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Sample records for enteroscopy effectively enables

  1. Deep enteroscopy - indications, diagnostic yield and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Moeschler, Oliver; Mueller, Michael Karl

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in 2001 capsule endoscopy opened up the small bowel for diagnostic approaches followed by double balloon enteroscopy which enabled the endoscopic community to perform therapeutic interventions in the whole small intestine. In this review the scientific developments related to indications, diagnostic yield and complications of the last years between the competing devices double ballon enteroscopy, single balloon enteroscopy and spiral enteroscopy are illustrated.

  2. [Efficacy of double balloon enteroscopy for patients with intestinal lymphangiectasia, case report of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakami, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kenji; Kameda, Natsuhiko; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Shiba, Masatsugu; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2008-11-01

    A 31-year-old man has visited our hospital, complaining diarrhea and leg edema. Blood test showed hypoalbuminea, but we couldn't find the reason by several examinations. Therefore, we performed double balloon enteroscopy, and intestinal lymphangiectasia was diagnosed histologically by biopsy. It's useful and effective to perform double balloon enteroscopy and histological examination for the unknown origin case of protein loosing enteropathy.

  3. Small bowel enteroscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B S; Wenger, J S; Waye, J D

    1991-02-01

    Intraoperative endoscopy (IOE) is accepted as the ultimate diagnostic procedure for completely evaluating the small bowel in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Small bowel enteroscopy (SBE) has been reported useful in the nonsurgical evaluation of the small intestine in these patients, but findings may be limited because of incomplete small bowel intubation and a lack of tip deflection. Twenty-three patients underwent 25 SBE exams and subsequently had 25 IOE exams during surgical exploration for continued bleeding. Patients' bleeding histories averaged 2 yr, with an average transfusion requirement of 27 units. Findings on IOE were the same as with SBE in 17/22 (77%) of examinations. We conclude that SBE and IOE are comparable in depth of insertion and ability to detect small vascular ectasias. Both procedures missed pathology due to limited visibility and the evanescent nature of ectasias. Long-term success in abolishing bleeding with these combined techniques can be expected in 55% of these patients. SBE should precede surgery, since the finding of diffuse ectasias precludes any benefit from operative intervention.

  4. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  5. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Fork, Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology....

  6. Enteroscopy in the diagnosis and management of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Villa, Federica; Saladino, Valeria; de Franchis, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with 3 to 6 biopsies in the descending duodenum is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease. At the time of the first diagnosis of celiac disease, an extensive evaluation of the small bowel is not recommended. However, video capsule endoscopy, because of its good sensitivity and specificity in recognizing the Endoscopic features of celiac disease, can be considered a valid alternative to EGD in patients unable or unwilling to undergo EGD with biopsies. Capsule endoscopy is also a possible option in selected cases with strong suspicion of celiac disease but negative first-line tests. In evaluating patients with refractory or complicated celiac disease, in whom a complete evaluation of the small bowel is mandatory (at least in refractory celiac disease type II patients) because of the possible presence of complications beyond the reach of conventional endoscopes, both capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy have been found to be helpful. In these patients, capsule endoscopy offers several advantages: it is well tolerated, it allows inspection of the entire small bowel, and it is able to recognize subtle mucosal changes. However, in this setting, capsule endoscopy should ideally be coupled with imaging techniques that provide important information about the thickness of the wall of the intestine and about extraluminal abnormalities. Although deep enteroscopy (such as balloon enteroscopy) is expensive, time-consuming, and potentially risky in these frail patients, they may have a key role, because they make it possible to take tissue samples from deep in the small intestine.

  7. Leukocyte scintigraphy compared to intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almen, Sven; Granerus, Göran; Ström, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte scintigraphy is a noninvasive investigation to assess inflammation. We evaluated the utility of labeled leukocytes to detect small bowel inflammation and disease complications in Crohn's disease and compared it to whole small bowel enteroscopy and laparotomy findings. Methods......: Scintigraphy with technetium-99m exametazime-labeled leukocytes was prospectively performed in 48 patients with Crohn's disease a few days before laparotomy; 41 also had an intraoperative small bowel enteroscopy. The same procedures were performed in 8 control patients. Independent grading of scans...... was compared with the results of enteroscopy and with surgical, histopathologic, and clinical data. Results: In the 8 control patients leukocyte scan, endoscopy, and histopathology were all negative for the small bowel. In patients with Crohn's disease and small bowel inflammation seen at enteroscopy and...

  8. Clinical outcomes of enteroscopy using the double-balloon method for strictures of the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Keijiro; Yamamoto, Hironori; Kita, Hiroto; Yano, Tomonori; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Yoshikazu; Miyata, Tomohiko; Sekine, Yutaka; Kuno, Akiko; Iwamoto, Michiko; Ohnishi, Hirohide; Ido, Kenichi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical outcome of enteroscopy, using the double-balloon method, focusing on the involvement of neoplasms in strictures of the small intestine. METHODS: Enteroscopy, using the double-balloon method, was performed between December 1999 and December 2002 at Jichi Medical School Hospital, Japan and strictures of the small intestine were found in 17 out of 62 patients. These 17 consecutive patients were subjected to analysis. RESULTS: The double-balloon enteroscopy contributed to the diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms found in 3 out of 17 patients by direct observation of the strictures as well as biopsy sampling. Surgical procedures were chosen for these three patients, while balloon dilation was chosen for the strictures in four patients diagnosed with inflammation without involvement of neoplasm. CONCLUSION: Double-balloon enteroscopy is a useful method for the diagnosis and treatment of strictures in the small bowel. PMID:15742422

  9. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-12-15

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  10. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  11. Risk Factors of Acute Pancreatitis in Oral Double Balloon Enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopáčová, Marcela; Bureš, Jan; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Vávrová, Jaroslava; Bártová, Jolana; Soukup, Tomáš; Tomš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja

    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) was introduced 15 years ago. The complications of diagnostic DBE are rare, acute pancreatitis is most redoubtable one (incidence about 0.3%). Hyperamylasemia after DBE seems to be a rather common condition respectively. The most probable cause seems to be a mechanical straining of the pancreas. We tried to identify patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE. We investigated several laboratory markers before and after DBE (serum cathepsin B, lactoferrin, E-selectin, SPINK 1, procalcitonin, S100 proteins, alfa-1-antitrypsin, hs-CRP, malondialdehyde, serum and urine amylase and serum lipase). Serum amylase and lipase rose significantly with the maximum 4 hours after DBE. Serum cathepsin and procalcitonin decreased significantly 4 hours after DBE compared to healthy controls and patients values before DBE. Either serum amylase or lipase 4 hours after DBE did not correlate with any markers before DBE. There was a trend for an association between the number of push-and-pull cycles and procalcitonin and urine amylase 4 hours after DBE; between procalcitonin and alfa-1-antitrypsin, cathepsin and hs-CRP; and between E-selectin and malondialdehyde 4 hours after DBE. We found no laboratory markers determinative in advance those patients in a higher risk of acute pancreatitis after DBE.

