Sample records for entire swedish continental

  1. Coping and back problems: analysis of multiple data sources on an entire cross-sectional cohort of Swedish military recruits

    Volinn Ernest


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the literature now stands, a bewildering number and variety of biological, psychological and social factors are, apparently, implicated in back problems. However, if and how these have a direct influence on back problems is not clear. Obesity, for example, has in many studies been shown to be associated with back problems but there is no evidence for a causal link. This could be explained by a dearth of suitably designed studies but also because obesity may be but a proxy for some other, truly explanatory variable. Coping has been linked with, particularly, persistent back problems as well as with health in general. The question is, whether coping could be the explanatory link between, for example, these two variables. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the Swedish Army, consisting of the entire cohort of males (N = 48,502 summoned in 1998 to serve in the military. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between five independent variables and two dependent variables ("outcome variables". The independent variables were two anthropomorphic variables (height and body mass index, two psychological variables (intellectual capacity and coping in relation to stress, and one social variable (type of education. The two outcome variables were back problems and ill health. In particular, we wanted to determine whether controlling for coping would affect the associations between the other four independent variables and the two outcome variables. Methods Data for the analysis come from a battery of standardized examinations, including medical examinations, a test of intellectual capacity, and a test of coping in relation to stress. Each of these examinations was conducted independently of the others. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the outcome variables of back problems and ill health. Results The associations between height, body mass index, intellectual capacity, type of

  2. Inventory and burial fluxes of Black Carbon in the Swedish continental shelf sediments

    Sánchez-García, L.; Cato, I.; Gustafsson, Ö.


    Highly condensed black carbon (BC) particles, mainly derived from incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel, are involved in several important processes in the biogeosphere [1], including sedimentary carbon burial, sequestration of organic pollutants in soils and sediments, affecting Earth's radiative heat balance and even human respiratory health. BC is commonly found to constitute several to 20% of total sedimentary carbon, and thus plays an important but poorly constrained role in the global biogeospheric carbon cycle. Sequestration of biogenic carbon as BC is a direct sink of the element from the rapidly cycling atmosphere-biosphere reservoirs, whereas burial of petrogenic/fossil BC is simply a conversion of one form of geological carbon to another [2]. Considerable emphasis has been made on the relevant role this recalcitrant form of organic matter (OM) may play on the global C cycle and yet large uncertainty exists around BC detection and quantification. This work seeks to provide a large-scale estimate of the reservoir and burial sink flux of BC in sediments from the extensive Swedish continental shelf (SCS), as a first approach to global inventories. To this end, a total of 120 sediment samples were collected from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) along the ?2000 km SCS stretch. The most recalcitrant fraction of the sedimentary OM was isolated and determined by means of a commonly applied method in biogeochemical studies of soils and sediments: chemo-thermal oxidation at 375˚ C in air (CTO-375). The obtained BC concentration was used to estimate the inventory and burial flux of BC in the SCS surface sediments, following [3], which takes into account key geophysical and geochemical properties of the nine distinct sedimentary regimes of the SCS that was separately assessed. Globally representative values of the sediment properties (e.g. density of dried sediments, bioturbated mixing depth, sedimentation rate or porosity over the mixed depth) were

  3. Basement deformation during continental collision: a modelling example of the Swedish central Caledonides.

    Vachon, Rémi; Hieronymus, Christoph; Almqvist, Bjarne


    Recent geophysical investigations (Hedin et al., 2012; Yan et al., 2015; Juhlin et al., 2015), carried out as part of the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, provide an improved picture of the upper crust over the central Swedish Caledonides. The geometry and lithology of the basal detachment (surface to 1-2 km depth) are relatively well constrained by various observations (Seismic reflection, magneto-telluric, field observations ...), whereas deeper structures (1-2 km depth) observed in the Precambrian autochthonous basement are more ambiguous and may be interpreted as possible deformation zones or dolerite intrusions (dykes). In this study we interpret these structures as shear zones formed during a pre- or syn-Caledonian convergence event, at the boundaries of strong layers (e.g.: dolerites dykes) intruding the basement. In this collisional context, shear zones would work as thrust sheets accommodating the shortening, while the dolerite intrusions would rotate but remain mostly undeformed. We use a two-dimensional thermal-mechanical model to test this hypothesis. Our model is set up as follows: a 200km x 30km rectangular box composed of a sedimentary cover (5-7km thick) and a weak alum shale layer (100-500 m thick), overlying a continental basement intruded by vertical dolerite dykes and horizontal sills. Shortening velocities are applied on the right and bottom boundaries while the left side is fixed and the top boundary defined as a free surface. We use a visco-elasto-plastic rheology to characterize the three layers that compose the model and use consistent thermal parameters to define the temperature field. The governing equations of momentum, energy, and mass conservation are solved using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software. The three main objectives of this study are to: 1) Analyze the localization and distribution of deformation in the basement and in the overlying layers. 2) Quantify the amount of shortening

  4. Root zone of a continental rift: the Neoproterozoic Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex, northern Swedish Caledonides

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf


    Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes i...

  5. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes


    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This d...

  6. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Lisa Öberg


    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  7. Entire functions

    Markushevich, A I


    Entire Functions focuses on complex numbers and the algebraic operations on them and the basic principles of mathematical analysis.The book first elaborates on the concept of an entire function, including the natural generalization of the concept of a polynomial and power series. The text then takes a look at the maximum absolute value and the order of an entire function, as well as calculations for the coefficients of power series representing a given function, use of integrals, and complex numbers. The publication elaborates on the zeros of an entire function and the fundamen

  8. NR 512 Entire Class



     NR 512 Entire Class   Click Link Below To Buy: Or Visit   NR512 Week 1 Discussion Latest 2017 Integration of Nursing Informatics Skills and Competencies (graded) • Reflect on your own practice. Discuss how informatics is used in your practice. What is your primary area where you would use informatics? NR512 Week 2 Discussion Latest 2017 Wisdom Versus Judgment (graded) How does the conc...

  9. The Swedish Energy Market 2005



    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  10. Swedish Disarmament Policy


    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  11. The Swedish Model

    Kokko, Ari


    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...

  12. Swedish Government Minister at CERN


    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  13. Swedish views on selenium.

    Bruce, A


    For a long time selenium was known only for its toxic characteristics. During the last few decades selenium deficiency has been recognized as an important agricultural problem in Sweden. On average, grains and pastures only contain one tenth of the amount of selenium considered necessary to avoid symptoms of deficiency. However, the incidence of muscle degeneration among the animals has been low, probably due to imported animal feed. Since 1980 selenium has been added to animal feed, but only minor changes in the selenium content of Swedish food stuffs have been recorded. Some studies have shown that the average Swedish dietary intake of selenium is 10-70 micrograms/day. The lowest levels were found in vegan diets, based on locally-grown products. Swedish studies have found depressed glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in patients with various skin disorders, including acne; myotonic dystrophy and rheumatic arthritis. Clinical trials with selenium supplementation have given positive results in some of these disorders as well as in some patients with disabling muscular and joint pains. Today there is a large sale of selenium tablets sometimes with additional vitamin E. The marketing of these tablets, however, is often based on unsubstantiated claims.

  14. Convergence of Infinite Composition of Entire Functions

    Kojima, Shota


    The purpose of the present article is to obtain the condition that the function defined by infinite composition of entire functions becomes an entire function. Moreover, as an example of such functions, we study a function called Poincare function.

  15. On a Class of Prime Entire Functions

    Kuldeep Singh CHARAK; Ilpo LAINE


    In this note it is proved that entire functions of the form Fa(z) = H(z)-aα(z),where H and α are entire functions, with α having at least one zero, H' and α' having no common zeros and T(r, α) = S(T, H), are prime in entire sense for most values of α. The class of these functions is seen to contain examples of both periodic and non-periodic prime entire functions found by Noda,Qiao, Urabe and by Singh and Charak. Another result due to Singh and Charak will be improved as well.

  16. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    Andersson, Jonas E


    At the end of May 2013, Swedish suburbs became breaking news around the world with nocturnal newsflashes displaying burning car wrecks and aggressive, dark figures nearby – les banlieues Suédoises étaient sur la barricade! During two intense weeks, the car burnings spread to other suburbs around...... by the municipal real estate companies. This scholarly essay unravels the events that took place in the Swedish suburbia during two violent weeks in May 2013. In addition, it analyses the Swedish approach to coming to terms with suburban problems, without resorting to a French presidential high-pressure water...

  17. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Rydberg, J.


    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  18. Hamiltonian constants for several new entire solutions


    Using the Hamiltonian identities and the corresponding Hamilto- nian constants for entire solutions of elliptic partial differential equations, we investigate several new entire solutions whose existence were shown recently, and show interesting properties of the solutions such as formulas for contact angles at infinity of concentration curves.

  19. Continental Divide Trail

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  20. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course



      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy:   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  1. Entire functions sharing one small function

    LI Yun-tong; CAO Yao


    The uniqueness problem of entire functions sharing one small function was studied. By Picard's Theorem, we proved that for two transcendental entire functions f (z) and g(z), a positive integer n≥9, and a(z) (not identically eaqual to zero) being a common small function related to f (z) and g(z), if f n(z)(f(z)-1)f'(z) and gn(z)(g'z)-1)g'(z) share a(z) CM, where CM is counting multiplicity, then g(z)≡f (z). This is an extended version of Fang and Hong's theorem [ Fang ML, Hong W, A unicity theorem for entire functions concerning differential polynomials, Journal of Indian Pure Applied Mathematics, 2001, 32 (9): 1343-1348].

  2. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei


    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  3. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Pelle G. Lindqvist


    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  4. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  5. An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    Bardy, Gust H.; Smith, Warren M.; Hood, Margaret A.; Crozier, Ian G.; Melton, Iain C.; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic; Park, Robert E.; Wright, David J.; Connelly, Derek T.; Fynn, Simon P.; Murgatroyd, Francis D.; Sperzel, Johannes; Neuzner, Joerg; Spitzer, Stefan G.; Ardashev, Andrey V.; Oduro, Amo; Boersma, Lucas; Maass, Alexander H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Wilde, Arthur A.; van Dessel, Pascal F.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Barr, Craig S.; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo; Grace, Andrew A.


    BACKGROUND Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS First, we conducted tw

  6. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    G.H. Bardy (Gust); W.M. Smith (Warren); A.M. Hood (Margaret); I.G. Crozier (Ian); I.C. Melton (Iain Craig); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); E. Park (Robert); D.J. Wright (David Justin); D.T. Connelly (Derek); S.P. Fynn (Simon Patrick); F.D. Murgatroyd (Francis); J. Sperzel (Johannes); J. Neuzner (Jörg); S.G. Spitzer (Stefan); A.V. Ardashev (Andrey); A. Oduro (Amo); L. Boersma (Lucas); A.H. Maass (Alexander); I.C. van Gelder (Isabelle); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); P.F.H.M. van Pascal; R.E. Knops (Reinoud); C.S. Barr (Craig); P. Lupo (Pierpaolo); R. Cappato (Riccardo); A.A. Grace (Andrew)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS: First, w

  7. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    G.H. Bardy (Gust); W.M. Smith (Warren); A.M. Hood (Margaret); I.G. Crozier (Ian); I.C. Melton (Iain Craig); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); E. Park (Robert); D.J. Wright (David Justin); D.T. Connelly (Derek); S.P. Fynn (Simon Patrick); F.D. Murgatroyd (Francis); J. Sperzel (Johannes); J. Neuzner (Jörg); S.G. Spitzer (Stefan); A.V. Ardashev (Andrey); A. Oduro (Amo); L. Boersma (Lucas); A.H. Maass (Alexander); I.C. van Gelder (Isabelle); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); P.F.H.M. van Pascal; R.E. Knops (Reinoud); C.S. Barr (Craig); P. Lupo (Pierpaolo); R. Cappato (Riccardo); A.A. Grace (Andrew)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS: First,

  8. An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    Bardy, Gust H.; Smith, Warren M.; Hood, Margaret A.; Crozier, Ian G.; Melton, Iain C.; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic; Park, Robert E.; Wright, David J.; Connelly, Derek T.; Fynn, Simon P.; Murgatroyd, Francis D.; Sperzel, Johannes; Neuzner, Joerg; Spitzer, Stefan G.; Ardashev, Andrey V.; Oduro, Amo; Boersma, Lucas; Maass, Alexander H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Wilde, Arthur A.; van Dessel, Pascal F.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Barr, Craig S.; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo; Grace, Andrew A.


    BACKGROUND Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS First, we conducted

  9. Zeros of entire functions of finite order

    Supper Raphaële


    Full Text Available Given , , let be the set of all entire functions , with , for which there exists some constant such that . It is shown that the zero set of a function of satisfies and that the union of the zero sets of two functions of is not necessarily the zero set of a function of . Some uniqueness results of Carlson's type are also obtained.

  10. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang


    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$

  11. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang


    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$


    Lin Xiuqing; Lin Weichuan


    We deal with the problem of entire functions sharing one value weakly. More- over, we improve and generalize some former results obtained by J.-F.Chen, et al. [6], Y.Xu and H.L.Qiu [4], M.L. Fang [5], C.C. Yang, and X.H. Hua [3].

  13. Deformation of Entire Functions with Baker Domains

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian


    We consider entire transcendental functions f with an invariant (or periodic) Baker Domain. First, we classify these domains into three types (hyperbolic, simply parabolic and doubly parabolic) according to the surface they induce when we take the quotient by the dynamics. Second, we study...

  14. Swedish Orienteers: A Survey Study.

    Ottosson, Torgny


    A survey questionnaire was sent to 1,200 members of Swedish orienteering clubs. Some common beliefs about orienteers were verified. Respondents identifying themselves as active orienteers were often well educated and in the upper middle class, had a healthy lifestyle, and tended to participate as families. (Author/TD)

  15. Freshly brewed continental crust

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.


    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  16. Cyclic growth in Atlantic region continental crust

    Goodwin, A. M.


    Atlantic region continental crust evolved in successive stages under the influence of regular, approximately 400 Ma-long tectonic cycles. Data point to a variety of operative tectonic processes ranging from widespread ocean floor consumption (Wilson cycle) to entirely ensialic (Ampferer-style subduction or simple crustal attenuation-compression). Different processes may have operated concurrently in some or different belts. Resolving this remains the major challenge.

  17. Optimal growth of frequently hypercyclic entire functions

    Drasin, David


    We solve a problem posed by A. Bonilla and K.-G. Grosse-Erdmann by constructing an entire function $f$ that is frequently hypercyclic with respect to the differentiation operator, and satisfies $M_f(r)\\leq\\displaystyle ce^r r^{-1/4}$, where $c>0$ be chosen arbirarily small. The obtained growth rate is sharp. We also obtain optimal results for the growth when measured in terms of average $L^p$-norms. Among other things, the proof applies Rudin-Shapiro polynomials and heat kernel estimates.

  18. Composition of the continental plates

    Gilluly, J.


    The structures of continental plates and of oceanic basins suggested by several seismologists are utilized to estimate the relative volumes of sial and sima in the earth's crust. It seems that sial of the composition of the average igneous rock constitutes fully 26% and perhaps as much as 43% of the total crust. This ratio is far higher than seems likely if the sial had been entirely derived through fractional crystallization of a basaltic magma. The relative paucity of intermediate rocks as compared with granite and gabbro in the crust points in the same direction. The tentative conclusion is reached that the sial owes a large part of its volume to some process other than fractional crystallization of basalt-possibly to the emanation of low-melting constituents such as water, silica, potassa, soda, and alumina directly from the mantle to the crust. ?? 1954 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    Sylwan, P


    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  20. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    conditions, and neotectonic activity. The most prominent bathymetric feature on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf is the 120 km-wide Martaban Depression, at the centre of which is located the Martaban Canyon. Most of the suspended sediment discharge...

  1. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.


    Resource Priorities in Continental Drilling J. J. Hemley 12 Aspects of Continental Crustal Structure and Growth Scott Smithson 13 Deep-Drilling Targets...Time of Workshop Allen F. Agnew Library of Congress Clarence R. Allen California Institute of Technology Orson L. Anderson University of California at...Skinner Yale University Norman H. Sleep Northwestern University Laurence L. Sloss Northwestern University Scott B. Smithson University of Wyoming

  2. Market orientation of the Swedish pork sector

    Lind, Lena Westerlund


    In 2007, the largest slaughterhouse in Sweden, the farmer cooperative Swedish Meats, demutualized. That was the end of cooperative dominance in the Swedish meat industry. Paper VI claims that Swedish Meats demutualized because members no longer perceived the benefits from dealing with the cooperative to exceed the costs. This was possibly due to decreased market transaction costs (external transaction costs) and increased internal transaction costs, e.g. agency costs, caused by the problems o...

  3. Dentofacial Composition: An Entire Aesthetic Concept.

    Stiller, Michael; Peleska, Barbara; Hmaidouch, Rim; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Weigel, Dana


    The aesthetic appearance of the mouth region, in addition to the eye and nose area, is the impressive element for facial aesthetics. Therefore, the reconstruction of the intraoral region is very important for the facial aesthetics in the case of genetic dysplasia, trauma, or even in cases for rejuvenating purposes only. The entire region is complex so that in many patient cases only the team work of restorative dentists, surgeons, and orthodontists will be effective. A key role is played here by the dental technician. Besides the frequent necessity of osseous augmentation, the mucogingival complex needs to be, in most cases, harmonized and reconstructed, respectively. There is often a lack of keratinized gingiva and disturbing cicatrice tracks. Quite frequently the mucogingival appearance is also unsatisfactory due to preceding operations and attempted plastic coverages. The aim of this report is to describe the successful surgical and prosthetic treatment of aesthetically and functionally impaired intraoral hard and soft tissue. For surgeons who are interested in aesthetics, it is advisable to learn from experiences of a specialized restorative dentist, oral surgeon, and orthodontist. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Rapid Electromagnetic Analysis of Entire Accelerator Structures

    Cooke, Simon


    We present results of a new method for fast, accurate calculation, in 3-D, of the electromagnetic mode spectrum of long, tapered accelerator structures. Instead of discretizing the entire structure directly and solving a huge matrix eigenvalue problem, we use a new two-step technique that scales much better to long, multi-cavity structures. In the first step we compute a small number of eigenmodes of individual cavities, achieving 0.05% frequency accuracy using a new second-order finite-element code. In the second step we use these 3-D mode solutions as field basis functions to obtain a reduced matrix representation of Maxwell's equations for the complete structure. Solving the reduced system takes just a few minutes on a desktop PC even with more than 100 non-identical cavities, and gives the complete mode spectrum in the first few bands of the structure. By judicious choice of the basis modes, we retain 0.05% frequency accuracy for these global solutions, and can reconstruct the complete 3-D field of each m...

  5. Fast escaping points of entire functions

    Rippon, P J


    Let $f$ be a transcendental entire function and let $A(f)$ denote the set of points that escape to infinity `as fast as possible' under iteration. By writing $A(f)$ as a countable union of closed sets, called `levels' of $A(f)$, we obtain a new understanding of the structure of this set. For example, we show that if $U$ is a Fatou component in $A(f)$, then $\\partial U\\subset A(f)$ and this leads to significant new results and considerable improvements to existing results about $A(f)$. In particular, we study functions for which $A(f)$, and each of its levels, has the structure of an `infinite spider's web'. We show that there are many such functions and that they have a number of strong dynamical properties. This new structure provides an unexpected connection between a conjecture of Baker concerning the components of the Fatou set and a conjecture of Eremenko concerning the components of the escaping set.

  6. Raising the continental crust

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri


    The changes that occur at the boundary between the Archean and Proterozoic eons are arguably the most fundamental to affect the evolution of Earth's continental crust. The principal component of Archean continental crust is Granite-Greenstone Terranes (GGTs), with granites always dominant. The greenstones consist of a lower sequence of submarine komatiites and basalts, which erupted onto a pre-existing Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) crust. These basaltic rocks pass upwards initially into evolved volcanic rocks, such as andesites and dacites and, subsequently, into reworked felsic pyroclastic material and immature sediments. This transition coincides with widespread emplacement of granitoids, which stabilised (cratonised) the continental crust. Proterozoic supra-crustal rocks, on the other hand, are dominated by extensive flat-lying platform sequences of mature sediments, which were deposited on stable cratonic basements, with basaltic rocks appreciably less abundant. The siliceous TTGs cannot be produced by direct melting of the mantle, with most hypotheses for their origin requiring them to be underlain by a complimentary dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root, which we suggest acted as ballast to the early continents. Ubiquitous continental pillow basalts in Archean lower greenstone sequences require the early continental crust to have been sub-marine, whereas the appearance of abundant clastic sediments, at higher stratigraphic levels, shows that it had emerged above sea level by the time of sedimentation. We hypothesise that the production of komatiites and associated basalts, the rise of the continental crust, widespread melting of the continental crust, the onset of sedimentation and subsequent cratonisation form a continuum that is the direct result of removal of the continent's dense amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite roots, triggered at a regional scale by the arrival of a mantle plume at the base of the lithosphere. Our idealised calculations suggest

  7. English and Swedish in CLIL Student Texts

    Falk, Maria Lim


    This study investigates Swedish students' ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish are involved. The students attend a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school…

  8. English and Swedish in CLIL Student Texts

    Falk, Maria Lim


    This study investigates Swedish students' ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish are involved. The students attend a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school…

  9. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Holmberg, Soeren


    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  10. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.


    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  11. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment



    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  12. The first glacier inventory for entire Greenland

    Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.; Mölg, N.; Le Bris, R.; Paul, F.


    approximately 1'684'000 km2. The entire ice-covered area on Greenland is thus 1'813'000 km2. We will present the results of the GIC mapping along with an analysis of glacier inventory statistics.

  13. Bonjour tristesse in Swedish suburbia

    Andersson, Jonas E


    At the end of May 2013, Swedish suburbs became breaking news around the world with nocturnal newsflashes displaying burning car wrecks and aggressive, dark figures nearby – les banlieues Suédoises étaient sur la barricade! During two intense weeks, the car burnings spread to other suburbs around...... that had gone dramatically wrong, but living conditions in suburbia were brought forward in the public debate. The role of the suburbs as a transition zone for people with an immigrant background was re-discovered, characterised by a high dependency on public financial support, a poor level of education...

  14. Mortality in Adult Offspring of Immigrants: A Swedish National Cohort Study

    Hélio Manhica; Susanna Toivanen; Anders Hjern; Mikael Rostila


    Background Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective. Methods We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents wh...

  15. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  16. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per


    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book




    Full Text Available In the context of current climate changes, this article aims to highlight the continental characteristics of Europe’s climate (including a temporal evolution, regarding the multiannual thermal averages. For this purpose, 78 meteorological stations have been selected, placed approximately on two pairs of transects on West-East and South-North directions. The data were extracted from (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, statistically processed (Open Office and mapped ( For the lapse of time 1961-2010, the analysis of multiannual temperature averages has shown the following: if the multiannual average temperature is strongly influenced by latitude, its deviations are more dependent on longitude; the multiannual average thermal amplitude, as well as the Gorczynski continentality index, are strongly related to longitude; their temporal evolution has shown a significant decrease in the Eastern half of the continent and an increase (although less significant in Western Europe.

  18. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry


    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  19. The nuclear issue in Swedish schools.

    Bergström, A


    Sweden is almost unique in that its government through its foreign office gave financial support to a carefully thought out proposal from Svenska Läkare Mot Kärnvapen (Swedish Physicians against Nuclear Weapons) for a youth education project on the nuclear issue. The Swedish Board of Education has agreed to provide: 1. In-service training for teachers on current affairs; 2. Up-to-date teaching resources and materials, such as the booklet, Facts and Reflections on Nuclear Weapons; 3. A curriculum stating that education on nuclear and other environment issues should not be a special subject but should be involved in many school activities-for example the learning of foreign languages, biology, physics, science and even physical education. The Board's recommendations have been sent to every Swedish school, together with the booklet, but each school decides for itself whether or not to implement them. However, some teachers do some education on the nuclear issue in most Swedish schools.

  20. Professional reinventions : Swedish psychologists, 1990-2010

    Skagius, Peter; Münger, Ann-Charlotte


    Since the early 20th century, the Swedish psychology profession has undergone several changes in its essential tasks, epistemological foundations, and social roles. These changes occurred through an ongoing “tuning” with Swedish society, in which the profession strove to appear relevant to society’s concerns and problems as well as enroll others to share the profession’s goals and aims. Studying the history of the profession can thus shed light on the changing definitions and contours of the ...

  1. Human Transformations of the Swedish Boreal Forestry

    Fries, C.


    A successful production-oriented forestry has influenced nearly all Swedish boreal forests. Accordingly, the standing volume has increased continuously since official data became available in the 1920s. On the other hand, there is very little natural forest left, except in the sub-alpine area. In the pre-industrial era, probably the most important human impact on the Swedish boreal forests (around two-thirds of the country's productive forest land may be considered as boreal) was the co...

  2. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S


    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones.

  3. The Swedish national public health policy report 2010.

    Linell, Anita; Richardson, Matt X; Wamala, Sarah


    In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a cross-sectorial national public health policy based on the social determinants of health, with an overarching aim--to create societal conditions that will ensure good health, on equal terms, for the entire population--and eleven objective domains. At that time the policy was globally unique, and serves as guidance for public health practice at the national, regional and local levels. The development of the public health policy and the determinants of health are presented regularly in various reports by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This supplement is a condensed version of the 174-page Public Health Policy Report 2010, the second produced since the national policy was adopted in 2003. In order to provide a holistic approach to analysing implemented measures and providing new recommendations within the eleven objective domains of the Swedish national public health policy, we have divided these in three strategic areas. These are: Good Living Conditions, Health-Promoting Living Environments and Living Habits, and Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, Doping, Tobacco and Gambling, each described in the respective introductions for Chapters 3-5. The production of the report was supported by a common analytical model that clarified the societal prerequisites for health in the eleven objective domains. These are factors that can be influenced by political actions in order to create a change. Economic analyses have also been developed to provide a priority basis for political decisions. Analyses of the development of public health determinants were based on data from the National Public Health Survey and data delivered from about 15 various national agencies. Measures that have been implemented between 2004 and 2009 are analysed in details, as the basis for new recommendations for future measures. The introduction describes Swedish public health policy in the new millennium and how it has developed, the role of the Swedish

  4. Swedish health care in perspective.

    Anderson, O W


    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  5. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M


    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  6. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans


    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  7. The continental lithosphere

    Artemieva, Irina


    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are consist......The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475–2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1–18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure...

  8. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)


    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  9. Migration and atopic disorder in Swedish conscripts.

    Hjern, A; Rasmussen, F; Johansson, M; Aberg, N


    We have studied asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence in Swedish conscripts born 1973-1977 according to the military service conscription register in relation to the socio-economic status and country of birth of the conscripts and their parents, and age when granted residency in Sweden. There was an increase in prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis over time in all groups irrespective of country of birth or ethnic origin. Conscripts who themselves were born in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Mediterranean had a significantly lower risk for asthma and allergic rhinitis than Swedish-born conscripts. The risk of atopic disorder among the foreign-born conscripts increased with time of residency in Sweden. Conscripts with mothers from Latin America, Asia and Africa were identified as having the highest risk for atopic disorder among Swedish-born conscripts with high socio-economic status; the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for asthma was 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-4.0) and that for allergic rhinitis was 2.0 (1.5-2.6). The conscripts with mothers from the Mediterranean had the lowest risk for atopic disorders of the Swedish-born conscripts with low socio-economic status; the RR for asthma was 0.43 (0.34-0.56) and that for allergic rhinitis was 0.84 (0.76-0.93). This study demonstrates that factors related to migration and ethnicity are important determinants of atopic disorder among Swedish conscripts.

  10. MicroSim: Modeling the Swedish Population

    Brouwers, Lisa; Cakici, Baki; Mäkilä, Kalle; Saretok, Paul


    This article presents a unique, large-scale and spatially explicit microsimulation model that uses official anonymized register data collected from all individuals living in Sweden. Individuals are connected to households and workplaces and represent crucial links in the Swedish social contact network. This enables significant policy experiments in the domain of epidemic outbreaks. Development of the model started in 2004 at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control (SMI) in Solna, Sweden with the goal of creating a tool for testing the effects of intervention policies. These interventions include mass vaccination, targeted vaccination, isolation and social distancing. The model was initially designed for simulating smallpox outbreaks. In 2006, it was modified to support simulations of pandemic influenza. All nine millions members of the Swedish population are represented in the model. This article is a technical description of the simulation model; the input data, the simulation engine and the bas...

  11. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G


    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  12. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    Junghagen, Sven


    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  13. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Menzel, D.W.


    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. NSF Continental Lithosphere Program

    Mayhew, Michael; MacGregor, Ian

    For several months the Continental Lithosphere Program (CL) of the National Science Foundation has been subject to a major review. The process was stimulated by a series of budget setbacks over the past few years. Although Presidential budget requests have been very favorable for the Division of Earth Sciences (EAR), and there has been strong support within the National Science Foundation and Congress, actual appropriations by Congress have been disappointing.In each year the final allocation to EAR has been affected by external factors beyond the control of the Foundation. In the four fiscal years from 1986 through 1989 the factors include reductions tied to the Gramm-Rudman deficit reduction measures, congressional reaction to the October 1987 stock market crash, and two years of protection for the Ocean Sciences part of the NSF budget that was paid for from the budgets of the Atmospheric and Earth Sciences divisions.

  15. Swedish public health policy: Impact on regional and local public health practice and priorities.

    Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah


    We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.

  16. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...


    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng


    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  18. Perceptual masking of boar taint in Swedish fermented sausages.

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Lindahl, Gunilla; Lundström, Kerstin; Chen, Gang; Byrne, Derek V


    Surgical castration of male piglets has traditionally been practiced to avoid development of boar taint in pork meat which can occur if entire male pigs are raised. Boar taint is commonly characterised as exhibiting the odour and flavour of urine and manure. This study involves sensory characterisation of the possibilities to mask boar taint in meat from entire male pigs by fermentation and smoking to maintain high sensory quality in meat products if castration is prohibited. Model and commercial type Swedish fermented sausage products based on low or high levels of boar tainted fat, three different starter cultures and two different levels of smoking were studied. In the model sausages, liquid smoke masked the perception of boar taint. In contrast, the smoking procedure of the commercial sausages was insufficient to totally mask the perception of boar taint. In both the model and commercial sausages, the aroma development from the starter cultures lowered the perception of boar taint but was insufficient for total perceptual masking. Due to the total masking effect of smoking in the model sausages, it was clear that smoke may present a potential solution to remove the perception of boar taint in fermented sausages if the smoking procedure is optimised.

  19. Formation of Continental Fragments: The Tamayo Bank, Gulf of California

    van Wijk, J.; Abera, R.; Axen, G. J.


    Potential field data are used to construct a two-dimensional crustal model along a profile through the Tamayo Trough and Bank in the Gulf of California. The model is constrained by seismic reflection and refraction data, and field observations. The potential field data do not fit a model where the crust of the Tamayo trough is continental, but they fit well with a model where the Tamayo trough crust is oceanic. This implies that the Tamayo Bank is entirely bounded by oceanic crust and is a microcontinent. The oceanic crust of the Tamayo trough that separates the Tamayo Bank from the mainland of Mexico is thin (~4 km), so oceanic spreading was probably magma-starved before it ceased. This led us to come up with a model that explains the formation of microcontinents that are smaller in size and are not found in the proximity of hotspots. At first, seafloor spreading commences following continental breakup. When the magma supply to the ridge slows down, the plate boundary strengthens. Hence, the ridge may be abandoned while tectonic extension begins elsewhere, or slow spreading may continue while a new ridge starts to develop. The old spreading ridge becomes extinct. An asymmetric ocean basin forms if the ridge jumps within oceanic lithosphere; a microcontinent forms if the ridge jumps into a continental margin. This model for formation of continental fragments is applicable to other regions as well, eliminating the need of mantle plume impingement to facilitate rifting of a young continental margin and microcontinent formation.

  20. Fractal behavior in continental crustal heat production

    N. Vedanti


    Full Text Available The distribution of crustal heat production, which is the most important component in the elucidation of continental thermal structure, still remains a theoretical assumption. In general the heat production values must decrease with depth, but the form of decrease of heat production in the crust is not well understood. The commonly used heat production models are: "block model", in which heat production is constant from the surface to a given depth and the "exponential model", in which heat production diminishes as an exponential function of depth. The exponential model is more widely used wherein sources of the errors are heterogeneity of rock and long wavelength changes due to changes in lithology and tectonic elements, and as such exponential distribution does not work satisfactorily for the entire crust. In the present study, we analyze for the first time, deep crustal heat production data of six global areas namely Dharwar craton (India, Kaapvaal craton (South Africa, Baltic shield (Kola, Russia, Hidaka metamorphic belt (Japan, Nissho pluton (Japan and Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB, Germany. The power spectrum of all the studied data sets exhibits power law behaviour. This would mean slower decay of heat production with depth, which conforms to the known geologic composition of the crust. Minimum value of the scaling exponent has been found for the KTB borehole, which is apparently related to higher heat production of gneisses, however for other study areas, scaling exponent is almost similar. We also found that the lower values of scaling exponents are related to higher heat production in the crust as is the case in KTB. Present finding has a direct relevance in computation of temperature-depth profiles in continental regions.

