branching by elevating contents of GA 3 and cytokinins due to upregulated transcript levels of several plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases 3 (GGPPS3) and GGPPS4. Our method would allow the identification of new monoterpene synthase genes using transient expression in N. benthamiana and the improvement of monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. First assessment on the air CO2 dynamic in the show caves of tropical karst, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc A. Trinh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air, water, and host rock in show caves in a Vietnam’s karst region was monitored and analyzed to identify the ventilation regime and track the cave air CO2 sources. In general, the studied caves are well ventilated. In dynamic – multiple entrance caves, air ventilation is described with the use of U shape model. In static – single entrance cave, air circulation is explained by cold air trap model. Both ventilation models suggest that air is more circulated in winter than in summer. Seasonally, the cave air CO2 increases from early spring to summer. Value in the deepest part of the single-entrance cave is approximately 1,000 ppmv and 8,000 ppmv in early spring and summer, respectively. In multiple-entrance and wet caves, CO2 level is fairly constant all over the show section, increasing from 500 ppmv in early spring to 2,000 ppmv in summer. Data of microclimate, CO2 content, and particularly δ13C show that cave air, particularly in single entrance cave, has higher CO2 concentration during summer due to a stagnation of cave air circulation and an elevated CO2 input from soil and epikarst. The cave air CO2 increase is also observed after intense rainfalls. A factor that increase cave air CO2 in show caves during the festive days could probably be huma n exhaling but the extent of human factor in these studied cave systems should be further investigated. Cave waters including cave pools and streams mediate CO2 level in wet caves. Above all, the atmospheric fraction of CO2 is always dominant (>60% in all cave sections.

  10. Corrosion product balances for the Ringhals PWR plants based on extensive fuel crud and water chemistry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, K.; Wikmark, G.; Bengtsson, B.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion product balance in a PWR plant is of great importance for the fuel performance as well as for the radiation field buildup. This balance is of special concern in connection to steam generator replacement (SGR) and power uprate projects. The Ringhals PWRs are all of Westinghouse design. Two of the plants have performed Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) to I-690 SG tubes and such a replacement is being planned in the third and last unit in 2011. Two of the units are in different phases of power uprate projects. The plants are all on 10-14-months cycles operating with medium to high fuel duty. Water chemistry is controlled by a pH300 in the range ∼7.2 to 7.4 from beginning of cycle to end of cycle (BOC-EOC) in the units with new SGs while kept at a coordinated pH of 7.2 in the one still using I-600. The maximum Li content has recently been increased to about 4.5 to 5 ppm in all units. In order to be able to improve the assessment of corrosion product balances in the plants, comprehensive fuel crud measurements were performed in 2007. Improved integrated reactor water sampling techniques have also been introduced in order to make accurate mass balances possible. The corrosion products covered in the study are the main constituents, Ni, Fe and Cr in the primary circuit Inconel and stainless steel, together with Co. The activated corrosion products, Co-58, Co-60, Cr-51, Fe-59 and Mn-54, are all mainly produced through neutron irradiation of the covered corrosion products. The main results of the corrosion product balances are presented. Observed differences between the plants, indicating significant impact of pH control and SG tube materials, are presented and discussed. The importance of accurate sampling techniques is especially addressed in this paper. (author)

  11. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  12. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with agro-industrial by-products for increased biogas production of existing digesters at wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkaki, A E; Fountoulakis, M; Gypakis, A; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-01-01