  12. Open-Access Single Balloon Enteroscopy: A Tertiary Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Nathan; Wallace, Kristin; Moore, J Matthew; Brock, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    To compare single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) between patients seen in consultation by a member of our gastroenterology team with those performed as open-access cases. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent SBE at a single tertiary care center from April 2008 to January 2012. Open- and closed-access procedures were compared in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield, adverse events, and procedural success. A total of 125 SBEs were performed on 125 patients. The mean age was 63.1 (53% men) years. In all, 43 procedures were performed open access and 82 after face-to-face consultation. Indications included anemia/gastrointestinal bleeding (110), abdominal pain (8), and other (7). Diagnostic yield for open- and closed-access procedures was 53% and 60%, respectively (P = 0.501) and therapeutic yield was 37% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.11). Overall technical success was 91% with no difference between the groups (P = 0.27). There were no major adverse events in either group. SBE can be performed as an open-access procedure without compromise to safety or diagnostic yield.

  13. Single- and double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with Roux-en-Y plus hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis and Whipple resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Fumihide; Itoi, Takao; Ishii, Kentaro; Sofuni, Atsushi; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2014-04-01

    In patients with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (HJ with R-Y) and Whipple resection, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be challenging. We report our experience with ERCP using balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) (BAE-ERCP) in patients with HJ with R-Y, and Whipple resection. BAE-ERCP procedures were carried out in 62 patients (HJ with R-Y:Whipple resection=34:28). Overall, the rates of reaching the anastomosis were 85.3% (29/34) in HJ with R-Y and 96.4% (27/28) in Whipple resection. In terms of HJ with R-Y, insertion success rate by standard single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) was 89.3% (25/28). Insertion success rate by short BAE, including SBE and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), was 50% (3/6). There was a statistically significant difference of insertion success rate between standard long BE and short BE (P=0.021). However, in the Whipple patients, insertion success rate by standard and short SBE was 93.8% (15/16) and 91.7% (11/12), respectively. Initial insertion success rate by short BAE in Whipple patients was significantly higher than in HJ with R-Y (91.7% vs 50%, P=0.045). Therapeutic interventions included dilation of anastomosis stricture, stone extraction, endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy, biliary stent placement, stent extraction, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, direct cholangioscopy, and electrohydraulic lithotripsy. Our HJ with R-Y series and Whipple series treatment success rate was 90% (18/20) and 95.0% (19/20), respectively. BAE-ERCP enabled ERCP to be carried out in patients with HJ. It is considered safe and feasible. Further experience and device improvement are needed. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. Perception of Information Technology Enablers for Effective Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedor Brookman; Jakobus Smit; Gilbert Gilbert Silvius

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the importance of enablers in order for IT to support effective supply chain management, as perceived defined by different positions in the supply chain. In the study, a significant difference for the enabler “Funds for IT enablement” is found between the supplier

  15. Success of single-balloon enteroscopy in patients with surgically altered anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzynske, Frank C; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Brock, Andrew S

    2015-08-01

    Single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) was introduced in 2007 to diagnose and treat small-bowel disorders. No study to date has evaluated SBE in patients with surgically altered anatomy outside of ERCP. To evaluate the efficacy, yield, and safety of SBE in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Retrospective study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. All patients with altered surgical anatomy who underwent SBE at the Medical University of South Carolina from July 2007 to September 2013. SBE. Diagnostic yield, therapeutic yield, technical success, and adverse events. A total of 48 patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 56 years (77% female). Eleven patients underwent single-balloon PEG placement, 8 single-balloon ERCP, 22 non-PEG/non-ERCP anterograde SBE, and 7 retrograde SBE. Previous surgeries included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=26), small-intestine resection (n=6), colon resection (n=5), Whipple procedure (n=4), choledochojejunostomy (n=3), hepaticojejunostomy (n=1), Billroth I (n=1), Billroth II (n=1), and Puestow procedure (n=1). Procedural indications were PEG tube placement (n=11), choledocholithiasis (n=2), biliary stricture (n=2), obstructive jaundice (n=1), cholangitis (n=1), ampullary mass (n=1), sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (n=1), anemia and/or bleeding (n=15), abdominal pain (n=9), radiologic evidence of obstruction (n=3), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (n=2). The technical success rate was 73% in single-balloon PEG placement, 88% in single-balloon ERCP, 82% in other anterograde SBEs, and 86% in retrograde SBEs. No intraprocedural or postprocedural adverse events were observed. Single center, retrospective study. SBE is safe and effective in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison between double-balloon and single-balloon enteroscopy in therapeutic ERC after Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A

    2010-09-16

    To compare the efficacy of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis. Retrospective analysis of our patient cohort revealed 4 patients with enterobiliary anastomosis and Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE because of recurrent cholangitis. A total of 38 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures were performed in 25 patients with Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis. DBE was used in 29 procedures and SBE in 9. The 4 patients who underwent repeated ERC with DBE and SBE suffered from recurrent cholangitis due to stenosis of the enterobiliary anastomosis. ERC was performed repeatedly to achieve balloon dilation with/without biliary stone extraction and multiple stent placement at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis. In all 4 patients DBE and SBE were equally successful. Compared to DBE, SBE was equally effective in passing the Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis, reaching the enterobiliary anastomosis and performing therapeutic ERC. This retrospective comparison shows that DBE and SBE are equally successful in the performance of therapeutic ERC at the level of the enterobiliary anastomosis after Roux-en-Y entero-enteric anastomosis.

  17. Enablement, Constraint, and "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, David

    2001-01-01

    Uses interviews to examine how the self-help book "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" shapes the identity of organization members who read and use the book. Suggests that such people are simultaneously enabled and constrained as they confront tensions between individualism and community, competition and cooperation, and domination and…

  18. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy for suspected Meckel’s diverticulum and indefinite diagnostic imaging workup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme Francisco; Bonin, Eduardo Aimore; Noda, Rafael William; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Bartholomei, Thiago Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) is estimated to affect 1%-2% of the general population, and it represents a clinically silent finding of a congenital anomaly in up to 85% of the cases. In adults, MD may cause symptoms, such as overt occult lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The diagnostic imaging workup includes computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging enterography, technetium 99m scintigraphy (99mTc) using either labeled red blood cells or pertechnetate (known as the Meckel’s scan) and angiography. The preoperative detection rate of MD in adults is low, and many patients ultimately undergo exploratory laparoscopy. More recently, however, endoscopic identification of MD has been possible with the use of balloon-assisted enteroscopy via direct luminal access, which also provides visualization of the diverticular ostium. The aim of this study was to review the diagnosis by double-balloon enteroscopy of 4 adults with symptomatic MD but who had negative diagnostic imaging workups. These cases indicate that balloon-assisted enteroscopy is a valuable diagnostic method and should be considered in adult patients who have suspected MD and indefinite findings on diagnostic imaging workup, including negative Meckel’s scan. PMID:27803776

  19. Double- vs. single-balloon enteroscopy: single center experience with emphasis on procedural performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Philipp; Roggel, Moritz; Domagk, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to compare double- (DBE) and single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) in small bowel disorders with respect to procedural performance and clinical impact. This retrospective analysis at a tertial referral center included 1,052 DBEs and 515 SBEs performed in 904 patients over 7 years. Procedural and patients' characteristics were precisely analyzed. Significantly more patients with anemia and gastrointestinal bleeding were investigated by DBE (P recent years of enteroscopy (2008-2011), no difference in small bowel visualization could be observed. The anal insertion depths and complete enteroscopy rates (CER) were comparable. Procedure times were significantly shorter within the SBE procedure (oral: 50 vs. 40 min; anal: 55 vs. 46 min, P Diagnostic yield was significantly higher in the SBE, compared to the DBE group (61.7 vs. 48.2 %; P diagnostic tools and proved to be indispensable in the daily gastroenterological practice. The lower insertion depths, but higher diagnostic yield, of SBE may reflect the more focused selection of patients scheduled for small bowel diagnostics in recent years.