  1. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    Aijmer, Karen


    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  2. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus


    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  3. Project DORIS - Dose reduction in Swedish BWRs

    Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J.; Ingemansson, T.


    Radiation exposures show an increasing trend in Swedish BWRs. The corresponding trend in foreign BWRs is decreasing exposures. The overall result is that the Swedish BWRs no longer can be regarded as low-exposure plants in an international comparison. The changed situation has called for the establishment of more fundamental ALARA programs in the Swedish BWRs, and the purpose of the DORIS project, ordered by SSI, is to serve as a basis for such utility efforts. The base of the investigation is a comprehensive analysis of exposure and radiation data from the ABB Atom BWRs. The analysis shows, that the main reason for the increasing exposures in the Swedish BWRs is gradually increasing radiation levels, and this increase is mainly due to the buildup of Co60 activity on system surfaces. Extensive computer simulations have been performed to find the factors responsible for this radiation buildup. The following main factors have been identified: Cobalt inflow to the reactor circuit from erosion-corrosion of Stellite in turbine and reactor systems.; Higher and higher burnup levels for BWR fuel.; A tendency of too low iron inflow during recent years in some of the reactors.; Fuel failures resulting in considerable contamination of the fuel with tramp uranium.; Lower inflow of zinc due to replacement of brass tubes in turbine condensers with titanium tubes.; and High moisture content in the reactor steam, especially after uprated power levels. 22 refs.


    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka


    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  5. Formative assessment in Swedish mathematics classroom practice

    Andersson, Catarina; Boström, Erika


    International audience; Using formative assessment has woken interest in many countries because of the potential effect on student achievement. To investigate Swedish teachers' use of formative assessment in mathematics, this study used classroom observations and teacher interviews of 38 mathematics teachers. The teachers used formative assessment, but additional formative activities could support teachers to better take advantage of the potential in using formative assessment.

  6. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    Diderichsen, Finn


    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  7. Survey of Foreigners' Pronunciation Problems in Swedish.

    Bannert, Robert

    This paper reports results of an analysis of pronunciation problems and error patterns in the recorded speech of 38 immigrants to Sweden. The recordings, of both spontaneous and elicited speech in Swedish, were taken from an archival collection. The native-language groups studied include British English, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Greek, Persian,…

  8. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth


    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  9. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Klofsten, Magnus


    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  10. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Delacour, Laurence


    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  11. Exergy use in the Swedish society 1994

    Wall, G.


    The exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Swedish society in 1994 are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy into heat are described in some detail

  12. Survey of Foreigners' Pronunciation Problems in Swedish.

    Bannert, Robert

    This paper reports results of an analysis of pronunciation problems and error patterns in the recorded speech of 38 immigrants to Sweden. The recordings, of both spontaneous and elicited speech in Swedish, were taken from an archival collection. The native-language groups studied include British English, Spanish, Polish, Finnish, Greek, Persian,…

  13. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Menzel, D.W.


    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  14. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Piper, J.D.A.


    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  15. The continental record and the generation of continental crust

    Cawood, Peter Anthony; Hawkesworth, Chris; Dhuime, Bruno Philippe Marcel


    Continental crust is the archive of Earth history. The spatial and temporal distribution of Earth's record of rock units and events is heterogeneous; for example, ages of igneous crystallization, metamorphism, continental margins, mineralization, and seawater and atmospheric proxies are distributed about a series of peaks and troughs. This distribution reflects the different preservation potential of rocks generated in different tectonic settings, rather than fundamental pulses of activity, a...

  16. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A


    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.

  17. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  18. $Q_{\\alpha}$-Normal Families and entire functions

    Gul, Shai


    For every countable ordinal number $\\alpha$ we construct an entire function $f=f_\\alpha$ such that the family $\\left\\{f(nz):n\\in\\mathbb{N}\\right\\}$ is exactly $Q_\\alpha$-normal in the unit disk.

  19. Semigroups of transcendental entire functions and their dynamics



    We investigate the dynamics of semigroups of transcendental entire functions using Fatou–Julia theory. Several results of the dynamics associated with iteration of a transcendental entire function have been extended to transcendental semigroups. We provide some condition for connectivity of the Julia set of the transcendental semigroups. We also study finitely generated transcendental semigroups, abelian transcendental semigroups and limit functions of transcendental semigroups on its invariant Fatou components.

  20. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  1. Front-like entire solutions for equations with convection

    Crooks, E. C. M.; Tsai, Je-Chiang

    We construct families of front-like entire solutions for problems with convection, both for bistable and monostable reaction-diffusion-convection equations, and, via vanishing-viscosity arguments, for bistable and monostable balance laws. The unified approach employed is inspired by ideas of Chen and Guo and based on a robust method using front-dependent sub and supersolutions. Unlike convectionless problems, the equations studied here lack symmetry between increasing and decreasing travelling waves, which affects the choice of sub and supersolutions used. Our entire solutions include both those that behave like two fronts coming together and annihilating as time increases, and, for bistable equations, those that behave like two fronts merging to propagate like a single front. We also characterise the long-time behaviour of each family of entire solutions, which in the case of solutions constructed from a monostable front merging with a bistable front answers a question that was open even for reaction-diffusion equations without convection.

  2. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria


    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark


    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  4. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Eva Torkelson; Kristoffer Holm; Martin Bäckström


    The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position) are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the nat...

  5. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Tregouet, R


    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  6. An acoustic study of accentuation in Estonian Swedish compounds

    Schötz, Susanne; Asu, Eva Liina


    This study, addressing the analysis of pitch patterns in Estonian Swedish compounds, enables us to draw some preliminary conclusions about the characteristics of accentuation in this little studied regional variety of Swedish. The analysis in the first part of the paper was inspired by the classification of Edvin Lagman (1979) who on the basis of auditory analysis distinguished between four accent types for Estonian Swedish compounds. Using the same materials, the present acoustic study broad...

  7. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.


    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  8. Generalized Order and Best Approximation of Entire Function in -Norm

    Mohammed Harfaoui


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the characterization of the generalized growth of entire functions of several complex variables by means of the best polynomial approximation and interpolation on a compact with respect to the set Ω={∈;exp(≤}, where =sup{(1/ln||,polynomialofdegree≤,‖‖≤1} is the Siciak extremal function of a -regular compact .

  9. Evaluation of producing and marketing entire male pigs

    Backus, G.B.C.; Broek, van den E.M.F.; Fels, van der J.B.; Heres, L.; Immink, V.M.; Kornelis, M.; Mather, P.K.; Peet-Schwering, van der Carola; Riel, van Johannes; Snoek, H.M.; Smet, de A.; Tacken, G.M.L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.


    This paper presents the results of a research program that was aimed at evaluating: (1) sensory evaluation of meat from entire male pigs, (2) preventive measures to reduce boar taint prevalence, (3) accuracy of detection for boar taint, and (4) the relationship between farm management

  10. Normal Families and Uniqueness of Entire Functions and Their Derivatives

    Jiang Ming CHANG; Ming Liang FANG


    Let f be a nonconstant entire function; let κ≥2be a positive integer; and let α be a nonzero complex umber. If f(z)=(→)f(κ)(z)=α,then either proof is based on the Wiman-Valiron theory and the theory of normal failies in an essential way.

  11. Teaching Discrete Mathematics Entirely from Primary Historical Sources

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David


    We describe teaching an introductory discrete mathematics course entirely from student projects based on primary historical sources. We present case studies of four projects that cover the content of a one-semester course, and mention various other courses that we have taught with primary source projects.

  12. Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RAP-DB genome browser. Data file File name: File URL: Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan


    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  14. Paradigms in Swedish as a Second Language--Curricula for Primary School and Secondary School in Swedish as a Second Language

    Magnusson, Ulrika


    This article analyzes and compares the curricula of Swedish and Swedish as a second language for primary and secondary school. The school subject of Swedish as a second language is young, and its ideological foundation has not been debated to any large extent, in contrast to Swedish. This article analyzes the curricula of both subjects in terms of…

  15. Bioenergetics of Continental Serpentinites

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.


    Serpentinization is the aqueous alteration of ultramafic (Fe- and Mg-rich) rocks, resulting in secondary mineral assemblages of serpentine, brucite, iron oxyhydroxides and magnetite, talc, and possibly carbonate and silica-rich veins and other minor phases-all depending on the evolving pressure-temperature-composition of the system. The abiotic evolution of hydrogen and possibly organic compounds via serpentinization (McCollom and Bach, 2009) highlights the relevance of this geologic process to carbon and energy sources for the deep biosphere. Serpentinization may fuel life over long stretches of geologic time, throughout the global seabed and in exposed, faulted peridotite blocks (as at Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Kelley et al., 2005), and in obducted oceanic mantle units in ophiolites (e.g., Tiago et al., 2004). Relatively little work has been published on life in continental serpentinite settings, though they likely host a unique resident microbiota. In this work, we systematically model the serpentinizing fluid as an environmental niche. Reported field data for high and moderate pH serpentinizing fluids were modeled from Cyprus, the Philippines, Oman, Northern California, New Caledonia, Yugoslavia, Portugal, Italy, Newfoundland Canada, New Zealand, and Turkey. Values for Gibbs Energy of reaction (ΔGr), kJ per mole of electrons transferred for a given metabolism, are calculated for each field site. Cases are considered both for (1) modest assumptions of 1 nanomolar hydrogen and 1 micromolar methane, based on unpublished data for a similar northern California field site (Cardace and Hoehler, in prep.) and (2) an upper estimate of 10 nanomolar hydrogen and 500 micromolar methane. We survey the feasibility of microbial metabolisms for key steps in the nitrogen cycle, oxidation of sulfur in pyrite, iron oxidation or reduction reactions, sulfate reduction coupled to hydrogen or methane oxidation, methane oxidation coupled to the reduction of oxygen, and

  16. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and...

  17. Mantle plumes and continental tectonics.

    Hill, R I; Campbell, I H; Davies, G F; Griffiths, R W


    Mantle plumes and plate tectonics, the result of two distinct modes of convection within the Earth, operate largely independently. Although plumes are secondary in terms of heat transport, they have probably played an important role in continental geology. A new plume starts with a large spherical head that can cause uplift and flood basalt volcanism, and may be responsible for regional-scale metamorphism or crustal melting and varying amounts of crustal extension. Plume heads are followed by narrow tails that give rise to the familiar hot-spot tracks. The cumulative effect of processes associated with tail volcanism may also significantly affect continental crust.

  18. Progress towards Continental River Dynamics modeling

    Yu, Cheng-Wei; Zheng, Xing; Liu, Frank; Maidment, Daivd; Hodges, Ben


    The high-resolution National Water Model (NWM), launched by U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in August 2016, has shown it is possible to provide real-time flow prediction in rivers and streams across the entire continental United States. The next step for continental-scale modeling is moving from reduced physics (e.g. Muskingum-Cunge) to full dynamic modeling with the Saint-Venant equations. The Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) provides a computational approach for the Saint-Venant equations, but obtaining sufficient channel bathymetric data and hydraulic roughness is seen as a critical challenge. However, recent work has shown the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) method can be applied with the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to provide automated estimation of effective channel bathymetry suitable for large-scale hydraulic simulations. The present work examines the use of SPRNT with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and HAND-derived bathymetry for automated generation of rating curves that can be compared to existing data. The approach can, in theory, be applied to every stream reach in the NHD and thus provide flood guidance where none is available. To test this idea we generated 2000+ rating curves in two catchments in Texas and Alabama (USA). Field data from the USGS and flood records from an Austin, Texas flood in May 2015 were used as validation. Large-scale implementation of this idea requires addressing several critical difficulties associated with numerical instabilities, including ill-posed boundary conditions generated in automated model linkages and inconsistencies in the river geometry. A key to future progress is identifying efficient approaches to isolate numerical instability contributors in a large time-space varying solution. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.


    A. P. Singh; R. Sharma


    Let f be an entire function. A point zo is called a critical point of f if f'(zo) = 0, and f(zo) is called a critical value (or an algebraic singularity) of f. Next a ∈ (C^) is said to be an asymptotic value (or a transcendental singularity) of f if there exists a curve Γ:[0,1]→(C^) such that limt→1Γ(t)=∞ and limt→1(foΓ)(t)=a. In this paper we find relations between the asymptotic values of f, g and f o g, relations between critical points of f, g and f o g and also in the case when the two functions f and g are semi-conjugated with another entire function.

  20. Entire hemithorax irradiation for Masaoka stage IVa thymomas.

    Soares, André; Louro, Luís Vasco; Almeida, Marta; Sousa, Olga


    Thymomas are rare neoplasms that have an indolent growth with a preferentially intra-thoracic dissemination pattern. Surgery is currently the standard treatment of thymomas; however radiotherapy is often used in an adjuvant setting due to a high sensitivity of these tumors to such treatment. Postoperative entire hemithoracic irradiation has been used in selected Masaoka stage IVa cases after complete surgical excision of metastatic lesions. In the present article, the authors report three cases of Masaoka stage IVa thymoma that underwent entire hemithorax irradiation after surgical excision of metastatic lesions. The first two patients presented as stage IVa thymomas. The third case consisted of a pleural recurrence of a thymoma. Hemithoracic irradiation with low doses has been used by different authors; the available data shows that it is a well-tolerated treatment that could potentially lead to better loco-regional control and increased overall survival.

  1. Analog Modeling of Continental Lithosphere Subduction

    Willingshofer, E.; Sokoutis, D.; Luth, S.; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.


    Lithospheric-scale analog modeling sheds light on the consequences of decoupling within the continental lithosphere and along plate interfaces during continental collision. The model results provide valuable information in terms of strain localization, deformation of the subducting slab and the evolution and architecture of the overlying mountain belt and its topography. A weak layer has been implemented in three-layer models to simulate decoupling along the plate interface and at different levels of the lithosphere (brittle-ductile transition, entire lower crust, crust-mantle boundary). Additionally, varying the strength of the mantle lithosphere of both the upper as well as the lower plate regulated the degree of plate coupling. Plate boundaries were orthogonal to the convergence direction. All models emphasize that strong decoupling at the plate interface is a pre-requisite for the subduction of continental lithosphere. In addition, deformation of the subducting slab was found to be sensitive to the strength contrast between the subduction zone and the mantle lithosphere of the downgoing as well as the upper plate. As such, a low strength contrast between the plate interface and the lower plate leads to deformation of the subducting slab by thickening and the development of a shallow slab. Conversely, when the strength contrast is high, deep slabs evolve which undergo relatively less deformation. Furthermore, the level of decoupling in the downgoing plate governs how much continental crust is subducted together with the mantle lithosphere. Shallow decoupling, at the brittle-ductile transition, results in subduction of the lower crust whereas small amounts of lower crust are subducted when decoupling occurs at the level of the Moho. Weak plate coupling and a weak lower crust of the lower plate steer the evolution of mountain belts such that deformation propagates outward, in the direction of the incoming plate, by successive imbrication of upper crustal thrust

  2. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    Kyrö, E.-M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Virkkula, A.; Dal Maso, M.; Parshintsev, J.; Ruíz-Jimenez, J.; Forsström, L.; Manninen, H. E.; Riekkola, M.-L.; Heinonen, P.; Kulmala, M.


    Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher) communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  3. Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors

    E.-M. Kyrö


    Full Text Available Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.

  4. On $L^1$ extremal problem for entire functions

    Yuditskii, Peter


    We generalized the Korkin-Zolotarev theorem to the case of entire functions having the smallest $L^1$ norm on a system of intervals $E$. If $\\bbC\\setminus E$ is a domain of Widom type with the Direct Cauchy Theorem we give an explicit formula for the minimal deviation. Important relations between the problem and the theory of canonical systems with reflectionless resolvent functions are shown.

  5. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg


    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  6. Tectonic erosion, subduction accretion and arc collision as controls on the growth of the continental crust

    Clift, P.; Vannucchi, P.; Draut, A.


    Subduction plate boundaries, at which tectonic erosion removes material from the overriding plate, account for 57% of the total length of the global subduction system and are favored where convergence rates exceed 7 cm/yr and where the sedimentary cover is less than 1 km. Accretion conversely preferentially occurs in regions of slow convergence (1 km. The slope gradients and taper angle of accretionary plate margins correlates with plate convergence rates, while erosive margin slopes appear to be independent of this. Rates of trench retreat do not appear to correlate with any simple characteristic of the plate interaction, but are largely a function of the history of seamount or ridge collisions. Mass balances of the global subduction system indicate that the entire volume of the continental crust can be recycled through the subduction system every 2.6 Ga. Even in accretionary margins a median of only 32% of the incoming sedimentary mass is accreted over time scales of 10 my or greater, resulting in long-term net loss of continental crust along continental active margins. Average magmatic productivity in the active margins must exceed 75 km3/my if the volume of the continental crust is to reach the slow growth rate indicated by isotopic and continental freeboard arguments. Geological arguments indicate that magmatic accretion rates must be faster in oceanic arcs (87-95 km3/my) and less in the continental arcs (65-83 km3/my). Mass balance arguments in oceanic arcs require that their crustal thicknesses must be Continental growth is principally achieved through the collision of oceanic island arcs to continental margins. Although oceanic arcs are chemically distinct from continental crust, the collision process involves the loss of mafic and ultramafic lower crust and the emplacement of voluminous, high silica, light rare earth element enriched melts, transforming the net composition into something more continental in character.

  7. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per


    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...

  8. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo


    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  9. Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments

    Palm, Torulf; Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan


    We investigate the mathematical reasoning required to solve the tasks in the Swedish national tests and a random selection of Swedish teacher-made tests. The results show that only a small proportion of the tasks in the teacher-made tests require the students to produce new reasoning and to consider the intrinsic mathematical properties involved…

  10. Picking up the Threads. Languaging in a Swedish Mainstream Preschool

    Puskás, Tünde


    This paper examines the strategies monolingual teachers use to scaffold meaning and encourage and enhance verbal communication with emergent bilingual children in a Swedish mainstream preschool. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in a preschool group in which seven of twelve children spoke Swedish as their second, additional language.…

  11. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva


    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  12. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva


    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  13. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  14. Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements

    Thomsen, Volker


    All of the elements not already known from antiquity were discovered in Europe and North America. So which country ranks number one on the discovery list? The question occurred to me while leafing through reference 1 in search of thermodynamic data on silicon. Never having seen such a tabulation, I wondered if it might prove useful in teaching. The question has a sports-related flavor that will appeal to many students. Personally, I picked England or Germany for #1. The actual result is surprising. The ranking considering only up to atomic number 103 is as follows: Note: Where two or more independent discoveries have been made, each country is credited. In the "others" category Austria and Denmark each has two discoveries. The remaining countries, with one each, are Finland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Spain. The high place for the USA is primarily due to the work done at Berkeley and Los Alamos on the transuranics. Without these discoveries, the US would have tied with Switzerland at three elements. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this tabulation is that Swedish chemists have discovered the most elements. Four chemists alone account for twelve of the 20 discoveries: Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) is credited with four elements. His pupil, friend, and assistant, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) discovered three. P. T. Cleve also found three elements and Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) discovered two. Biographical research on the Swedish chemists is a suitable assignment at the introductory level. Reasons for the predominance of Swedish chemists presents a challenging student research topic in the history of chemistry. Another interesting question at the introductory level is, transuranics aside, who discovered the most elements? At the more advanced level the question becomes, why? Literature Cited: 1. Emsley, J. The Elements; Clarendon: Oxford, 1989.

  15. Love and sex in the Swedish media.

    Boethius, C G


    Attitudes toward teenage sexuality are markedly different in Sweden and the US. The more accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality and the greater availability of family planning information and services may explain why Sweden has a lower adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbirth rate than the US. In contrast to the situation in the US, the Swedish mass media presents a realistic view of sexuality to the youth of the nation. It stresses the responsible use of contraception and the need to protect against sexually transmitted diseases in both its entertainment and educational shows. No commercials are aired on Swedish TV; therefore, Swedish youth are not exposed to the blatant and irresponsible image of sex frequently conveyed by commercials in the US. Moreover, in Sweden, parents accept the fact that their older teenagers will engage in sexual activity and help their children prepare for this activity. As a result, teenagers are reassured that their parents understand their feelings and emotions. These teenagers, in turn, are likely to accept their parents' advice about engaging in responsible sexual behavior. In contrast, in societies like the US, which are nonaccepting of adolescent sexual behavior, teenagers are likely to feel their parents and the larger society do not understand their feelings. These teenagers are likely to reject parental or societal advice on sexual matters. Sweden's accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality is relatively recent. Prior to the 1960s, attitudes in Sweden were similar to those of present day American society. Eventually the government, the schools, and the parents recognized that they were creating a breach between the generations, and they gradually adopted a more realistic and accepting stance on sexual matters. By 1970, all Swedish children were receiving sex education in school. Television programing in sex education began in the 1960s. The broad distribution of printed sex education materials also began in

  16. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John


    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...

  17. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Salas Antonio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  18. Entire Functions Sharing One Polynomial with their Derivatives

    Xiao-Min Li; Cun-Chen Gao


    In this paper, we study the growth of solutions of -th order linear differential equation and that of +1-th order linear differential equation. From this we affirmatively answer a uniqueness question concerning a conjecture given by Brück in 1996 under the restriction of the hyper order less than 1/2, and obtain some uniqueness theorems of a nonconstant entire function and its derivative sharing a finite nonzero complex number CM. The results in this paper also improve some known results. Some examples are provided to show that the results in this paper are best possible.

  19. The entire regularization path for the support vector domain description

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus


    -class support vector machine classifier. Recently, it was shown that the regularization path of the support vector machine is piecewise linear, and that the entire path can be computed efficiently. This pa- per shows that this property carries over to the support vector domain description. Using our results......The support vector domain description is a one-class classi- fication method that estimates the shape and extent of the distribution of a data set. This separates the data into outliers, outside the decision boundary, and inliers on the inside. The method bears close resemblance to the two...

  20. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium

    Malte Krönig


    Full Text Available Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence.

  1. Swedish Climate Strategy. A basis for the evaluation of Swedish climate work



    The assignment of producing a basis for the evaluation of Sweden's climate policy is mainly focused on the national interim target for the 2008-2012 period. An assessment is to be made of the possibility of achieving the national interim target using current policy instruments and measures. Proposals for new or extended policy instruments, the consequences of which have been assessed, are to be submitted where necessary. The assignment also includes a study of the consequences of integrating the flexible mechanisms into the interim target. Our proposals for how the Swedish climate strategy could be reinforced have their roots in the above assignment, but we also wish to stress the following important points. Solving the climate problem requires a high degree of international collaboration. It is, for example, of great importance that the EU countries find joint ways of reducing emissions, thus enabling them to drive global developments forward. In the Swedish national strategy, there should be a stronger link to international and joint EU policy instruments. The proposals must also have a long-term perspective and not simply be based on the short-term achievement of targets in Sweden. We propose the following changes to policy instruments for sectors outside the trading sector (assuming an allocation of emissions allowances somewhat below the current forecast): introduction of CO{sub 2}-differentiated vehicle taxes for light vehicles; that the free-fuel benefit for company cars be valued at a factor of x1.8 market price, instead of the present 1.2; introduction of kilometre tax for trucks from 2008; continued and increased national funding support to local climate investment programmes during the period 2006-2008. The programmes should primarily give grants to long-term strategic measures; continued climate information campaign for 2006-2008; The EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings is implemented in a way that utilises the potential for greater

  2. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.


    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  3. Conscientious refusal in healthcare: the Swedish solution.

    Munthe, Christian


    The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services. Two complicating aspects of this solution related to the inclusion of 'alternative medical' service providers in a national health service, and professional insistence on conscientious refusal rights to accept legalised assisted dying are discussed. The latter is found to undermine the pragmatic reasons behind recent attempts by prolife groups to challenge the Swedish solution related to legal abortion in courts.

  4. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W


    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases.

  5. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies


    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  6. Fat intake and metabolism in Swedish and Italian infants.

    Akeson, P K; Axelsson, I E; Räihä, N C; Warm, A; Minoli, I; Moro, G


    The purpose of the study was to compare fat intake and metabolism between two infant populations from Sweden and Italy given breast milk or similar infant formulas, but different weaning foods. Nutrient intake and fat metabolism were studied prospectively from 3-12 mo in 68 Swedish and 46 Italian healthy infants, breastfed or given similar infant formulas in combination with Swedish or Mediterranean weaning foods. Although nutrient intake and fat metabolism were similar at 6 mo, fat intake was lower at 12 mo in the Italian than in the Swedish formula group (p breast milk composition may also have influenced our results.

  7. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  8. Mortality in adult offspring of immigrants: a Swedish national cohort study.

    Hélio Manhica

    Full Text Available Higher risks of psychiatric disorders and lower-than-average subjective health in adulthood have been demonstrated in offspring of immigrants in Sweden compared with offspring of native Swedes, and linked to relative socioeconomic disadvantage. The present study investigated mortality rates in relation to this inequity from a gender perspective.We used data from national registers covering the entire Swedish population aged 18-65 years. Offspring of foreign-born parents who were either Swedish born or had received residency in Sweden before school age (<7 years were defined as "offspring of immigrants." We used Cox regression models to examine the association between parental country of birth and mortality between 1990 and 2008, with adjustment for education, income, age and family type.Male offspring of immigrants from the Middle East (HR:2.00, CI:1.66-2.26, other non-European countries (HR:1.80, CI:1.36-2.36 and Finland (HR:1.56, CI:1.48-1.65 showed an age-adjusted excess mortality risk from all causes of death when compared to offspring with Swedish-born parents. Income, but not education, greatly attenuated these increased mortality risks. No excess mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants, with the exception of external cause of death among offspring of Finnish immigrants.The study demonstrates high mortality rates in male offspring of immigrants from Finland and non-European countries that are associated with economic, but not educational, disadvantage. No increased mortality rates were found among female offspring of immigrants. Future studies are needed to explain this gender differential and why income, but not education, predicts mortality in male offspring of immigrants.

  9. Estimation of genetic diversity in Gute sheep: pedigree and microsatellite analyses of an ancient Swedish breed.

    Rochus, Christina M; Johansson, Anna M


    Breeds with small population size are in danger of an increased inbreeding rate and loss of genetic diversity, which puts them at risk for extinction. In Sweden there are a number of local breeds, native breeds which have adapted to specific areas in Sweden, for which efforts are being made to keep them pure and healthy over time. One example of such a breed is the Swedish Gute sheep. The objective of this study was to estimate inbreeding and genetic diversity of Swedish Gute sheep. Three datasets were analysed: pedigree information of the whole population, pedigree information for 100 animals of the population, and microsatellite genotypes for 94 of the 100 animals. The average inbreeding coefficient for lambs born during a six year time period (2007-2012) did not increase during that time period. The inbreeding calculated from the entire pedigree (0.038) and for a sample of the population (0.018) was very low. Sheep were more heterozygous at the microsatellite markers than expected (average multilocus heterozygosity and Ritland inbreeding estimates 1.01845 and -0.03931) and five of seven microsatellite markers were not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygosity excess. The total effective population size estimated from the pedigree information was 155.4 and the average harmonic mean effective population size estimated from microsatellites was 88.3. Pedigree and microsatellite genotype estimations of inbreeding were consistent with a breeding program with the purpose of reducing inbreeding. Our results showed that current breeding programs of the Swedish Gute sheep are consistent with efforts of keeping this breed viable and these breeding programs are an example for other small local breeds in conserving breeds for the future.

  10. Delineating riparian zones for entire river networks using geomorphological criteria

    D. Fernández


    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for riparian and river ecosystem management, however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is, however, not usually available for entire river corridors, and is only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. One of the requirements for catchment planning is to establish the most appropriate location of zones to conserve or restore riparian buffer strips for whole river networks. This issue could be solved by using geomorphological criteria extracted from Digital Elevation Models. In this work we have explored the adjustment of surfaces developed under two different geomorphological criteria with respect to the flooded area covered by the 50-yr flood, in an attempt to rapidly delineate hydrologically-meaningful riparian zones for entire river networks. The first geomorphological criterion is based on the surface that intersects valley walls at a given number of bankfull depths above the channel (BFDAC, while the second is based on the surface defined by a~threshold value indicating the relative cost of moving from the stream up to the valley, accounting for slope and elevation change (path distance. As the relationship between local geomorphology and 50-yr flood has been suggested to be river-type dependant, we have performed our analyses distinguishing between three river types corresponding with three valley morphologies: open, shallow vee and deep vee valleys (in increasing degree of valley constrainment. Adjustment between the surfaces derived from geomorphological and hydrological criteria has been evaluated using two different methods: one based on exceeding areas (minimum exceeding score and the other on the similarity among total area values. Both methods have pointed out the same surfaces when looking for those that

  11. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants



    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  12. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne


    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  13. The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network: first results

    Stempels, E.; Kero, E.


    The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network started operations with two cameras in early 2014 and has since grown steadily. Currently, seven stations are active and several more will come online in the near future. The network to a large degree relies on low-cost stations run by private individuals or small societies of amateur astronomers. Originally based on the Danish meteor network Stjerneskud, the central node of Uppsala University provides the network with the necessary infrastructure, such as a continually updated software distribution and automatic processing of data from all stations. Although covering a very large land mass with relatively low resources is challenging, there have up to now been several well-observed events, often in collaboration with observations from neighboring countries. We give a short overview of the network's current status, chosen technical solutions, and some results.

  14. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Stenkula Mikael


    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  15. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics


    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  16. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl


    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  17. Herbert Olivecrona: founder of Swedish neurosurgery.

    Ljunggren, B


    Herbert Olivecrona (1891-1980) singlehandedly founded Swedish neurosurgery. At the International Congress in Neurology in Bern in August, 1931, Harvey Cushing invited the cream of the world's medical society to a private banquet. Among the 28 specially invited guests was Herbert Olivecrona. At 40 years old, Olivecrona took his seat with pioneers such as Otfrid Foerster, Percival Bailey, Hugh Cairns, Geoffrey Jefferson, and Sir Charles Sherrington. This suggests that Cushing was impressed by the Swedish aristocrat's didactic deeds when he visited the Serafimer Hospital in Stockholm 2 years earlier. During the mid-1920's, the radiologist Erik Lysholm greatly improved the technique of ventriculography and, challenged by Olivecrona, his diagnostic neuroradiology became of superior quality. In the early 1930's, utilizing technical innovations of his own, Lysholm became a master at demonstrating and localizing posterior fossa tumors, which Olivecrona then operated on. Olivecrona's clinic became the mecca to which many scholars, thirsting for more knowledge, went on a pilgrimage. The international reputation of the clinic was founded, not on epoch-making discoveries, but by the resolute and practical application of methods already launched elsewhere and the exemplary organization that Olivecrona had established in collaboration with Lysholm. In spite of hardships and primitive working conditions, the clinic at the Serafimer Hospital gradually developed into the ideal prototype for a modern neurosurgical department. Olivecrona trained many colorful personalities who later were to lay the foundation for neurosurgery in their home countries; these included Wilhelm Tönnis of Germany, Edvard Busch of Denmark, and Aarno Snellman of Finland. Olivecrona was a true pioneer who made major contributions in practically all fields of conventional neurosurgery.

  18. Swedish Poet Wins 2011 Nobel Prize for Literature%Swedish Poet Wins 2011 Nobel Prize for Literature



    Through his condensed( 凝练的), translucent( 透彻的) images he gives us fresh access to reality. --The Swedish Academy The Swedish Academy awarded a Swedish poet, Tomas Transtromer, the 2011 Nobel Prize for Literature, making him the 107th recipient of the Nobel Prize for literature. Transtromer, who has appeared among the list of nominees(被提名者)for the prize for many years, finally won this prize for his famous works Windows and Stones (1966) and The Great En/gma (2004).

  19. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids

    Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve


    In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

  20. An Exon-Capture System for the Entire Class Ophiuroidea.

    Hugall, Andrew F; O'Hara, Timothy D; Hunjan, Sumitha; Nilsen, Roger; Moussalli, Adnan


    Exon-capture studies have typically been restricted to relatively shallow phylogenetic scales due primarily to hybridization constraints. Here, we present an exon-capture system for an entire class of marine invertebrates, the Ophiuroidea, built upon a phylogenetically diverse transcriptome foundation. The system captures approximately 90% of the 1,552 exon target, across all major lineages of the quarter-billion-year-old extant crown group. Key features of our system are 1) basing the target on an alignment of orthologous genes determined from 52 transcriptomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity and trimmed to remove anything difficult to capture, map, or align; 2) use of multiple artificial representatives based on ancestral state reconstructions rather than exemplars to improve capture and mapping of the target; 3) mapping reads to a multi-reference alignment; and 4) using patterns of site polymorphism to distinguish among paralogy, polyploidy, allelic differences, and sample contamination. The resulting data give a well-resolved tree (currently standing at 417 samples, 275,352 sites, 91% data-complete) that will transform our understanding of ophiuroid evolution and biogeography.