    Due to low degradability of dry solids, most of the digesters at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) operate at low loading rates resulting in poor biogas yields. In this study, co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) with olive mill wastewater (OMW), cheese whey (CW) and crude glycerol (CG) was studied in an attempt to improve biogas production of existing digesters at WWTPs. The effect of agro-industrial by-products in biogas production was investigated using a 220L pilot-scale (180L working volume) digester under mesophilic conditions (35°C) with a total feeding volume of 7.5L daily and a 24-day hydraulic retention time. The initial feed was sewage sludge and the bioreactor was operated using this feed for 40days. Each agro-industrial by-product was then added to the feed so that the reactor was fed continuously with 95% sewage sludge and 5% (v/v) of each examined agro-industrial by-product. The experiments showed that a 5% (v/v) addition of OMW, CG or CW to sewage sludge significantly increased biogas production by nearly 220%, 350% and 86% as values of 34.8±3.2L/d, 185.7±15.3L/d and 45.9±3.6L/d respectively, compared to that with sewage sludge alone (375ml daily, 5% v/v in the feed). The average removal of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (d-COD) ranged between 72 and 99% for organic loading rates between 0.9 and 1.5kgVSm -3 d -1 . Reduction in the volatile solids ranged between 25 and 40%. This work suggests that methane can be produced very efficiently by adding a small concentration (5%) of agro-industrial by-products and especially CG in the inlet of digesters treating sewage sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drivers of biomass co-firing in U.S. coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Substantial knowledge has been generated in the U.S. about the resource base for forest and other residue-derived biomass for bioenergy including co-firing in power plants. However, a lack of understanding regarding power plant-level operations and manager perceptions of drivers of biomass co-firing remains. This study gathered information from U.S. power plant...

  15. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  16. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  17. Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively.

  18. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  19. Economic Inequalities and the Level of Decentralization in European Countries: Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laboutková Šárka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This submitted article identifies relations between the degree of decentralization and economic imbalances on the basis of a cluster (exploratory analysis. Two indicators have been chosen for measuring economic inequalities: an indicator of dispersion of regional GDP per capita as representative of the performance imbalances within countries (it measures the economic development gap among regions in European countries; and a multidimensional inequality-adjusted human development index as representative of inequalities in the distribution of wealth in the countries. Decentralization is measured by means of a decentralization index, which contains both quantitative and qualitative components. Although groups of countries characterised by a high degree of decentralization do not necessarily show the lowest degrees of economic imbalances, it is however possible to conclude that the countries in groups with a higher degree of decentralization are among those countries with more favourable values of the economic imbalances indicators monitored. As a part of the research, two clusters of countries were identified which are identical in their degree of decentralization, but differ in the results connected with economic imbalances. The differences are caused by different institutional qualities in the two groups.

  20. Evaluation of Medicinal Plant Hepatotoxicity in Co-cultures of Hepatocytes and Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-parenchymal cells might play an important role in the modulation of xenobiotic metabolism in liver and its pharmacological and toxicological consequences. Therefore, the role of cell-to-cell interactions in herbal induced liver toxicity was investigated in monocultures of cells from the human hepatocyte cell line (HepG2 and in co-cultures of cells from the HepG2 cell line and cells from the human monocyte cell line (THP1. Cells were treated with various concentrations (1–500 µg ml−1 of extracts of Pistacia palaestina, Juglans regia and Quercus ithaburensis for 24 h. Extracts from Cleome droserifolia, a known toxic plant, were taken as positive control. In the co-culture system, toxic effects were observed after exposure to extracts of Pistacia palestina and C. droserifolia. These two extracts significantly reduced by cell viability as measured the MTT test and the LDH assay. Whereas in hepatocyte cultures, only extracts of C. droserifolia were found to affect the cell viability. The production levels of albumin from hepatocytes were not affected by treatment with plant extracts in both culture systems. It seems that the observed reduction in cell viability after exposure to extracts of P. palestina in co-cultures but not in monocultures is a result of monocyte-derived factors. The use of liver cell co-cultures is therefore a useful approach to investigate the influence of intercellular communication on xenobiotic metabolism in liver.

  1. Decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures. A smart panel with collocated piezoelectric actuators and velocity sensors is modeled using a finite element method, and then the size of the model is reduced in the state space using the modal Hankel singular value. The necessary and sufficient conditions of decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback control for the reduced system have been presented. The decentralized and centralized static output feedback matrices can be obtained from solving two linear matrix inequalities. A comparison between centralized control and decentralized control is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness in suppressing vibration of a smart panel. Numerical results show that when the system is subjected to initial displacement or white noise disturbance, the decentralized and centralized controls are both very effective and the control results are very close

  2. [Analysis of the healthcare service decentralization process in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, B D; Coulibaly, S S

    2014-01-01

    The decentralization of healthcare services is becoming increasingly important in strategies of public sector management. This concept is analyzed from various points of view, including legal, economic, political, and sociological. Several typologies have been proposed in the literature to analyze this decentralization process, which can take different forms ranging from simple deconcentration to more elaborate devolution. In some instances, decentralization can be analyzed by the degree of autonomy given to local authorities. This article applies these typologies to analyze the healthcare system decentralization process in Cote d'Ivoire. Special attention is paid to the new forms of community healthcare organizations. These decentralized structures enjoy a kind of autonomy, with characteristics closer to those of devolution. The model might serve as an example for population involvement in defining and managing healthcare problems in Cote d'Ivoire. We end with proposals for the improvement of the process.