  20. Writeshops: An effective tool to enable African academics to publish

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 Writeshops: An effective tool to enable African academics to publish Vincent*, K., T. Cull, (Kulima Integrated Development Solutions, South Africa) E. Archer van Garderen, (CSIR, South Africa) and A. Awiti, (Aga Khan University, Kenya) * Corresponding... Seipt, Lisa Schipper and Richard J. T. Klein for their commitment to writeshops, and for various discussions on improving the accessibility of developing country researchers to the peer-reviewed literature. ...

  1. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  2. The value of double balloon enteroscopy in diagnosing blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, Fardod

    2010-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome is a rare vascular disorder associated with multiple gastrointestinal haemangiomas that have the potential for life-threatening haemorrhage. These may be difficult to diagnose, and have classically been described using computed tomographic studies and\\/or mesenteric angiography. Resected surgical specimens of these lesions, especially in the small bowel, have often been extensive and poorly localized. The recent advent and progressive development of double balloon enteroscopy has allowed the direct visualization and marking of these enteric lesions and serves as a valuable adjunct not only in diagnosis but also planning prior to surgery to allow accurate estimate of the extent of resection.

  3. The use of double-balloon enteroscopy in retrieving mucosal biopsies from the entire human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) as a new tool for collecting mucosal biopsies from well-defined parts of the entire small and large bowel in patients with type 2 diabetes and in matched healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve su...... possibility to access hitherto unexplored human anatomy and physiology....

  4. Single-balloon enteroscopy following videocapsule endoscopy for diagnosis of small bowel tumors: preliminary experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, A; Singeap, A M; Cojocariu, C; Sfarti, C; Tarcoveanu, E; Georgescu, S

    2010-01-01

    Small bowel tumors (SBTs), either benign or malignant, are rare, accounting for 3-6% of all digestive neoplasms. Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with small bowel diseases, including SBTs. A novel method using the single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) has recently been developed. The aim of present study was to present our preliminary experience with SBE in patients with suspected SBTs on VCE examination. Patients in whom VCE showed one or more lesions suggesting SBTs underwent SBE. Three patients (2 males, 1 female; mean age 52 +/- 11 years) underwent SBE, and then surgery. There were two gastrointestinal stromal tumors and one adenocarcinoma. Clinically, all patients had iron-deficiency anemia and abdominal pain, and one patient had episodes of nausea/ vomiting. SBE was well tolerated without adverse events. SBE is a safe procedure and overcomes the limitations of VCE. Both procedures are complimentary in patients with suspected SBTs. VCE should be used first for initial diagnosis, followed by SBE for histopathological confrmation of the diagnosis and, if necessary, endoscopic therapy.

  5. DISK FORMATION IN MAGNETIZED CLOUDS ENABLED BY THE HALL EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2011-01-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. A dynamically important magnetic field presents a significant obstacle to the formation of protostellar disks. Recent studies have shown that magnetic braking is strong enough to suppress the formation of rotationally supported disks in the ideal MHD limit. Whether non-ideal MHD effects can enable disk formation remains unsettled. We carry out a first study on how disk formation in magnetic clouds is modified by the Hall effect, the least explored of the three non-ideal MHD effects in star formation (the other two being ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation). For illustrative purposes, we consider a simplified problem of a non-self-gravitating, magnetized envelope collapsing onto a central protostar of fixed mass. We find that the Hall effect can spin up the inner part of the collapsing flow to Keplerian speed, producing a rotationally supported disk. The disk is generated through a Hall-induced magnetic torque. Disk formation occurs even when the envelope is initially non-rotating, provided that the Hall coefficient is large enough. When the magnetic field orientation is flipped, the direction of disk rotation is reversed as well. The implication is that the Hall effect can in principle produce both regularly rotating and counter-rotating disks around protostars. The Hall coefficient expected in dense cores is about one order of magnitude smaller than that needed for efficient spin-up in these models. We conclude that the Hall effect is an important factor to consider in studying the angular momentum evolution of magnetized star formation in general and disk formation in particular.

  6. Double-balloon enteroscopy: a descriptive study of 50 explorations Enteroscopia de doble balón: estudio descriptivo de 50 exploraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pérez-Cuadrado

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate the utility of double-balloon enteroscopy for small-bowel disease. Design: a prospective study of 50 consecutive enteroscopies performed from December 2004 to July 2005 to analyze diagnoses and treatments. Patients: 44 patients (33 had undergone a previous capsule endoscopy with indications for obscure digestive hemorrhage, angiodysplasia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, ulcer, suspected Crohn's disease, tumors, and refractory celiac disease. Results: we carried out enteroscopy studies in 44 patients by the oral route and, in 6 additional patients, by both the oral and anal routes. We reached the ileon with the oral route in all cases but one (jejunal stenosis, and in 4 cases out of 7 with the anal route, with an average duration of 73 minutes. We found angiodysplasia in 19 cases, as well as NSAID-related enteropathy, Crohn's disease, diverticulosis, and Waldenström's disease. We performed biopsies in 31% of cases with diagnoses of adenocarcinoma, lymphangiectasia secondary to tumor in celiac disease, and Whipple's disease. We treated 19 patients with angiodysplasia (1 to 20 synchronous lesions with argon, and 4 patients with polyps using polipectomy (sporadic polyps or Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A retained capsule in one patient with stenosis was removed. Conclusions: double-balloon enteroscopy is a useful and effective technique in the diagnosis and treatment of small intestine diseases, thus complementing capsule endoscopy. More studies are needed to analyze its impact on the management of this condition.Objetivo: valorar la utilidad de la enteroscopia de doble balón en enfermedades de intestino delgado. Diseño: estudio prospectivo descriptivo de 50 enteroscopias consecutivas (diciembre 2004 a julio 2005, analizando diagnóstico y terapéutica. Pacientes: cuarenta y cuatro pacientes (33 con cápsula endoscópica previa con hemorragia digestiva oculta o lesiones detectadas mediante cápsula (angiodisplasias, pólipos, úlceras

  7. Interface Effects Enabling New Applications of Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Sattar, Shahid

    2018-05-01

    Interface effects in two-dimensional (2D) materials play a critical role for the electronic properties and device characteristics. Here we use first-principles calculations to investigate interface effects in 2D materials enabling new applications. We first show that graphene in contact with monolayer and bilayer PtSe2 experiences weak van der Waals interaction. Analysis of the work functions and band bending at the interface reveals that graphene forms an n-type Schottky contact with monolayer PtSe2 and a p-type Schottky contact with bilayer PtSe2, whereas a small biaxial tensile strain makes the contact Ohmic in the latter case as required for transistor operation. For silicene, which is a 2D Dirac relative of graphene, structural buckling complicates the experimental synthesis and strong interaction with the substrate perturbs the characteristic linear dispersion. To remove this obstacle, we propose solid argon as a possible substrate for realizing quasi-freestanding silicene and argue that a weak van der Waals interaction and small binding energy indicate the possibility to separate silicene from the substrate. For the silicene-PtSe2 interface, we demonstrate much stronger interlayer interaction than previously reported for silicene on other semiconducting substrates. Due to the inversion symmetry breaking and proximity to PtSe2, a band gap opening and spin splittings in the valence and conduction bands of silicene are observed. It is also shown that the strong interlayer interaction can be effectively reduced by intercalating NH3 molecules between silicene and PtSe2, and a small NH3 discussion barrier makes intercalation a viable experimental approach. Silicene/germanene are categorized as key materials for the field of valleytronics due to stronger spin-orbit coupling as compared to graphene. However, no viable route exists so far to experimental realization. We propose F-doped WS2 as substrate that avoids detrimental effects and at the same time induces the