  1. Lithospheric structure and continental geodynamics

    许忠淮; 石耀霖


    This paper briefly reviews main progress in the research on lithospheric structure and continental geodynamics made by Chinese geophysicists during last 4 years since 22nd IUGG general assembly in July 1999. The research mainly covers the following fields: investigations on regional lithospheric structure, DSS survey of crust and upper mantle velocity structure, study on present-day inner movement and deformation of Chinese mainland by analyzing GPS observations, geodynamics of Qingzang plateau, geophysical survey of the Dabie-Sulu ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt and probing into its formation mechanism, geophysical observations in sedimentary basins and study on their evolution process, and plate dynamics, etc.

  2. Russian-Swedish Maritime Rivalry in XVIII cen.

    Sergey A. Kolotov


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the military-technical aspect of Russian-Swedish confrontation of the XVIII cen. Given short chronology of hostilities and influence the characteristics of the ships on the results of campaigns.

  3. The Swedish electricity market. From monopoly to competition

    Lublin, Z.G.; Swartling, K.; Fritz, P.


    The possibilities to open the Swedish electricity market for competition have been investigated in a study commissioned by the government. The study is the first one to penetrate most aspects of the Swedish power market. However, the report does not give an actual program for the reformations. The main conclusion of the study is that the electric power transmission lines must be kept open for all producers, not only the owners. A possible system of rules for the operation of such open networks are presented in the report. The main transmission lines should be owned and operated by a government public utility to assure openess and impartiality. Several changes to Swedish law must be made to accomodate for the suggested new structures. The changes are reviewed in the report. (Original swedish language report indexed as database item 92-87352) (8 figs., 35 tabs.).

  4. Annual Report 2011 for the Swedish CDM and JI program; Aarsredovisning 2011 foer Sveriges CDM och JI-program



    The report is an annual report of the Swedish CDM [Clean Development Mechanism] and JI [Joint Implementation]program for 2011. The report shows aims and goals of the business and the work of individual CDM and JI projects and multilateral funds which have been performed over the entire duration of life and especially during 2011. The report presents volume orders, deliveries of emission reduction units as well as the volumes expected to be needed for the fulfillment of the national target by 2020. The report also includes information about the average price for the emission reductions as well as alternative costs.

  5. Genetic epidemiology, prevalence, and genotype–phenotype correlations in the Swedish population with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Lindahl, Katarina; Åström, Eva; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Malmgren, Barbro; Ljunggren, Östen; Kindmark, Andreas


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary bone fragility disorder, caused by collagen I mutations in 90% of cases. There are no comprehensive genotype–phenotype studies on >100 families outside North America, and no population-based studies determining the genetic epidemiology of OI. Here, detailed clinical phenotypes were recorded, and the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were analyzed in 164 Swedish OI families (223 individuals). Averages for bone mineral density (BMD), height and yearly fracture rate were calculated and related to OI and mutation type. N-terminal helical mutations in both the α1- and α2-chains were associated with the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta (P95% of the complete Swedish pediatric OI population. The prevalence of OI types I, III, and IV was 5.16, 0.89, and 1.35/100 000, respectively (7.40/100 000 overall), corresponding to what has been estimated but not unequivocally proven in any population. Collagen I mutation analysis was performed in the family of 97% of known cases, with causative mutations found in 87%. Qualitative mutations caused 32% of OI type I. The data reported here may be helpful to predict phenotype, and describes for the first time the genetic epidemiology in >95% of an entire OI population. PMID:25944380

  6. Genetic epidemiology, prevalence, and genotype-phenotype correlations in the Swedish population with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Lindahl, Katarina; Åström, Eva; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Malmgren, Barbro; Ljunggren, Östen; Kindmark, Andreas


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare hereditary bone fragility disorder, caused by collagen I mutations in 90% of cases. There are no comprehensive genotype-phenotype studies on >100 families outside North America, and no population-based studies determining the genetic epidemiology of OI. Here, detailed clinical phenotypes were recorded, and the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes were analyzed in 164 Swedish OI families (223 individuals). Averages for bone mineral density (BMD), height and yearly fracture rate were calculated and related to OI and mutation type. N-terminal helical mutations in both the α1- and α2-chains were associated with the absence of dentinogenesis imperfecta (P95% of the complete Swedish pediatric OI population. The prevalence of OI types I, III, and IV was 5.16, 0.89, and 1.35/100 000, respectively (7.40/100 000 overall), corresponding to what has been estimated but not unequivocally proven in any population. Collagen I mutation analysis was performed in the family of 97% of known cases, with causative mutations found in 87%. Qualitative mutations caused 32% of OI type I. The data reported here may be helpful to predict phenotype, and describes for the first time the genetic epidemiology in >95% of an entire OI population.

  7. Key success factors : The internationalisation of Swedish fashion companies

    Lind, Stefan; Knudsen, Jerry


    Background: The Swedish fashion market today quickly becomes too small, even for the new companies, and they are quick to take the step abroad and launch their internationalisation process. With a focus on the four Swed-ish fashion companies Filippa K, Acne Jeans, Nudie Jeans and Whyred, we have analysed how these representatives of the industry have interna-tionalised themselves. The companies have chosen different ways to promote their brand and how to control the perceived image of the bra...

  8. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer


    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...

  9. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    Pan, Rong; Panto, Sitthiphon


    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  10. Metaphors in Swedish journalism: the language of business

    Mikołajczyk, Magdalena


    This paper discusses metaphors from the standpoint of cognitive semantics and explores conceptual metaphors in the Swedish language of business, as present in the joumalistic language of everyday newspapers. The introduction briefly reviews the history of metaphorical research, foUowed by a selection of conceptual metaphors found in the economic articles of two Swedish dailies 'Dagens Nyheter' and 'GOteborgs Posten'. This paper also analyses the functions performed by met...

  11. Does natural selection explain the selforganization of the entire cosmos?

    Jack Claycomb


    Full Text Available Because only enduring systems ultimately persist, physicist D. B. Kelley’s theory of universalselection, or “preservation of the stable,” expounds enormously upon the genesis of every lastingphenomenon in history, making it arguably the most interdisciplinary discovery ever made in science. Inhis new book, The Origin of Everything, Kelley thus shows Darwin’s principle of natural selection, orsurvival of the fittest, to explain not only the origin of species as exposed in 1859, but the genesis ofevery steadfast assemblage ever to have endured. In other words, it isn’t just stable species that arenaturally selected to exist, as all of Nature’s many unwavering systems are ultimately selected. Kelleytherefore demonstrates that preservation of the stable is not an innate characteristic of being, but anextremely powerful process, or deterministic mechanism, which absolutely demands fitness from all suchensembles. It therein explains the tremendous amount of variation among Nature’s many assemblages,as well as their stability, or order. However extraordinary, it even unites Darwinism and Einsteinianrelativity, as it further clarifies the relative formation of every phenomenon ever to have been.Consequently, our Earth isn’t the only ecology governed by survival of the fittest, for our entire cosmosis an astronomical ecosystem determined in full via preservation of the stable itself. These findings arealso in perfect accord with the stringent demands of modern biology’s three-part algorithm, or the threefundamental mechanisms responsible for life’s stability and evolution. Remarkably, universal selectionhas even been confirmed at reputable laboratories through numerous experiments in physics, quantumphysics, chemistry and more. While Darwin thus revolutionized all of our various biological sciences byrevealing the immense logic behind every adaptation of every species, Kelley holds that universalselection revolutionizes science in its

  12. Thermal models pertaining to continental growth

    Morgan, Paul; Ashwal, Lew


    Thermal models are important to understanding continental growth as the genesis, stabilization, and possible recycling of continental crust are closely related to the tectonic processes of the earth which are driven primarily by heat. The thermal energy budget of the earth was slowly decreasing since core formation, and thus the energy driving the terrestrial tectonic engine was decreasing. This fundamental observation was used to develop a logic tree defining the options for continental growth throughout earth history.

  13. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Takeuchi, Linn


    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  14. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Ek, P.; Andersson, Sarmite [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Wredberg, L. [ILG Consultant Ltd., Vienna (Austria)


    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the

  15. Pore water geochemistry along continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea: inference of low methane concentrations

    Miller, Clint M.; Dickens, Gerald R.; Jakobsson, Martin; Johansson, Carina; Koshurnikov, Andrey; O'Regan, Matt; Muschitiello, Francesco; Stranne, Christian; Mörth, Carl-Magnus


    Continental slopes north of the East Siberian Sea potentially hold large amounts of methane (CH4) in sediments as gas hydrate and free gas. Although release of this CH4 to the ocean and atmosphere has become a topic of discussion, the region remains sparingly explored. Here we present pore water chemistry results from 32 sediment cores taken during Leg 2 of the 2014 joint Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions (SWERUS-C3) expedition. The cores come from depth transects across the slope and rise extending between the Mendeleev and the Lomonosov ridges, north of Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands, respectively. Upward CH4 flux towards the seafloor, as inferred from profiles of dissolved sulfate (SO42-), alkalinity, and the δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), is negligible at all stations east of 143° E longitude. In the upper 8 m of these cores, downward SO42- flux never exceeds 6.2 mol m-2 kyr-1, the upward alkalinity flux never exceeds 6.8 mol m-2 kyr-1, and δ13C composition of DIC (δ13C-DIC) only moderately decreases with depth (-3.6 ‰ m-1 on average). Moreover, upon addition of Zn acetate to pore water samples, ZnS did not precipitate, indicating a lack of dissolved H2S. Phosphate, ammonium, and metal profiles reveal that metal oxide reduction by organic carbon dominates the geochemical environment and supports very low organic carbon turnover rates. A single core on the Lomonosov Ridge differs, as diffusive fluxes for SO42- and alkalinity were 13.9 and 11.3 mol m-2 kyr-1, respectively, the δ13C-DIC gradient was 5.6 ‰ m-1, and Mn2+ reduction terminated within 1.3 m of the seafloor. These are among the first pore water results generated from this vast climatically sensitive region, and they imply that abundant CH4, including gas hydrates, do not characterize the East Siberian Sea slope or rise along the investigated depth transects. This contradicts previous modeling and discussions, which

  16. Australian Continental Shelf as an Inverse Estuary

    Mahjabin, T.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Hetzel, Y.


    Transport of inshore waters and suspended material off the continental shelf by Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) has important ecological and biogeochemical implications in Australian waters. Because of high rates of evaporation, denser saline water along the sea bed occurs in a majority of the shallow coastal regions around Australia, setting up horizontal density gradients that can form DSWC. This study uses data available from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which is operated by the Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) located at the University of Western Australia, to measure cross-shelf density profiles under varying conditions around the entire continent. Analysis of 143 transects of 97 sets of spatial and temporal resolution data from the ocean gliders under varying wind and tide conditions for seven contrasting regions surrounding Australia has allowed us to confirm that DSWC occurs on a regular basis during autumn and winter seasons. Results indicate that cascades occur during these seasons mainly due to cooling of the coastal water which already have higher salinity due to evaporation during the summer months. The cascades were present under different wind and tidal energy conditions and the controlling parameter for cascade formation is the cross-shelf density gradient. The cross-shelf density gradient in North-West Australia is maximum in July (14.23x10-6 kgm-4); whereas it is a maximum in June in South Australia (18.78x10-6 kgm-4) and in May in South-West Australia (25.884x10-6 kgm-4). Greater knowledge of the occurrence of DSWC will enhance understanding of the offshore transport of larvae, nutrients, salt, heat, carbon, low-oxygen water, sediment, and pollutants in Australian waters.

  17. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continental Shelf areas. 1.638-1 Section 1.638-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Continental Shelf Areas § 1.638-1 Continental Shelf areas. (a) General rule. For.... The terms Continental Shelf of the United States and Continental Shelf of a possession of the United...

  18. Deformation in the continental lithosphere

    The Physical Properties of Earth Materials Committee, a technical committee of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, is organizing a dinner/colloquium as part of the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif. This event will be held Monday, December 3rd, in the Gold Rush Room of the Holiday Inn Golden Gateway Hotel at 1500 Van Ness St. There will be a no-host bar from 6:30 to 7:30 P.M., followed by dinner from 7:30 to 8:30 P.M. Paul Tapponnier will deliver the after-dinner talk, “Large-Scale Deformation Mechanisms in the Continental Lithosphere: Where Do We Stand?” It will start at 8:30 P.M. and a business meeting will follow at 9:30 P.M.

  19. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Huber, R L


    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  20. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann


    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evolution of Oxidative Continental Weathering

    Konhauser, Kurt; Lalonde, Stefan


    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is currently viewed as a protracted process during which atmospheric oxygen levels increased above 10-5 times the present atmospheric level. This value is based on the loss of sulphur isotope mass independent fractionation (S-MIF) from the rock record, beginning at 2.45 Ga and disappearing by 2.32 Ga. However, a number of recent papers have pushed back the timing for oxidative continental weathering, and by extension, the onset of atmospheric oxygenation several hundreds of million years earlier despite the presence of S-MIF (e.g., Crowe et al., 2013). This apparent discrepancy can, in part, be resolved by the suggestion that recycling of older sedimentary sulphur bearing S-MIF might have led to this signal's persistence in the rock record for some time after atmospheric oxygenation (Reinhard et al., 2013). Here we suggest another possibility, that the earliest oxidative weathering reactions occurred in environments at profound redox disequilibrium with the atmosphere, such as biological soil crusts, riverbed and estuarine sediments, and lacustrine microbial mats. We calculate that the rate of O2 production via oxygenic photosynthesis in these terrestrial microbial ecosystems provides largely sufficient oxidizing potential to mobilise sulphate and a number of redox-sensitive trace metals from land to the oceans while the atmosphere itself remained anoxic with its attendant S-MIF signature. These findings reconcile geochemical signatures in the rock record for the earliest oxidative continental weathering with the history of atmospheric sulphur chemistry, and demonstrate the plausible antiquity of a terrestrial biosphere populated by cyanobacteria. Crowe, S.A., Dossing, L.N., Beukes, N.J., Bau, M., Kruger, S.J., Frei, R. & Canfield, D.E. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature 501, 535-539 (2013). Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J. & Lyons, T.W. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497

  2. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Eva Torkelson


    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  3. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik


    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  4. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Anell, Anders


    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  5. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  6. Regional geomorphology of the continental slope of NW India: Delineation of the signatures of deep-seated structures

    Chauhan, O.S.; Almeida, F.; Moraes, C.

    Geomorphological features (derived from 16,000 lkm of echo-sounding and bathymetric data) and deep-seated tectonic tectonic structures of the continental margin off NW India are presented. The shelf break over the entire region occurs between 80...

  7. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    Elam, Mark, e-mail:; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran


    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  8. The genetic structure of the Swedish population.

    Keith Humphreys

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic diversity have previously been shown to mirror geography on a global scale and within continents and individual countries. Using genome-wide SNP data on 5174 Swedes with extensive geographical coverage, we analyzed the genetic structure of the Swedish population. We observed strong differences between the far northern counties and the remaining counties. The population of Dalarna county, in north middle Sweden, which borders southern Norway, also appears to differ markedly from other counties, possibly due to this county having more individuals with remote Finnish or Norwegian ancestry than other counties. An analysis of genetic differentiation (based on pairwise F(st indicated that the population of Sweden's southernmost counties are genetically closer to the HapMap CEU samples of Northern European ancestry than to the populations of Sweden's northernmost counties. In a comparison of extended homozygous segments, we detected a clear divide between southern and northern Sweden with small differences between the southern counties and considerably more segments in northern Sweden. Both the increased degree of homozygosity in the north and the large genetic differences between the south and the north may have arisen due to a small population in the north and the vast geographical distances between towns and villages in the north, in contrast to the more densely settled southern parts of Sweden. Our findings have implications for future genome-wide association studies (GWAS with respect to the matching of cases and controls and the need for within-county matching. We have shown that genetic differences within a single country may be substantial, even when viewed on a European scale. Thus, population stratification needs to be accounted for, even within a country like Sweden, which is often perceived to be relatively homogenous and a favourable resource for genetic mapping, otherwise inferences based on genetic data may lead to

  9. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta


    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers


    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  11. The Swedish model: an alternative to macroeconomic policy



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper describes the main details of the Swedish economic model, which began to be structured on the 1930s and achieved its consolidation on the 1950s. The Swedish model is characterized by a macroeconomic policy which provides price stability, fiscal results for selective industrial policies and social active policies, the latter being recognized as a wide universal welfare state. This combination, which contradicts the traditional economic prescriptions, has been successful given the country was agrarian and underdeveloped until the of 20th century and achieved a high social-economic development level on the 1970s. Afterwards, we present the Swedish experiment as an alternative to macroeconomic management, especially due to its uniqueness.

  12. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002



    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  13. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    Hersey, Anna Christine


    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  14. Word Order Errors. Swedish-English Contrastive Studies, Report No. 2.

    Carlbom, Ulla

    The materials employed in this investigation were 769 translations from Swedish into English made by Swedish university students studying English. The principal objective was to study aspects of learner behavior (in treating English word order) to obtain information about the types of errors Swedish students commit in English production and…

  15. Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust

    Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.


    The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.

  16. Continental crust composition constrained by measurements of crustal Poisson's ratio

    Zandt, George; Ammon, Charles J.


    DECIPHERING the geological evolution of the Earth's continental crust requires knowledge of its bulk composition and global variability. The main uncertainties are associated with the composition of the lower crust. Seismic measurements probe the elastic properties of the crust at depth, from which composition can be inferred. Of particular note is Poisson's ratio,Σ ; this elastic parameter can be determined uniquely from the ratio of P- to S-wave seismic velocity, and provides a better diagnostic of crustal composition than either P- or S-wave velocity alone1. Previous attempts to measure Σ have been limited by difficulties in obtaining coincident P- and S-wave data sampling the entire crust2. Here we report 76 new estimates of crustal Σ spanning all of the continents except Antarctica. We find that, on average, Σ increases with the age of the crust. Our results strongly support the presence of a mafic lower crust beneath cratons, and suggest either a uniformitarian craton formation process involving delamination of the lower crust during continental collisions, followed by magmatic underplating, or a model in which crust formation processes have changed since the Precambrian era.

  17. Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones.

    Thybo, H; Nielsen, C A


    Continental rift zones are long, narrow tectonic depressions in the Earth's surface where the entire lithosphere has been modified in extension. Rifting can eventually lead to rupture of the continental lithosphere and creation of new oceanic lithosphere or, alternatively, lead to formation of wide sedimentary basins around failed rift zones. Conventional models of rift zones include three characteristic features: surface manifestation as an elongated topographic trough, Moho shallowing due to crustal thinning, and reduced seismic velocity in the uppermost mantle due to decompression melting or heating from the Earth's interior. Here we demonstrate that only the surface manifestation is observed at the Baikal rift zone, whereas the crustal and mantle characteristics can be ruled out by a new seismic profile across southern Lake Baikal in Siberia. Instead we observe a localized zone in the lower crust which has exceptionally high seismic velocity and is highly reflective. We suggest that the expected Moho uplift was compensated by magmatic intrusion into the lower crust, producing the observed high-velocity zone. This finding demonstrates a previously unknown role for magmatism in rifting processes with significant implications for estimation of stretching factors and modelling of sedimentary basins around failed rift structures.

  18. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.


    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  19. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist....

  20. Determiner use in Italian Swedish and Italian German children: Do Swedish and German represent the same parameter setting?

    Tanja Kupisch


    Full Text Available In this article we compare the acquisition of determiners in bilingual children acquiring Italian simultaneously with German or Swedish. We are concerned with cross-linguistic differences in the rate of acquisition and we discuss in particular the Nominal Mapping Parameter, a model according to which the syntax-semantics interface is crucial in acquisition and which predicts similar developmental patterns for children acquiring a Germanic language. We show that Swedish determiners are acquired more easily than German determiners, which implies that predictions for developmental patterns should not be based on syntactic factors alone, but must make reference to typological differences in morphology and phonology. Furthermore, we show that the acquisition of Italian determiners is affected positively by the simultaneous acquisition of Swedish but that no such effect arises when Italian is acquired simultaneously with German.

  1. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  2. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  3. Volatile components and continental material of planets

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Nikolayeva, O. V.


    It is shown that the continental material of the terrestrial planets varies in composition from planet to planet according to the abundances and composition of true volatiles (H20, CO2, etc.) in the outer shells of the planets. The formation of these shells occurs very early in a planet's evolution when the role of endogenous processes is indistinct and continental materials are subject to melting and vaporizing in the absence of an atmosphere. As a result, the chemical properties of continental materials are related not only to fractionation processes but also to meltability and volatility. For planets retaining a certain quantity of true volatile components, the chemical transformation of continental material is characterized by a close interaction between impact melting vaporization and endogeneous geological processes.

  4. Exploration of the continental margins of India

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Vora, K.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    In mid 1970's the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India prepared a plan for systematic regional, geological and geophysical surveys of the continental margins of India. This involved over 75,000 km of underway (bathymetric, side scan sonar...

  5. Principles of the continental copyright law

    Matveev A.


    It is known that there are two key copyright law traditions: English–American and Roman–Germanic copyright laws. The French and German copyright law is in the vanguard of the continental copyright law, with the copyright law of Russia being among the others in this copyright law system. However, the Russian copyright law has some specific characteristics. Copyright law is based on the defined principles. The purpose of the present article is to define the principles Continental Copyright Law....

  6. Continental underplating after slab break-off

    Magni, V.; Allen, M. B.; van Hunen, J.; Bouilhol, P.


    We present three-dimensional numerical models to investigate the dynamics of continental collision, and in particular what happens to the subducted continental lithosphere after oceanic slab break-off. We find that in some scenarios the subducting continental lithosphere underthrusts the overriding plate not immediately after it enters the trench, but after oceanic slab break-off. In this case, the continental plate first subducts with a steep angle and then, after the slab breaks off at depth, it rises back towards the surface and flattens below the overriding plate, forming a thick horizontal layer of continental crust that extends for about 200 km beyond the suture. This type of behaviour depends on the width of the oceanic plate marginal to the collision zone: wide oceanic margins promote continental underplating and marginal back-arc basins; narrow margins do not show such underplating unless a far field force is applied. Our models show that, as the subducted continental lithosphere rises, the mantle wedge progressively migrates away from the suture and the continental crust heats up, reaching temperatures >900 °C. This heating might lead to crustal melting, and resultant magmatism. We observe a sharp peak in the overriding plate rock uplift right after the occurrence of slab break-off. Afterwards, during underplating, the maximum rock uplift is smaller, but the affected area is much wider (up to 350 km). These results can be used to explain the dynamics that led to the present-day crustal configuration of the India-Eurasia collision zone and its consequences for the regional tectonic and magmatic evolution.

  7. Mechanisms of continental intraplate earthquakes

    Gangopadhyay, Abhijit Kumar

    To better understand the mechanisms of continental intraplate earthquakes, a multistep approach was used. The first step involved analysis and synthesis of multidisciplinary data from 39 intraplate earthquakes spanning 20 continental intraplate regions, to identify their characteristic and diagnostic features. This led to the following testable hypothesis: Intraplate earthquakes occur within pre-existing zones of weakness (most commonly failed rifts), in the vicinity of stress concentrators, such as, intersecting faults, buried plutons, and/or rift pillows in the presence of the ambient stress field. The next step involved testing this hypothesis---first with 2-D mechanical models and then with 3-D models. Since two-thirds of the examined intraplate regions had intersecting faults as a stress concentrator, its role was first evaluated. A Distinct Element Method was used wherein the models comprised of the structural framework of the concerned region represented by a set of rock blocks that are assigned elastic properties conforming to the known geology, and subjected to tectonic loading along the direction of maximum regional compression (S Hmax) at a rate similar to the ambient plate velocity. The 2-D modeling was performed for two major intraplate regions in eastern U.S., viz., New Madrid and Middleton Place Summerville seismic zones, using a commercially available code called UDEC. These models adequately explain the spatial distribution of current seismicity in the regions. However, the absence of the third dimension limited the observation of tectonics in the depth dimension. Thus, 3-D models were developed for these two regions using the 3-D version of UDEC, called 3DEC. The preliminary results of these models adequately demonstrate correlation of locations of current seismicity with fault intersections in 3-D space, and also duplicate vertical movements. Although, the mechanical models demonstrated a causal association of seismicity with intersecting faults

  8. Stratigraphic Modelling of Continental Rifting

    Mondy, Luke; Duclaux, Guillaume; Salles, Tristan; Thomas, Charmaine; Rey, Patrice


    Interlinks between deformation and sedimentation have long been recognised as an important factor in the evolution of continental rifts and basins development. However, determining the relative impact of tectonic and climatic forcing on the dynamics of these systems remains a major challenge. This problem in part derives from a lack of modelling tools capable of simulated high detailed surface processes within a large scale (spatially and temporally) tectonic setting. To overcome this issue an innovative framework has been designed using two existing numerical forward modelling codes: Underworld, capable of simulating 3D self-consistent tectonic and thermal lithospheric processes, and Tellus, a forward stratigraphic and geomorphic modelling framework dedicated to simulating highly detailed surface dynamics. The coupling framework enables Tellus to use Underworld outputs as internal and boundary conditions, thereby simulating the stratigraphic and geomorphic evolution of a realistic, active tectonic setting. The resulting models can provide high-resolution data on the stratigraphic record, grain-size variations, sediment provenance, fluvial hydrometric, and landscape evolution. Here we illustrate a one-way coupling method between active tectonics and surface processes in an example of 3D oblique rifting. Our coupled model enables us to visualise the distribution of sediment sources and sinks, and their evolution through time. From this we can extract and analyse at each simulation timestep the stratigraphic record anywhere within the model domain. We find that even from a generic oblique rift model, complex fluvial-deltaic and basin filling dynamics emerge. By isolating the tectonic activity from landscape dynamics with this one-way coupling, we are able to investigate the influence of changes in climate or geomorphic parameters on the sedimentary and landscape record. These impacts can be quantified in part via model post-processing to derive both instantaneous and

  9. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    M. O'Regan


    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  10. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach

    Christensen, Nikolas I.

    Nearly 80 years ago, Yugoslavian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic recognized, while studying a Balkan earthquake, that velocities of seismic waves increase abruptly at a few tens of kilometers depth , giving rise to the seismological definition of the crust. Since that discovery, many studies concerned with the nature of both the continental and oceanic crusts have appeared in the geophysical literature.Recently, interest in the continental crust has cascaded. This is largely because of an infusion of new data obtained from major reflection programs such as the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) and British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) and increased resolution of refraction studies. In addition, deep continental drilling programs are n ow in fashion. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach is a summary of present knowledge of the continental crust. Meissner has succeeded in writing a book suited to many different readers, from the interested undergraduate to the professional. The book is well documented , with pertinent figures and a complete and up-to-date reference list.

  11. Continental crust generated in oceanic arcs

    Gazel, Esteban; Hayes, Jorden L.; Hoernle, Kaj; Kelemen, Peter; Everson, Erik; Holbrook, W. Steven; Hauff, Folkmar; van den Bogaard, Paul; Vance, Eric A.; Chu, Shuyu; Calvert, Andrew J.; Carr, Michael J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.


    Thin oceanic crust is formed by decompression melting of the upper mantle at mid-ocean ridges, but the origin of the thick and buoyant continental crust is enigmatic. Juvenile continental crust may form from magmas erupted above intra-oceanic subduction zones, where oceanic lithosphere subducts beneath other oceanic lithosphere. However, it is unclear why the subduction of dominantly basaltic oceanic crust would result in the formation of andesitic continental crust at the surface. Here we use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American land bridge, which formed above an intra-oceanic subduction system over the past 70 Myr. We find that the geochemical signature of erupted lavas evolved from basaltic to andesitic about 10 Myr ago--coincident with the onset of subduction of more oceanic crust that originally formed above the Galápagos mantle plume. We also find that seismic P-waves travel through the crust at velocities intermediate between those typically observed for oceanic and continental crust. We develop a continentality index to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust globally. We conclude that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone--a process probably more common in the Archaean--can produce juvenile continental crust.

  12. Continental growth seen through the sedimentary record

    Dhuime, Bruno; Hawkesworth, Chris J.; Delavault, Hélène; Cawood, Peter A.


    Sedimentary rocks and detrital minerals sample large areas of the continental crust, and they are increasingly seen as a reliable archive for its global evolution. This study presents two approaches to model the growth of the continental crust through the sedimentary archive. The first builds on the variations in U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes in global databases of detrital zircons. We show that uncertainty in the Hf isotope composition of the mantle reservoir from which new crust separated, in the 176Lu/177Hf ratio of that new crust, and in the contribution in the databases of zircons that experienced ancient Pb loss(es), adds some uncertainty to the individual Hf model ages, but not to the overall shape of the calculated continental growth curves. The second approach is based on the variation of Nd isotopes in 645 worldwide fine-grained continental sedimentary rocks with different deposition ages, which requires a correction of the bias induced by preferential erosion of younger rocks through an erosion parameter referred to as K. This dimensionless parameter relates the proportions of younger to older source rocks in the sediment, to the proportions of younger to older source rocks present in the crust from which the sediment was derived. We suggest that a Hadean/Archaean value of K = 1 (i.e., no preferential erosion), and that post-Archaean values of K = 4-6, may be reasonable for the global Earth system. Models built on the detrital zircon and the fine-grained sediment records independently suggest that at least 65% of the present volume of continental crust was established by 3 Ga. The continental crust has been generated continuously, but with a marked decrease in the growth rate at 3 Ga. The period from > 4 Ga to 3 Ga is characterised by relatively high net rates of continental growth (2.9-3.4 km3 yr- 1 on average), which are similar to the rates at which new crust is generated (and destroyed) at the present time. Net growth rates are much lower since 3 Ga (0

  13. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel


    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  14. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    Hansen, Hans Oluf


    by fitting the model to empirical cohort mortality of Swedish males born in 1760 and 1900 using stochastic micro-simulation. The approach and not a few of the results question conventional demographic wisdom and inference based on over-simplifying statistical modeling in the life sciences. This study extends...

  15. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David


    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  16. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa


    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast.

  17. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    Ehrlin, Anna


    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  18. Arts Education in Swedish Teacher Training--What's at Stake?

    Lindgren, Monica; Ericsson, Claes


    Swedish teacher education has undergone several reforms in recent decades aimed at incorporating teacher education into the university setting and strengthening the teaching profession. In view of earlier research that has shown how arts education in schools is ruled by dominant knowledge ideologies, the purpose of the project is to critically…

  19. The Swedish-Norwegian Electricity Certificate Market - Annual Report 2012



    The first joint annual report from the Swedish Energy Agency and the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) about the Swedish-Norwegian electricity certificate market has now been completed. With this report, we wish to present a picture of the most important events and key figures for the electricity certificate market during 2012. For further information about the electricity certificate system and the electricity certificate market, please see the web sites of either public authority. Since 1 January 2012, Sweden and Norway have had a common market for electricity certificates. It is based on the Swedish electricity certificate market, which has been in existence since 2003. The goal of the electricity certificate market is to increase the renewable electricity production in both countries combined by 26.4 TWh by the end of 2020. Sweden and Norway are responsible for financing half of the increase each, but it is up to the market to decide where and when the new production is to take place. In addition to information about fulfilment of the common goal, this report also includes a summary of approved production in the Swedish electricity certificate system up to the end of 2011 and approved plants in the Norwegian transitional settlement. The Agency and NVE are happy to receive feedback about the annual report. Please contact us if you wish to put forward your views on how to make next year's report even better.

  20. Implementing Test Enhanced Learning: Swedish Teacher Students' Perception of Quizzing

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola


    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students…

  1. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver


    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  2. Management by Objectives: The Swedish Experience in Upper Secondary Schools

    Lindberg, Erik; Wilson, Timothy L.


    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore how managing by objectives (MBO) has been adopted in Swedish schools and to reflect on some of the consequences in a longitudinal study. Results relate to whether introduction has increased student performance and whether it works as a tool for the principals to create more effective schools.…

  3. The circumplex structure of affect: a Swedish version.

    Knez, I; Hygge, S


    The taxonomy of a circumplex model has been widely applied in the emotion domain and especially by researchers advocating a systematic arrangement of conscious emotional experience (see Fabrigar, Visser & Browne, 1997; Feldman Barett & Russell, 1999 for recent reviews). To rule out some of the lexical problems in the naming of affective states in the circumplex space, Larsen and Diener (1992) suggested a labeling system with forty-eight English adjectives representing eight affective states. The objective of the present study was to examine how well Swedish adjectives map onto a dimensional model of this kind, in doing so, to compose a Swedish measure for self-reported affect. The forty-eight Swedish adjectives translated from Larsen and Diener (1992) failed to capture a pure circumplex structure. However, when approximately two thirds of these adjectives were reanalyzed, a reasonable consistency with the circumplex model was reached. This suggested a composite Swedish measure for self-rated affect, with up to four adjectives representing each of the eight affective states in the circumplex space.