  3. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  4. Stem juice production of the C4 sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is enhanced by growth at double-ambient CO2 and high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Joseph C V; Allen, Leon H

    2009-07-15

    Two cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum cv. CP73-1547 and CP88-1508) were grown for 3 months in paired-companion, temperature-gradient, sunlit greenhouses under daytime [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (double ambient) micromol mol(-1) and at temperatures of 1.5 degrees C (near ambient) and 6.0 degrees C higher than outside ambient temperature. Leaf area and biomass, stem biomass and juice and CO2 exchange rate (CER) and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) of fully developed leaves were measured at harvest. On a main stem basis, leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume were increased by growth at doubled [CO2] or high temperature. Such increases were even greater under combination of doubled [CO2]/high temperature. Plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination averaged 50%, 26%, 84% and 124% greater in leaf area, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight and stem juice volume, respectively, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. In addition, plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination were 2-3-fold higher in stem soluble solids than those at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient temperature combination. Although midday CER of fully developed leaves was not affected by doubled [CO2] or high temperature, plants grown at doubled [CO2] were 41-43% less in leaf stomatal conductance and 69-79% greater in leaf water-use efficiency, compared with plants grown at ambient [CO2]. Activity of PEPC was down-regulated 23-32% at doubled [CO2], while high temperature did not have a significant impact on this enzyme. Activity of Rubisco was not affected by growth at doubled [CO2], but was reduced 15-28% at high temperature. The increases in stem juice production and stem juice soluble solids concentration for sugarcane grown at doubled [CO2] or high temperature, or at doubled [CO2]/high temperature combination, were partially

  5. Decentralized Gauss-Newton method for nonlinear least squares on wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanchao; Ling, Qing; Han, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a decentralized approach of Gauss-Newton (GN) method for nonlinear least squares (NLLS) on wide area network (WAN). In a multi-agent system, a centralized GN for NLLS requires the global GN Hessian matrix available at a central computing unit, which may incur large communication overhead. In the proposed decentralized alternative, each agent only needs local GN Hessian matrix to update iterates with the cooperation of neighbors. The detail formulation of decentralized NLLS on WAN is given, and the iteration at each agent is defined. The convergence property of the decentralized approach is analyzed, and numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. A Review of Characteristics and Experiences of Decentralization of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinjuma, Juma Saidi; Kadir, Suhaida bte Abd.; Hamzah, Azimi; Basri, Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes decentralization of education with reference to some countries around the world. We consider discussion on decentralization to be complex, critical and broad question in the contemporary education planning, administration and politics of education reforms. Even though the debate on and implementation of decentralization…

  7. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Duhwan; Hwang, Jinsang; Han, Soonhung; Seki, Hiroshi; Yang, Jeongsam

    2008-01-01

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented

  8. Sharing product data of nuclear power plants across their lifecycles by utilizing a neutral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Duhwan [WIG Craft Research Division, Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute, KORDI, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dhmun@moeri.re.kr; Hwang, Jinsang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mars@icad.kaist.ac.kr; Han, Soonhung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shhan@kaist.ac.kr; Seki, Hiroshi [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)], E-mail: hiroshi.seki.mf@hitachi.com; Yang, Jeongsam [Industrial and Information Systems Engineering, Ajou University (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jyang@ajou.ac.kr

    2008-02-15

    Many public and private Korean organizations are involved during the lifecycle of a domestic nuclear power plant. Korea Plant Engineering Co. (KOPEC) participates in the design stage, Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power (KHNP) operates and manages all nuclear power plants in Korea, Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction Co. manufactures the main equipment, and a construction company constructs the plant. Even though each organization has its own digital data management system and obtains a certain level of automation, data sharing among organizations is poor. KHNP obtains drawings and technical specifications from KOPEC in the form of paper. This results in manual re-work of definitions, and errors can potentially occur in the process. In order to establish an information bridge between design and operation and maintenance (O and M) phases, a generic product model (GPM), a data model from Hitachi, is extended for constructing a neutral data warehouse and the Korean Nuclear Power Plant Information Sharing System (KNPISS) is implemented.