  8. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia: A rare cause of diarrhea in adults diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL or Waldmann′s disease is a rare protein-losing enteropathy presenting with diarrhea. The etiology and prevalence of PIL remain unknown. <200 cases have been reported in the literature so far. Diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia is difficult as there are no serological or radiological tests available. Small bowel imaging modalities like capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy have increased the chances of diagnosis of PIL due to direct visualization of small bowel. Diagnosis is confirmed by characteristic histopathological finding, which includes dilated intestinal lymphatics with broadened villi of the small bowel. We report a case of a patient with chronic diarrhea who was extensively worked up before he was finally diagnosed to have PIL involving the small bowel by performing balloon enteroscopy-guided biopsy.

  9. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Yu; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Li-na; Chen, Qi-kui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphang...

  10. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Li-Na; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2013-01-14

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  11. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. Case presentation A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  12. Enabling Teacher Effectiveness: Teachers' Perspectives on Instructional Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, R. Scott

    As part of a study of teacher effectiveness and job satisfaction, a research team interviewed 85 elementary and secondary classroom teachers in 5 school districts in the San Francisco (California) Bay Area to gather teachers' perspectives on administrative leadership. Teachers portrayed effective principals as creating environments around the…

  13. The CNN Effect: Stretegic Enabler or Operational Risk?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belknap, Margaret

    2001-01-01

    .... Satellite technology and the proliferation of 2417 news networks have created and increased the so-called 'CNN effect' on strategic level decision-making and how warfighters direct their commands...

  14. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tak Geun; Chung, Joo Won; Kim, Hee Man; Han, Seok-Joo; Lee, Jin Sung; Park, Jung Yeob; Song, Si Young

    2011-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lymphatics and the development of protein-losing enteropathy. Patients with PIL develop hypoalbuminemia, hypocalcemia, lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia, and present with bilateral lower limb edema, fatigue, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Endoscopy reveals diffusely elongated, circumferential and polypoid mucosae covered with whitish enlarged villi, all of which indicate intestinal lymphangiectasia. Diagnosis is confirmed by characteristic tissue pathology, which includes dilated intestinal lymphatics with diffusely swollen mucosa and enlarged villi. The prevalence of PIL has increased since the introduction of capsule endoscopy. The etiology and prevalence of PIL remain unknown. Some studies have reported that several genes and regulatory molecules for lymphangiogenesis are related to PIL. We report the case of a patient with PIL involving the entire small bowel that was confirmed by capsule endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy-guided tissue pathology who carried a deletion on chromosome 4q25. The relationship between this deletion on chromosome 4 and PIL remains to be investigated. PMID:22110841

  15. Ileal polypoid lymphangiectasia bleeding diagnosed and treated by double balloon enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Seon; Lee, Beom Jae; Gu, Dae Hoe; Pyo, Jeung-Hui; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Yun Ho; Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae

    2013-12-07

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease characterized by focal or diffuse dilated enteric lymphatics with impaired lymph drainage. It causes protein-losing enteropathy and may lead to gastrointestinal bleeding. Commonly, lymphangiectasia presents as whitish spots or specks. To our knowledge, small bowel bleeding resulting from polypoid intestinal lymphangiectasia has not been reported. Here, we report a rare case of active bleeding from the small bowel caused by polypoid lymphangiectasia with a review of the relevant literature. An 80-year-old woman was hospitalized for melena. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy could not identify the source of bleeding. Subsequent colonoscopy showed fresh bloody material gushing from the small bowel. An abdominal-pelvic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan did not reveal any abnormal findings. Video capsule endoscopy showed evidence of active and recent bleeding in the ileum. To localize the bleeding site, we performed double balloon enteroscopy by the anal approach. A small, bleeding, polypoid lesion was found in the distal ileum and was successfully removed using endoscopic snare electrocautery. © 2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Capsule Endoscopy Findings to Subsequent Double Balloon Enteroscopy: A Dual Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep S. Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been a growing use of both capsule endoscopy (CE and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE to diagnose and treat patients with obscure gastrointestinal blood loss and suspected small bowel pathology. Aim. To compare and correlate sequential CE and DBE findings in a large series of patients at two tertiary level hospitals in Wisconsin. Methods. An IRB approved retrospective study of patients who underwent sequential CE and DBE, at two separate tertiary care academic centers from May 2007 to December 2011, was performed. Results. 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age ± SD was 66.6 ± 13.2 years. There were 56% males and 43.9% females. Measure of agreement between prior capsule and DBE findings was performed using kappa statistics, which gave kappa value of 0.396 with P<0.001. Also contingency coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.732 (P<0.001. Conclusions. Our study showed good overall agreement between DBE and CE. Findings of angioectasia had maximum agreement of 69%.

  17. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xing [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Xu, Yanli [Fuyang People’s Hospital (China); Meng, Qian [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zheng, Qingqing [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Wu, Jianhong [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Clinical Center for Diabetes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Figeys, Daniel [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, and Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Ottawa (Canada); Chang, Ying, E-mail: emulan@163.com [Digestive Endoscopic Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital (China); Zhou, Hu, E-mail: zhouhu@simm.ac.cn [Department of Analytical Chemistry and CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2016-08-05

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  18. Proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yanli; Meng, Qian; Zheng, Qingqing; Wu, Jianhong; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping; Figeys, Daniel; Chang, Ying; Zhou, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of malignant tumor worldwide. Currently, although many researchers have been devoting themselves in CRC studies, the process of locating biomarkers for CRC early diagnosis and prognostic is still very slow. Using a centrifugal proteomic reactor-based proteomic analysis of minute amount of colonic biopsies by enteroscopy sampling, 2620 protein groups were quantified between cancer mucosa and adjacent normal colorectal mucosa. Of which, 403 protein groups were differentially expressed with statistic significance between cancer and normal tissues, including 195 up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins in cancer tissues. Three proteins (SOD3, PRELP and NGAL) were selected for further Western blot validation. And the resulting Western blot experimental results were consistent with the quantitative proteomic data. SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC mucosa comparing to adjacent normal tissue, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC mucosa. In conclusion, the centrifugal proteomic reactor-based label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a highly sensitive and powerful tool for analyzing minute protein sample from tiny colorectal biopsies, which may facilitate CRC biomarkers discovery for diagnoses and prognoses. -- Highlights: •Minute amount of colonic biopsies by endoscopy is suitable for proteomic analysis. •Centrifugal proteomic reactor can be used for processing tiny clinic biopsy sample. •SOD3 and PRELP are down-regulated in CRC, while NGAL is up-regulated in CRC.