  4. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Hedlin, Maria


    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  5. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Olof Sivertsson


    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  6. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise


    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  7. The civic integrationist turn in Danish and Swedish school politics

    Fernández, Christian; Jensen, Kristian Kriegbaum


    , yet with different styles and content. Citizenship education in Denmark concentrates on reproducing a historically derived core of cultural values and knowledge to which minorities are expected to assimilate, while the Swedish model subscribes to a pluralist view that stresses mutual adaptation...

  8. Syllable reduction and articulation rates in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish

    Hilton, N.H.; Schüppert, Anja; Gooskens, C.S.


    This investigation compares articulation rates of phonological and phonetic syllables in Norwegian, Swedish and Danish to investigate differences in degrees of syllable deletion (reduction) among these three languages. For the investigation two sets of data are used: one consisting of recorded speec

  9. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise


    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  10. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    Norling, Martina


    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  11. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Krishna, K.S.

    and classification of continental margins are in general dependent on style of continental splitting, rifting, subsidence and their proximity to the tectonic plate boundaries, at times the margins undergo for modifications by sediment deposition and volcanic... by Deccan-Reunion hotspot volcanism and Bengal Fan sedimentation respectively. Volcanism has dominated on the western continental margin of India, thereby the margin had been turned into a volcanic passive continental margin, while eastern continental...

  12. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality ...

    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assum

  13. The Bay of Bengal and the Statement of Understanding Concerning the Establishment of the Outer Edge of the Continental Margin: Regional Implications for Delimiting the Juridical Continental Shelf

    Mridha, M.; Varma, H.; Macnab, R.


    The Bay of Bengal is the site of massive depositions of sediment from the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems, which discharge an estimated 2300 million tons of material into the Indian Ocean every year. The accumulated material comprises an enormous fan that extends some 4000 km from the Mouths of the Ganges, a delta system which encompasses the entire coast of Bangladesh and a segment of the coast of India. The major tectonic elements of the Bay of Bengal and surrounding areas are: the passive eastern continental margin of India; the 85E Ridge; the Ninetyeast Ridge; the intervening basin buried beneath deep sediment; and the Sunda Arc system with the associated back-arc Andaman Basin. Except for the Nikitin Seamounts which rise above the seabed just south of the Equator, the 85E Ridge is totally covered by thick sediment. The Ninetyeast Ridge, on the other hand, protrudes above the seabed as far north as 10N, where it plunges beneath the thickening sediment and separates the deposits into the Bengal Fan and the smaller Nicobar Fan. The 85E and Ninetyeast Ridges present the most significant relief in the crystalline basement underlying the Bay of Bengal, and should therefore figure substantially in any analysis of sediment thickness pursuant to the delimitation of the outer continental shelf. In this region, the sediment thickness provision of Article 76 has been modified by a Statement of Understanding in Annex II of the Final Act of the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea. To avoid a perceived inequity that might arise from the application of the standard one percent sediment thickness formula of Article 76, the Statement introduced a new formula: a qualified State in this region, even if it has a narrow physiographic continental shelf, may establish the outer edge of its continental margin by a line where the thickness of sedimentary rock is not less than one km. This presentation will describe the development of a joint formula line for the States that

  14. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)


    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  15. Seismic probing of continental subduction zones

    Zhao, Liang; Xu, Xiaobing; Malusà, Marco G.


    High-resolution images of Earth's interior provide pivotal information for the understanding of a range of geodynamic processes, including continental subduction and exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks. Here we present a synthesis of available global seismic observations on continental subduction zones, and selected examples of seismic probing from the European Alps, the Himalaya-Tibet and the Qinling-Dabie orogenic belts. Our synthesis and examples show that slabs recognized beneath exhumed continental UHP terranes generally have shallow dip angles (100 km. Slabs underlined by a clear high velocity anomaly from Earth's surface to the mantle are generally Cenozoic in age. Some of these slabs are continuous, whereas other continental subduction zones are located above discontinuous high velocity anomalies possibly suggesting slab breakoff. The density of seismic stations and the quality of recordings are of primary importance to get high-resolution images of the upper mantle to be used as a starting point to provide reliable geodynamic interpretations. In some cases, areas previously indicated as possible site of slab breakoff, such as the European Alps, have been later proven to be located above a continuous slab by using higher quality travel time data from denser seismic arrays. Discriminating between oceanic and continental slabs can be challenging, but valuable information can be provided by combining teleseismic tomography and receiver function analysis. The upper mantle beneath most continental UHP terranes generally shows complex seismic anisotropy patterns that are potentially preserved even in pre-Cenozoic subduction zones. These patterns can be used to provide information on continental slabs that are no longer highlighted by a clear high-velocity anomaly.

  16. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    C. Poeplau


    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr−1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  17. Constructing Swedish Fashion Identity Exhibition Review : Svenskt Mode (Swedish Fashion): 2000–2015, Sven-Harry’s Art Museum, Stockholm, May 23–August 31, 2014

    Zhang, Yanqing


    This is an exhibition review article. It describes the goal, the curatorship, display and exhibited objects. The exhibition focuses on Swedish fashion design and treats fashion as something in relation to art. It analyzes the exhibition as part of institutionalization of Swedish fashion system. Understanding fashion as a system rather than material clothing is the key point here.

  18. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac


    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  19. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  20. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M; Harvey, Euan S; Heyward, Andrew J; Twiggs, Emily J; Colquhoun, Jamie


    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats

  1. On genocide and the Holocaust in Swedish History teaching

    Niklas Ammert


    Full Text Available Teaching about the Holocaust and other genocides is emphasized in Swedish History teaching. In Sweden there is a public authority commisioned to work with issues related to tolerance, democracy and human rights. It is this context and under these conditions, that Swedish History teachers select a variety of topics for their students to learn, as part of the History curriculum. In addition to the Holocaust, they teach about crimes against humanity committed under communist regimes, the genocide of Tutsies in Rwanda, and mass murder and ethnic cleansing in former Yugoslavia. Teachers use a multiplicity of uses of history and teaching methods. They conduct a scientific use of history when focusing on the historical contexts and explaining the background, motives and consequences of genocide. Teachers also stress the students’ personal reflections and standpoints in a moral use of history. The teaching aims at developing understanding and empathy among students.

  2. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Bernstroem, B.M.; Eklund, Y.; Sjoeberg, L.


    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  3. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban


    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... subcategories. RESULTS: A total of 282 pharmacy encounters were observed and recorded, of which 259 fully coincided with the inclusion criteria. After categorizing the content of each encounter the results showed that there was little or no dialog regarding medicinal issues during the pharmacy encounter...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  4. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))


    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  5. The Swedish approach to spent fuel disposal - stepwise implementation

    Gustaffson, B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)


    This presentation describes the stepwise implementation of direct disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. The present status regarding the technical development of the Swedish concept will be discussed as well the local site work made in co-operation with the affected and concerned municipalities. In this respect it should be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. A brief review will also be given regarding the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory. The objectives of this laboratory as well as the ongoing demo-project will be discussed. In order to give the symposium organizer a more broad view of the Swedish programme a number of recent papers has been compiled. Theses papers will be summarized in the presentation. (author). 4 tabs., 22 figs.

  6. Occurrence of self reported hand eczema in Swedish bakers


    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of bakers developing hand eczema. The importance of atopy was studied as well as change of job due to hand eczema. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed among bakers trained in Swedish trade schools in 1961-89 (n = 2923). School referents followed other programmes (n = 1258); population controls were randomly selected from the general population (n = 1258). A questionnaire on self reported hand eczema, year of onset of hand eczema, change o...

  7. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2004



    2004 was somewhat of a record year for the Swedish nuclear power stations. No serious faults occurred, and production exceeded previous record outputs. Total output from the eleven nuclear power units during the year amounted to 75 TWh, which is the largest amount of power ever produced by nuclear power in Sweden. Corresponding figures for earlier years are 59 TWh (2003), 65 TWh (2002) and 69 TWh (2001). An important reason for this excellent result was the very high energy availability. Forsmark 1, for example, exceeded 97 % availability, while Forsmark 2 just reached 97 %. For all the Swedish nuclear power stations as a whole, availability in 2004 amounted to 91 %. In addition to the connection between production and energy availability, there is also a connection with safety. During the year, safety in the Swedish power stations has been high, not only in absolute terms but also in an international perspective. One measure of safety is to be found in the number of accidents, incidents, anomalies or deviations reported to the IAEA on a scale known as the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Sweden has undertaken to report all events in accordance with this international system. Three reports were submitted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, which is responsible for national reporting, during the year. None of them had any significance for reactor safety: all were categorised as incidents or minor deviations from the regulations. Summarising, 2004 has been an excellent year for nuclear power safety, which is also reflected by the record electricity production during the year.

  8. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer


    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad.

  9. The Unaccompanied Refugee Minors and the Swedish Labour Market

    Celikaksoy, Aycan; Wadensjö, Eskil


    More unaccompanied refugee children arrive to and get a residence permit in Sweden than in any other country in Europe. The number of children who arrives is increasing fast. The Swedish experiences are therefore of great interest also for other countries. In this paper we study the labour market situation in terms of employment and income for those who have arrived as unaccompanied minors and have been registered in Sweden. We compare them with those who also arrived as minors from the same ...

  10. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    Lindskog, Helena


    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  11. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper


    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  12. Integrating sustainability with business strategy – the Swedish chemical industry

    Larsson, Robert


    This thesis aims to investigate perceptions of sustainability in relation to business strategy within the Swedish chemical industry. To this end, a survey was distributed with the assistance of industry organization Plast- och Kemiföretagen to companies that are part of the Responsible Care® program. A second purpose of the study is to explore critical factors when implementing an integration of sustainability with business strategy. To do this as well as dig deeper into a couple of questions...

  13. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Hellstrand, S.; Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)


    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  14. Evaluating Documentation of Dietetic Care in Swedish Medical Records

    Lövestam, Elin; Orrevall, Ylva; Koochek, Afsaneh; Karlström, Brita; Andersson, Agneta


    An adequate documentation in medical records is essential for patient safety and high quality care. The aim of this study was to evaluate documentation by dietitians in Swedish medical records. A retrospective audit of 147 dietetic notes in electronic medical records was performed. The audit focused at documentation of essential parts of the dietetic care, as well as other quality aspects such as lingual clarity and structure of the documentation. The nutrition intervention showed to be the m...

  15. Portrayals of lobotomy in American and Swedish media.

    Ogren, Kenneth


    Psychosurgery has a long history dating back to the 1880s when Gottlieb Burckhardt performed focal cerebral cortical excisions on the brains of six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. His operations were vividly contested by the medical community of the time. In 1936, when Walter J. Freeman and James W. Watts performed their initial prefrontal lobotomies in the United States, they were met with some professional opposition from superintendents, who would not provide them with patients for the operation. However, Freeman and Watts managed to cope well with the opponents. In newspapers and magazines, the curiosity for lobotomy was obvious. Freeman was instrumental in the way he promoted lobotomy, and he evoked the interest of the press and the journalists for this new surgical treatment on mental illness, something that he regarded as a medico-historical breakthrough. In this chapter, the portrayal of lobotomy in American and Swedish newspapers and magazines is explored and analyzed. How did journalists write about lobotomy for the public in the years spanning 1936 to 1959, a period in which the American and Swedish presses appeared inclined to describe the positive effects of lobotomy, while neglecting the negative and fatal consequences of the operation. There are not only similarities but also interesting differences between the Swedish and the American articles depicting lobotomy. The media can be a powerful factor in the construction of "facts," which can significantly affect decisions made by people about their health issues.

  16. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Kindberg, Anna


    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  17. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá


    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  18. Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Dammstrom, Bo-Goran; Norback, Dan


    The aim was to study hearing impairment in commercial pilots. A total of 634 male and 30 female pilots (N=664) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiological tests during the period 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing impairment. The mean values for the hearing test at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing impairment. Data was compared with a general adult Swedish population (n=603) not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels gate to gate (Leq) were measured in the cockpit of different aircraft. Leq was 75-81 dB (A), peak exposures were 105 dB (A) from the cabin call signal. Median values were similar as in the reference group at all ages. There was no association between years of employment, tobacco smoking, and hearing impairment, when adjusted for age and gender by multiple logistic regressions analysis. In conclusion, pilots are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard of 85 dB (A), with short peak exposures above the standard, and have normal age-matched hearing thresholds.

  19. Increasing concentrations of arsenic and vanadium in (southern) Swedish streams

    Waellstedt, Teresia, E-mail: [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Bjoerkvald, Louise [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences), P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Gustafsson, Jon Petter [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends and controlling factors of As and V in running waters throughout Sweden. For this purpose, data on stream water chemistry from 62 streams of varying catchment size and characteristics, included in the Swedish environmental monitoring programmes were evaluated. The geochemical software Visual MINTEQ was used to model the speciation and trend analyses were performed on total concentrations of As and V as well as modelled fractions (dissolved species as well as arsenate and vanadate adsorbed to ferrihydrite). The trend analyses showed increasing total concentrations of As and V in southern Sweden. Concentrations of As and V correlated significantly to Fe concentrations in 59 and 60 of the 62 streams respectively, indicating that Fe is an important determining factor for As and V concentrations in Swedish streams. This was confirmed by the geochemical modelling that indicated that the adsorbed fraction is the dominant form of As and V and that the concentrations of As and V in Swedish streams are thus highly determined by concentrations of colloidal or particulate Fe. It is therefore suggested that the increasing trends of As and V are to a large extent due to increasing concentrations of colloidal Fe, which is stabilised by increasing concentrations of DOC. Further the geochemical modelling indicates that the dissolved fraction of As and V generally is small, with the exception of a few streams with high pH and/or phosphate concentrations.

  20. Components of success in academic reading tasks for Swedish students

    Philip Shaw


    Full Text Available In a parallel-language environment students are often required to read in a language different from the one they use in lectures, seminars, and among themselves. Relatively little research has been done on the overall reading success of such groups or on the componential make up of their L2 reading skills. This paper compares the English-language reading skills of Swedish students of biology with that of equivalent British biology students. Many Swedish readers perform within or above the normal British range on the study-reading test, but the overall average score of this sample of Swedish readers was considerably lower than that of the British sample. For the Swedes study-reading success correlates significantly with vocabulary knowledge, inferencing and newspaper reading, and at a lower level for word recognition speed. For the British informants the pattern is similar, but with no significant correlation for word-recognition speed. Multiple regression analyses show that academic vocabulary knowledge test scores can account for nearly half the variance in study-reading scores and newspaper reading test scores for about ten percent more. For the British informants the same pattern emerged, but the contributions of vocabulary knowledge was considerably greater and that of newspaper skimming rather less.

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla


    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  2. Attempting Institutional Change: Swedish Apprenticeship, 1890–1917

    Sandra Hellstrand


    Full Text Available Sweden never got an apprentice law after apprenticeship was de-regulated in 1864. This has been attributed to unified opposition to legislation from industry employers and trade unions, with the craft employers as the only advocates. Analysing the pattern of agreement and disagreement in the political struggle over apprenticeship in the Swedish case in 1890–1917, it is clear that opposition was not that uniform, nor was the support from the craft employers that undivided. This article makes use of Kathleen Thelen’s model of institutional change in order to shed new light on the developments in Sweden. The model states that any apprentice law requires a coalition of two or more out of the state, the crafts and the metalworking industries – divided into employers and workers. Legislation, in turn, is a near requirement for the survival of strong apprenticeship. In this article the Swedish case will be discussed in relation to two of Thelen’s cases, Germany and Great Britain. In Germany an apprentice law was passed in 1897, while in Great Britain no modern apprentice law was ever passed. Similarities can be found between both of these cases and the Swedish case.

  3. Harm perception among Swedish daily smokers regarding nicotine, NRT-products and Swedish Snus

    Wikmans Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden NRT-products and Snus, are easily available and used as smoking cessation aids. However, most quit attempts are made without any cessation aids. The limited use of these products as cessation aids may be influenced by the way smokers perceive the harmfulness of NRT-products and Snus compared to smoking. The present study examines these perceptions and their association with perceptions of the harmfulness of nicotine itself. Methods The study is based on the Swedish part of a two-nation web-based survey of daily smokers in Sweden (n = 1016 and Norway (n = 1000. Questionnaire items addressed perceptions of NRT-products' and Snus' harmfulness and nicotine's part of the health risks of smoking. Data analyses included cross-tabulations and logistic regressions. Results A majority, 59% of the answers to the question about harmfulness of NRT-products, and 75% of the answers about harmfulness of Snus, were inconsistent with the scientific evidence by demonstrating exaggerated perceptions of harmfulness. The strongest predictor of consistent answers was the perception of the harmfulness of nicotine. There were also significant associations with own experience of successful use of the products in question. Overall the perceptions of the harmfulness of nicotine were considerably exaggerated. This pattern was more pronounced among women than men. Prevailing misperceptions may be related to the way that different tobacco and nicotine products are presented in the media and other publicly available information sources. Conclusions Public information about smoking and health should be expanded to include objective and unambiguous information regarding nicotine's part in the harmfulness of smoking and the harmfulness of different nicotine-containing products compared to smoking. This is essential in order to preclude that misperceptions regarding these matters could discourage smokers from adopting effective cessation practices

  4. The circulation of Swedish urban sustainability practices: to China and back

    Anna Hult


    This paper explores the effects and underlying intentions of Swedish practices of exporting sustainable development models to Chinese ecocities. Under the ‘best-practice’ banner, international architectural firms are often invited to masterplan ecocity developments. The ‘sustainable city’ has thus become an export commodity, supported by the Swedish government and seen as especially suited to the Chinese ecocity market. Two cases are examined, where Swedish architecture firms have been commis...

  5. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas.

    Stout, Prentice K.


    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  6. Making continental crust: The sanukitoid connection

    Yoshiyuki TATSUMI


    The average continental crust possesses intermediate compositions that typify arc magmatism and as a result it is believed to have been created at ancient convergent plate boundaries. One possible mechanism for intermediate continental crust formation is the direct production of andesitic melts in the upper mantle. Sanukitoids, which characterize the Setouchi volcanic belt, SW Japan, include unusually high-Mg andesites (HMA). They were generated by slab melting and subsequent melt-mantle interactions under unusual tectonic settings such as where warm lithosphere subducts into hot upper mantle. Such conditions would have existed in the Archean. Hydrous HMA magmas are likely to have solidified within the crust to form HMA plutons, which were then remelted to produce differentiated sanukitoids. At present, generation and differentiation of HMA magmas may be taking place in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc-trench system (IBM), because (1) HMA magmatism characterizes the initial stages of the iBM evolution and (2) the IBM middle crust exhibits Vp identical to that of the bulk continental crust. Vp estimates for plutonic rocks with HMA compositions support this. However tonalitic composition for middle-crust-forming rocks cannot be ruled out, suggesting an alternative possibility that the continental crust has been created by differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas.

  7. InterContinental Cuisine for Charity 2011


    Cuisine for Charity is one of the most important annual events for InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) hotels in Beijing. It is a good opportunity not only for chefs to showcase them-selves, learn from each other and improve their cooking skills, but also to show that we take care of our social responsibilities.

  8. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Whitmore, F.C.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.


    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  9. 25 years of continental deep subduction

    ZHENG YongFei


    @@ This year marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin.This initiated a revolution of the plate tectonics theory due to intensive studies of ultrahigh pressure metamorphism and continental deep subduction.The occurrence of coesite was first reported in 1984 by two French scientists,C.Chopin and D.C.Smith,respectively.

  10. Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes

    Lisa Öberg


    Full Text Available Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  11. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.


    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer


    G.S.Srivastava; S.Kumar


    In the present paper,we study the polynomial approximation of entire functions of several complex variables.The characterizations of generalized order and generalized type of entire functions of slow growth are obtained in terms of approximation and interpolation errors.

  13. Uniqueness Theorems on Entire Functions and Their Difference Operators or Shifts

    Baoqin Chen


    Full Text Available We study the uniqueness problems on entire functions and their difference operators or shifts. Our main result is a difference analogue of a result of Jank-Mues-Volkmann, which is concerned with the uniqueness of the entire function sharing one finite value with its derivatives. Two relative results are proved, and examples are provided for our results.

  14. Successful images of successful ageing? Representations of vigorous elderly people in a Swedish educational television programme

    Wallander, Kristina


    ..., conceptualized as successful ageing. The present article demonstrates how representations of vigorous elderly people are construed in the programme VeteranTV, produced by UR, Swedish educational television...

  15. The nestor of Swedish children’s literature research has left us

    Furuland, Lars; Svensson, Sonja


    Klingberg was awarded his PhD in 1964 with the first doctoral thesis in Sweden on children’s literature, Swedish Literature for Children and Young People 1591–1839. The influence of Klingberg’s thesis and extensive continued research is inestimable. He was the first to systematize and classify Swedish publications in children’s literature. Another scholar of Swedish children’s literature, Stefan Mählqvist, has aptly described Klingberg as ”the Carolus Linnaeus of research in Swedish children’...

  16. Supervision of Waste Management and Environmental Protection at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities 2001

    Persson, M


    The report summarizes the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2001. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of the nuclear facilities are given.The inspections during 2001 have focused on theme inspections of waste management, environmental inspections considering the environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities and review safety analysis and research programs from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority finds that the operations are mainly performed according to current regulations

  17. Tectonics and melting in intra-continental settings

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina


    Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation aswell asmetamorphismandmelting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly

  18. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  19. Tectonics and melting in intra-continental settings

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947


    Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation aswell asmetamorphismandmelting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly appar

  20. Tectonics and melting in intra-continental settings

    Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina


    Most of the geodynamic theories of deformation aswell asmetamorphismandmelting of continental lithosphere are concentrated on plate boundaries and are dominated by the effects of subduction upon deformation of the margins of continental lithospheric blocks. However, it is becoming increasingly appar

  1. Entire solutions for a mono-stable delay population model in a 2D lattice strip

    Hai-Qin Zhao


    Full Text Available This article concerns the entire solutions of a mono-stable age-structured population model in a 2D lattice strip. In a previous publication, we established the existence of entire solutions related to traveling wave solutions with speeds larger than the minimal wave speed $c_{\\rm min}$. However, the existence of entire solutions related to the minimal wave fronts remains open open question. In this article, we first establish a new comparison theorem. Then, applying the theorem we obtain the existence of entire solutions by mixing any finite number of traveling wave fronts with speeds $c\\geq c_{\\rm min}$, and a solution without the $j$ variable. In particular, we show the relationship between the entire solution and the traveling wave fronts that they originate.

  2. Complex analysis I entire and meromorphic functions polyanalytic functions and their generalizations

    Havin, V; Nikolski, N


    The first part of the volume contains a comprehensive description of the theory of entire and meromorphic functions of one complex variable and its applications. It includes the fundamental notions, methods and results on the growth of entire functions and the distribution of their zeros, the Rolf Nevanlinna theory of distribution of values of meromorphic functions including the inverse problem, the theory of completely regular growth, the concept of limit sets for entire and subharmonic functions. The authors describe the interpolation by entire functions, to entire and meromorphic solutions of ordinary differential equations, to the Riemann boundary problem with an infinite index and to the arithmetic of the convolution semigroup of probability distributions. Polyanalytic functions form one of the most natural generalizations of analytic functions and are described in Part II. They emerged for the first time in plane elasticity theory where they found important applications (due to Kolossof, Mushelishvili e...

  3. Swedish hedge funds : An analysis of the Swedish hedge funds’ investment strategies and risks associated with hedge funds

    Werner-Zankl, Simon; Samuelsson, Linda; Jonsson, Emma


    Background Out of the different fund categories hedge funds have had the highest development in Sweden since 1994. Swedish investors’ interest in hedge funds doubled from 2005 to 2006. Hedge funds are said to be an investment with a low risk and not being dependent upon business cycle movements. Historically there have been high initial investments, most often over 100 000 SEK, required to invest in hedge funds. This has started to shift towards lower initial investments. This is a reason why...

  4. Prevention of Anxiety and Depression in Swedish School Children: a Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Study.

    Ahlen, Johan; Hursti, Timo; Tanner, Lindsey; Tokay, Zelal; Ghaderi, Ata


    Our study aimed at evaluating FRIENDS for Life, an intervention to prevent anxiety and depression in Swedish school children. A total of 695 children between the ages of 8 and 11 were recruited from 17 schools in Stockholm, Sweden, and cluster-randomized to either the intervention or control group. Teachers in the intervention group received a full day of training and administered FRIENDS for Life in their classrooms. We assessed the children's anxiety and depressive symptoms, general mental health, and academic performance at pre- and post-intervention as well as at the 12-month follow-up. A multi-informant approach was used with data collected from children, parents, and teachers. Assessment was done with the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children's baseline symptoms, gender, and age as well as their teacher's use of supervision were examined as moderators of effect. Our study found no short- or long-term effects of the intervention for any outcome with regard to the entire sample. We found an enhanced effect of the intervention regarding children with elevated depressive symptoms at baseline. We found a decrease in anxiety symptoms among children whose teachers attended a larger number of supervision sessions, compared to children whose teachers attended fewer supervised sessions or the control group. Mediation analyses showed that this effect was driven by change in the last phase of the intervention, suggesting that supervision might play an important role in enhancing teachers' ability to administer the intervention effectively.

  5. One Century of Treeline Change and Stability - Experiences from the Swedish Scandes

    Leif Kullman


    Full Text Available This paper elaborates and visualizes processes recorded in a recent regional and multi-site study of elevational treeline dynamics during the period 1915 to 2007 in the Swedish Scandes. The purpose is to give a concrete face of the landscape transformation which is associated with the recorded treeline shifts. The main focus is on stand-level structure of past and present treelines and the advance zones, where climate change elicited responses by Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. All species shifted their treelines upslope by a maximum of c. 200 m in elevation. Most sites, however, manifested changes of smaller magnitudes. This relates to topoclimatic constraints which decouple treeline performance from the macroclimate. The general character of sites which support large and small treeline shifts, respectively, are outlined. The spacing, age structure, growth rates of the tree advance zones are accounted for each of the concerned species. In temporal and spatial detail, the different tree species responded individualistically according to their specific ecologies. Current spread of young seedlings and saplings to increasingly higher elevations in the alpine tundra is particularly highlighted as it may represent the forefront of future treeline advance. It is argued that the current evolution of the treeline ecotone represents a fundamental, although not necessarily entirely unique, reversal of the long-term (Holocene trend of neoglacial treeline descent.

  6. Increasing polypharmacy - an individual-based study of the Swedish population 2005-2008


    Background An increase in the use of drugs and polypharmacy have been displayed over time in spite of the fact that polypharmacy represents a well known risk factor as regards patients' health due to the adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and low adherence to drug therapy arising from polypharmacy. For policymakers, as well as for clinicians, it is important to follow the developing trends in drug use and polypharmacy over time. We wanted to study if the prevalence of polypharmacy in an entire national population has changed during a 4-year period. Methods By applying individual-based data on dispensed drugs, we have studied all dispensed prescribed drugs for the entire Swedish population during four 3-month periods 2005-2008. Five or more (DP ≥5) and ten or more (DP ≥10) dispensed drugs during the 3-month period was applied as the cut-offs indicating the existence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy respectively. Results During the period 2005-2008, the prevalence of polypharmacy (DP≥5) increased by 8.2% (from 0.102 to 0.111), and the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy (DP≥10) increased by 15.7% (from 0.021 to 0.024). In terms of age groups, the prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy increased as regards all ages with the exception of the age group 0-9 years. However, the prevalence of excessive polypharmacy displayed a clear age trend, with the largest increase for the groups 70 years and above. Furthermore, the increase in the prevalence of polypharmacy was, generally, approximately twice as high for men as for women. Finally, the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual increased by 3.6% (from 3.3 to 3.4) during the study period. Conclusions The prevalence of polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy, as well as the mean number of dispensed drugs per individual, increased year-by-year in Sweden 2005-2008. PMID:21122160

  7. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain


    ... Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  8. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain


    ... From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  9. "Work Hard, Fly Bight"——Today's Continental Airlines

    Guo Yan


    @@ On June16, 2006, Continental Airlines celebrated the first anniversary of its daily nonstop flight from Beifing to New York. China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed Kwok Hing-Cheong, Chief Representative & Country Director-Continental Airlines, China. He talked about the developments, challenges and benefits of Continental Airlines in China.

  10. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  11. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  12. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties


    ...: 2010-119] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil... maximum daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to... operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the...

  13. Swedish Match valutab pead rohkem aktsiisi kui erisoodustusmaksu pärast / Raigo Roosve ; interv. Imbi E. Kaljuste

    Roosve, Raigo


    Intervjuus vastab tubakafirma AS-i Swedish Match peadirektor Raigo Roosve küsimustele, miks ja mille alusel maksab AS Swedish Match erisoodustusmaksu ja kas firmal on olnud arusaamatusi maksuameti või maksudega

  14. Moroccan crustal response to continental drift.

    Kanes, W H; Saadi, M; Ehrlich, E; Alem, A


    The formation and development of a zone of spreading beneath the continental crust resulted in the breakup of Pangea and formation of the Atlantic Ocean. The crust of Morocco bears an extremely complete record of the crustal response to this episode of mantle dynamics. Structural and related depositional patterns indicate that the African margin had stabilized by the Middle Jurassic as a marine carbonate environment; that it was dominated by tensile stresses in the early Mesozoic, resulting in two fault systems paralleling the Atlantic and Mediterranean margins and a basin and range structural-depositional style; and that it was affected by late Paleozoic metamorphism and intrusion. Mesozoic events record the latter portion of African involvement in the spreading episode; late Paleozoic thermal orogenesis might reflect the earlier events in the initiation of the spreading center and its development beneath significant continental crust. In that case, more than 100 million years were required for mantle dynamics to break up Pangea.

  15. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.


    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  16. Sustainable Offshore Wind Potential in Continental Portugal

    Costa, P.; Simões, T. (Tânia); Estanqueiro, Ana


    This study intends to depict the availability of the sustainable offshore wind energy for Continental Portugal and identify the preliminary areas for developing offshore wind parks. Two scenarios were performed to distinct the different offshore wind turbine prototypes assembled by the manufactory energy sector – bottom fixed and floating models. The results achieved until now indicate that Portugal has a very large potential for offshore wind deployments ready to be exploited, especial...

  17. Authigenic minerals from the continental margins

    Rao, V.P.

    phosphorites have been presumed to be sedimented plankton organic matter, fish debris, and iron-redox phosphate pump. Several workers investigated the genesis of sedimentary phosphorites occurring from Precambrian to Recent and proposed different...-phosphate sediments of the western continental margin of India showed that phosphate occurred as apatite microparticles that resembled fossilized phosphate bacteria and/or microbial filaments (Fig. 3). This established the prominence of micro- environments...

  18. Ocean processes at the Antarctic continental slope.

    Heywood, Karen J; Schmidtko, Sunke; Heuzé, Céline; Kaiser, Jan; Jickells, Timothy D; Queste, Bastien Y; Stevens, David P; Wadley, Martin; Thompson, Andrew F; Fielding, Sophie; Guihen, Damien; Creed, Elizabeth; Ridley, Jeff K; Smith, Walker


    The Antarctic continental shelves and slopes occupy relatively small areas, but, nevertheless, are important for global climate, biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem functioning. Processes of water mass transformation through sea ice formation/melting and ocean-atmosphere interaction are key to the formation of deep and bottom waters as well as determining the heat flux beneath ice shelves. Climate models, however, struggle to capture these physical processes and are unable to reproduce water mass properties of the region. Dynamics at the continental slope are key for correctly modelling climate, yet their small spatial scale presents challenges both for ocean modelling and for observational studies. Cross-slope exchange processes are also vital for the flux of nutrients such as iron from the continental shelf into the mixed layer of the Southern Ocean. An iron-cycling model embedded in an eddy-permitting ocean model reveals the importance of sedimentary iron in fertilizing parts of the Southern Ocean. Ocean gliders play a key role in improving our ability to observe and understand these small-scale processes at the continental shelf break. The Gliders: Excellent New Tools for Observing the Ocean (GENTOO) project deployed three Seagliders for up to two months in early 2012 to sample the water to the east of the Antarctic Peninsula in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail. The glider data resolve small-scale exchange processes across the shelf-break front (the Antarctic Slope Front) and the front's biogeochemical signature. GENTOO demonstrated the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in a future multi-disciplinary Southern Ocean observing system.

  19. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process


    On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events). We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A) recycling events a...

  20. Bounded index, entire solutions of ordinary differential equations and summability methods

    G. H. Fricke


    Full Text Available A brief survey of recent results on functions of bounded index and bounded index summability methods is given. Theorems on entire solutions of ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients are included.