  9. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  10. The Politics of Fiscal Decentralization Revisited: a Typology and Comparative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P. Gordin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the practice of fiscal decentralization is worldwide and its implementation and effects vary from country to country, its political significance has been often neglected, or worse, treated as implicit to decentralization. This study considers the sources of politicization of fiscal decentralization, focusing on the determination and manipulation of intergovernmental transfers. It develops a new index of fiscal politicization and proposes an explanatory typology that takes into account subnational transfer dependency and the extent to which transfers are politically determined. This analysis renders a conceptual tool that captures nuanced facts about the intergovernmental level of conflict to a larger extent than conventional measures of fiscal decentralization do. We found that the effects of fiscal dependency are intertwined with political asymmetries derived from legislative overrepresentation of territorial units and intergovernmental bargaining strategies.

  11. Tensions and displacements calculation produced by a welding process in a nuclear power plant steam generator entrance by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the tensions state and the displacements field of thermal origin, generated by a caloric source during the welding process. All the surfaces in contact with heavy water in a PHWR plant (Reactor of Pressurized Heavy Water) must be of austenitic stainless steel according to standard DIN 1.4550 or must be internally covered with this material. In the case of the primary loop components, -as the steam generator-, the walls of ferritic steel are covered with an austenitic stainless steel cladding. This cladding is applied by the welding process of immersed arc. Special attention is given during calculation, on the deformation produced in the holes of the bolts that link the entrance with the external lead. The distribution of nodal temperatures, as a function of time, is determined by a two-dimensional finite elements model during the welding process and the tension state and the displacement, by means of computational programs, were afterwards calculated. (Author)

  12. Regional Development and Decentralization – two Options to Overcome Lack of Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka JURLINA ALIBEGOVIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization can be generally described as a process in which selected functions are assigned to sub-national units. The literature identifies a number of positive consequences of decentralization which all lead to a better satisfaction of citizens’ needs for public services. Although the decentralization process in Croatia started more than ten years ago, it has not yet been completed. While leading to a new allocation of authorities and responsibilities to local government units, the level of fiscal decentralization remained lower than in the EU countries.In this paper we analyze the fiscal capacity of local government units to provide an insight into the main problems of decentralization in Croatia. We show that most local government units have very low fiscal capacity, which is insufficient for financing basic public functions with their own resources. The paper presents the results of a survey relating to the decentralization process conducted among local councilors at the regional level in Croatia. We explore how local councilors at the regional level evaluate different goals of decentralization. With the lack of fiscal capacity in mind, we identify two possible solutions for an optimal provision of public functions. The first one is the level of political will for a joint provision of public functions by different local units, and the second one is a change in the territorial organization of the country. We measure the difference in the attitudes toward these questions across counties.

  13. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  14. Decentralization in Zambia: resource allocation and district performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas; Chitah, Mukosha Bona; Bowser, Diana

    2003-12-01

    Zambia implemented an ambitious process of health sector decentralization in the mid 1990s. This article presents an assessment of the degree of decentralization, called 'decision space', that was allowed to districts in Zambia, and an analysis of data on districts available at the national level to assess allocation choices made by local authorities and some indicators of the performance of the health systems under decentralization. The Zambian officials in health districts had a moderate range of choice over expenditures, user fees, contracting, targeting and governance. Their choices were quite limited over salaries and allowances and they did not have control over additional major sources of revenue, like local taxes. The study found that the formula for allocation of government funding which was based on population size and hospital beds resulted in relatively equal per capita expenditures among districts. Decentralization allowed the districts to make decisions on internal allocation of resources and on user fee levels and expenditures. General guidelines for the allocation of resources established a maximum and minimum percentage to be allocated to district offices, hospitals, health centres and communities. Districts tended to exceed the maximum for district offices, but the large urban districts and those without public district hospitals were not even reaching the minimum for hospital allocations. Wealthier and urban districts were more successful in raising revenue through user fees, although the proportion of total expenditures that came from user fees was low. An analysis of available indicators of performance, such as the utilization of health services, immunization coverage and family planning activities, found little variation during the period 1995-98 except for a decline in immunization coverage, which may have also been affected by changes in donor funding. These findings suggest that decentralization may not have had either a positive or