  19. Enabling Effective Problem-oriented Research for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kueffer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems caused by human activities are increasing; biodiversity is disappearing at an unprecedented rate, soils are being irreversibly damaged, freshwater is increasingly in short supply, and the climate is changing. To reverse or even to reduce these trends will require a radical transformation in the relationship between humans and the natural environment. Just how this can be achieved within, at most, a few decades is unknown, but it is clear that academia must play a crucial role. Many believe, however, that academic institutions need to become more effective in helping societies move toward sustainability. We first synthesize current thinking about this crisis of research effectiveness. We argue that those involved in producing knowledge to solve societal problems face three particular challenges: the complexity of real-world sustainability problems, maintaining impartiality when expert knowledge is used in decision making, and ensuring the salience of the scientific knowledge for decision makers. We discuss three strategies to meet these challenges: conducting research in interdisciplinary teams, forming research partnerships with actors and experts from outside academia, and framing research questions with the aim of solving specific problems (problem orientation. However, we argue that implementing these strategies within academia will require both cultural and institutional change. We then use concepts from transition management to suggest how academic institutions can make the necessary changes. At the level of system optimization, we call for: quality criteria, career incentives, and funding schemes that reward not only disciplinary excellence but also achievements in inter-/transdisciplinary work; professional services and training through specialized centers that facilitate problem-oriented research and reciprocal knowledge exchange with society; and the integration of sustainability and inter

  20. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy using single-balloon enteroscopy without fluoroscopy: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bernardes

    Full Text Available Background: Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ is a useful method to provide enteral nutrition to individuals when gastric feeding is not possible or contraindicated. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy and safety of DPEJ tube placement with the Gauderer-Ponsky technique by the pull method, using single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE without fluoroscopy. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing SBE for DPEJ placement in a referral hospital between January 2010 and March 2016. Technical success, clinical success and procedure related complications were recorded. Results: Twenty-three patients were included (17 males, median age 71 years, range 37-93 years. The most frequent indications for DPEJ were gastroesophageal cancer (n = 10 and neurological disease (n = 8. Eighty-seven percent of the patients had a contraindication to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG and PEG was unsuccessful in the remaining patients. The technical success rate was 83% (19/23, transillumination was not possible in three patients and an accidental exteriorization of the bumper resulting in a jejunal perforation occurred in one patient. The clinical success was 100% (19/19. The median follow-up was five months (range 1-35 months. Apart from the case of jejunal perforation and the two cases of accidental exteriorization, there were no other complications during follow-up. The 6-month survival was 65.8% and the 1-year survival was 49.3%. Conclusion: DPEJ can be carried out successfully via SBE without fluoroscopy with a low rate of significant adverse events. Although, leaving the overtube in place during the bumper pulling can be useful for distal jejunal loops, it can be safely removed in proximal loops to minimize complications.

  1. Detection of small-bowel tumours with CT enteroclysis using carbon dioxide and virtual enteroscopy. A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohan, Anthony; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dautry, Raphael; Dray, Xavier; Samaha, Elia; Cellier, Christophe; Camus, Marine; Eveno, Clarisse; Soyer, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, tolerance and performance of virtual enteroscopy (VE) using carbon dioxide for small-bowel distension in patients with suspected small-bowel tumours (SBTs). After IRB approval, 17 patients with suspected SBTs were prospectively included. Radiation dose was compared to 34 matched patients (2 for 1) for age, gender and body weight, who had undergone CT-enteroclysis with neutral contrast (CTE). Performance of VE was evaluated through comparison with the current standard of reference, including surgery and/or enteroscopy and/or follow-up. Tolerance was excellent in 16/17 patients (94%). The radiation dose was lower for VE than for CTE (533 ± 282 vs. 974 ± 505 mGy.cm; p = 0.002). With VE, a total of 25 polyps >5 mm in size were depicted in 12/17 patients. On a per-lesion analysis, sensitivity and positive predictive value of VE were 92.0% and 92.0%, respectively. On a per-segment analysis VE had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Our preliminary study suggests that VE is a feasible and well-tolerated technique with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SBT. (orig.)

  2. Detection of small-bowel tumours with CT enteroclysis using carbon dioxide and virtual enteroscopy. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohan, Anthony [Hopital Lariboisiere - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris Diderot, INSERM UMR 965, Paris (France); Boudiaf, Mourad; Dautry, Raphael [Hopital Lariboisiere - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Dray, Xavier [Department of Digestive Diseases, Hopital Saint-Antoine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universite, Paris (France); Samaha, Elia [European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Paris (France); Cellier, Christophe [European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Paris (France); Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Camus, Marine [Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Hopital Cochin - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Gastroenterology, Paris (France); Eveno, Clarisse [Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris Diderot, INSERM UMR 965, Paris (France); Hopital Lariboisiere - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Surgical Oncologic and Digestive Unit, Paris (France); Soyer, Philippe [Universite Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris Diderot, INSERM UMR 965, Paris (France); Hopital Cochin - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Body and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France)

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, tolerance and performance of virtual enteroscopy (VE) using carbon dioxide for small-bowel distension in patients with suspected small-bowel tumours (SBTs). After IRB approval, 17 patients with suspected SBTs were prospectively included. Radiation dose was compared to 34 matched patients (2 for 1) for age, gender and body weight, who had undergone CT-enteroclysis with neutral contrast (CTE). Performance of VE was evaluated through comparison with the current standard of reference, including surgery and/or enteroscopy and/or follow-up. Tolerance was excellent in 16/17 patients (94%). The radiation dose was lower for VE than for CTE (533 ± 282 vs. 974 ± 505 mGy.cm; p = 0.002). With VE, a total of 25 polyps >5 mm in size were depicted in 12/17 patients. On a per-lesion analysis, sensitivity and positive predictive value of VE were 92.0% and 92.0%, respectively. On a per-segment analysis VE had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Our preliminary study suggests that VE is a feasible and well-tolerated technique with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of SBT. (orig.)

  3. Detroit regional transit study : a study of factors that enable and inhibit effective regional transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An interdisciplinary team of six faculty members and six students at the University of Detroit Mercy (UDM) conducted a : comprehensive study of the factors enabling or inhibiting development of effective regional transit. Focusing on Metro Detroit an...

  4. Biliary self-expandable metallic stent using single balloon enteroscopy assisted ERCP: overcoming limitations of current accessories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Pinho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Device assisted enteroscopy (DAE techniques have been recently developed for the diagnosis and treatment of small bowel diseases. These techniques can also be used to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomies. The main difficulties with DAE-ERCP are related to type of surgery, to the different dimensions and lack of frontal view of the enteroscope and to the resulting limitations with the use of standard accessories, resulting in the need of dedicated accessory devices. Although most ERCP techniques have been successfully performed with DAE-ERCP, biliary self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS have not yet been used, as dedicated biliary SEMS for the enteroscope are lacking. The authors present a case report showing a new method to place standard biliary trough-the-scope SEMS with DAE-ERCP, using a different technique of stent deployment.