  1. Entire solutions of nonlocal dispersal equations with monostable nonlinearity in space periodic habitats

    Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Jia-Bing; Zhang, Li


    This paper is concerned with the new types of entire solutions other than traveling wave solutions of nonlocal dispersal equations with monostable nonlinearity in space periodic habitats. We first establish the existence and properties of spatially periodic solutions connecting two steady states. Then new types of entire solutions are constructed by combining the rightward and leftward pulsating traveling fronts with different speeds and a spatially periodic solution. Finally, for a class of special heterogeneous reaction, we further establish the uniqueness of entire solutions and the continuous dependence of such an entire solution on parameters, such as wave speeds and the shifted variables. In other words, we build a five-dimensional manifold of solutions and the traveling wave solutions are on the boundary of the manifold.

  2. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg


    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies......To investigate the extent to which the level of androstenone and skatole decreases with a decrease in live weight and/or age at slaughter of entire male pigs produced under organic standards, 1174 entire male pigs were raised in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches...... in summer and winter. The median androstenone level was high for organic entire male pigs (1.9 μg/g), but varied greatly both within and between herds. Median skatole level was 0.05 μg/g, also with a wide range both within and between herds. Decreasing live weight over the range of 110 ± 15.6 kg s...

  3. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Müller, R. Dietmar


    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth’s major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength-velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  4. Abrupt plate accelerations shape rifted continental margins.

    Brune, Sascha; Williams, Simon E; Butterworth, Nathaniel P; Müller, R Dietmar


    Rifted margins are formed by persistent stretching of continental lithosphere until breakup is achieved. It is well known that strain-rate-dependent processes control rift evolution, yet quantified extension histories of Earth's major passive margins have become available only recently. Here we investigate rift kinematics globally by applying a new geotectonic analysis technique to revised global plate reconstructions. We find that rifted margins feature an initial, slow rift phase (less than ten millimetres per year, full rate) and that an abrupt increase of plate divergence introduces a fast rift phase. Plate acceleration takes place before continental rupture and considerable margin area is created during each phase. We reproduce the rapid transition from slow to fast extension using analytical and numerical modelling with constant force boundary conditions. The extension models suggest that the two-phase velocity behaviour is caused by a rift-intrinsic strength--velocity feedback, which can be robustly inferred for diverse lithosphere configurations and rheologies. Our results explain differences between proximal and distal margin areas and demonstrate that abrupt plate acceleration during continental rifting is controlled by the nonlinear decay of the resistive rift strength force. This mechanism provides an explanation for several previously unexplained rapid absolute plate motion changes, offering new insights into the balance of plate driving forces through time.

  5. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  6. Uniqueness Theorems of Entire Functions with Shared-set in an Angular Domain

    Wei Chuan LIN; Seiki MORI; Hong Xun YI


    There have been lots of papers on the uniqueness theory of entire functions concerning shared-sets in the whole complex plane.However,it seems that the uniqueness theory in an angular domain is not widely investigated.In this paper,we study the uniqueness of entire functions concerning shared-sets in an angular domain instead of the whole complex plane,and we supply examples to show that Theorem 1 is sharp.

  7. Some Results on Unicity of Entire Functions Related to Normal Families


    This paper studied the connection between normal family and unicity, and proved some results on unicity of entire functions. Mostly, it was proved: Let f be a nonconstant entire function, and let a, c be two nonzero complex numbers. If E(a,f)=E(a,f), and f"(z)=c whenever f' (z)=a, then f(z)=Aecz/a+ac-a2/c. The proof uses the theory of normal families in an essential way.

  8. Entire radial solutions of elliptic systems and inequalities of the mean curvature type

    Filippucci, Roberta


    In this paper we study first nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems of the mean curvature type with a singular or degenerate diffusion depending on the solution u. In particular we extend a previous result given in [R. Filippucci, Nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems, J. Differential Equations 188 (2003) 353-389]. Moreover, in the scalar case we obtain nonexistence of all entire solutions, radial or not, of differential inequalities involving again operators of the mean curvature type and a diffusion term. We prove that in the scalar case, nonexistence of entire solutions is due to the explosion of the derivative of every nonglobal radial solution in the right extremum of the maximal interval of existence, while in that point the solution is bounded. This behavior is qualitatively different with respect to what happens for the m-Laplacian operator, studied in [R. Filippucci, Nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems, J. Differential Equations 188 (2003) 353-389], where nonexistence of entire solutions is due, even in the vectorial case, to the explosion in norm of the solution at a finite point. Our nonexistence theorems for inequalities extend previous results given by Naito and Usami in [YE Naito, H. Usami, Entire solutions of the inequality div(A(=u)=u)[greater-or-equal, slanted]f(u), Math. Z. 225 (1997) 167-175] and Ghergu and Radulescu in [M. Ghergu, V. Radulescu, Existence and nonexistence of entire solutions to the logistic differential equation, Abstr. Appl. Anal. 17 (2003) 995-1003].

  9. Quality Characteristics and Composition of the Muscle from Entire and Castrate Elk in Korea

    Sang-Woo Kim


    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the chemical composition as well as the physicochemical properties of the longissimus muscle from Korean entire and castrate elk. Twelve elk stags were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were equally divided into castrated and non-castrated (entire males, and slaughtered at 5 year of age. It was found that entire elk, in comparison with castrate elk, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p<0.05. Compared with entire males, the castrates had lower pH and shear force values (p<0.05. However, castrates had higher L*, a*, and b* values compared with entires (p<0.05. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the muscles of entire and castrate elk had the most abundant concentrations of the following fatty acids: palmitic acid (C16:0 of the saturated fatty acid, and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 of the unsaturated fatty acid. The entire elk contains higher proportions of linoleic acid (C18:3n6, eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6 (p<0.05. Cholesterol content in elk was not affected by castration. The predominant free amino acid was glutamic acid related to umami taste. It is apparent that the castrate animals carried higher content of histidine, isoleucine, and leucine than those of the entire group (p<0.05. In this study, it was concluded that venison quality of elk is affected by castration and these results can provide fundamental information for venison production.

  10. Between Control and Resistance: Planning and Evaluation Texts in the Swedish Preschool

    Lofdahl, Annica; Perez Prieto, Hector


    This article contains results from a study based on locally produced planning and evaluation texts from 10 preschool settings in a Swedish middle-sized town. The texts were mainly from 1999 to 2005, a period during which Swedish preschools were implementing their first curriculum and were subject to several changes including decentralisation,…

  11. Democracy Lessons in Market-Oriented Schools: The Case of Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Maria


    Based on recent ethnographic research, this article explores young people's opportunities of formal and informal democracy learning and expressions of such learning in the highly market-influenced Swedish upper secondary education. With its ambitious democracy-fostering goals and far-reaching marketisation, Swedish education constitutes an…

  12. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva


    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  13. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva


    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  14. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette


    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  15. The Rock Band Context as Discursive Governance in Music Education in Swedish Schools

    Lindgren, Monica; Ericsson, Claes


    In this article, based on the results of a larger research project funded by the Swedish Research Council (Ericsson and Lindgren 2010), the authors discuss and problematize the rock band context in music education in Swedish compulsory schools in relation to governance and knowledge formation. The empirical material on which the study is based…

  16. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.;


    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...

  17. Democracy Lessons in Market-Oriented Schools: The Case of Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Maria


    Based on recent ethnographic research, this article explores young people's opportunities of formal and informal democracy learning and expressions of such learning in the highly market-influenced Swedish upper secondary education. With its ambitious democracy-fostering goals and far-reaching marketisation, Swedish education constitutes an…

  18. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    Peterson, Helen


    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  19. Introducing National Tests in Swedish Primary Education: Implications for Test Anxiety

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola


    Introduction: The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on…

  20. The Swedish Experiment with Localised Control of Time Schedules: Policy Problem Representations

    Ronnberg, Linda


    Swedish compulsory schools are the most autonomous in Europe regarding time allocation and time management. Still, the Swedish state decided to take this even further, when introducing an experiment that permits some compulsory schools to abandon the regulations of the national time schedule. The aim of this study is to explore and analyse the…

  1. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth


    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  2. Same Source, Different Outcomes: A Study of Swedish Influence on the Acquisition of English in Finland

    Odlin, Terence; Jarvis, Scott


    With a Finnish-speaking majority and a Swedish-speaking minority, Finland offers a striking contrast in the kinds of cross-linguistic influence that can occur in the acquisition of English in a multilingual setting. While much previous research has looked at the differences between Finnish and Swedish influences, our study compares Swedish…

  3. Environmental Influence on Language Acquisition: Comparing Second and Foreign Language Acquisition of Swedish

    Hakansson, Gisela; Norrby, Catrin


    This article explores the influence of the learning environment on the second language acquisition of Swedish. Data were collected longitudinally over 1 year from 35 university students studying Swedish in Malmo, Sweden, and in Melbourne, Australia. Three areas were investigated: grammar, pragmatics, and lexicon. The development of grammar was…

  4. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    Peterson, Helen


    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  5. Phenotypic variation in a large Swedish pedigree due to SNCA duplication and triplication

    Fuchs, J; Nilsson, C; Kachergus, J;


    BACKGROUND: The "Lister family complex," an extensive Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson disease, was first described by Henry Mjönes in 1949. On the basis of clinical, molecular, and genealogic findings on a Swedish and an American family branch, we provide genetic evidence......-onset Parkinson disease and dementia. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-20...

  6. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G;


    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...

  7. [Swedish guidelines for prevention and treatment of pain in the newborn infant].

    Larsson, Björn A; Gradin, Maria; Lind, Viveka; Selander, Bo


    A Swedish national consensus statement concerning prevention and management of pain in the newborn infant has been prepared by members of the Swedish Paediatric Pain Society (Svensk Barnsmärtförening, SBSF). The document is based on the Consensus Statement for the Prevention and Management of Pain in the Newborn Infant by Anand et al [1].

  8. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica


    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts.

  9. Analysis of Poverty Alleviation Model of Advancing Entire Villages——A Case Study of Ningxia


    This paper gives an overview of the development-oriented poverty alleviation of advancing entire villages in Ningxia, and then relates the implementation of "1 000-village poverty alleviation program" of Ningxia by stages as follows: at the first stage (2005-2006), 203 villages began to implement the first development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages; at the second stage (2007-2008), the second development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages was implemented. By empirical analysis, the main experience in the process of implementing poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages is generalized as follows: strengthen the support and help degree and frame feasible implementation planning; develop characteristic industries and expand export of labor services; support poor areas by using technology. Through five years of support, the poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages achieves initial results: the specific sample survey shows that in the poor villages with smooth development of advancing entire villages and great investments, the farmers’ income per capita in whole village can be increased by more than 50% within one year or two years; due to the improvement of road, communication and other conditions, many poor villages can explore new possibilities for production, and better give play to the comparative advantages; the improvement of infrastructure also promotes export of labor services in the poor villages, so as to indirectly increase the income of farmers in poor villages.

  10. Towards a model for integrative medicine in Swedish primary care

    Falkenberg Torkel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between providers of conventional care and complementary therapies (CTs has gained in popularity but there is a lack of conceptualised models for delivering such care, i.e. integrative medicine (IM. The aim of this paper is to describe some key findings relevant to the development and implementation of a proposed model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. Methods Investigative procedures involved research group and key informant meetings with multiple stakeholders including general practitioners, CT providers, medical specialists, primary care administrators and county council representatives. Data collection included meeting notes which were fed back within the research group and used as ongoing working documents. Data analysis was made by immersion/crystallisation and research group consensus. Results were categorised within a public health systems framework of structures, processes and outcomes. Results The outcome was an IM model that aimed for a patient-centered, interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical mix of conventional and complementary medical solutions to individual case management of patients with pain in the lower back and/or neck. The IM model case management adhered to standard clinical practice including active partnership between a gate-keeping general practitioner, collaborating with a team of CT providers in a consensus case conference model of care. CTs with an emerging evidence base included Swedish massage therapy, manual therapy/naprapathy, shiatsu, acupuncture and qigong. Conclusion Despite identified barriers such as no formal recognition of CT professions in Sweden, it was possible to develop a model for IM adapted to Swedish primary care. The IM model calls for testing and refinement in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to explore its clinical effectiveness.

  11. The Swedish Program has Entered the Site Selection Phase

    Nygards, P.; Hedman, T.; Eng, T.; Olsson, O.


    Facilities for intermediate storage of spent fuel and HLW and for final disposal of ILW and LLW together with a system for sea transportation have been in operation in Sweden for more then 15 years. To complete the ''back end system'' the remaining parts are to build facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel and HLW. The Swedish reference method for final disposal of spent fuel, KBS-3, is to encapsulate the fuel elements in copper canisters and dispose them in a deep geological repository. The Swedish program up to 2001 was focused on the establishment of general acceptance of the reference method for final storage and SKB's selection of candidate sites for a deep geological repository. In the end of year 2000 SKB presented a report as a base for a Government decision about the siting process. This report gave the background for the selection of three candidate sites. It also presented the program for geological surveys of the candidate sites as well as the background for the choice of the method for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and HLW. In the end of 2001 the Swedish government endorsed the plan for the site selection phase and stated that the KBS-3 design of the repository shall be used as the planning base for the work. Permissions were also granted for the fieldwork from the municipalities of Forsmark and Oskarshamn where the candidate sites are located. Site investigations on these two sites started during 2002. The technical development and demonstration of the KBS 3-method is ongoing at the Dspv Hard Rock Laboratory and the Canister Laboratory. The goal for the coming five years period is to select the site for the repository and apply for licenses to construct and operate the facilities for encapsulation and final storage of spent fuel. The encapsulation plant and the repository are planned to be in operation around year 2015.

  12. Household Metabolism in the Five Cities. Swedish National Report - Stockholm

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Karlsson, Rebecka [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group; Moll, Henri; Kok, Rixt [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). IVEM; Wadeskog, Anders [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The study present results from a European project, ToolSust, in which direct and indirect energy use of household consumption is quantified. The focus is on households in Stockholm and how their spending contributes to energy use. A Dutch energy analyses programme, EAP, was modified to portray Swedish conditions, and analyses of more than 300 consumer goods were performed. These data were matched with information about family expenditure patterns from 1996. Six households were analysed, Swedish average, Stockholm City average and four households from Stockholm City. The results show that it is possible to portray households' total energy use, even the indirect one, with the help of the EAP programme and Swedish statistics. Further, indirect energy use may account for more than half of households total energy use and therefore it needs to be considered in policy making. The total primary energy use for the average households varied from 240 to 260 GJ during 1996. Heating, food and transportation were large contributors. The energy efficiency of total household spending varied from 8.8 MJ per Euro 13 MJ per Euro. Information about the energy efficiency on spending is valuable but cannot be presented and used without considering basic needs and quality of life. The total energy use per person varied from 50 to 350 GJ per year, a difference of factor seven. The analyses of energy efficiency of spending, MJ per SEK, indicate important opportunities for less energy demanding spending patterns, but those with low incomes have fewer opportunities than those with high incomes. The energy profiles for different households show that the individual ones may differ a lot from the average picture. There is a need for individual household advice about how to find more energy efficient spending patterns. Large cuts in household energy use means substantial changes in both energy intensity of goods and services and expenditure profiles. Expenditure levels should also be

  13. Body dysmorphic disorder in female Swedish dermatology patients.

    Brohede, Sabina; Wyon, Yvonne; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas


    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are highly distressed and impaired owing to perceived defects in their physical appearance that are not noticeable to others. They are frequently concerned about their skin and often present to dermatologists rather than psychiatrists. However, BDD patients attending dermatology clinics may be at risk of not receiving an appropriate assessment and beneficial treatment. The aims of this study were to estimate the BDD prevalence rate among Swedish female dermatology patients and to assess the psychological condition of BDD patients compared to that of other dermatology patients. The occurrence of BDD was estimated using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), a validated self-report measure for BDD. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and quality of life was assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The prevalence rate of BDD among female Swedish dermatology patients was 4.9% (95% CI 3.2-7.4). Anxiety (HADS A ≥ 11) was 4-fold more commonly reported by patients with positive BDD screening (48% vs. 11%), and depression (HADS D ≥ 11) was over 10-fold more common in patients with positive BDD screening (19% vs. 1.8%) (P BDD group, compared to a score of 4 in the non-BDD group (P BDD is fairly common among female Swedish dermatology patients (4.9%) and that BDD patients have high levels of depression and anxiety and severely impaired quality of life. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    Rönnberg, Linda


    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  15. Continental emergence in the Late Archean reconciles early and late continental growth models

    Flament, Nicolas; Coltice, Nicolas; Rey, Patrice


    The analysis of ancient sediments (Rare Earth Element composition of black shales, isotopic strontium composition of marine carbonates, isotopic oxygen composition of zircons) suggests that continental growth culminated around the Archean-Proterozoic transition. In stark contrast, the geochemical analysis of ancient basalts suggests that depletion of the mantle occurred in the Hadean and Eoarchean. This paradox may be solved if continents were extracted from the mantle early in Earth's history, but remained mostly below sea level throughout the Archean. We present a model to estimate the area of emerged land and associated isotopic strontium composition of the mantle and oceans as a function of the coupled evolution of mantle temperature, continental growth and distribution of surface elevations (hypsometry). For constant continental hypsometry and four distinct continental growth models, we show that sea level was between 500 and 2000 m higher in the Archean than at present, resulting in isotopic composition of the mantle and oceans, we show that a reduced area of emerged continental crust can explain why the geochemical fingerprint of continents extracted early in Earth's history was not recorded at the surface of the Earth until the late Archean.

  16. Technical description of the Swedish natural gas distribution system

    Nilsson, Ronny [KM Miljoeteknik AB (Sweden)


    This description of the Swedish distribution network has been produced to provide information for distribution companies, trade organisations, etc., who have an interest in getting a clear understanding of the technical design and standards, technical directives, etc., which have served as guidance in the development. The technical description covers the piping system from a measuring and regulating station (MR station) up to the consumer`s substation, however, only sections with a maximum operating pressure of 4 bar. By way of introduction, the description contains introductory information on supply channels, consumption patterns and the principal design of the high pressure network in Sweden 10 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  17. Institutions improving fiscal performance: Evidence from Swedish municipalities

    Dietrichson, Jens; Ellegård, Lina Maria


    Conflicts of interest within hierarchic government organizations regarding the importance of fiscal discipline create the need for institutions that curb the bargaining power of units in charge of implementing policy and align their incentives to the interests of the whole organization. We examine...... this general public sector problem by collecting unique data on budget institutions and conflicts of interest within the Swedish municipalities. Our estimations suggest that institutions pertaining to both the planning stage and the implementation stage of the budget process are important for fiscal...

  18. Validation of online versions of tinnitus questionnaires translated into Swedish

    Karolina Müller


    Full Text Available BackgroundDue to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression, and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. MethodsWe translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI, the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ, the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30, and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF. Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α and test-retest reliability across a 9-week interval (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC, Cohen’s kappa in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort.ResultsInternal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α >0.7 with the exception of the ‘social relationships’ subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC >.70, Cohens Kappa >.60 for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI ‘sense of control’ subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that almost all

  19. Validation of Online Versions of Tinnitus Questionnaires Translated into Swedish

    Müller, Karolina; Edvall, Niklas K.; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Huhn, Robert; Cima, Rilana; Persson, Viktor; Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R.


    Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. Methods: We translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ), the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30), and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ) into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (α)] and test–retest reliability across a 9-week interval [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen's kappa] in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α > 0.7) with the exception of the “social relationships” subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test–retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC > 0.70, Cohens kappa > 0.60) for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI “sense of control” subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that

  20. Prevalence of dental resorptive lesions in Swedish cats.

    Pettersson, A; Mannerfelt, T


    Ninety-six, randomly selected Swedish cats were evaluated for the presence of dental resorptive lesions. All cats were examined while receiving general anesthesia. Diagnosis was based on oral examination and full-mouth, intraoral dental radiographs. Information concerning age, sex, vaccination status, eating habits, food type, environment (indoor or outdoor housing), oral, discomfort, dental care, and medical treatment was recorded. Hematologic samples included analysis for FeLV, FIV, and calcivirus. Of the cats examined in this study, 32% had gross or radiographic signs of dental resorptive lesions. There was a positive relationship between the occurrence of dental resorptive lesions and increasing age.

  1. Finnish and Swedish business cycles in a global context

    Bergman, Ulf Michael


    This paper evaluates the decisions made by the Finnish government to join EMU and the Swedish government not to join EMU in the early 1990s. Focusing on the characteristics of business cycles during the postwar period, we find that output fluctuations in Sweden and Finland are correlated to two...... measures of the international business cycle, a European and a non-European cycle. The Finnish cycle has become more synchronized to the European cycle but less synchronized to the non-EU cycle after 1999. For Sweden we find the opposite result. The decision by the Finnish government to join EMU...

  2. Risks in the Swedish Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry

    Lundqvist, Stina; Peterson, Tove


    Background: In today’s more challenging business environment companies operating in a global market are faced by uncountable numbers of risks. The foundation of this report is based on the scenario of risks within one of the most important industries for the Swedish economy, namely the Forest, Paper and Packaging (FPP)industry. Sweden is one of the most forested countries in Europe and despite being a small country Sweden alone stands for 7 percent of the world’s total FPP production. However...

  3. Basins in ARC-continental collisions

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Busby, Cathy; Azor, Antonio


    Arc-continent collisions occur commonly in the plate-tectonic cycle and result in rapidly formed and rapidly collapsing orogens, often spanning just 5-15 My. Growth of continental masses through arc-continent collision is widely thought to be a major process governing the structural and geochemical evolution of the continental crust over geologic time. Collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with passive continental margins (a situation in which the arc, on the upper plate, faces the continent) involve a substantially different geometry than collisions of intra-oceanic arcs with active continental margins (a situation requiring more than one convergence zone and in which the arc, on the lower plate, backs into the continent), with variable preservation potential for basins in each case. Substantial differences also occur between trench and forearc evolution in tectonically erosive versus tectonically accreting margins, both before and after collision. We examine the evolution of trenches, trench-slope basins, forearc basins, intra-arc basins, and backarc basins during arc-continent collision. The preservation potential of trench-slope basins is low; in collision they are rapidly uplifted and eroded, and at erosive margins they are progressively destroyed by subduction erosion. Post-collisional preservation of trench sediment and trench-slope basins is biased toward margins that were tectonically accreting for a substantial length of time before collision. Forearc basins in erosive margins are usually floored by strong lithosphere and may survive collision with a passive margin, sometimes continuing sedimentation throughout collision and orogeny. The low flexural rigidity of intra-arc basins makes them deep and, if preserved, potentially long records of arc and collisional tectonism. Backarc basins, in contrast, are typically subducted and their sediment either lost or preserved only as fragments in melange sequences. A substantial proportion of the sediment derived from

  4. On the Evolution of Glaciated Continental Margins

    Sverre Laberg, Jan; Rydningen, Tom Arne; Safronova, Polina A.; Forwick, Matthias


    Glaciated continental margins, continental margins where a grounded ice sheet repeatedly has been at or near the shelf break, are found at both northern and southern high-latitudes. Their evolution are in several aspects different from their low-latitude counterparts where eustatic sea-level variations possess a fundamental control on their evolution and where fluvial systems provide the main sediment input. From studies of the Norwegian - Barents Sea - Svalbard and NE Greenland continental margins we propose the following factors as the main control on the evolution of glaciated continental margins: 1) Pre-glacial relief controlling the accommodation space, 2) Ice sheet glaciology including the location of fast-flowing ice streams where source area morphology exerts a fundamental control, 3) Composition of the glacigenic sediments where the clay content in previous studies have been found to be important, and 4) Sea-level controlled both by eustacy and isostacy. From three case studies, 1) the western Barents Sea, 2) part of the North Norwegian (Troms), and 3) the Mid-Norwegian margin, the influence on these factors for the sea-floor morphology, sedimentary processes of the continental slope - deep sea and continental margin architecture are discussed. The pre-glacial relief of the mid-Norwegian and Troms margins relates to the onset of rifting and plate break-up from the early Cenozoic while for the SW Barents Sea, plate shear was followed by rifting. A wide zone of extended continental crust occurs offshore mid-Norway while this zone is much narrower offshore Troms leading to a more pronounced pre-glacial relief. Regarding sediment delivery and ice sheet glaciology the western Barents Sea exemplifies very high sediment input corresponding to an estimated average erosion of the source area of ~0.4 mm/yr (SW Barents Sea), much of which is related to subglacial erosion of Mesozoic - Cenozoic sedimentary rocks from large paleo-ice streams. The mid-Norwegian margin

  5. Reconstructing Rodinia by Fitting Neoproterozoic Continental Margins

    Stewart, John H.


    Reconstructions of Phanerozoic tectonic plates can be closely constrained by lithologic correlations across conjugate margins by paleontologic information, by correlation of orogenic belts, by paleomagnetic location of continents, and by ocean floor magmatic stripes. In contrast, Proterozoic reconstructions are hindered by the lack of some of these tools or the lack of their precision. To overcome some of these difficulties, this report focuses on a different method of reconstruction, namely the use of the shape of continents to assemble the supercontinent of Rodinia, much like a jigsaw puzzle. Compared to the vast amount of information available for Phanerozoic systems, such a limited approach for Proterozoic rocks, may seem suspect. However, using the assembly of the southern continents (South America, Africa, India, Arabia, Antarctica, and Australia) as an example, a very tight fit of the continents is apparent and illustrates the power of the jigsaw puzzle method. This report focuses on Neoproterozoic rocks, which are shown on two new detailed geologic maps that constitute the backbone of the study. The report also describes the Neoproterozoic, but younger or older rocks are not discussed or not discussed in detail. The Neoproterozoic continents and continental margins are identified based on the distribution of continental-margin sedimentary and magmatic rocks that define the break-up margins of Rodinia. These Neoproterozoic continental exposures, as well as critical Neo- and Meso-Neoproterozoic tectonic features shown on the two new map compilations, are used to reconstruct the Mesoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. This approach differs from the common approach of using fold belts to define structural features deemed important in the Rodinian reconstruction. Fold belts are difficult to date, and many are significantly younger than the time frame considered here (1,200 to 850 Ma). Identifying Neoproterozoic continental margins, which are primarily

  6. Archaean zircons in Miocene oceanic hotspot rocks establish ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius.

    Ashwal, Lewis D; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Torsvik, Trond H


    A fragment of continental crust has been postulated to underlie the young plume-related lavas of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius based on the recovery of Proterozoic zircons from basaltic beach sands. Here we document the first U-Pb zircon ages recovered directly from 5.7 Ma Mauritian trachytic rocks. We identified concordant Archaean xenocrystic zircons ranging in age between 2.5 and 3.0 Ga within a trachyte plug that crosscuts Older Series plume-related basalts of Mauritius. Our results demonstrate the existence of ancient continental crust beneath Mauritius; based on the entire spectrum of U-Pb ages for old Mauritian zircons, we demonstrate that this ancient crust is of central-east Madagascar affinity, which is presently located ∼700 km west of Mauritius. This makes possible a detailed reconstruction of Mauritius and other Mauritian continental fragments, which once formed part of the ancient nucleus of Madagascar and southern India.

  7. Swedish Work on Brittle-Fracture Problems in Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels

    Grounes, M.


    After a short review of the part of the Swedish nuclear energy program that is of interest in this context the Swedish reactor pressure vessels and the reasoning behind the choice of materials are surveyed. Problems and desirable aims for future reactors are discussed. Much work is now being done on new types of pressure vessel steels with high strength, low transition temperature and good corrosion resistance. These steels are of the martensitic austenitic type Bofors 2RMO (13 % Cr, 6 % Ni, 1. 5 % Mo) and of the ferritic martensitic austenitic type Avesta 248 SV (16 % Cr, 5 % Ni, 1 % Mo). An applied philosophy for estimating the brittle-fracture tendency of pressure vessels is described. As a criterion of this tendency we use the crack-propagation transition temperature, e. g. as measured by the Robertson isothermal crack-arrest test. An estimate of this transition temperature at the end of the reactor' s lifetime must take increases due to fabrication, welding, geometry, ageing and irradiation into account. The transition temperature vs. stress curve moves towards higher temperatures during the reactor' s lifetime. As long as this curve does not cross the reactor vessel stress vs. temperature curve the vessel is considered safe. The magnitude of the different factors influencing the final transition temperature are discussed and data for the Marviken reactor's pressure vessel are presented. At the end of the reactor's lifetime the estimated transition temperature is 115 deg C, which is below the maximum permissible value. A program for the study of strain ageing has been initiated owing to the uncertainty as to the extent of strain ageing at low strains. A study of a simple crack-arrest test, developed in Sweden, is in progress. An extensive irradiation-effects program on several steels is in progress. Results from tests on the Swedish carbon-manganese steels 2103/R3, SIS 142103 and SIS 142102, the low-alloy steels Degerfors DE-631A, Bofors NO

  8. Swedish Employers and Trade Unions, Labor Migration and the Welfare State—Perspectives on Swedish Labor Migration Policy Debates during the 1960s and the 2000s

    Jesper Johansson


    Full Text Available This article uses a political economy approach and explores the nexus between labor migration and the welfare state and how its specificities have been viewed and presented by organized interests of employers and trade unions in Swedish labor migration policy debates during the 1960s and the 2000s. The analysis demonstrates that the Swedish Employers’ Confederation (SAF and its organizational successor the Swedish Confederation of Enterprise (SN have preferred a market-liberal labor migration policy. Over time, a liberal immigration policy has been viewed by employers as an important policy solution to extend levels of economic growth, increase firm competitiveness, and maintain funding for generous welfare state services. However, since the 1960s the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO has preferred a state-coordinated and regulated labor migration policy. In LO’s perspective, a regulated immigration policy is a fundamental precondition for guaranteeing workers’ rights, and for minimizing potential negative effects for the functioning of the Swedish labor market model and for a prosperous Swedish welfare state.

  9. 10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

    Maximilien Brice


    10 March 2008 - Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research L. Leijonborg signing the guest book with CERN Chef Scientific Officer J. Engelen, followed by the signature of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding by the Director General of the Swedish Research Council P. Ömling.

  10. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, eastern Turkey

    Litt, T.; Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.


    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (38.5°N, 43 °E, volume 607 km3, area 3570 km2, maximum water depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau, Turkey. The sedimentary record of Lake Van, partly laminated, obtains a long and continuous continental sequence that covers multiple interglacial-glacial cycles. Promoted by the potential of the sedimentary sequence for reconstructing the paleoecological and paleoclimate development of the Near East, a deep drilling operation was carried out in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The 119 m long continental record is based on a well-dated composite profile drilled on the so-called Ahlat Ridge in water depth of 360 m encompassing the last 600,000 years. It contains the longest continuous continental pollen record of the Quaternary in the entire Near East and central Asia obtained to date. It documents glacial and interglacial stages as well as pronounced interstadials encompassing the entire 600 ka of the sedimentary record. The cold-adapted vegetation in the Lake Van region during glacial stages and stadial substages can be described as dwarf-shrub steppe and desert steppe very similar to each other. The climax vegetation of the interglacial stages in the Lake Van region is characterized by an oak steppe-forest with pistachio and juniper. It is interesting to note that, in contrast to the atmospheric CO2 concentration from Antarctic ice cores or marine isotope values based on benthic foraminifera, there is no clear subdivision in the Lake Van pollen record between low-amplitude interglacials (cooler cycles) prior the mid-Brunhes event (MBE) at 430 ka and high-amplitude, post MBE interglacials. Lower CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere might be compensated by stronger insolation forcing during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 13a and 15a. A similar pattern can be observed during the triplicate interglacial complex MIS 7

  11. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iraqi and Swedish residents in a deprived Swedish neighbourhood - a population based study

    Sundquist Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from the Middle-East are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D. The aim of the present survey was to measure, in a single deprived neighbourhood, the prevalence rates of impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2D in residents originating from Iraq and to compare them to those in residents born in Sweden. An additional aim was to identify metabolic, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors associated with IFG/IGT and T2D in these residents. Methods The study was conducted February 1'st to March 31'st 2010. Men and women aged 45 to 65 years of Swedish or Iraqi origin, living in the neighbourhood of Rosengård, Malmö, Sweden, were randomly selected from the census register. Each participant signed a written informed consent form, underwent a physical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, provided blood samples and filled in a questionnaire. A total of 175 subjects participated (Swedish origin n = 79, Iraqi origin n = 96, reflecting an overall response rate of almost 60%. Results In total, 21.9% and 19.0% of the Iraqi and Swedish participants, respectively, suffered from T2D, while 24.0% of the Iraqi participants and 25.3% of the Swedish participants had IFG/IGT. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates relating to country of origin. Obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and sedentary leisure time physical activity were highly prevalent in both groups, while a family history of diabetes was more prevalent in participants from Iraq (49.2% than in those from Sweden (22.8% (p = 0.001. Being obese or having a sedentary leisure time were, independently associated with T2D (OR 5.43 (95% CI 2.10-14.02 and 2.89 (95% CI 1.03-8.10 respectively, while economic difficulties were independently associated with IFG/IGT (OR 2.55 (95% CI 1.06-6.15 after adjustment for the confounding effects of other common risk factors for T2D. Conclusions This study reveals a high prevalence

  12. High-throughput continuous hydrothermal synthesis of an entire nanoceramic phase diagram.

    Weng, Xiaole; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Hyett, Geoffrey; Vickers, Martin; Boldrin, Paul; Tang, Chiu C; Thompson, Stephen P; Parker, Julia E; Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Parkin, Ivan; Evans, Julian R G; Darr, Jawwad A


    A novel High-Throughput Continuous Hydrothermal (HiTCH) flow synthesis reactor was used to make directly and rapidly a 66-sample nanoparticle library (entire phase diagram) of nanocrystalline Ce(x)Zr(y)Y(z)O(2-delta) in less than 12 h. High resolution PXRD data were obtained for the entire heat-treated library (at 1000 degrees C/1 h) in less than a day using the new robotic beamline I11, located at Diamond Light Source (DLS). This allowed Rietveld-quality powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data collection of the entire 66-sample library in <1 day. Consequently, the authors rapidly mapped out phase behavior and sintering behaviors for the entire library. Out of the entire 66-sample heat-treated library, the PXRD data suggests that 43 possess the fluorite structure, of which 30 (out of 36) are ternary compositions. The speed, quantity and quality of data obtained by our new approach, offers an exciting new development which will allow structure-property relationships to be accessed for nanoceramics in much shorter time periods.