  15. Techno-economic assessment of membrane assisted fluidized bed reactors for pure H_2 production with CO_2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallina, V.; Pandolfo, D.; Battistella, A.; Romano, M.C.; Van Sint Annaland, M.; Gallucci, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Membrane reactors improve the overall efficiency of H_2 production up to 20%. • Respect to conventional reforming, the H_2 yield increases from 12% to 20%. • The COH is reduced of at least 220% using membrane reactors. • FBMR capture 72% of CO_2 with a specific cost of 8 eur/tonn_C_O_2_. • MA-CLR can reach 90% of CO_2 avoided with same cost of FTR. - Abstract: This paper addresses the techno-economic assessment of two membrane-based technologies for H_2 production from natural gas, fully integrated with CO_2 capture. In the first configuration, a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) is integrated in the H_2 plant: the natural gas reacts with steam in the catalytic bed and H_2 is simultaneously separated using Pd-based membranes, and the heat of reaction is provided to the system by feeding air as reactive sweep gas in part of the membranes and by burning part of the permeated H_2 (in order to avoid CO_2 emissions for heat supply). In the second system, named membrane assisted chemical looping reforming (MA-CLR), natural gas is converted in the fuel rector by reaction with steam and an oxygen carrier (chemical looping reforming), and the produced H_2 permeates through the membranes. The oxygen carrier is re-oxidized in a separate air reactor with air, which also provides the heat required for the endothermic reactions in the fuel reactor. The plants are optimized by varying the operating conditions of the reactors such as temperature, pressures (both at feed and permeate side), steam-to-carbon ratio and the heat recovery configuration. The plant design is carried out using Aspen Simulation, while the novel reactor concepts have been designed and their performance have been studied with a dedicated phenomenological model in Matlab. Both configurations have been designed and compared with reference technologies for H_2 production based on conventional fired tubular reforming (FTR) with and without CO_2 capture. The results of the analysis show

  16. Decentralized control: An overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-98 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200750802; GA MŠk(CZ) LA 282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * large-scale systems * decomposition Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2008

  17. Economic analysis of centralized vs. decentralized electronic data capture in multi-center clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Anita; Nahm, Meredith; Barnett, M Edwina; Conde, Jose G; Dent, Andrew; Fadiel, Ahmed; Perry, Theresa; Tolk, Chris; Tcheng, James E; Eisenstein, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    New data management models are emerging in multi-center clinical studies. We evaluated the incremental costs associated with decentralized vs. centralized models. We developed clinical research network economic models to evaluate three data management models: centralized, decentralized with local software, and decentralized with shared database. Descriptive information from three clinical research studies served as inputs for these models. The primary outcome was total data management costs. Secondary outcomes included: data management costs for sites, local data centers, and central coordinating centers. Both decentralized models were more costly than the centralized model for each clinical research study: the decentralized with local software model was the most expensive. Decreasing the number of local data centers and case book pages reduced cost differentials between models. Decentralized vs. centralized data management in multi-center clinical research studies is associated with increases in data management costs.

  18. Why Do Some Estuaries Close: A Model of Estuary Entrance Morphodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, S. L.; Kennedy, D. M.; Rutherfurd, I.