  5. Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp

  6. Using Email to Enable E[superscript 3] (Effective, Efficient, and Engaging) Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that technology that supports both noncognitive and cognitive aspects can make learning more effective, efficient, and engaging (e[superscript 3]-learning). The technology of interest in this article is email. The investigation focuses on characteristics of email that are likely to enable e[superscript 3]-learning. In addition,…

  7. ECT: its brain enabling effects. A review of electroconvulsive therapy-induced structural brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, F.; Sienaert, P.; Obbels, J.; Dols, A.; Vandenbulcke, M.; Stek, M.L.; Bolwig, T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the past 2 decades, new evidence for brain plasticity has caused a shift in both preclinical and clinical ECT research from falsifying the "brain damage hypothesis" toward exploring ECT's enabling brain (neuro)plasticity effects. METHODS: By reviewing the available animal and human

  8. Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia with Associated Submucosal Lipoma Presenting as a 7-cm Obstructive Tumor of the Ileum: Resection with Double Balloon Enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are rare clinical entities which have been identified throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Combined gastric and pancreatic heterotopias, although unusual, have been described in the duodenum and jejunum, and in other structures, including Meckel's diverticulum and the ampulla of Vater. We report a novel case of pancreatic and gastric heterotopia with an associated submucosal lipoma in a 38-year-old female with a recent history of rectal cancer and chronic crampy abdominal pain. On computed tomography, a 7-cm luminal polypoid mass extending into the distal ileum was discovered. The mass was successfully resected using retrograde double balloon enteroscopy. We believe this is the first report of all three histological entities co-existing in an obstructive ileal lesion in an adult. It highlights endoscopic resection trough double enteroscopy as a safe alternative to more invasive surgical approaches for this type of lesion.

  9. Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia with Associated Submucosal Lipoma Presenting as a 7-cm Obstructive Tumor of the Ileum: Resection with Double Balloon Enteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Stephen, F Otis; Jeong, Daniel; Pimiento, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic and gastric heterotopias are rare clinical entities which have been identified throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Combined gastric and pancreatic heterotopias, although unusual, have been described in the duodenum and jejunum, and in other structures, including Meckel's diverticulum and the ampulla of Vater. We report a novel case of pancreatic and gastric heterotopia with an associated submucosal lipoma in a 38-year-old female with a recent history of rectal cancer and chronic crampy abdominal pain. On computed tomography, a 7-cm luminal polypoid mass extending into the distal ileum was discovered. The mass was successfully resected using retrograde double balloon enteroscopy. We believe this is the first report of all three histological entities co-existing in an obstructive ileal lesion in an adult. It highlights endoscopic resection trough double enteroscopy as a safe alternative to more invasive surgical approaches for this type of lesion.

  10. The effect of technology-enabled active learning on undergraduate students understanding of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dori, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman physics carried out in a specially redesigned classroom to facilitate group interaction. These technology-based learning materials are especially useful in electromagnetism to help students conceptualize phenomena and processes. This study analyzes the effects of the unique learning environment of the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project project on students cognitive and affective outcomes. The assessment of the project included examining students conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We also investigated the effect of this environment on students preferences regarding the various teaching methods. As part of the project, we developed pre- and post-tests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students. It consisted of a small- and a large-scale experimental groups and a control group. Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project students improved their conceptual understanding concepts of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A majority of the students in the small-scale experiment noted that they would recommend the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project course to fellow students, indicating the benefits of inter activity, visualization, and hands-on experiments, which the technology helped enable. In the large-scale implementation students expressed both positive and negative attitudes in the course survey

  11. Key Enablers of Effective Implementation of TQM in Royal Jet Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moza Tahnoon Al Nahyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total quality management (TQM is a unified management approach that concentrates on the consecutive improvement of processes, products, and methods to surpass client expectations. This paper aims to highlight the advantages of implementing TQM in the airline industry by examining the key enablers of TQM. This study was based on a research model including six factors that were found to have a profound influence in implementing TQM. The data needed for the study was collected with the aid of questionnaires and secondary sources. The study discovered that procedures, policies, and a culture of knowledge transfer were the most significant enablers of successful TQM initiatives in Royal Jet Airways. In order to effectively implement TQM, the study suggests that management should offer appropriate recognition and rewards to employees. This will motivate them to adopt and practice TQM initiatives. Apart from that, management should also arrange seminars or workshops to accustom the employees to the basic procedures and objectives of effective TQM.

  12. Effect of the Enabling Perception of Costing Systems by Managers in the Performance of their Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eduardo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the effect of the enabling perception of costing systems by managers in the performance of their tasks, mediated by the intensity in of use of these costing systems and the level of psychological empowerment. The research was carried out through a survey of 62 companies listed in the Perfil das Empresas com Projetos Aprovados ou em Implantação na Zona Franca de Manaus Profile of Companies, in 2014. With a view to analyzing the hypotheses replicated from Mahama’s and Cheng’s (2013 study, the Structural Equations Modeling technique wasused. The research results show that the managers’ enabling perception of costing systems does not affect their  intensity of use, but it impacts on psychological empowerment, and this is directly reflected in the performance of tasks, indicating that the greater the empowerment, the better manager performance will be. It isconcluded that the model partially supports the relationships delineated and that the antecedents related to the costing systems require further study.

  13. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  14. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Nathan J; Robinson, Priscilla; Phillip, Maneesh

    2012-07-19

    In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India and other developing world countries.

  15. Alliance group formation: enabling and constraining effects of embeddedness and social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of alliance group formation in strategic technology alliance networks is examined. In particular, the social mechanisms that enable and enforce alliance group formation is studies. It is argued that the enabling effect of embeddedness during

  16. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Izazola-Licea, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  17. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safarnejad

    Full Text Available An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage and to AIDS-related mortality.Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality.The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104] and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics.Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  18. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments

  19. Underwater microwave ignition of hydrophobic thermite powder enabled by the bubble-marble effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meir, Yehuda; Jerby, Eli, E-mail: jerby@eng.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2015-08-03

    Highly energetic thermite reactions could be useful for a variety of combustion and material-processing applications, but their usability is yet limited by their hard ignition conditions. Furthermore, in virtue of their zero-oxygen balance, exothermic thermite reactions may also occur underwater. However, this feature is also hard to utilize because of the hydrophobic properties of the thermite powder, and its tendency to agglomerate on the water surface rather than to sink into the water. The recently discovered bubble-marble (BM) effect enables the insertion and confinement of a thermite-powder batch into water by a magnetic field. Here, we present a phenomenon of underwater ignition of a thermite-BM by localized microwaves. The thermite combustion underwater is observed in-situ, and its microwave absorption and optical spectral emission are detected. The vapour pressure generated by the thermite reaction is measured and compared to theory. The combustion products are examined ex-situ by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy which verifies the thermite reaction. Potential applications of this underwater combustion effect are considered, e.g., for detonation, wet welding, thermal drilling, material processing, thrust generation, and composite-material production, also for other oxygen-free environments.

  20. Nonparametric Online Learning Control for Soft Continuum Robot: An Enabling Technique for Effective Endoscopic Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kit-Hang; Fu, Denny K.C.; Leong, Martin C.W.; Chow, Marco; Fu, Hing-Choi; Althoefer, Kaspar; Sze, Kam Yim; Yeung, Chung-Kwong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bioinspired robotic structures comprising soft actuation units have attracted increasing research interest. Taking advantage of its inherent compliance, soft robots can assure safe interaction with external environments, provided that precise and effective manipulation could be achieved. Endoscopy is a typical application. However, previous model-based control approaches often require simplified geometric assumptions on the soft manipulator, but which could be very inaccurate in the presence of unmodeled external interaction forces. In this study, we propose a generic control framework based on nonparametric and online, as well as local, training to learn the inverse model directly, without prior knowledge of the robot's structural parameters. Detailed experimental evaluation was conducted on a soft robot prototype with control redundancy, performing trajectory tracking in dynamically constrained environments. Advanced element formulation of finite element analysis is employed to initialize the control policy, hence eliminating the need for random exploration in the robot's workspace. The proposed control framework enabled a soft fluid-driven continuum robot to follow a 3D trajectory precisely, even under dynamic external disturbance. Such enhanced control accuracy and adaptability would facilitate effective endoscopic navigation in complex and changing environments. PMID:29251567