  13. Residential environment impact scale: Utilization of the Swedish version.

    Svensson, Elise; Kåhlin, Ida; Kjellberg, Anette


    The Residential Environment Impact Scale (REIS) is an assessment and consulting instrument designed to examine the impact of the residential environment on its residents and to develop recommendations for adapting this environment. Since REIS is new for occupational therapists in Sweden it is important to evaluate its utilization potential. The aim was to examine the utility of the Swedish version of the Residential Environment Impact Scale (REIS-S) for adults living in residential settings. Twenty-two occupational therapists conducted 28 REIS-S assessments in residential settings including 92 older persons and persons with disabilities. In total, 44 questionnaires were answered before and after conduction of the assessment. The data was analyzed using qualitative methods of analysis. The REIS-S showed both positive and negative dimensions of utility among occupational therapists working in residential settings. It provided support for making recommendations and contributed to effective assessments but was found time-consuming. The clinical relevance with REIS-S was positive since it met the needs expressed by the occupational therapists. REIS-S seems promising according to utility in Swedish residential settings for adults. However, psychometrically testing is required for further establishing the utilization of the instrument.

  14. Public Procurement Incentives for Sustainable Design Services: Swedish Experiences

    Josefin Sporrong


    Full Text Available When procuring building design services, public clients may provide incentives for the development of design tools and management practices that lead to more sustainable buildings. Procedures for selecting design professionals, including the choice of contract award criteria, can be analysed as the outcome of external and internal factors that influence procuring units. This investigation studies how the selection procedures that Swedish municipal clients rely on when procuring services from architectural and engineering consultants provide incentives for environmentally sustainable design management. Questionnaire responses from 93 Swedish municipalities show that a minority include sustainability-related criteria in tender assessments. Environmental management systems were a criterion for 30% of the respondents, while only 11% regularly used life cycle cost as a criterion. More than half of all municipalities were reported to have a general policy for services procurement, and these policies usually include environmental sustainability. However, these policies are not always followed when procuring construction-related services. Smaller municipalities are less likely to have a general policy. Consequently, incentive effects for design service firms are probably weak. Better skills and provider-selection methods among clients are needed for rewarding sustainable design practices more strongly. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2009.0903 Published in the Journal AEDM Volume 5, Number 1, 2009 , pp. 24-35(12

  15. Swedish Seafarers' Commitment to Work in Times of Flagging out

    C. Hult


    Full Text Available This study takes its departure in the difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. The study focus is on seafarers' motivation at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment, and seafarers' motivation towards their occupation (occupational commitment, in times of flagging out. It was hypothesized that the youngest seafarers and the oldest may be most sensitive to foreign registration of ships. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers randomly collected in 2010 from a national register of seafarers. The results of the analyses show that flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers. This decline is related to the perception of the social composition of crew. In addition, the oldest seafarers (age 55+ demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag. This decline is related to the degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. Occupational commitment among the youngest seafarers (age 19-30 is not affected by the nationality of flag. However, this type of commitment is decreasing by the time served on the same ship. This effect is partly related to a decline in satisfaction with the work content. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  16. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    Mats Jong


    Full Text Available The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  17. Energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in Swedish manufacturing industries

    Pardo Martinez, C.I. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of La Salle, Bogota (Colombia); Silveira, S [Energy and Climate Studies, Department of Energy Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This paper analyses the trends in energy consumption and CO2 emissions as a result of energy efficiency improvements in Swedish manufacturing industries between 1993 and 2008. Using data at the two-digit level, the performance of this sector is studied in terms of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, energy efficiency measured as energy intensity, value of production, fuel sources, energy prices and energy taxes. It was found that energy consumption, energy intensity and CO2 emission intensity, measured as production values, have decreased significantly in the Swedish manufacturing industries during the period studied. The results of the decomposition analysis show that output growth has not required higher energy consumption, leading to a reduction in both energy and CO2 emission intensities. The role of structural changes has been minor, and the trends of energy efficiency and CO2 emissions have been similar during the sample period. A stochastic frontier model was used to determine possible factors that may have influenced these trends. The results demonstrate that high energy prices, energy taxes, investments and electricity consumption have influenced the reduction of energy and CO2 emission intensities, indicating that Sweden has applied an adequate and effective energy policy. The study confirms that it is possible to achieve economic growth and sustainable development whilst also reducing the pressure on resources and energy consumption and promoting the shift towards a low-carbon economy.

  18. Properties of Swedish posttraumatic stress measures after a disaster.

    Arnberg, Filip K; Michel, Per-Olof; Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh


    This study evaluated the properties of Swedish versions of self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with emphasis on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Survey data from adult survivors 1, 3, and 6 years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami (n=1506) included the IES-R (from which the IES-6 was derived) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The PTSD Checklist (PCL) was included in one survey. A structured clinical interview was performed after 6 years (n=142). Factor analyses of the IES-R and PCL indicated that a dysphoric-arousal model provided good fit invariant across assessments. Both measures were accurate in excluding PTSD while all measures provided poorer positive predictive values. The IES-R, but not the IES-6 and GHQ-12, evidenced stability across assessments. In conclusion, the Swedish IES-R and PCL are sound measures of chronic PTSD, and the findings illustrate important temporal aspects of PTSD assessment.

  19. The Swedish dilemma - Nuclear energy v. the environment

    Nordhaus, W.D. [Yale Univ. (United States)


    A phaseout of nuclear power in Sweden is supposed to be accomplished by year 2010. This study is an economic analysis of the questions that are parts of the nuclear dilemma. Even though the economic questions are in focus, the important environmental, health and safety questions are also treated. The basic argument is that Sweden should choose an energy system that allows its citizens to maximize their consumption in a long-term perspective. Consumption is here given a meaning that includes elements outside the market, such as environmental, health and safety aspects valued in a reasonable way. Considerations must also be given to international aspects like global environment, a free and open system of trade and the value of a stable set of rules and proprietary rights. The study compares the economic pros and cons of different energy systems within this general frame. A detailed model of the Swedish energy and power sectors was developed for the study, called the Swedish Energy and Environment Policy (SEEP) model. the SEEP model is built on modern economic theory and includes energy and environmental factors in a uniform way. 8 figs 16 tabs.

  20. Health information, an area for competition in Swedish pharmacies

    Larsson EC


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the views and expectations of a selected group of customers regarding health information in Swedish pharmacies. Methods: A repeated cross sectional, questionnaire study carried out in 2004 and 2005. Customers buying calcium products answered questions on osteoporosis and general questions on health promotion and information. Results: Respondents had a positive attitude towards receiving health information from the pharmacies and towards the pharmacies’ future role in health promotion. However, only 30% of the respondents expected to get information on general health issues from the pharmacy. In spite of this, 76% (2004 and 72% (2005 of the respondents believed that the pharmacies could influence people’s willingness to improve their health.Conclusion: There is a gap between the respondents’ positive attitudes towards the Swedish pharmacies and their low expectations as regards the pharmacies’ ability to provide health information. In the light of the upcoming change to the state monopoly on medicine sales, this gap could be an important area for competition between the actors in the new situation for medicine sales in Sweden.

  1. Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Akademigatan 1, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)


    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners' adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Oestersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey. (author)

  2. Façade fires in Swedish school buildings

    Johansson Nils


    Full Text Available Fires outside school buildings caused by arson are a major problem in Sweden. The initial fire source can involve rubbish or other types of combustibles that can be found at or sometimes brought to the school. As the external fire develops the flames will extend along the façade. If the building is a one-story building, which is a common construction in Swedish school buildings, the fire can spread to the attic and further on to the rest of the building. A large research project was initiated in 2008 by the Swedish Fire Research Board in order to reduce the number and consequences of arson fires in school buildings. In this paper an evaluation of some technical systems that can be used to mitigate consequences of exterior fires is presented. The evaluation includes a literature review, experimental studies and a cost-benefit analysis. The study showed that some systems have clear cost-benefit advantages for the protection of school buildings in places where a high fire frequency can be expected.

  3. Students opinions about sex education in a Swedish school region.

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M


    Sex education has been a requirement in Swedish schools for the past 30 years. The purpose of the study was to describe the opinions of 17- and 18-year-old Swedish students at the upper secondary school regarding the sex education they received at school as well as their knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of reproduction. A questionnaire concerning education about sex and relationships was answered by 421 students. The results of questions regarding human reproduction illustrated that the students have insufficient knowledge about men's and women's reproductive organs. Two-thirds of the students who had received sex education thought the instructions were insufficient. The students wanted to talk more about positive and negative feelings within a relationship and feelings concerning sexually transmitted diseases and abortion. In summary, the results indicated that the content of sex education should focus on women's reproductive organs and the feelings and relationships between men and women. The type of instructions and how instruction time is utilized should be examined closely.

  4. IRIS Controlled Source Seismic Experiments: Continental Structure, Instrumentation, and Education

    Mooney, W. D.; Keller, G. R.


    , Romania, Hungary, Nevada, Chesapeake Bay (VA.), the Dead Sea rift, and back to Venezuela. The scientific targets of these experiments range in scale from shallow environmental depths to the entire lithosphere. In this talk we highlight many of the key scientific achievements of IRIS/PASSCAL controlled source experiments, with an emphasis on new insights into the structure, composition, and evolution of the continental crust. We also briefly describe the experiences of the hundreds of students who have participated in past field work. Many of these students are now pursuing active careers in seismology and are using the PASSCAL facility as young professionals.

  5. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Jesper Persson


    Full Text Available Environmental compensation includes a range of activities intended to counterbalance such negative impacts of development projects that remain in the environment after all preventive and corrective measures have been fully implemented. Sweden, being a member state of the European Union (EU, must implement environmental compensation under EU directives such as the Habitat Directive. However, like in other countries, implementation is not yet widespread in Sweden, and new practices and guidelines remain to be developed both nationally and at European level. This need is all the more urgent considering that the European Commission estimates that, within the EU, about 100,000 hectares of land is converted from its natural state each year. The aim of this paper is to describe current environmental-compensation practices in Swedish road and railway projects and to discuss issues of vital importance to the development of compensation policy, such as what to compensate for, how much, and how. A national inventory was performed, for the first time in Sweden, to identify compensation measures in road and railway projects. Data were collected from a national mailing list including 141 officials at county administrative boards (CABs, internal e-mail correspondence within the Swedish Transport Administration and databases of court decisions. The inventory focused on compensation measures ordered by virtue of the Swedish Environmental Code. In addition, two case studies were carried out to investigate the planning of compensation measures. The results showed that CABs and courts rarely order compensation in infrastructure projects, even though this is possible under Swedish law. Between 1999 and 2012, 37 cases (i.e. permits issued were found for which compensation was ordered. Of these cases, 76% concerned compensation for encroachments on minor habitats such as small ponds and cairns. No CAB ordered compensation for non-protected areas. Compensation ratios

  6. Margins in Swedish district heating systems; Marginaler i Fjaerrvaermesystem

    Selinder, Patrik; Zinko, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    It can be assumed on good reasons that the Swedish district heating nets are designed with relatively large margins concerning the transportable power. This is done historically to be able to transport the necessary power that can be called for on the coldest winter days but which occur rarely and also due to the former (until 2001) applied recommendations for the dimensioning of hot water flows. The aim of this project was to investigate the possibilities of reducing the connecting power to customers, both from a technical and from the customer point of view. The heating system of a building in Sweden is normally dimensioned according to a certain outdoor air temperature (DUT in Swedish). According to the Swedish Building Code, DUT20 is defined for a given location in such a way that if the heating system is designed for this temperature, the room temperature is allowed to decrease by 3 deg C in the average once in 20 years. That means that for economical reasons, a power deficiency is accounted for in the case of strong cold. The value of DUT is depending on the thermal inertia of the building. Buildings with high thermal inertia can have a higher DUT and vice versa. A reduced system size can in principle mean smaller size of pipes and consumer substations and more power available for additional customers to be connected. In principle, that means a more profitable district heating operation. Besides costs, another problem with oversized capacities are possible operational problems due to slow dynamic system responses, for instance at restarting occasions after a pump stop. A smaller valve size will result in a better system dynamic and may result in a more compliant system operation and increased delivery quality. By choosing just right DUT for every building and abandoning safety margins, it is shown in the report that the connecting power can be reduced in especially medium light to heavy buildings with larger time constants. However, this also means that the

  7. On entire functions restricted to intervals, partition of unities, and dual Gabor frames

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young


    Partition of unities appears in many places in analysis. Typically it is generated by compactly supported functions with a certain regularity. In this paper we consider partition of unities obtained as integer-translates of entire functions restricted to finite intervals. We characterize the entire...... functions that lead to a partition of unity in this way, and we provide characterizations of the “cut-off” entire functions, considered as functions of a real variable, to have desired regularity. In particular we obtain partition of unities generated by functions with small support and desired regularity....... Applied to Gabor analysis this leads to constructions of dual pairs of Gabor frames with low redundancy, generated by trigonometric polynomials with small support and desired regularity....

  8. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid


    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  9. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    Aki, K.


    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Holistic Approach Offers Potential to Quantify Mass Fluxes Across Continental Margins

    Kuehl, Steven; Carter, Lionel; Gomez, Basil; Trustrum, Noel

    Most humans live on and utilize the continental margin, the surface of which changes continually in response to environmental perturbations such as weather, climate change, tectonism, earthquakes, volcanism, sea level, and human settlement and land use. Part of the margin is above sea level and the rest is submarine, but these land and seascape components are contiguous, and material transport from source to sink occurs as a seamless cascade. The margin responds to environmental perturbations by changing the nature and magnitude of a variety of important functions, including the distribution of soil formation and erosion; biogeochemical functioning (especially the storage and release of water, limiting nutrients and contaminants); and the form and behavior of geomorphic components from hill slopes and floodplains through the coastal zone to the continental rise. While some areas of the margin are eroding-for example, hill slopes-others accumulate sediment, such as tectonic basins and continental slope and rise. These areas record the history of surface changes. A major goal of the Earth science community is to provide quantitative explanations and predictions of the effects of environmental perturbations on surface changes and preserved sedimentary strata of continental margins. In past decades, margins have been investigated piecemeal by researchers who have tended to focus on a particular segment from one disciplinary perspective while eschewing the broader perspective of the margin as an interconnected whole. Recognizing this shortcoming, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated the MARGINS Source-to-Sink (S2S) program, which, for the first time, will attempt to understand the functioning of entire margin systems through dedicated observational and community modeling studies. Following input from the Earth science community, the Waipaoa Sedimentary System (WSS) of the North Island, New Zealand, was chosen as one of the focus sites for possible

  11. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice


    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  12. Continental DC电动汽车


    在“Greenpower Corporate Challenge”(2008绿色动力团体挑战赛)上,宾利向世人展示了他们的最新研究作品——Continental DC电动汽车。这款获得“Spirit of Greenpower”(最佳精神奖)的小型单座式电动车由Tom Hodgson、Andrew Conneely、Martyn Brookes等九名宾利汽车的年轻学员组成的小团队共同完成。

  13. Automatic quality classification of entire electrocardiographic recordings obtained with a novel patch type recorder

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten; Egstrup, Kenneth


    Recently, new patch type electrocardiogram (ECG) recorders have reached the market. These new devices possess a number of advantages compared to the traditional Holter recorders. This forms the basis of questions related to benefits and drawbacks of different ambulatory ECG recording techniques....... One of the important questions is the ability to obtain high clinical quality of the recordings during the entire monitoring period. It is thus desirable to be able to obtain an automatic estimate of the global quality of entire ECG recordings. The purpose of this pilot study is therefore to design...

  14. On entire f-maximal graphs in the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1

    An, H. V. Q.; Cuong, D. V.; Duyen, N. T. M.; Hieu, D. T.; Nam, T. L.


    In the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1, we give a comparison theorem between the f-volume of an entire f-maximal graph and the f-volume of the hyperbolic Hr+ under the condition that the gradient of the function defining the graph is bounded away from 1. This condition comes from an example of non-planar entire f-maximal graph in Gn ×R1 and is equivalent to the hyperbolic angle function of the graph being bounded. As a consequence, we obtain a Calabi-Bernstein type theorem for f-maximal graphs in Gn ×R1.

  15. Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kim K;


    The ectodomain of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM) consists of five immunoglobulin (Ig) domains (IgI-V), followed by two fibronectin-type 3 (Fn3) domains (Fn3I-II). A complete structural model of the entire ectodomain of human OCAM has been assembled from crystal structures...... of six recombinant proteins corresponding to different regions of the ectodomain. The model is the longest experimentally based composite structural model of an entire IgCAM ectodomain. It displays an essentially linear arrangement of IgI-V, followed by bends between IgV and Fn3I and between Fn3I and Fn3...

  16. Developing the plate tectonics from oceanic subduction to continental collision

    ZHENG YongFei; YE Kai; ZHANG LiFei


    The studies of continental deep subduction and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism have not only promoted the development of solid earth science in China,but also provided an excellent opportunity to advance the plate tectonics theory.In view of the nature of subducted crust,two types of subduction and collision have been respectively recognized in nature.On one hand,the crustal subduction occurs due to underflow of either oceanic crust (Pacific type) or continental crust (Alpine type).On the other hand,the continental collision proceeds by arc-continent collision (Himalaya-Tibet type) or continent-continent collision (Dabie-Sulu type).The key issues in the future study of continental dynamics are the chemical changes and differential exhumation in continental deep subduction zones,and the temporal-spatial transition from oceanic subduction to continental subduction.

  17. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons; Foersvarets forskningsanstalt och planerna paa svenska kaernvapen

    Jonter, Thomas [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History


    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue

  18. Psychometric evaluation and normative data of the Swedish version of the 10-item perceived stress scale.

    Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven


    The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been translated to several languages and validated in many cultures. The longer 14-item version (PSS-14), has been translated to Swedish and validated for Swedish use. However, the Swedish version of the shorter 10-item version (PSS-10) has not been validated before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish version of the PSS-10 with regard to reliability and validity, and to provide normative data. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79 years, and stratified for age and sex. They responded to the Swedish version of the PSS-10 as well as to the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the Shirom Melamed burnout questionnaire for assessment of construct validity. The results show that the PSS-10 provides approximately normally distributed data, has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84), and has good construct validity with anxiety (r = 0.68), depression (r = 0.57), and mental/physical exhaustion (r = 0.71). The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PSS-10 suggest use of the instrument for assessing perceived stress in Swedish and similar populations. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. Deformation and seismicity associated with continental rift zones propagating toward continental margins

    Lyakhovsky, V.; Segev, A.; Schattner, U.; Weinberger, R.


    We study the propagation of a continental rift and its interaction with a continental margin utilizing a 3-D lithospheric model with a seismogenic crust governed by a damage rheology. A long-standing problem in rift-mechanics, known as thetectonic force paradox, is that the magnitude of the tectonic forces required for rifting are not large enough in the absence of basaltic magmatism. Our modeling results demonstrate that under moderate rift-driving tectonic forces the rift propagation is feasible even in the absence of magmatism. This is due to gradual weakening and "long-term memory" of fractured rocks that lead to a significantly lower yielding stress than that of the surrounding intact rocks. We show that the style, rate and the associated seismicity pattern of the rift zone formation in the continental lithosphere depend not only on the applied tectonic forces, but also on the rate of healing. Accounting for the memory effect provides a feasible solution for thetectonic force paradox. Our modeling results also demonstrate how the lithosphere structure affects the geometry of the propagating rift system toward a continental margin. Thinning of the crystalline crust leads to a decrease in the propagation rate and possibly to rift termination across the margin. In such a case, a new fault system is created perpendicular to the direction of the rift propagation. These results reveal that the local lithosphere structure is one of the key factors controlling the geometry of the evolving rift system and seismicity pattern.

  20. Potential mechanisms of pore-fluid movement from continental lithospheric mantle into upper continental crust

    ZHAO Chong-bin; PENG Sheng-lin; LIU Liang-ming; B.E.HOBBS; A.ORD


    Through integrating the state of the art scientific knowledge in different research fields, some potential mechanisms of large-scale movements of underground pore-fluids such as H2O and CO2 in the continental lithosphere were presented and discussed. The results show that the generation and propagation of porosity waves are important mechanisms to transport mass and heat fluxes from the continental lithospheric mantle into the lower continental crust; the generation and propagation of porosity waves, pore-fluid flow focusing through lower and middle crustal faults, aclvection of pore-fluids through the lower and middle crust, and whole-crustconvection in some particular cases are important mechanisms to transport mass and heat fluxes from the lower into the upper continental crust; heat and mass transport through convective pore-fluid flow is the most effective mechanism of ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems; due to heat and mass exchange at the interface between the earth surface, hydrosphere and atmosphere, it is very important to consider the hydro-geological effect of the deep earth pore-fluids such as H2O and CO2 on the global warming and climate change in future investigations.

  1. Continental cement trial burn strategy follow-up

    Woodford, J. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Springboro, OH (United States); Winders, H. [Continental Cement Company, Hannibal, MO (United States); Constans, D.L. [Gossman Consulting, Inc., Peachtree City, GA (United States)


    The Continental Trial Burn strategy, presented at the 1995 BIF Conference, included the use of {open_quotes}data-in-lieu-of{close_quotes} from previous compliance testing conducted at the facility. Since the submission of the Trial Burn Plan and the 1995 presentation, Continental Cement has completed their two campaign trial burn. This paper will update the implementation of the Continental Trial Burn strategy. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Integrated geologic and geophysical studies of North American continental intraplate seismicity

    Van Lanen, X.; Mooney, W.D.


    shows that the frequency and moment magnitude of events are nearly uniform for the entire 0-35 km depths over which crustal earthquakes extend. This is in contradiction with the hypothesis that larger events have deeper focal depths. We conclude that the deep structure of the crust, in particular the existence of deeply penetrating faults, is the controlling parameter, rather than lateral variations in temperature, rheology, or high pore pressure. The distribution of stable continental region earthquakes in eastern North America is consistent with the existence of deeply penetrating crustal faults that have been reactivated in the present stress field. We infer that future earthquakes may occur anywhere along the geophysical lineations that we have identified. This implies that seismic hazard is more widespread in central and eastern North America than indicated by the limited known historical distribution of seismicity. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Generation of continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Kelemen, P. B.; Everson, E. D.; Holbrook, W. S.; Vance, E.


    The origin of continental crust is still an unsolved mystery in the evolution of our planet. Although the best candidates to produce juvenile continental crust are intra-oceanic arcs these systems are dominated by basaltic lavas, and when silicic magmas are produced, the incompatible-element compositions are generally too depleted to be a good match for continental crust estimates. Others, such as the W. Aleutians, are dominated by andesitic melts with trace element compositions similar to average continental crust. In order to evaluate which intra-oceanic arcs produced modern continental crust, we developed a geochemical continental index (CI) through a statistical analysis that compared all available data from modern intra-oceanic arcs with global estimates of continental crust. Our results suggest that magmas from Costa Rica (100 have the least continent-like geochemical signatures. In these arcs the subducting plate is old (>100 Ma), not overprinted by enriched intraplate volcanism and the geochemistry may be dominated by slab-derived, aqueous fluids. We also found a strong correlation between the CI and average crustal P-wave velocity, validating the geochemical index with the available seismic data for intra-oceanic arcs. In conclusion, the production of young continental crust with compositions similar to Archean continental crust is an unusual process, limited to locations where there are especially voluminous partial melts of oceanic crust.

  4. Aeromagnetic data and geological structure of continental China: A review

    Xiong, Sheng-Qing; Tong, Jing; Ding, Yan-Yun; Li, Zhan-Kui


    We review the latest aeromagnetic geological data of continental China. We discuss the latest achievements in geological mapping and the newly detected features based on aeromagnetic data. Using aeromagnetic data collected for more than 50 years, a series of 1:5000000 and 1:1000000 aeromagnetic maps of continental China were compiled using state-of-the-art digital technology, and data processing and transformation. Guided by plate tectonics and continental dynamics, rock physical properties, and magnetic anomalies, we compiled maps of the depth of the magnetic basement of continental China and the major geotectonic units, and presented newly detected geological structures based on the aeromagnetic data.

  5. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  6. Continental moisture recycling as a Poisson process

    H. F. Goessling


    Full Text Available On their journey across large land masses, water molecules experience a number of precipitation-evaporation cycles (recycling events. We derive analytically the frequency distributions of recycling events for the water molecules contained in a given air parcel. Given the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, continental moisture recycling is shown to develop either into a Poisson distribution or a geometric distribution. We distinguish two cases: in case (A recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last advected across the ocean-land boundary. In case (B recycling events are counted since the water molecules were last evaporated from the ocean. For case B we show by means of a simple scale analysis that, given the conditions on Earth, realistic frequency distributions may be regarded as a mixture of a Poisson distribution and a geometric distribution. By contrast, in case A the Poisson distribution generally appears as a reasonable approximation. This conclusion is consistent with the simulation results of an earlier study where an atmospheric general circulation model equipped with water vapor tracers was used. Our results demonstrate that continental moisture recycling can be interpreted as a Poisson process.

  7. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Przhemenetskaya, V.F.


    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  8. A vision for a continental energy strategy

    Klein, R. [Borden Ladner Gervais LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tobin, B. [Fraser Milner Casgrain LLP. Toronto, ON (Canada); Angevine, G. [Angevine Economic Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fryer, K.; Martin, L.T. [Fraser Inst., Vancouver, BC (Canada)] (eds.)


    This paper presented a vision with respect to a continental energy strategy and the principles and goals that must underlie such a strategy. These principles include relying on signals emanating from energy markets to guide investment; limiting the role of government to that of ensuring that the policy and institutional framework is conducive to the development and operation of competitive and innovative energy markets; and ensuring free and open energy trade in energy commodities, both within the continent and with the rest of the world. The paper also identified a number of important factors that, would shape and condition continental energy development and trade. The paper provided an overview of the North American energy use and supply situation for the following resources: oil; natural gas; electricity; coal; nuclear power; hydroelectricity; geothermal energy; wind power; solar power; and ethanol. It also discussed the contribution of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) through increased natural gas exports. It was concluded that given the petroleum resources of the three countries and their increased value because of higher oil and gas prices, there was considerable incentive for Canada, the United States, and Mexico to streamline regulations in order to facilitate the efficient development, transportation, and use of the continent's energy resources in accordance with market conditions. 38 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

  9. Extension of Inverses of Entire Functions of Genus 1 and 2 to the Upper Half Plane

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg


    Any entire function of genus 1 which is positive on the positive real axis and which has only negative zeros decreases on some unbounded interval of the positive axis. The inverse of its reciprocal is shown to have an extension from that interval to a Pick-function in the upper half plane...

  10. Concentration of the L{sub 1}-norm of trigonometric polynomials and entire functions

    Malykhin, Yu V [Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ryutin, K S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    For any sufficiently large n, the minimal measure of a subset of [−π,π] on which some nonzero trigonometric polynomial of order ≤n gains half of the L{sub 1}-norm is shown to be π/(n+1). A similar result for entire functions of exponential type is established. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  11. T1rho mapping of entire femoral cartilage using depth- and angle-dependent analysis

    Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Yu, Hon J.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi [University of California Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Kaneshiro, Kayleigh [University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Schwarzkopf, Ran [University of California Irvine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Irvine, CA (United States); Hara, Takeshi [Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Intelligent Image Information, Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Gifu (Japan)


    To create and evaluate normalized T1rho profiles of the entire femoral cartilage in healthy subjects with three-dimensional (3D) angle- and depth-dependent analysis. T1rho images of the knee from 20 healthy volunteers were acquired on a 3.0-T unit. Cartilage segmentation of the entire femur was performed slice-by-slice by a board-certified radiologist. The T1rho depth/angle-dependent profile was investigated by partitioning cartilage into superficial and deep layers, and angular segmentation in increments of 4 over the length of segmented cartilage. Average T1rho values were calculated with normalized T1rho profiles. Surface maps and 3D graphs were created. T1rho profiles have regional and depth variations, with no significant magic angle effect. Average T1rho values in the superficial layer of the femoral cartilage were higher than those in the deep layer in most locations (p < 0.05). T1rho values in the deep layer of the weight-bearing portions of the medial and lateral condyles were lower than those of the corresponding non-weight-bearing portions (p < 0.05). Surface maps and 3D graphs demonstrated that cartilage T1rho values were not homogeneous over the entire femur. Normalized T1rho profiles from the entire femoral cartilage will be useful for diagnosing local or early T1rho abnormalities and osteoarthritis in clinical applications. (orig.)

  12. &timation of Body ~ Gain of Entire and Castrated Male ~ at Two ...

    Rates of tissue gain and body composition of 18 entire (E) and 18 castrated (C) ... mals were slaughtered at 95 kg and their body composition was determined. ... trated (C) male pigs, fed at one of two feeding, ... Each batch of pigs was se-.

  13. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin


    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...

  14. Entire functions whose Julia sets include any finitely many copies of quadratic Julia sets

    Katagata, Koh


    We prove that for any finite collection of quadratic Julia sets, a polynomial and a transcendental entire function exist whose Julia sets include copies of the given quadratic Julia sets. In order to prove the result, we construct quasiregular maps with required dynamics and employ the quasiconformal surgery to obtain the desired functions.

  15. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  16. Homomorphisms and functional calculus on algebras on entire functions on Banach spaces

    H. M. Pryimak


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study homomorphisms of algebras of entire functionson Banach spaces to a commutative Banach algebra. In particular, it is proposed amethod to construct homomorphisms vanishing on homogeneouspolynomials of degree less or equal that a fixed number $n.$

  17. Certain operators in the space of entire functions represented by Dirichlet series of several complex variables

    Suzanne Daoud


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the space X of all Entire functions represented by Dirichlet series equipped with various topologies. The main result is concerned with finding certain continuous linear operators which are used to determine the proper bases in X.

  18. Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption

    Bjoernberg, Karolin Ask [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Grawe, Kierstin Petersson [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:


    We studied the exposure to methyl mercury (MeHg) in 127 Swedish women of childbearing age with high consumption of various types of fish, using total mercury (T-Hg) in hair and MeHg in blood as biomarkers. Fish consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), including detailed information about consumption of different fish species, reflecting average intake during 1 year. We also determined inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in blood, and selenium (Se) in serum. The average total fish consumption, as reported in the food frequency questionnaire, was approximately 4 times/week (range 1.6-19 times/week). Fish species potentially high in MeHg, included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 79% of the women. About 10% consumed such species more than once a week, i.e., more than what is recommended. Other fish species potentially high in MeHg, not included in the Swedish dietary advisories, was consumed by 54% of the women. Eleven percent never consumed fish species potentially high in MeHg. T-Hg in hair (median 0.70 mg/kg; range 0.08-6.6 mg/kg) was associated with MeHg in blood (median 1.7 {mu}g/L; range 0.30-14 {mu}g/L; r {sub s}=0.78; p<0.001). Hair T-Hg, blood MeHg and serum Se (median 70 {mu}g/L; range 46-154 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing total fish consumption (r {sub s}=0.32; p<0.001, r {sub s}=0.37; p<0.001 and r {sub s}=0.35; p=0.002, respectively). I-Hg in blood (median 0.24 {mu}g/L; range 0.01-1.6 {mu}g/L) increased with increasing number of dental amalgam fillings. We found no statistical significant associations between the various mercury species measured and the Se concentration in serum. Hair mercury levels exceeded the levels corresponding to the EPA reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 {mu}g MeHg/kg b.w. per day in 20% of the women. Thus, there seems to be no margin of safety for neurodevelopmental effects in fetus, for women with high fish consumption unless they decrease their intake of certain fish species.