    2014-12-01

    Intermittently Closed/Open Coastal Lakes/Lagoons (ICOLLs) are a form of wave-dominated, microtidal estuary that experience periodic closure in times of low river flow. ICOLL entrance morphodynamics are complex due to the interaction between wave, tidal and fluvial processes. Managers invest substantial funds to artificially open ICOLLs as they flood surrounding property and infrastructure, and have poor water quality. Existing studies examine broad scale processes but do not identify the main drivers of entrance condition. In this research, the changes in entrance geomorphology were surveyed before and after artificial entrance openings in three ICOLLs in Victoria, Australia. Changes in morphology were related to continuous measures of sediment volume, water level, tide and wave energy. A six-stage quantitative phase model of entrance geomorphology and hydrodynamics is presented to illustrate the spatio-temporal variability in ICOLL entrance morphodynamics. Phases include: breakout; channel expansion with rapid outflow; open with tidal exchange; initial berm rebuilding with tidal attenuation; partial berm recovery with rising water levels; closed with perched water levels. Entrance breakout initiates incision of a pilot channel to the ocean, whereby basin water levels then decline and channel expansion as the headcut migrates landwards. Peak outflow velocities of 5 m/s-3 were recorded and channel dimensions increased over 6 hrs to 3.5 m deep and 140 m wide. When tidal, a clear semi-diurnal signal is superimposed upon an otherwise stable water level. Deep-water wave energy was transferred 1.8 km upstream of the rivermouth with bores present in the basin. Berm rebuilding occurred by littoral drift and cross-shore transport once outflow ceased and microscale bedform features, particularly antidunes, contributed to sediment progradation. Phase duration is dependant on how high the estuary was perched above mean sea level, tidal prism extent, and onshore sediment supply

  19. Strategies for enhancing the co-removal of mercury in FGD-scrubbers of power plants. Operating parameters and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, Jan; Koeser, Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Chair of Environmental Technology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Centre of Engineering Services

    2012-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste fuels, coals with variable mercury content and lower regulatory emission limits are drivers for the optimisation of the co-removal of mercury in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers. The paper explains some new features of the system performance of FGD scrubbers for the co-removal of mercury in coal-fired power plants. Results on their efficiency under standardised laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of these measures on the quality of the FGD by-product gypsum will be covered as well. (orig.)

  20. Amplification of heat extremes by plant CO2 physiological forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Christopher B; Poulsen, Christopher J; Mankin, Justin S

    2018-03-15

    Plants influence extreme heat events by regulating land-atmosphere water and energy exchanges. The contribution of plants to changes in future heat extremes will depend on the responses of vegetation growth and physiology to the direct and indirect effects of elevated CO 2 . Here we use a suite of earth system models to disentangle the radiative versus vegetation effects of elevated CO 2 on heat wave characteristics. Vegetation responses to a quadrupling of CO 2 increase summer heat wave occurrence by 20 days or more-30-50% of the radiative response alone-across tropical and mid-to-high latitude forests. These increases are caused by CO 2 physiological forcing, which diminishes transpiration and its associated cooling effect, and reduces clouds and precipitation. In contrast to recent suggestions, our results indicate CO 2 -driven vegetation changes enhance future heat wave frequency and intensity in most vegetated regions despite transpiration-driven soil moisture savings and increases in aboveground biomass from CO 2 fertilization.

  1. Reliable Decentralized Control of Fuzzy Discrete-Event Systems and a Test Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuchun; Dziong, Zbigniew

    2013-02-01

    A framework for decentralized control of fuzzy discrete-event systems (FDESs) has been recently presented to guarantee the achievement of a given specification under the joint control of all local fuzzy supervisors. As a continuation, this paper addresses the reliable decentralized control of FDESs in face of possible failures of some local fuzzy supervisors. Roughly speaking, for an FDES equipped with n local fuzzy supervisors, a decentralized supervisor is called k-reliable (1 ≤ k ≤ n) provided that the control performance will not be degraded even when n - k local fuzzy supervisors fail. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs is proposed by introducing the notions of M̃uc-controllability and k-reliable coobservability of fuzzy language. In particular, a polynomial-time algorithm to test the k-reliable coobservability is developed by a constructive methodology, which indicates that the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs can be checked with a polynomial complexity.

  2. Decentralized Observer with a Consensus Filter for Distributed Discrete-Time Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Mandic, Milan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized observer with a consensus filter for the state observation of a discrete-time linear distributed systems. In this setup, each agent in the distributed system has an observer with a model of the plant that utilizes the set of locally available measurements, which may not make the full plant state detectable. This lack of detectability is overcome by utilizing a consensus filter that blends the state estimate of each agent with its neighbors' estimates. We assume that the communication graph is connected for all times as well as the sensing graph. It is proven that the state estimates of the proposed observer asymptotically converge to the actual plant states under arbitrarily changing, but connected, communication and sensing topologies. As a byproduct of this research, we also obtained a result on the location of eigenvalues, the spectrum, of the Laplacian for a family of graphs with self-loops.