  1. Single Balloon Enteroscopy-Assisted ERCP Using Rendezvous Technique for Sharp Angulation of Roux-en-Y Limb in a Patient with Bile Duct Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Takao; Ishii, Kentaro; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Shujiro; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2009-01-01

    The acute angulation of Roux-en-Y (R-Y) limb precludes endoscopic access for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) even using a balloon enteroscopy. Here, we describe a case of successful single balloon enteroscopy (SBE)-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique in a patient with sharply angulated R-Y limb in a 79-year-old woman who had bile duct stones. Method. At first, a guidewire was passed antegradely through the major papilla after the needle puncture using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage technique. A hydrophilic guidewire with an ERCP catheter was antegradely advanced beyond the Roux limb. After a guidewire was firmly grasped by a snare forceps, it was pulled out of the body, resulting that the enteroscope could advance to the papilla. After papillary dilation, complete removal of bile duct stones was achieved without any procedure-related complication. In conclusion, although further study is needed, SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique may have a potential for selected patients. PMID:20169091

  2. Case report of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed in an octogenarian by ileal intubation and by push enteroscopy after missed diagnosis by standard colonoscopy and EGD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, Mitchell S; Edhi, Ahmed; Amin, Mitual

    2018-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare, presumably congenital lesion that is usually diagnosed in patients lymphangiectasia. EGD with intubation to mid-descending duodenum revealed no significant lesions, but subsequent enteroscopy demonstrated lesions in distal duodenum/proximal jejunum similar to those in terminal ileum characteristic of lymphangiectasia. Histopathologic analysis of lesions of terminal ileum/distal duodenum demonstrated dilated mucosal vessels, confirmed as lymphatic vessels by immunohistochemistry. PIL was diagnosed after excluding secondary causes of intestinal lymphangiectasia. Patient placed on standard PIL diet: oral supplements of medium-chain triglycerides, a high protein diet, supplements of fat-soluble vitamins, and avoiding long-chain fatty acids, with marked clinical improvement. This work shows that: 1)-standard EGD and colonoscopy may miss characteristic lesions of PIL, 2)-enteroscopy or terminal ileal intubation at colonoscopy may be required for the diagnosis because lesions are typically located in distal duodenum/jejunoileum; and 3)-PIL can first present in the very elderly even with symptoms of short duration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Single Balloon Enteroscopy-Assisted ERCP Using Rendezvous Technique for Sharp Angulation of Roux-en-Y Limb in a Patient with Bile Duct Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Itoi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute angulation of Roux-en-Y (R-Y limb precludes endoscopic access for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP even using a balloon enteroscopy. Here, we describe a case of successful single balloon enteroscopy (SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique in a patient with sharply angulated R-Y limb in a 79-year-old woman who had bile duct stones. Method. At first, a guidewire was passed antegradely through the major papilla after the needle puncture using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage technique. A hydrophilic guidewire with an ERCP catheter was antegradely advanced beyond the Roux limb. After a guidewire was firmly grasped by a snare forceps, it was pulled out of the body, resulting that the enteroscope could advance to the papilla. After papillary dilation, complete removal of bile duct stones was achieved without any procedure-related complication. In conclusion, although further study is needed, SBE-assisted ERCP using a rendezvous technique may have a potential for selected patients.

  4. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  5. GeoSpark SQL: An Effective Framework Enabling Spatial Queries on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, Internet-based geospatial information services such as various LBS apps are deployed everywhere, followed by an increasing number of queries against the massive spatial data. As a result, the traditional relational spatial database (e.g., PostgreSQL with PostGIS and Oracle Spatial cannot adapt well to the needs of large-scale spatial query processing. Spark is an emerging outstanding distributed computing framework in the Hadoop ecosystem. This paper aims to address the increasingly large-scale spatial query-processing requirement in the era of big data, and proposes an effective framework GeoSpark SQL, which enables spatial queries on Spark. On the one hand, GeoSpark SQL provides a convenient SQL interface; on the other hand, GeoSpark SQL achieves both efficient storage management and high-performance parallel computing through integrating Hive and Spark. In this study, the following key issues are discussed and addressed: (1 storage management methods under the GeoSpark SQL framework, (2 the spatial operator implementation approach in the Spark environment, and (3 spatial query optimization methods under Spark. Experimental evaluation is also performed and the results show that GeoSpark SQL is able to achieve real-time query processing. It should be noted that Spark is not a panacea. It is observed that the traditional spatial database PostGIS/PostgreSQL performs better than GeoSpark SQL in some query scenarios, especially for the spatial queries with high selectivity, such as the point query and the window query. In general, GeoSpark SQL performs better when dealing with compute-intensive spatial queries such as the kNN query and the spatial join query.

  6. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  7. Implementing Self-Management within a Group Counseling Context: Effects on Academic Enabling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesch DuBois, Jacquelyn M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hoffman, Jessica A.; Struzziero, Joan; Toback, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Self-management interventions have been adapted to serve as targeted interventions to increase academic enabling behaviors in groups of students. However, a trade-off exists between adapting these interventions to feasibly fit group contexts and maintaining theoretical intervention components. This study examines the use of self-management within…

  8. Cohesive subgroup formation : enabling and constraining effects of social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will examine the role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of cohesive subgroup formation in strategic technology alliance networks. More in particular, we will investigate the social mechanisms that enable and enforce cohesive subgroup formation. We will argue that the

  9. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Implementation of eHealth Enabled Integrated Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Penterman, L; van Montfort, Augustinus P.W.P.; Smits, Jacco Gerardus Wilhelmus Leonardus; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: ‘E-health enabled integrated care’ (eHEIC) has high potential to improve quality of care, widen access and increase efficiency. Experts and scholars increasingly report about difficulties of sustainable eHEIC implementation. These reports indicate in particular ‘human factors’ often

  10. Contagion effect of enabling or coercive use of costing model within the managerial couple in lean organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    In the lean strategy is enabling formalization behaviour expected at the lower levels of management to be successful. We study the contagion effect between the superior, middle manager, of the lower level manager. This effect is proposed to be a dominant contingency variable for the use of costin...... models at the lower levels of management. Thus the use of costing models at the middle manager level is an important key to be successful with the lean package.......In the lean strategy is enabling formalization behaviour expected at the lower levels of management to be successful. We study the contagion effect between the superior, middle manager, of the lower level manager. This effect is proposed to be a dominant contingency variable for the use of costing...

  11. Fluctuation mechanisms in superconductors nanowire single-photon counters, enabled by effective top-down manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolf, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Holger Bartolf discusses state-of-the-art detection concepts based on superconducting nanotechnology as well as sophisticated analytical formulæ that model dissipative fluctuation-phenomena in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. Such knowledge is desirable for the development of advanced devices which are designed to possess an intrinsic robustness against vortex-fluctuations and it provides the perspective for honorable fundamental science in condensed matter physics. Especially the nanowire detector allows for ultra-low noise detection of signals with single-photon sensitivity and GHz repetition rates. Such devices have a huge potential for future technological impact and might enable unique applications (e.g. high rate interplanetary deep-space data links from Mars to Earth). Contents Superconducting Single-Photon Detectors Nanotechnological Manufacturing; Scale: 10 Nanometer Berezinskii-Kosterlitz Thouless (BKT) Transition, Edge-Barrier, Phase Slips Target Groups Researchers and students of...