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants, 1999



    The total generation of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.1 TWh during 1999, which is slightly more than the mean value for the last five years. The total electricity consumption decreased by one percent, compared with 1998, to a total of 142.3 TWh, due to an unusually warm summer and autumn. The abundant supply of hydroelectric power resulted in comparatively extensive load-following operation by the nuclear plants during the year. Production losses due to low demand totalled 3.0 TWh. The closure of Barsebaeck 1 will result in a capacity reduction exceeding 4 TWh per year. The hydroelectric power production was 70 TWh, which was 6 TWh more than during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. The remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating contributed 9 TWh. Electricity generation by means of wind power is still increasing. There are now about 470 wind power stations, which produced 0.3 TWh during the year. The total electricity generation totalled 149.8 TWh, a three percent decrease compared with 1998. The preliminary figures for export were 15.9 TWh and for import 8.4 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production result. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is provided in the 1999 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. The unit capability factor for the PWRs at Ringhals averaged 91%, while the BWRs averaged 82% mainly due to the extended outages. The BWR reactors at Forsmark averaged as much as 93%. Forsmark 1 experienced the shortest refuelling outage ever in Sweden, only 9 days and 20 hours. In May, Oskarshamn 2 passed a historical milestone - the unit produced 100 TWh since connection to the grid in 1974. The final production day for Barsebaeck 1, which had been in commercial operation since 1975, was on November 30 when a decision by the Swedish Government revoked the operating licence. Three safety-related events

  20. The Parametrisation of Legal Terminology Concerning Child Maintenance Support in the Swedish and Polish Legal Systems

    Hadryan Milena


    Full Text Available This paper deals with translating legal terminology concerning child maintenance from Polish to Swedish. The analysis covers selected terms regulated in the Polish civil law and their possible Swedish equivalents. The method used is based on the parameterisation of legal terms, which allows the specification of terms by selected parameters, which are understood as mutually exclusive properties. The parameterised equivalents are analysed in the context of various types of recipients. This provides the basis for the choice of appropriate translation strategies. The author also discusses pragmatic equivalents featured in Rikstermbanken, the Swedish national terminological database, and those used in practice.

  1. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010: Markets, regulation, strategies and know-how

    Sjögren, Hans; Lennerfors, Thomas Taro; Poulsen, René Taudal


    of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one hand, the direction taken by two failing companies and, on the other, the courses followed by two......Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence...

  2. Marketing of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products in a Deregulated Swedish Pharmacy Market

    Tozlikian, Shant; Falk, Erik


                    The thesis will provide a description of the previous Swedish NRT marketing mix, a description of the present plans of Swedish NRT marketers for the marketing mix of their products, and the present marketing mix of the previously deregulated pharmacy markets in Finland and Norway. The purpose is to develop conclusions on how marketers of NRT products could change their marketing mix in response to the deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market.    This thesis relies on a des...

  3. Prospective study of coffee consumption and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality in Swedish women.

    Löf, Marie; Sandin, Sven; Yin, Li; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete


    We investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of 49,259 Swedish women. Of the 1576 deaths that occurred in the cohort, 956 were due to cancer and 158 were due to cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Compared to a coffee consumption of 0-1 cups/day, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.69-0.94) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.88 (95 % CI 0.74-1.05) for >5 cups/day. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality or cardiovascular mortality when analyzed in the entire cohort. However, in supplementary analyses of women over 50 years of age, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.74 (95 % CI 0.62-0.89) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.86 (95 % CI 0.70-1.06) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. In this same subgroup, the RRs for cancer mortality were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.81-1.38) for 2-5 cups/day and 1.40 (95 % CI 1.05-1.89) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. No associations between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, or cardiovascular mortality were observed among women below 50 years of age. In conclusion, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to a consumption of 0-1 cups/day. Furthermore, coffee may have differential effects on mortality before and after 50 years of age.

  4. Adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, dietary composition, and lifestyle among Swedish women

    Nina Roswall


    Full Text Available Background: Studies examining diet scores in relation to health outcomes are gaining ground. Thus, control for dietary factors not part of the score, and lifestyle associated with adherence, is required to allow for a causal interpretation of studies on diet scores and health outcomes. Objective: The study objective is to describe and investigate dietary composition, micronutrient density, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations across groups defined by their level of adherence to a healthy Nordic food index (HNFI. The paper examines both dietary components included in the HNFI as well as dietary components, which are not part of the HNFI, to get a broad picture of the diet. Design: The study is cross-sectional and conducted in the Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort. We included 45,277 women, aged 29–49 years at baseline (1991–1992. The HNFI was defined by six items: wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, cabbages, root vegetables and fish/shellfish, using data from a food frequency questionnaire. Proportions, means and standard deviations were calculated in the entire cohort and by adherence groups. Results: Women scoring high on the HNFI had a higher energy intake, compared to low adherers. They had a higher intake of fiber and a higher micronutrient density (components of the HNFI, but also a higher intake of items not included in the HNFI: red/processed meats, sweets, and potatoes. They were on average more physically active and less likely to smoke. Conclusions: Adherence to the HNFI was associated with a generally healthier lifestyle and a high intake of health-beneficial components. However, it was also associated with a higher energy intake and a higher intake of foods without proven health benefits. Therefore, future studies on the HNFI and health outcomes should take into account potential confounding of dietary and lifestyle factors associated with the HNFI.

  5. Stratigraphic landscape analysis, thermochronology and the episodic development of elevated, passive continental margins

    Green, Paul F.


    Full Text Available The continental margin of West Greenland is similar in many respects to other elevated, passive continental margins (EPCMs around the world. These margins are characterised by extensive regions of low relief at elevations of 1–2 kilometres above sea level sloping gently inland, with a much steeper, oceanward decline, often termed a 'Great Escarpment', terminating at a coastal plain. Recent studies, based on integration of geological, geomorphological and thermochronological evidence, have shown that the high topography of West Greenland was formed by differential uplift and dissection of an Oligo-Miocene peneplain since the late Miocene, many millions of years after continental break-up between Greenland and North America. In contrast, many studies of other EPCMs have proposed a different style of development in which the high plateaux and the steep, oceanward decline are regarded as a direct result of rifting and continental separation. Some studies assume that the elevated regions have remained high since break-up, with the high topography continuously renewed by isostasy. Others identify the elevated plains as remnants of pre-rift landscapes. Key to understanding the development of the West Greenland margin is a new approach to the study of landforms, stratigraphic landscape analysis, in which the low-relief, high-elevation plateaux at EPCMs are interpreted as uplifted peneplains: low-relief surfaces of large extent, cutting across bedrock of different age and resistance, and originally graded to sea level. Identification of different generations of peneplain (re-exposed and epigene from regional mapping, combined with geological constraints and thermochronology, allows definition of the evolution leading to the formation of the modern-day topography. This approach is founded particularly on results from the South Swedish Dome, which document former sea levels as base levels for the formation of peneplains. These results support the view

  6. Persistence of initial conditions in continental scale air quality simulations

    Hogrefe, Christian; Roselle, Shawn J.; Bash, Jesse O.


    This study investigates the effect of initial conditions (IC) for pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere and soil on simulated air quality for two continental-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model applications. One of these applications was performed for springtime and the second for summertime. Results show that a spin-up period of ten days commonly used in regional-scale applications may not be sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged surface ozone concentrations everywhere while 20 days were found to be sufficient for the entire domain for the spring case and almost the entire domain for the summer case. For the summer case, differences were found to persist longer aloft due to circulation of air masses and even a spin-up period of 30 days was not sufficient to reduce the effects of ICs to less than 1% of seasonally-averaged layer 34 ozone concentrations over the southwestern portion of the modeling domain. Analysis of the effect of soil initial conditions for the CMAQ bidirectional NH3 exchange model shows that during springtime they can have an important effect on simulated inorganic aerosols concentrations for time periods of one month or longer. The effects are less pronounced during other seasons. The results, while specific to the modeling domain and time periods simulated here, suggest that modeling protocols need to be scrutinized for a given application and that it cannot be assumed that commonly-used spin-up periods are necessarily sufficient to reduce the effects of initial conditions on model results to an acceptable level. What constitutes an acceptable level of difference cannot be generalized and will depend on the particular application, time period and species of interest. Moreover, as the application of air quality models is being expanded to cover larger geographical domains and as these models are increasingly being coupled with other modeling systems to better represent

  7. Retirement options under the Swedish national pension system.

    Packard, M D


    This article reviews the retirement options available to Swedes aged 60 to 64 under their national pension system. Summaries of the various options are followed by an analysis of the relative attractiveness of each option using hypothetical 60-year-old workers with varying characteristics. The proportion of 60- to 64-year-old Swedes selecting each option corresponds closely to the relative attractiveness orderings computed for these hypothetical workers. Sweden has a unique pension alternative called the partial pension program that allows workers aged 60-64 to reduce their hours of work to within prescribed limits and receive a pension equal to half the earnings they lost. The Swedish experience with this popular pension is described in some detail.

  8. Silencing of voices in a Swedish science classroom

    Ramos de Robles, S. Lizette


    From a sociocultural perspective, I discuss data from a Swedish science classroom presented in María Gómez's article "Student Explanations of their Science Teachers' Assessments, Grading Practices, and How they learn Science". In this discussion, I focus on the need to change existing conceptions of assessment in the teaching and learning of science. Next, I talk about the importance of taking into consideration the dialectic between agency and passivity as filters in order to understand what student silence may signify in science classes as well as in relation to their perceptions of assessment. I conclude with the importance of the teacher's role in developing formative assessment, along with the challenges in developing assessments which transform science education into a relevant field of knowledge for both students and society at large.

  9. Development and validation of Swedish classical and modern sexism scales.

    Ekehammar, B; Akrami, N; Araya, T


    In two studies we develop and validate a Classical--overt or direct--and a Modern--covert or subtle--Sexism Scale concerning attitudes toward women, for a Swedish (Scandinavian) context. Further, we examine whether these two forms of prejudice are distinguishable. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that, although highly correlated, classical and modern sexism are distinguishable. The construct validations showed that men had higher means on modern and classical sexism scores than women, and that our scales were related to other constructs as expected. In a third study, we analyzed the knowledge and the content of cultural stereotypes about women. There were no differences in the knowledge of cultural stereotypes between men and women or between high- and low-sexist individuals. The findings are discussed in relation to previous international studies that examine people's modern and/or classical sexism.

  10. Approaching safety in the Swedish and Danish construction industry

    Grill, Martin; Grytnes, Regine; Törner, Marianne


    Background: Persistent high accident rates in the construction industry motivate research to improve the understanding of underlying factors affecting safety behaviour and safety outcomes. The Scandinavian countries of Sweden and Denmark are culturally similar but with a considerable difference...... industry. The transcripts were analysed using semantic thematic analysis. Results: Seven safety related themes were distinguished, conveying safety culture differences between Swedish and Danish construction industry concerning: participatory or directive management; challenge or obey; compliance or non......-compliance; cooperation or conflict; caution or cockiness; planning management; and employment security. Interconnections between the thematic areas revealed patterns of interaction between managers and employees, interpreted as process models of participatory and directive safety cultures. Conclusion: This study...

  11. Decarbonising the Swedish transport sector with electricity or biofuels

    Pedersen, Rasmus Bo Bramstoft; Skytte, Klaus


    Sweden has set long-term energy policy targets which aim at eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 [1]. Since the production of power and district heating in Sweden is already close to be carbon neutral, a further reduction of GHG emissions have to be seeked in other sectors......, for example the transport sector. By 2011, approximately 90% of the total fuel consumption in the transport sector stems from fossil fuels, accounting for around 45% of the GHG emissions in Sweden [1]. Therefore, the Swedish transport sector will have to face a major transformation in the next future......, if the ambitious targets of a carbon neutral transport system by 2050 and of being independent from fossil fuels in the vehicle fleet by 2030 have to be achieved [1]. To meet the energy policy targets, radical restructuring of the fuel use and vehicle stock in the transport sector is required. In this context...

  12. The use and characteristics of elderspeak in Swedish geriatric institutions.

    Samuelsson, Christina; Adolfsson, Elin; Persson, Hanna


    The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of elderspeak in a Swedish context and to describe its characteristics. Elderspeak refers to adjustments made in communication with elderly people; adjustments similar to those made in interaction with infants. Previous findings show that adjustments of communication are made within several linguistic domains, and are a part of the communicative environment of elderly people. Five people working in different forms of geriatric institutions participated in this study, and data consist of recordings of interactions between caregivers and residents (without dementia) and interactions between caregivers and colleagues. The recordings were transcribed and analyzed by means of perceptual, semantic and acoustic analyses. The findings demonstrate that caregivers, to a varying extent, adjusted their communication within several linguistic domains. The adjustments were mainly made within the prosodic domain, but there were also adjustments made within other language domains.

  13. Informing the Swedish public about radiation. A case study

    Waahlberg, A. af


    The two Swedish state agencies handling radiation protection and nuclear safety are studied as to their information policies and documents, with special attention to Chernobyl. The principal aim is an assessment of policies and documents. A quantitative coding is made of the printed document`s key features. The study is a part of a larger CEC-project, and similar studies are made in three other countries, according to common guidelines. The general radiation situation in Sweden and its historical background is described, generating a picture of a rather safe, tightly controlled and thoroughly researched issue. The agencies are very active in their information work, using just about every conceivable channel to disseminate radiation information. The intellectual range of the printed documents is great, as very different groups are targeted, from the general public to researchers and other state agency employees

  14. Natural organic matter properties in Swedish agricultural streams

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Kyllmar, Katarina; Bergström, Lars; Köhler, Stephan


    We have analysed natural organic matter (NOM) properties in 18 agricultural streams in Sweden covering a broad range of environmental (climate, soil type), land use and water quality (nutrient and concentrations, pH, alkalinity) characteristics. Stream water samples collected every two weeks within an ongoing Swedish Monitoring Programme for Agriculture have been analysed for total/dissolved organic carbon, absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. A number of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopic parameters was calculated to help to distinguish between terrestrially-derived, refractory organic material and autochthonous, labile material indicative of biogeochemical transformations of terrestrial NOM and recent biological production. The study provides insights into organic matter properties and carbon budgets in agricultural streams and improves understanding of how agricultural catchments transform natural and anthropogenic fluxes of organic matter and nutrients to signals observed in receiving waters.

  15. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa


    PURPOSE: Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from...... the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total...... variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. RESULTS: Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral...

  16. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)


    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  17. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Åsa Abelin


    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  18. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005



    In 2005, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at the Swedish nuclear power plants. However, some events have been given a special focus. The 'Gudrun' storm, which occurred in January 2005, affected the operation of the reactors at Ringhals and Barsebaeck 2. At Ringhals, the switchyards were affected by salt deposits and, at Barsebaeck, the 400kV grid was subjected to interruptions. The long-term trend is that the total number of fuel defects in Swedish reactors is decreasing. The damage that occurs nowadays has mainly been caused by small objects entering the fuel via the coolant and fretting holes in the cladding. To reduce the number of defects of this type, fuel with filters is successively being introduced to prevent debris from entering the fuel assemblies and cyclone filters in the facility which cleans the coolant. Since the mid-nineties, the pressurised water reactors, Ringhals 2, 3 and 4, have had problems with fuel rod bowing in excess of the safety analysis calculations. Ringhals AB (RAB) has adopted measures to rectify the bowing. Follow-up work shows that the fuel rod bowing is decreasing. The followup in 2005 of damaged tubes in the Ringhals 4 steam generators indicates a continued slow damage propagation. Tubes with defects of such a limited extent that there are adequate margins to rupture and loosening have been kept in operation. Damaged tubes with insufficient margins have plugged. During the year, previously observed minor leakage from the reactor containment in Ringhals 2 was investigated in greater detail and repaired. The investigations showed extensive corrosion attack caused by deficiencies in connection with containment construction. The ageing of electrical cables and other equipment in the I-C systems has been examined by SKI. Regulatory supervision has so far shown that these issues are largely handled in a satisfactory manner by the licensees but that certain supplementary investigations and other measures

  19. Cooperation and Individualization as Principles of Instruction in the Swedish School.

    Willmann, Bodo


    Discusses reform in the Swedish public school system since 1962. Reform efforts have centered around equality of opportunity and meeting individual needs. Topics discussed include experimental high schools, open classrooms, student motivation, individualized instruction, and social integration. (DB)

  20. Prediction of early race starts in Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters

    Revold, Tobias; Larsen, Stig; Ihler, Carl F


    Less than a third of Norwegian-Swedish Coldblooded Trotters (NSCTs) have started racing as three year olds since the year 2000 despite the fact that large sums are paid out as price-money in the three year season...

  1. Changing arenas of underage adolescent binge drinking in Swedish small towns

    Ander Birgitta


    Full Text Available AIM – The study explores arenas of adolescent binge drinking in small Swedish towns and the meanings these have for young persons. The focus is thus on space and place, and on the geography of underage drinking.

  2. Formation of Apprenticeships in the Swedish Education System: Different Stakeholder Perspectives

    Ingela Andersson


    Full Text Available The article explores the major features of the Swedish Government’s new initiative - a school based Upper Secondary Apprenticeship model. The analyses are guided by activity theory. The analysed texts are part of the parliamentary reformmaking process of the 2011 Upper Secondary School reform. The analyses unfold how the Government, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO, and the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (SN construct Upper Secondary Apprenticeship as an activity in the 21st century. The conclusion highlights how three traditional aspects of Swedish initial vocational education and training (IVET collide in the formation of Upper Secondary Apprenticeship – a curriculum of labour market based apprenticeships, a curriculum of school based IVET, and ill-defined curriculums of school based apprenticeships. The emerging Upper Secondary Apprenticeship curriculum foreshadows multifaceted educational trajectories where the learning targets, and not the responsibility for the student’s learning are displaced from the school to the workplace setting.

  3. Comments from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, SSNC, and the Swedish NGO office for Nuclear Waste Review, MKG, on the industry's, SKB, research programme Fud-07


    instruct the Radiation Safety Authority to develop its own independent assessment tools and knowledge base for its assessment of the industry's presentation, in the forthcoming application documents, of alternative methods for storing high-level nuclear waste. - The Government needs to make it clear that both long-term environmental safety and the security risks that are imposed by possible deliberate or speculative violation of the repository poses weigh heavily in any evaluation of the various alternative methods for storage of high-level nuclear waste. - The Government must ensure that the Radiation Safety Authority continues to develop its own independent assessment tools and knowledge base for its evaluation of an inland location of the repository with respect to long term environmental safety. - The Government should alert the Radiation Safety Authority to the need to make sure that both collective radiation doses from diffuse sources and the impact of radiation on the entire eco-system are included in safety analyses. - The Government should make it clear to the industry, to local government and to other actors that long-term environmental safety is an overriding criterion that may not be compromised by hastening to a decision to establish a repository. - The Government should review and revise legislation in the area of radiation safety. - The Government should review and reorganize the administrative structure of social science research relating to nuclear waste management. - The Government should take measures to ensure that environmental organizations can receive funds out of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund also after 2008

  4. Continental Transform Boundaries: Tectonic Evolution and Geohazards

    Michael Steckler


    Full Text Available Continental transform boundaries cross heavily populated regions, and they are associated with destructive earthquakes,for example, the North Anatolian Fault (NAFacross Turkey, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault in Haiti,the San Andreas Fault in California, and the El Pilar fault in Venezuela. Transform basins are important because they are typically associated with 3-D fault geometries controlling segmentation—thus, the size and timing of damaging earthquakes—and because sediments record both deformation and earthquakes. Even though transform basins have been extensively studied, their evolution remains controversial because we don’t understand the specifics about coupling of vertical and horizontal motions and about the basins’long-term kinematics. Seismic and tsunami hazard assessments require knowing architecture and kinematics of faultsas well as how the faults are segmented.

  5. Moho and magmatic underplating in continental lithosphere

    Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina M.


    fractionation during cooling and solidification in the lower crust. Separation of the low density material from the high-density residue may be a main process of formation of continental crust with its characteristic low average density, also during the early evolution of the Earth. Despite the assumed...... importance of underplating processes and associated fractionation, the available geophysical images of underplated material remain relatively sparse and confined to specific tectonic environments. Direct ponding of magma at the Moho is only observed in very few locations, probably because magma usually...... interacts with the surrounding crustal rocks which leads to smearing of geophysical signals from the underplated material. In terms of processes, there is no direct discriminator between the traditional concept of underplated material and lower crustal magmatic intrusions in the form of batholiths and sill...

  6. Crude oil production prospects for continental Europe

    Appleby, P. [British Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)


    A medium term view of the prospects for oil production in continental Europe, focusing on the offshore production in UK and Norwegian waters, is presented. The paper begins with a recent history and an overview of current oil production and recent trends. The growth of North Sea production has been important, contributing more than two-thirds of the growth in non OPEC oil production. The development of the Andrew field in the UK North Sea is presented as an example of new management methods succeeding in enhancing the economic viability of oil fields that would otherwise be marginal or non economic The Foinaven field in the new West of Shetlands province illustrates the way in which the combination of technological advances and changes in industry practices is extending the frontiers of commercial viability. Supply projections show North Sea production continuing to grow, but not as rapidly as over the past five years. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs.

  7. Oceanography of the Southeastern Continental Shelf

    This volume, the second in the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences series, provides a synthesis of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The results presented derive from a decade-long multidisciplinary investigation of the SAB continental shelf regime.The SAB extends from West Palm Beach, Fla., where the narrow south Florida shelf begins to broaden, to Cape Hatteras, N.C., where the shelf again narrows. This broad and shallow area is distinguished by the proximity of the Gulf Stream to the shelf break. Large contrasts in the distribution of properties, the strength of oceanic and atmospheric forces, and the high frequency (4-12 days) at which these forces vary have created a unique natural laboratory in which a variety of oceanic processes may be studied.


    A Kumar


    Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.

  9. Limb salvage surgery in a patient with macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving an entire upper extremity

    GAO Bo; ZHENG Long-po; CAI Zheng-dong


    @@ Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital localized gigantism, which is characterized by slowly progressive overgrowth of the mesenchymal elements, especially the fibroadipose tissue,in a limb. Frequently, multiple contiguous digits are involved on the lateral side of the hand or the medial side of the foot. Overabundance of the fibroadipose tissue and osseous overgrowth are most remarkable at the distal ends of the extremity. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving an entire limb has been previously reported for only one case in a 45-year-old adult male;1 however, no details of treatment were described. Here, we present the first report of successful limb salvage surgery of macrodystrophia lipomatosa in an adolescent involving an entire upper extremity.

  10. Filamentation and Forward Brillouin Scatter of Entire Smoothed and Aberrated Laser Beams

    Still, C.H.; Berger, R.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.


    Laser-plasma interactions are sensitive to both the fine-scale speckle and the larger scale envelope intensity of the beam. For some time, simulations have been done on volumes taken from part of the laser beam cross-section, and the results from multiple simulations extrapolated to predict the behavior of the entire beam. However, extrapolation could very well miss effects of the larger scale structure on the fine-scale. The only definitive method is to simulate the entire beam. These very large calculations have been infeasible until recently, but they are now possible on massively parallel computers. Whole beam simulations show the dramatic difference in the propagation and break up of smoothed and aberrated beams.

  11. The Existence of Positive Bounded Entire Solutions of Second Order Quasilinear Elliptic Equations


    In this paper we are concerned with the existence of positive entire solutions of second order quasilinear elliptic equations of the type div(|Du|p-2Du)+f(x,u)=0, x∈RN, (1) where f(x, u) is a continuous function on RN×(0,∞). This problem appears in the study of non-Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian filtration. The quantity p is a characteristic of the madium. Media with p>2 are called dilatant fluids and those with p<2 are called pseudoplastics. If p=2, they are Newtonian fluid. In the present paper we give new sufficient conditions which ensure the existence of positive entire solutions of (1).When p=2, the related results have been obtained by [1,2]. Our theorem for existence complement and extent to the results by [1,2].

  12. A study on bornological properties of the space of entire functions of several complex variables

    Mushtaq Shaker Abdul-Hussein


    Full Text Available Spaces of entire functions of several complex variables occupy an important position in view of their vast applications in various branches of mathematics, for instance, the classical analysis, theory of approximation, theory of topological bases etc. With an idea of correlating entire functions with certain aspects in the theory of basis in locally convex spaces, we have investigated in this paper the bornological aspects of the space $X$ of integral functions of several complex variables. By $Y$ we denote the space of all power series with positive radius of convergence at the origin. We introduce bornologies on $X$ and $Y$ and prove that $Y$ is a convex bornological vector space which is the completion of the convex bornological vector space $X$.

  13. Irregular sampling, Toeplitz matrices, and the approximation of entire functions of exponential type

    Gröchenig, Karlheinz

    In many applications one seeks to recover an entire function of exponential type from its non-uniformly spaced samples. Whereas the mathematical theory usually addresses the question of when such a function in L^2(R) can be recovered, numerical methods operate with a finite-dimensional model. The numerical reconstruction or approximation of the original function amounts to the solution of a large linear system. We show that the solutions of a particularly efficient discrete model in which the data are fit by trigonometric polynomials converge to the solution of the original infinite-dimensional reconstruction problem. This legitimatizes the numerical computations and explains why the algorithms employed produce reasonable results. The main mathematical result is a new type of approximation theorem for entire functions of exponential type from a finite number of values. From another point of view our approach provides a new method for proving sampling theorems.

  14. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  15. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  16. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  17. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio


    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  18. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer


    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  19. Ethical Wills – a Continental Law Perspective

    Frederik Swennen


    Full Text Available Ethical wills are testaments, or planning instruments mortis causa alike, that contain provisions regarding the deceased’s (non-economic values rather than his (economic valuables. The authors define and analyse the substance and form of ethical wills from a comparative Continental law perspective, drawing on Belgian, Dutch, French and German law. The focus primarily is on charges or conditions in restraint or constraint of (non- denominational or family choices by testamentary beneficiaries; and in this context it is contended that both the doctrine of public policy (“ordre public” and the horizontal application of the ECHR extensively restrict testamentary freedom. Nevertheless, the analogous application of estate planning techniques increasingly allows benevolent testators to plan their ethical legacy. Los testamentos éticos son testamentos, similares a instrumentos de planificación mortis causa, que contienen disposiciones relativas a los valores (no económicos del difunto, en lugar de sus objetos de valor (económico. Los autores definen y analizan el contenido y la forma de los testamentos éticos desde una perspectiva comparativa de derecho continental, basada en la legislación belga, holandesa, francesa y alemana. Se centra principalmente en los cargos o las condiciones de restricción o limitación de las opciones (aconfesionales o familiares de los herederos; y en este contexto se afirma que tanto la doctrina de política pública ("ordre public" como la aplicación horizontal del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos, restringen ampliamente la libertad testamentaria. Sin embargo, la aplicación análoga de técnicas de planificación y gestión patrimonial y sucesoria, permite cada vez más a los testadores de últimas voluntades planificar su legado ético.

  20. Modelling of temperatures in continental convergence zones

    Toksoz, M.N.; Bird, P.


    The thermal histories of continent-continent convergence zones are modelled by a finite-difference technique in an attempt to explain geologic observations of heating and melting in such zones. The suture zone between two converging continents divides a passively heated overriding plate from a quiet continental margin which is suddenly deformed in the collision. Both regions may be metamorphosed and intruded. On the continental-shelf side where mountains are formed by underthrusting within the crust, it was found that adiabatic and radioactive heating are negligible during the orogeny. Shear-strain heating may raise the fault zones to about 500/sup 0/C. At higher temperatures, dislocation creep of crustal rocks would be expected from laboratory results. Even high crustal radioactivity will not produce melting in less than 40 m.y. Thus any plutons in this zone (the granites of the Zagros, Urals, and Himalayas) probably result indirectly by melting of crust that is heated by deep asthenospheric intrusions, which may reach the crust at the time of detachment of the oceanic slab, combined with the effects of friction and water along the subduction plane. Across the suture, the thermal history begins before the collision during the oceanic subduction phase. The sinking slab creates asthenospheric circulations, which warm the passive plate from below and intrude it in an Andean-type arc along the suture (Zagros and Himalayan region). If total subduction exceeds about 3000 km the slow warming has time to weaken the plate and extensive crustal shortening may follow the collision. Crustal shortening and thickening is accompanied by differentiation and volcanism (Tibetan and Grenville orogenies). Thermal modelling of Tibet shows that volcanism cannot be produced in the available time by crustal thickening alone, but requires the initial warming phase as well.

  1. WHK Interns Sweep Entire Category at Frederick County Science Fair | Poster

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The competitors in the cellular and molecular biology category of the Frederick County Science and Engineering Fair on March 22–23 didn’t stand a chance against the Werner H. Kirsten student interns at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. These interns swept the entire category, with Madelyne Xiao, a rising intern, winning first place; Maria Hamscher, second place; Ashley Babyak and Dahlia Kronfli tying for third place; and Maham Ahmed receiving an honorable mention.

  2. Use of Entire Eigenstructure Assignment with High-Gain Error-Actuated Flight Control Systems.


    release; distribution unlimited Acknowledgements I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Captain James Silverthorn , and my thesis committee consisting of...32) Therefore, [i] lies in the null space of [XiI-All A121. Using the method of singular value decomposition suggested by Silverthorn and Reid (Ref 6...October 1981, Vol. 12, No. 10, 1169-1180. 6. Silverthorn , J. and Reid, J. G. "Computation of the Subspaces for Entire Eigenstructure Assignment Via

  3. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    Mitkidis, Katerina


    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks....

  4. Characterisations of Partition of Unities Generated by Entire Functions in Cd

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young


    Collections of functions forming a partition of unity play an important role in analysis. In this paper we characterise for any N∈N the entire functions P for which the partition of unity condition ∑n∈ZdP(x+n)χ[0,N]d(x+n)=1 holds for all x∈Rd. The general characterisation leads to various easy ways...... such that the functions in the partition of unity belong to the Feichtinger algebra....

  5. Spiders' webs and locally connected Julia sets of transcendental entire functions

    Osborne, J W


    We show that, if the Julia set of a transcendental entire function is locally connected, then it takes the form of a spider's web in the sense defined by Rippon and Stallard. In the opposite direction, we prove that a spider's web Julia set is always locally connected at a dense subset of buried points. We also show that the set of buried points (the residual Julia set) can be a spider's web.

  6. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry


    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  7. Infarction of the entire corpus callosum as a complication in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report

    Satoru Takahashi, M.D.


    Full Text Available The corpus callosum is the major commissural pathway connecting the cerebral hemispheres. This pathway receives its blood supply from anterior communicating artery, pericallosal artery, and posterior pericallosal artery. However, in some cases, the entire corpus callosum is supplied by median callosal artery; thus, occlusion of this artery can lead to infarction of the entire corpus callosum. Few reports have described this type of infarction, and no reports after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH exist. Here, we report on a 42-year-old female who was diagnosed with SAH after two aneurysms were discovered in bifurcation of left anterior cerebral artery (A1-A2. After successful clipping was performed, the patient was alert and had no neurological deficits; moreover, the computed tomography images that were acquired after the operation showed no evidence of infarction. Nine days after admittance to the hospital, drowsiness and weakness of the left limbs with brain swelling appeared and decompressive hemi-craniectomy was performed. Diagnostic cerebral angiography revealed vasospasms in both anterior and middle cerebral arteries, thus fasudil hydrochloride was administered intra-arterially. While blood flow in all arteries improved, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detected infarction along the entire length of the corpus callosum and in the medial region of the right frontal lobe. We believe this infarction was due to secondary ischemia of median callosal artery. This case reminded us of the anatomical variation wherein median callosal artery is the sole blood supply line for the corpus callosum and demonstrated that infarction of the entire corpus callosum is possible.

  8. Reconstitution of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Nonhepatic Cells

    Da Costa, Daniel; Turek, Marine; Felmlee, Daniel,; Girardi, Erika; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Long, Gang; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Zeisel, Mirjam,; Baumert, Thomas,


    International audience; Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a human hepatotropic virus, yet the relevant host factors restricting HCV infection to hepatocytes are only partially understood. We demonstrate that exogenous expression of defined host factors reconstituted the entire HCV life cycle in human non-hepatic 293T cells. This study shows robust HCV entry, RNA replication, and production of infectious virus in human non-hepatic cells, and highlights key host factors required for liver tropism of HCV.

  9. Indium-Free Fully Transparent Electronics Deposited Entirely by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N


    Indium-free, fully transparent thin-film transistors are fabricated entirely by the atomic layer deposition technique on rigid and flexible substrates at a low temperature of 160 °C. The transistors show high saturation mobility, large switching ratio, and small subthreshold swing value. The inverters and ring oscillators show large gain value and small propagation delay time, indicating the potential of this process in transparent electronic devices.

  10. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Gustafsson H


    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  11. Comparing the usage of global and local Wikipedias with focus on Swedish Wikipedia

    Schreck, Berit; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Motzkau, Holger


    This report summarizes the results of a short-term student research project focused on the usage of Swedish Wikipedia. It is trying to answer the following question: To what extent (and why) do people from non-English language communities use the English Wikipedia instead of the one in their local language? Article access time series and article edit time series from major Wikipedias including Swedish Wikipedia are analyzed with various tools.