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Entrance Region of Rectangular Microchannels in the Slip Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niya Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a three-dimensional laminar flow in the entrance region of rectangular microchannels has been investigated in this paper. When the hydrodynamic development length is the same magnitude as the microchannel length, entrance effects have to be taken into account, especially in relatively short ducts. Simultaneously, there are a variety of non-continuum or rarefaction effects, such as velocity slip and temperature jump. The available data in the literature appearing on this issue is quite limited, the available study is the semi-theoretical approximate model to predict pressure drop of developing slip flow in rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios. In this paper, we apply the lattice Boltzmann equation method (LBE to investigate the developing slip flow through a rectangular microchannel. The effects of the Reynolds number (1 < Re < 1000, channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1, and Knudsen number (0.001 < Kn < 0.1 on the dimensionless hydrodynamic entrance length, and the apparent friction factor, and Reynolds number product, are examined in detail. The numerical solution of LBM can recover excellent agreement with the available data in the literature, which proves its accuracy in capturing fundamental fluid characteristics in the slip-flow regime.

  4. Community Development in the context of the power decentralization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Berezinskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to define opportunities of development of the community in the implementation of the power decentralization reform in Ukraine. It has been shown that the principle of decentralization provides for territorial and political unity of the state by a legal delimitation of powers between central government agencies and regional public authorities (or local authorities. It makes it clear that the issue of power decentralization in Ukraine has a constitutional and legal framework, as the Main Law states that the power system is based on a combination of centralization and decentralization. The requirement of power decentralization has been constitutionally justified. It has been revealed that according to the State Regional Development Strategy, the following priorities of the state regional policy are: increase of the competitiveness of regions; territorial socio-economic integration and spatial development; effective governance in regional development. It has been disclosed that in Ukraine the deepening of the decentralization is aimed at the strengthening of the role of local self-government, empowerment of the representative authorities of local communities to get more authority for managing local affairs, deprivation of local power authorities for the preparation and fulfilment of budgets in regions, the transfer of significant powers and financial resources from government to local self-governmental authorities. It has been proved that decentralization contributes to the democratization of the local government and the development of local community as the ultimate goals of the reform of the power decentralization are the creation and maintenance of good living environment for citizens. This reform should correspond to interests of citizens in all spheres of life, and it must support on the relevant territory. In this regard, series of legislative acts were adopted («On a voluntary association of local communities»,

  5. Modulating secretory pathway pH by proton channel co-expression can increase recombinant protein stability in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Philippe V; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Couture, Manon M-J; Vézina, Louis-Philippe; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique; Sainsbury, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Eukaryotic expression systems are used for the production of complex secreted proteins. However, recombinant proteins face considerable biochemical challenges along the secretory pathway, including proteolysis and pH variation between organelles. As the use of synthetic biology matures into solutions for protein production, various host-cell engineering approaches are being developed to ameliorate host-cell factors that can limit recombinant protein quality and yield. We report the potential of the influenza M2 ion channel as a novel tool to neutralize the pH in acidic subcellular compartments. Using transient expression in the plant host, Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that ion channel expression can significantly raise pH in the Golgi apparatus and that this can have a strong stabilizing effect on a fusion protein separated by an acid-susceptible linker peptide. We exemplify the utility of this effect in recombinant protein production using influenza hemagglutinin subtypes differentially stable at low pH; the expression of hemagglutinins prone to conformational change in mildly acidic conditions is considerably enhanced by M2 co-expression. The co-expression of a heterologous ion channel to stabilize acid-labile proteins and peptides represents a novel approach to increasing the yield and quality of secreted recombinant proteins in plants and, possibly, in other eukaryotic expression hosts. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Decentralization and Distribution Primary Education Access in Indonesia 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Benita, Novinaz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines decentralisation and distribution of access to primary school in Indonesia. Data come from Indonesia National Socio Economic Survey 2014, and statistic reports from Ministry of education, Ministry Of Finance, and General Election Commision. Descriptive statistic is used to describe spatial distribution of decentralization in primary education system and distribution of primary education access. The results show there are districts disparities in decentralization of primary...

  7. Emergent Semantics Interoperability in Large-Scale Decentralized Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Peer-to-peer systems are evolving with new information-system architectures, leading to the idea that the principles of decentralization and self-organization will offer new approaches in informatics, especially for systems that scale with the number of users or for which central authorities do not prevail. This book describes a new way of building global agreements (semantic interoperability) based only on decentralized, self-organizing interactions.

  8. A novel approach for treatment of CO{sub 2} from fossil fired power plants, Part A: The integrated systems ITRPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minutillo, M.; Perna, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Cassino, Via G. di Biasio, 43, 03043 Cassino, Frosinone (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The environmental issues, due to the global warming caused by the rising concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, require new strategies aimed to increase power plants efficiencies and to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This two-paper work focuses on a different approach for capture and reduction of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fired power plant, with respect to conventional post-combustion technologies. This approach consists of flue gases utilization as co-reactants in a catalytic process, the tri-reforming process, to generate a synthesis gas suitable in chemical and energy industries (methanol, DME, etc.). In fact, the further conversion of syngas to a transportation fuel, such as methanol, is an attractive solution to introduce near zero-emission technologies (i.e. fuel cells) in vehicular applications. In this Part A, integrated systems for co-generation of electrical power and synthesis gas useful for methanol production have been defined and their performance has been investigated considering different flue gases compositions. In Part B, in order to verify the environmental advantages and energy suitability of these systems, their comparison with conventional technology for methanol production is carried out. The integrated systems (ITRPP, Integrated Tri-Reforming Power Plant) consist of a power island, based on a thermal power plant, and a methane tri-reforming island in which the power plants' exhausts react with methane to produce a synthesis gas used for methanol synthesis. As power island, a steam turbine power plant fuelled with coal and a gas turbine combined cycle fuelled with natural gas have been considered. The energy and environmental analysis of ITRPP systems (ITRPP-SC and ITRPP-CC) has been carried out by using thermochemical and thermodynamic models which have allowed to calculate the syngas composition, to define the energy and mass balances and to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions for each ITRPP configuration. The

  9. CO2 Capture by Cold Membrane Operation with Actual Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Trapti [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Kulkarni, Sudhir [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Hasse, David [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Augustine, Alex [American Air Liquide Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-07-28

    The main objective of the project was to develop a post-combustion CO2 capture process based on the hybrid cold temperature membrane operation. The CO2 in the flue gas from coal fired power plant is pre-concentrated to >60% CO2 in the first stage membrane operation followed by further liquefaction of permeate stream to achieve >99% CO2 purity. The aim of the project was based on DOE program goal of 90% CO2 capture with >95% CO2 purity from Pulverized Coal (PC) fired power plants with $40/tonne of carbon capture cost by 2025. The project moves the technology from TRL 4 to TRL 5. The project involved optimization of Air Liquide commercial 12” PI-1 bundle to improve the bundle productivity by >30% compared to the previous baseline (DE-FE0004278) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and bundle testing with synthetic flue gas at 0.1 MWe bench scale skid located at Delaware Research and Technology Center (DRTC). In parallel, the next generation polyimide based novel PI-2 membrane was developed with 10 times CO2 permeance compared to the commercial PI-1 membrane. The novel PI-2 membrane was scaled from mini-permeator to 1” permeator and 1” bundle for testing. Bundle development was conducted with a Development Spin Unit (DSU) installed at MEDAL. Air Liquide’s cold membrane technology was demonstrated with real coal fired flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) with a 0.3 MWe field-test unit (FTU). The FTU was designed to incorporate testing of two PI-1 commercial membrane bundles (12” or 6” diameter) in parallel or series. A slip stream was sent to the next generation PI-2 membrane for testing with real flue gas. The system exceeded performance targets with stable PI-1 membrane operation for over 500 hours of single bundle, steady state testing. The 12” PI-1 bundle exceeded the productivity target by achieving ~600 Nm3/hr, where the target was set at ~455