  12. Psychometric evaluation of the Danish and Swedish Satisfaction with Life Scale in first episode psychosis patients

    Hochwälder, Jacek; Mattsson, Maria; Holmqvist, Ragnhild


    PURPOSE: To psychometrically evaluate the Satisfaction with Life Scale in two cohorts of first-episode psychosis patients in the Danish National Schizophrenia Project and in the Swedish Parachute Project. METHOD: Four properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale were examined in the Danish cohort....... The dimensions were confirmed in the Swedish sample. CONCLUSION: The Satisfaction with Life Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties and seems valid and useful among first-episode psychosis patients....

  13. Bullying and social objectives : A study of prerequisites for success in Swedish schools

    Ahlström, Björn


    This thesis examines the relationship between organizations structure, culture and leadership. The specific organization that has been studied is Swedish secondary schools. The Swedish schools have a divided task, first to develop the students academic skills and secondly to develop the students socially and civically. This thesis has its interest on the schools social environment with special interest focused on questions regarding bullying and insulting behaviour. The data that has been use...

  14. Talking about teaching in English: Swedish university lecturers’ experiences of changing teaching language


    This study documents the experiences of Swedish university lecturers when they change from teaching in their first language to teaching in English. Eighteen lecturers from two Swedish universities took part in a training course for teachers who need to give content courses in English. As part of the course the participants gave mini-lectures in their first language in a subject area that they usually teach. The following week, the lecturers gave the same lectures again, this time in English. ...

  15. How Bibliographic Classification Mirrors Society - the Case of the Swedish SAB-System

    Joacim Hansson


    Full Text Available The article reports on a study of the Swedish Classification system, the SAB-system and its ability to reveal certain social and ideological structures in Swedish society in the beginning of the 20th century. Methodology is based on critical hermeneutics and ideological analysis. Results show that the classification system shows significant correspondences between the structure of its disciplinary hierarchies and ideals in the surrounding society.

  16. Native Language Interference : A study of interference patterns in Swedish students' English writing

    Skoog, Petra


    Abstract Titel: Native Language Interference: A study of interference patterns in Swedish students’ English writing. Författare: Skoog, Petra Engelska C, 2006 Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to find out if there are any patterns of native language interference in Swedish students’ written English. Extensive research has been carried out in the area of native language influence on the target language and a large number of terms are used when the influence of the native language...

  17. Consuls, Corsairs, and Commerce : The Swedish Consular Service and Long-distance Shipping

    Müller, Leos


    Eighteenth-century Swedish consuls played an important role in the establishment of Sweden’s trade links with the Mediterranean and, after 1780, with the ‘West Indies’ – the latter including the young American republic. However, historians have paid scant attention to their role. Consuls, Corsairs, and Commerce attempts to fill this gap. The consular service is analysed as part of an institutional framework, helping to reduce the transaction costs of Swedish actors in long-distance trade and ...

  18. Strategies for establishing a new successful brand on the Swedish market

    Maluszynska, Anna; Torstensson, Kristina


    Background: Companies establishing a new brand on the Swedish market have to face competition from already established brands. This makes it interesting to investigate which branding strategies companies use in order to establish a new successful brand. Purpose: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate which branding strategies companies should use in order to establish a new successful brand on a competitive Swedish market. Research method: The study was realized with the help of five q...

  19. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen


    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  20. Share anything Swedish : -En studie av

    Brandel, Daniela


    Title: Share anything Swedish – a study of (Share anything Swedish – en studie av Number of pages: 57 (64 including attachments). Author: Daniela Brandel. Tutor: Else Nygren.Course: Media and Communication Studies C. Period: Fall 2008. University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science, Uppsala University. Purposes/Aims: To learn what happens when the public-private tourism organisation VisitSweden starts an online ...

  1. The little brown bat nuclear genome contains an entire mitochondrial genome: Real or artifact?

    Shi, Huizhen; Xing, Yutong; Mao, Xiuguang


    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs) have been documented in almost all eukaryotic genomes studied. Recently, with the number of sequenced genomes increasing, extremely large NUMTs, even a nearly entire mitochondrial genome, have been reported in some plants and animals. However, few such studies provided strong experimental evidences for these important discoveries. In this study using a computer-based search method an entire mitochondrial genome (NUMT-1) was found in the nuclear genome of a bat species (Myotis lucifugus). This super-large NUMT shared a same scaffold with a 754bp nuclear genomic sequence and a second NUMT (NUMT-2, 3292bp). If NUMT-1 was real, it will be the largest NUMT found in animals and this finding will provide valuable insights into the mode of generation of NUMTs in the nuclear genome. Unfortunately, although the initial sequencing technology of the published M. lucifugus genome makes the possibility of artifact less likely, our results from both the PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing and mapping method based on the whole-genome resequencing datasets suggested that the scaffold containing the entire mitochondrial genome was artifact possibly due to a misassembly of mitochondrial and the nuclear DNA sequences. Our current study highlights the necessity to validate the authenticity of extremely large NUMTs identified in previous searches on whole-genome sequence assemblies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Micro-CT examination of human bone: from biopsies towards the entire organ

    Egon Perilli


    Full Text Available Micro-CT systems are available that facilitate ex vivo examinations of human specimens as big as entire vertebrae, with spatial resolutions in the 10-micrometer range. This opens a new way for looking at entire bones in 3D. Accurate description of the internal microarchitecture of the entire organ can be obtained, at spatial resolutions previously achievable only on excised biopsies. These high resolution scans produce large datasets and come with costs and benefits, which have to be considered in the successful planning of an experiment. The aim of this paper is to present examples of human vertebrae scanned at high resolution (17 μm/pixel, allowing the visualization and quantification of the microarchitecture, and to discuss some aspects of using high resolution scans of such large specimens. The datasets were down-sampled to 34 μm and 68 μm pixel size, and their morphometric parameters compared to those obtained at 17 μm pixel size, in relation to data size and calculation time.

  3. [Molecular phylogeny of the gayal inferred from the analysis of cytochrome b gene entire sequences].

    Li, Shi-Ping; Chang, Hong; Ma, Guo-Long; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ji, De-Jun; Geng, Rong-Qing


    The gayal (Bos frontalis) is a very rare, semi-wild and semi-domestic bovine species. There still exist remarkable divergences on the gayal's origin and phylogenetic status. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene entire sequences (1,140 bp) of 11 gayals were sequenced and analyzed. Combined with other bovine Cyt b entire sequences cited in GenBank, the phylogenetic trees of genus Bos were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods with Bubalus bubalis as outgroup. Sequence analysis showed that, among 1,140 sites of Cyt b gene entire sequences of 11 gayals, 95 variable sites (8.33% of all sites) and 6 haplotypes were found, showing abundant genetic diversity in mitochondrial Cyt b gene of the gayals. Both NJ and MP trees demonstrated that the gayals in this study were markedly divided into three embranchments: one embranchment clustering with Bos taurus, another clustering with Bos indicus, and the third clustering with Bos gaurus. The result of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the gayal might be the domesticated form of the gaur (Bos gaurus), and a great proportion of the gayal bloodline was invaded by other bovine species.

  4. Research of Optimization Method of Swabbing Parameters of All Rods Pumping Wells in the Entire Oilfield

    Zhang Xishun


    Full Text Available Aiming at the drawbacks of the optimization and design methods and the practical production goal of least energy consumption, a new theory is raised that the gas of the layer released energy in the lifting process including two parts: dissolved-gas expansion energy and free-gas expansion energy. The motor’s input power of rod pumping system is divided into hydraulic horse power, gas expansion power, surface mechanical loss power, subsurface loss power. Using the theory of energy-conservation, the simulation model of free-gas expansion power has been established, the simulating models of the motor’s input power which are based on the energy method have been improved and the simulation precision of system efficiency has been enhanced. The entire optimization design models have been set up in which the single-well output is taken as the optimum design variable, the planed production of all oil wells in an overall oilfield as the restraint condition and the least input power of the overall oilfield as the object. Synthesizing the optimization design results of the single well and the entire oilfield, the optimal output and the optimal swabbing parameters of all wells can be got. The actual optimizing examples show that the total power consumption designed by the entire optimization method is less 12.95% than that by the single optimization method.

  5. Evaluation of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji


    Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.

  6. 76 FR 58273 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Outer Continental...


    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Outer Continental... Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; EPA ICR... all outer continental shelf (OCS) sources except those located in the Gulf of Mexico west of...

  7. 76 FR 54787 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer...


    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram, Lease Maps, and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY... revised North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 27) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram,...

  8. 76 FR 7518 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for Alaska AGENCY... of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...

  9. 77 FR 52630 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations Consistency Update for California AGENCY... of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources..., Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate...

  10. 76 FR 15898 - Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 55 Outer Continental Shelf Air Regulations; Consistency Update for California AGENCY... of the Outer Continental Shelf (``OCS'') Air Regulations. Requirements applying to OCS sources... oxides, Outer Continental Shelf, Ozone, Particulate matter, Permits, Reporting and...

  11. Creating shared value through business models based on sustainability and CSR : An empirical study of Swedish companies

    Haskell, Lucas; Pålhed, Johan


    Businesses and humans in general have led to a variety of different social and environmental problems. In this thesis we call on businesses to be the solution to these problems. Therefore, we have developed two research questions:   How do Swedish companies incorporate CSR and sustainability into their business models? and How do Swedish companies create shared value through business models based on sustainability and CSR?   The purpose of these research questions is to discover how Swedish c...

  12. Tectonics of China: Continental scale cataclastic flow

    Gallagher, John J., Jr.

    Stratigraphic, structural, and earthquake evidence indicates that cataclastic flow, that is, flow by brittle mechanisms (e.g., fracture and slip), was dominant in China from late Paleozoic. This process has operated over a range of scales including the continental scale. China is made up of large brittle basement elements immersed in ductile zones which are analogous to porphyroclasts (large, often brittle fragments) surrounded by fluxion (foliation or flow) structures in cataclastic rocks, respectively. This basement fabric for China is seen on Landsat imagery and on tectonic maps and is comparable to cataclastic rock fabrics seen in fault zones, on outcrops, and in thin sections. Brittle basement elements are broken into two or more large rigid blocks, and the dimensions of elements and blocks are within 1 order of magnitude of each other. Ductile zones are made up of fragments which are many orders of magnitude smaller than the ductile zones. Rigid blocks and fragments are identified, and their dimensions are measured through earthquake, fault, and fracture patterns. Rigid basement blocks are surrounded by earthquakes. The sedimentary rocks over the basement faults at the block boundaries seem to be affected by fault movements because they are characterized by facies changes, thickness changes, high-angle faults, and forced folds. Ductile basement zones are earthquake prone, and deformation of the ductile basement affects the overlying sedimentary rocks, as is demonstrated by unconformities and by a wide variety of structures. Thrust faults, buckle folds, and strike slip faults are common in and adjacent to western ductile zones. Structures are most intensely developed where ductile zones abut brittle elements. Both brittle elements and ductile zones are rifted and cut by strike slip faults in eastern China. The mechanical fabric of China and the boundary conditions acting on China are now and always have been determined by its plate tectonic history. This

  13. Complexes assembled from TMV-derived spherical particles and entire virions of heterogeneous nature.

    Trifonova, Ekaterina; Nikitin, Nikolai; Gmyl, Anatoly; Lazareva, Ekaterina; Karpova, Olga; Atabekov, Joseph


    Previously, we described some structural features of spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermal remodelling of the tobacco mosaic virus. The SPs represent a universal platform that could bind various proteins. Here, we report that entire isometric virions of heterogeneous nature bind non-specifically to the SPs. Formaldehyde (FA) was used for covalent binding of a virus to the SPs surface for stabilizing the SP-virus complexes. Transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy showed that the SPs surface was covered with virus particles. The architecture of SP-virion complexes was examined by immunologic methods. Mean diameters of SPs and SP-human enterovirus C and SP-cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) compositions were determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) in liquid. Significantly, neither free SPs nor individual virions were detected by NTA in either FA-crosslinked or FA-untreated compositions. Entirely, all virions were bound to the SPs surface and the SP sites within the SP-CaMV complexes were inaccessible for anti-SP antibodies. Likewise, the SPs immunogenicity within the FA-treated SPs-CaMV compositions was negligible. Apparently, the SP antigenic sites were hidden and masked by virions within the compositions. Previously, we reported that the SPs exhibited adjuvant activity when foreign proteins/epitopes were mixed with or crosslinked to SPs. We found that immunogenicity of entire CaMV crosslinked to SP was rather low which could be due to the above-mentioned masking of the SPs booster. Contrastingly, immunogenicity of the FA-untreated compositions increased significantly, presumably, due to partial release of virions and unmasking of some SPs-buster sites after animals immunization.

  14. Swedish child health care in a changing society.

    Hallberg, Ann-Christine; Lindbladh, Eva; Petersson, Kerstin; Råstam, Lennart; Håkansson, Anders


    Staff in Swedish child health care today feel a gap between policy and practice. By revealing the main lines in the development of child health care, we hoped to achieve a better understanding of the current trends and problems in today's Swedish child health care. A selection of official documents about the development of child health care during the period 1930-2000 was studied with the aid of discourse analysis. Four discourses were identified, which serve as a foundation for a periodization of the development of child health care. In the first period the main task of child health care, alongside checking on the development of the child, was to inform and educate the mothers. During the second period health supervision became the crucial task, to identify risks and discover abnormalities and disabilities. The third period focused on the discussion concerning the identification of health-related and social 'risk groups', and the work of child health care was increasingly geared to supervision of the parents' care of their children. Parents were to be given support so that they could cope with their difficulties by themselves. During the current period child health care is increasingly expected to direct its work towards the child's surroundings and the family as a whole and is now explicitly defined as an institution that should strengthen parents' self-esteem and competence. The level of responsibility for the child's health changed gradually during the different periods, from public responsibility to parental responsibility. The focus of efforts in child health care was changed from being general in the first and second periods to general and selective in period three, and then gradually becoming selective again in period four. While control of the child's physical health was central during the first two periods, psychosocial health came into focus in the last two, along with the importance of supporting the parents to enable them to handle their difficulties

  15. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)


    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO{sub 2}. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the

  16. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas


    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  17. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  18. Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum.

    Pan, Anlian; Liu, Ruibin; Sun, Minghua; Ning, Cun-Zheng


    We used an improved cothermal evaporation route for the first time to achieve quaternary semiconductor nanostructured alloys, using an example of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S(y)Se(1-y) nanobelts. The PL (bandgap) of these as-grown nanostructured alloys can be continuously tunable across the entire visible spectrum through experimentally controlling their compositions. Such widely controlled alloy nanostructures via composition/light emission provide a new material platform for applications in wavelength-tunable lasers, multicolor detectors, full-spectrum solar cells, LEDs, and color displays.

  19. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac;


    are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean......Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...

  20. Entire functions for which the escaping set is a spider's web

    Sixsmith, D. J.


    We construct several new classes of transcendental entire functions, f, such that both the escaping set, I(f), and the fast escaping set, A(f), have a structure known as a spider's web. We show that some of these classes have a degree of stability under changes in the function. We show that new examples of functions for which I(f) and A(f) are spiders' webs can be constructed by composition, by differentiation, and by integration of existing examples. We use a property of spiders' webs to give new results concerning functions with no unbounded Fatou components.

  1. Entire functions for which the escaping set is a spider's web

    Sixsmith, D J


    We construct several new classes of transcendental entire functions, f, such that both the escaping set, I(f), and the fast escaping set, A(f), have a structure known as a spider's web. We show that some of these classes have a degree of stability under changes in the function. We show that new examples of functions for which I(f) and A(f) are spiders' webs can be constructed by composition, by differentiation, and by integration of existing examples. We use a property of spiders' webs to give new results concerning functions with no unbounded Fatou components.

  2. Nanoelectromechanical switch operating by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule

    Danilov, Andrey V.; Hedegård, Per; Golubev, Dimitrii S.;


    We present a solid state single molecule electronic device where switching between two states with different conductance happens predominantly by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule. This conclusion is based on a novel statistical analysis of similar to 10(5) switching events. The analysis yields...... (i) the relative contribution of tunneling, current induced heating and thermal fluctuations to the switching mechanism, (ii) the voltage dependent energy barrier (similar to 100-200 meV) separating the two states of the switch and (iii) the switching attempt frequency, omega(0) corresponding to a 2...


    Diamantino Insua Pereira


    Full Text Available São representadas cartograficamente as unidades geomorfológicas identificadas para os 89015 km2 do território de Portugal Continental. A delimitação das unidades teve por base a análise dos padrões da textura fornecida por imagens SRTM, com revisão e adaptação posterior à altimetria e à geologia, para os quais foram usadas bases cartográficas digitais. Foram considerados três níveis taxionómicos que permitem descrever e caracterizar áreas homogéneas do ponto de vista geomorfológico. As três unidades de 1º nível baseiam-se nas unidades morfostruturais clássicas consideradas para a Península Ibérica. As dez unidades de 2º nível constituem, na sua maioria, divisões clássicas do relevo de Portugal Continental, agora agrupadas de acordo com a metodologia adoptada e designadas como unidades morfosculturais. As 56 unidades de 3º nível, ou subunidades morfosculturais, foram individualizadas com base nos padrões de relevo identificados nas imagens SRTM e na observação de campo e adquiriram uma designação baseada essencialmente nas geoformas que as individualizam e na toponímia local. As unidades geomorfológicas identificadas são descritas através de características do relevo, dissecação fluvial, estruturas, tipo de drenagem e base geológica, bem como de parâmetros numéricos gerados de forma automática, como classes de altitude e de declividade. Pretende-se que o mapa elaborado possa contribuir para a gestão territorial, em especial na tomada de decisões em conservação da natureza.

  4. Budgeting postglacial sedimentation history on the Santa Cruz, California mid-continental shelf

    Grossman, E.E.; Eittreim, S.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Field, M.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Fallon, S.J.; Anima, R.J.


    High-resolution seismic reflection profiling and surface texture mapping of the central California continental shelf, reveal a prominent subsurface reflector interpreted as a low stand erosion surface and an overlying mudbelt that covers 421 km2 of the mid-shelf in depths of 40-90 m. Radiometric and sedimentologic analyses of samples from vibracores taken along the seaward edge of the mudbelt show that initial deposition above the pre-Holocene erosion surface began ca. 14.5 ka. These data and model results of sea-level history, tectonics, and the Monterey Bay littoral sediment budget support the notion that the entire midshelf deposit was formed during the postglacial transgression. An alternative explanation, that land-use activities while providing important boundary conditions for modeling shoreface evolution.

  5. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 3. Detailed methodology


    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume, Detailed Methodology Review, presents a discussion of the methods considered and used to estimate the impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development on coastal recreation in California. The purpose is to provide the Minerals Management Service with data and methods to improve their ability to analyze the socio-economic impacts of OCS development. Chapter II provides a review of previous attempts to evaluate the effects of OCS development and of oil spills on coastal recreation. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and presents the rationale for the methodology selection made. Chapter III presents a detailed discussion of the methods actually used in the study. The volume contains the bibliography for the entire study.

  6. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele


    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  7. Entire deformational characteristics and strain localization of jointed rock specimen in plane strain compression


    Shear band (SB),axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of anisotropic jointed rock specimen (JRS) were modeled by Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). Failure criterion of rock was a composited Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. An inclined joint was treated as square elements of ideal plastic material beyond the peak strength. Several FISH functions were written to automatically find the addresses of elements in the joint and to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of plane strain JRS. The results show that for moderate joint inclination (JI), strain is only concentrated into the joint governing the behavior of JRS,leading to ideal plastic responses in axial and lateral directions. For higher JI, the post-peak stress-axial and lateral strain curves become steeper as JI increases owing to the increase of new SB's length. Lateral expansion and precursor to the unstable failure are the most apparent, resulting in the highest Poisson's ratio and even negative volumetric strain. For lower JI, the entire post-peak deformational characteristics are independent of JI. The lowest lateral expansion occurs, leading to the lowest Poisson's ratio and positive volumetric strain all along. The present prediction on anisotropic strength in plane strain compression qualitatively agrees with the results in triaxial tests of rocks.The JI calculated by Jaeger's formula overestimates that related to the minimum strength. Advantages of the present numerical model over the Jaeger's model are pointed out.

  8. Micron-scale resolution optical tomography of entire mouse brains with confocal light sheet microscopy.

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Bria, Alessandro; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Peng, Hanchuan; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco Saverio


    Understanding the architecture of mammalian brain at single-cell resolution is one of the key issues of neuroscience. However, mapping neuronal soma and projections throughout the whole brain is still challenging for imaging and data management technologies. Indeed, macroscopic volumes need to be reconstructed with high resolution and contrast in a reasonable time, producing datasets in the TeraByte range. We recently demonstrated an optical method (confocal light sheet microscopy, CLSM) capable of obtaining micron-scale reconstruction of entire mouse brains labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Combining light sheet illumination and confocal detection, CLSM allows deep imaging inside macroscopic cleared specimens with high contrast and speed. Here we describe the complete experimental pipeline to obtain comprehensive and human-readable images of entire mouse brains labeled with fluorescent proteins. The clearing and the mounting procedures are described, together with the steps to perform an optical tomography on its whole volume by acquiring many parallel adjacent stacks. We showed the usage of open-source custom-made software tools enabling stitching of the multiple stacks and multi-resolution data navigation. Finally, we illustrated some example of brain maps: the cerebellum from an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all Purkinje cells are selectively labeled, and the whole brain from a thy1-GFP-M mouse, characterized by a random sparse neuronal labeling.

  9. On the uniqueness of entire functions%整函数的惟一性



    研究了涉及导函数的整函数的惟一性, 主要证明了以下结果. 设 f(z) 和 g(z)为非常数整函数, n, k为满足n>2k+4的2个正整数. 若f(z)和g(z)的零点重数均至少为n, 且f(k)(z)和g(k)(z) CM分担1, 则或者f(z)=c1ecz, g(z)=c2e-cz, 其中c1, c2 和 c 为满足 (-1)kc1c2c2k= 1的常数; 或者f(z)≡g(z).%We study the uniqueness of entire functions and prove the following theorem: Let f(z) and g(z) be two nonconstant entire functions; n and k two positive integers with n>2k+4. If the zeros of both f(z) and g(z) are of multiplicity at least n, and f(k)(z) and g(k)(z) share 1 CM, then either f(z)=c1ecz, g(z)=c2e-cz, where c1, c2 and c are three constants satisfying (-1)kc1c2c2k= 1, or f(z)≡g(z).

  10. Entire papilla preservation technique in the regenerative treatment of deep intrabony defects: 1-Year results.

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo


    This study evaluates the clinical outcomes of a novel tunnel-like surgical technique in the treatment of isolated deep intrabony defects. Twelve patients presenting with at least one isolated deep intrabony defect received regenerative periodontal treatment with "entire papilla preservation (EPP)" technique. Access to the intrabony defect for debridement was provided by a bevelled vertical releasing incision positioned in the buccal gingiva of the neighbouring inter-dental space. Following the elevation of a buccal flap, an inter-dental tunnel was prepared undermining the defect-associated papilla. Granulation tissue was removed, root surfaces were carefully debrided and bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative were applied. Microsurgical suturing technique was used for optimal wound closure. Early healing was uneventful in all cases, and 100% wound closure was maintained during the entire healing period. At 1-year, there was significant attachment gain of 6.83±2.51 mm (p<0.001). The 7±2.8 mm reduction in probing depth was also significant (p<0.001), which was associated with minimal increase in gingival recession (0.16±0.38 mm, p=0.166). Tunnel-like "EPP" technique may limit the risk of wound failure particularly in the early healing phase, thereby preventing exposure of regenerative biomaterials, possibly enhancing stabilization of blood clot in deep intrabony defects and leading to optimal clinical outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Centimeter-scale high-resolution metrology of entire CVD-grown graphene sheets.

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Guvenc, Ali; Wang, Wei; Ghazinejad, Maziar; Lin, Jian; Guo, Shirui; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah


    A high-throughput metrology method for measuring the thickness and uniformity of entire large-area chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene sheets on arbitrary substrates is demonstrated. This method utilizes the quenching of fluorescence by graphene via resonant energy transfer to increase the visibility of graphene on a glass substrate. Fluorescence quenching is visualized by spin-coating a solution of polymer mixed with fluorescent dye onto the graphene then viewing the sample under a fluorescence microscope. A large-area fluorescence montage image of the dyed graphene sample is collected and processed to identify the graphene and indicate the graphene layer thickness throughout the entire graphene sample. Using this metrology method, the effect of different transfer techniques on the quality of the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that small-area characterization is insufficient to truly evaluate the effect of the transfer technique on the graphene sample. The results indicate that introducing a drop of acetone or liquid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on top of the transfer PMMA layer before soaking the graphene sample in acetone improves the quality of the graphene dramatically over immediately soaking the graphene in acetone. This work introduces a new method for graphene quantification that can quickly and easily identify graphene layers in a large area on arbitrary substrates. This metrology technique is well suited for many industrial applications due to its repeatability and flexibility.

  12. Snow depth and snow persistence patterns in the Arctic from analysis of the entire Landsat archive

    Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Parr, C.; Sturm, M.; Selkowitz, D.; Larsen, C.


    The entire archive of Landsat 5 TM, Landat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI imagery collected between March 1 and August 31, 1999-2016 was analyzed to map the presence or absence of snow, with consideration given to clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and canopy cover. Google Earth Engine was utilized to rapidly classify and summarize the entire time-series. The time-series of observations were then pooled across all the years and a binary classification tree determined the day of year that based split the observations into a snow-covered and a snow-free season. The analysis was completed for arctic Alaska and covers approximately one million square kilometers. The snow persistence product was validated using SNOTEL sites and MODIS time series metrics. The snow persistence patterns are highly correlated with end of winter snow depth patterns. We compared the Landsat snow persistence to the normal snow depth from repeat LIDAR surveys and field snow depth measurements and applied the results to estimate snow distribution over much larger regions. A nonlinear relationship between normal snow-free day of year and mean end of winter snow depth was observed. A polynomial model (r-squared = 0.95) was developed and was extrapolated to the surrounding area to produce a regional map of modeled mean end of winter snow depth.

  13. Structural and stratigraphic controls on the origin and tectonic history of a subducted continental margin, Oman

    Warren, C. J.; Miller, J. McL.


    Eclogites and blueschists exposed in Saih Hatat, Oman, record the subduction and exhumation of continental crustal material beneath the Cretaceous Semail Ophiolite during ophiolite obduction. The eclogite-bearing lower plate, originally part of Oman's distal continental margin, is exposed in two tectonic windows through the less metamorphosed upper plate by a previously mapped low angle, high strain, décollement structure. A major tectonic break, currently poorly exposed, records the juxtaposition of the highest pressure eclogites and garnet blueschists against lower pressure epidote-blueschists. The subsequent exhumation of the entire lower plate to mid crustal levels is marked by a pervasive shearing event associated with a regional greenschist facies overprint. The décollement truncates structures and the metamorphic field gradient in the lower plate, but does not significantly truncate structures or stratigraphy in the upper plate. It is not responsible for the exhumation of the high pressure rocks to mid-crustal levels. Most of the displacement across this structure was accommodated during continuing convergence after the subduction system had ceased to be active, and post ophiolite emplacement onto the platform carbonate sequences. A revised tectonic model is presented which accounts for the structural, geochronological and metamorphic observations.

  14. National Parks and Protected Areas and the Role for Employment in Tourism and Forest Sectors: a Swedish Case

    Linda J. T. Lundmark


    Full Text Available The development of national parks and other protected areas has been widely promoted because of its potential for regional development in peripheral and sparsely populated areas. The argument is that the economic and social benefits seen in national parks in the USA and UK will also occur in the Swedish context in the form of an increased tourism-related labor market. Our aim was to analyze the possibility of such a development both in light of the policy visions of positive regional and local development and from the adversary point of view that protection of land is making it more difficult for 15 sparsely populated mountain municipalities in Sweden to prosper. We used a database covering the entire population of the area for 1991 to 2001. Our results show that factors other than the protected areas are connected to the development of a tourism labor market. The most positively correlated variables for change in tourism employment are population growth and proximity to ski lifts. Positive population development is also correlated to a positive change in the number of people employed in forest sectors. Thus, one of the main outcomes is that the assumed and almost automatic positive relation between nature conservation and tourism can is questionable.

  15. Discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf



    As discussed in this document, there are 108 discoveries on the Norwegian continental shelf which so far have not been approved for development. The oil and gas resources of the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea are mostly found in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Eighty-one of the discoveries which are not approved for development are located in the North Sea and more than 60% of the discoveries in this province contain less than 5 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. In the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea there are 27 discoveries which are not approved for development and whose total resources are estimated at 500 mill Sm{sup 3} oil equivalents. About 60% of the oil resources is expected to be comprised by development plans in 1997 or 1998. Another 20% is in new discoveries currently being evaluated or in discoveries containing large volumes of gas. Production forecasts indicate substantial vacant oil processing capacity after 2000. Vacant gas processing capacity will mainly arise after 2005. 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Growth of the lower continental crust

    Rudnick, Roberta L.


    One of the largest uncertainties in crustal composition and growth models is the nature of the lower continental crust. Specifically, by what processes is it formed and modified, and when is it formed, particularly in reference to the upper crust? The main reason for this lack of information is the scarcity of lower crustal rock samples. These are restricted to two types: rocks which outcrop in granulite facies terrains and granulite facies xenoliths which are transported to the earth's surface by young volcanics. The important conclusions arising from the xenolith studies are: the majority of mafic lower crustal xenoliths formed through cumulate process, resitic xenoliths are rare; and formation and metamorphism of the deep crust is intimately linked to igneous activity and/or orogeny which are manifest in one form or another at the earth's surface. Therefore, estimates of crustal growth based on surface exposures is representative, although the proportion of remobilized pre-existing crust may be significantly greater at the surface than in the deep crust.

  17. The assassination of the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs.

    Unsgaard, Edvard; Meloy, J Reid


    On September 10, 2003, Anna Lindh, the Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs, was assassinated. The offender, a 24-year-old man, was a socially isolated, culturally and familially dislocated, yet academically quite competent young man who became enthralled with the habitual criminality of some of his relatives and their associates, and then psychiatrically decompensated in his early twenties. He had a history of serious violence before the crime, including the gross assault with a knife of his alcoholic and abusive father when he was 17, stalking, and extortion. At least a year prior to the assassination, he confided to a friend his desire to attack someone famous in front of many people. A definitive motive for the crime was not possible to establish. This was an act of intended, yet opportunistic violence toward a national political figure. The dynamics of the case are placed in the context of other attacks on Western European and U.S. politicians. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    Melin, Stefan A.


    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  19. Linguatula serrata in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L

    Claes Rehbinder


    Full Text Available A high prevalence (24,2% of the tongue-worm Lingutula serrata was found in reindeer yearlings. Apparently the high incidence found in this material indicates that the parasite is well adapted to reindeer; the reaction of the nasal mucosa is very mild. The abscence of clinical manifestations and the hidden localization in sinuses which are rarely inspected at slaughter or autopsy is most probably the reason why L. serrata is seldom observed.Tungmask (Linguatula serrata hos svensk skogsren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: En hög frekvens(24,2% av tungmask (Linguatula serrata påvisades hos årskalv av skogsren. Den ringa våvnadsreaktion som forelag antyder att L serrata troligen ar val anpassad till ren. Att endast ett fåtal rapporter om forekomst av L serrata hos ren foreligger torde bero på att parasiten inte ger några kliniska symptom samt dess i huvudsak gomda lokalisation i overkåkshåligheterna vilka sållan inspekteras vid slakt eller obduktion. L serrata år dårfor sannolikt vanligare hos svenska renar ån man tidigare antagit.

  20. Genetic susceptibility to bilateral tinnitus in a Swedish twin cohort.

    Maas, Iris Lianne; Brüggemann, Petra; Requena, Teresa; Bulla, Jan; Edvall, Niklas K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Szczepek, Agnieszka J; Canlon, Barbara; Mazurek, Birgit; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Cederroth, Christopher R


    Genetic contributions to tinnitus have been difficult to determine due to the heterogeneity of the condition and its broad etiology. Here, we evaluated the genetic and nongenetic influences on self-reported tinnitus from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). Cross-sectional data from the STR was obtained. Casewise concordance rates (the risk of one twin being affected given that his/her twin partner has tinnitus) were compared for monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (N = 10,464 concordant and discordant twin pairs) and heritability coefficients (the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors) were calculated using biometrical model fitting procedures. Stratification of tinnitus cases into subtypes according to laterality (unilateral versus bilateral) revealed that heritability of bilateral tinnitus was 0.56; however, it was 0.27 for unilateral tinnitus. Heritability was greater in men (0.68) than in women (0.41). However, when female pairs younger than 40 years of age were selected, heritability of 0.62 was achieved with negligible effects of shared environment. Unlike unilateral tinnitus, bilateral tinnitus is influenced by genetic factors and might constitute a genetic subtype. Overall, our study provides the initial evidence for a tinnitus phenotype with a genetic influence.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.