  12. SEA for strategic grid planning in South Africa: Enabling the efficient and effective roll out of strategic electricity transmission infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fischer, TD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available | Resilience and Sustainability 36th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment 11 - 14 May 2016 | Nagoya Congress Center | Aichi-Nagoya | Japan | www.iaia.org SEA FOR STRATEGIC GRID PLANNING IN SOUTH AFRICA: Enabling... the efficient and effective roll out of strategic electricity transmission infrastructure Abstract ID: 409 Authors: Marshall Mabin(1) , Paul Lochner and Dee Fischer Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 320 Stellenbosch 7599 South...

  13. Note: Electrical detection and quantification of spin rectification effect enabled by shorted microstrip transmission line technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Peng, Bin; Chai, Guozhi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a shorted microstrip method for the sensitive quantification of Spin Rectification Effect (SRE). SRE for a Permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) thin film strip sputtered onto SiO 2 substrate is demonstrated. Our method obviates the need for simultaneous lithographic patterning of the sample and transmission line, therefore greatly simplifying the SRE measurement process. Such a shorted microstrip method can allow different contributions to SRE (anisotropic magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and anomalous Hall effect) to be simultaneously determined. Furthermore, SRE signals from unpatterned 50 nm thick Permalloy films of area dimensions 5 mm × 10 mm can even be detected

  14. Challenging bullwhip effect dynamics with electronically enabled-supply chain management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokozani Patmond Mbhele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The bullwhip effect shows the dynamics of accumulating order rate that exceeds the tentatively stable actual demand rate. This paper aimed to assess the relative role of e-SCM systems as consumer demand orders cascading upstream supply chain network. The study’s population, consisting of the managers (senior and functional levels including supervisory level (non-managerial from retail sales, logistics, warehousing, marketing, manufacturing and IT hubs organisations, comprised of 460 respondents. In order to achieve the paper’s objective, the researcher developed and distributed a survey questionnaire and collected and analysed the data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The empirical results from the study reveal that business-to-business information technology (B2BIT diffusion frequencies have an effect on supply chain performance and e-SCM implementation promotes connectivity among supply chain partners to entrench commitment of the exchanged demand order information to mitigate the bullwhip effect

  15. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  16. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-10-11

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R + -MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits.

  17. Efficacy of pediatric colonoscopy used as push enteroscopy in the management of capsule endoscopy findings Eficacia del colonoscopio pediátrico como enteroscopio de pulsión en el manejo de los hallazgos de la cápsula endoscópica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pérez Roldán

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: recent advances in endoscopy have enabled us to explore the small intestine more efficiently, both with capsule endoscopy and double-balloon enteroscopy. However, these methods are not available in all hospitals. Therefore, when capsule endoscopy reveals proximal jejunal lesions, a possible alternative for treatment could involve push enteroscopy combined with colonoscopy. Lesions can thus be marked for subsequent monitoring. Objectives: to describe the efficacy of pediatric colonoscopy for diagnosis, the marking of the area explored, and therapeutic options. Material and methods: between October 2007 and September 2008 a total of 21 enteroscopies were performed using a pediatric colonoscope. Nine of these were used to take jejunal biopsy samples due to suspected disease of the mucosa. In 10 of the remaining 12, capsule endoscopy revealed lesions (vascular malformations or jejunal bleeding, and in 2 intestinal transit time was analyzed due to suspected jejunal stenosis. We used a PENTAX EC-3470-LK pediatric colonoscope, whose 11.6-mm sectional diameter and 3.8-mm working channel make it possible to administer all the usual endoscopic treatments. Results: therapeutic endoscopy was performed on 7 men and 5 women (mean age 63.3 years. Jejunal lesions were observed in 10 cases (5 cases of angiodysplasia, 2 cases of jejunal stenosis, 1 case of nonmalignant thickened jejunal folds, 1 eroded submucosal tumor, and 1 case of duodenal and jejunal varices. The most distal area was marked with India ink (2, hemoclips (4, or both to help locate the lesions using simple abdominal radiography or capsule endoscopy. Conclusions: jejunal enteroscopy enabled a firm diagnosis to be made in most of the patients studied. We were able to treat 58% of patients and mark the areas explored for subsequent follow-up. With hemoclips we were able to locate the most distal point explored using simple abdominal radiography.Introducción: los recientes avances en

  18. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E., E-mail: blippy@cpwr.com; Cooper, Michael R. [CPWR - The Center for Construction Research and Training (United States); Marsick, Daniel [Marsick Consulting, LLC (United States); Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N. [Environmental Profiles, Inc. (United States); Segrave, Alan M. [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Dissociated particles of TiO{sub 2} just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO{sub 2}. Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts.

  19. Toward responsible development and effective risk management of nano-enabled products in the U.S. construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Gavin H.; Lippy, Bruce E.; Cooper, Michael R.; Marsick, Daniel; Burrelli, Leonard G.; Griffin, Kelsey N.; Segrave, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    The global construction sector is experiencing major improvements to building materials used in large quantities through commercial applications of nanotechnology. Nano-enabled construction products hold great promise for energy efficiency and resource conservation, but risk assessments lag as new products emerge. This paper presents results from an inventory, survey, and exposure assessment conducted by the authors and explores these findings in the broader context of evolving research trends and responsible development of nanotechnology. An inventory of 458 reportedly nano-enabled construction products provided insight into product availability, potential exposures, and deficiencies in risk communication that are barriers to adoption of proactive safety measures. Seasoned construction trainers surveyed were largely unaware of the availability of nano-enabled construction products. Exposure assessment demonstrated the effectiveness of ventilation to reduce exposures during mechanical abrasion of photocatalytic tiles containing titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Dissociated particles of TiO 2 just above the nanoscale (138 nm) were detected in the debris collected during cutting of the tiles, but measurements were below recommended exposure limits for TiO 2 . Exposure assessments remain scarce, and toxicological understanding primarily pertains to unincorporated nanomaterials; less is known about the occupational risks of nano-enabled construction products across their life cycle. Further research is needed to characterize and quantify exposure to debris released from nanocomposite materials for realistic risk assessment, and to ascertain how nanocomposite matrices, fillers, and degradation forces interact to affect release dynamics. Improving risk communication strategies and implementing safe work practices will cultivate responsible development of nanotechnology in construction, as will multidisciplinary research efforts

  20. Developing a mobile application to better inform patients and enable effective consultation in implant dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erokan Canbazoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of dentistry lacks satisfactory tools to help visualize planned procedures and their potential results to patients. Dentists struggle to provide an effective image in their patient's mind of the end results of the planned treatment only through verbal explanations. Thus, verbal explanations alone often cannot adequately help the patients make a treatment decision. Inadequate attempts are frequently made by dentists to sketch the procedure for the patient in an effort to depict the treatment. These attempts however require an artistic ability not all dentists have. Real case photographs are sometimes of help in explaining and illustrating treatments. However, particularly in implant cases, real case photographs are often ineffective and inadequate. The purpose of this study is to develop a mobile application with an effective user interface design to support the dentist–patient interaction by providing the patient with illustrative descriptions of the procedures and the end result. Sketching, paper prototyping, and wire framing were carried out with the actual user's participation. Hard and soft dental tissues were modeled using three dimensional (3D modeling programs and real cases. The application enhances the presentation to the patients of potential implants and implant supported prosthetic treatments with rich 3D illustrative content. The application was evaluated in terms of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness through an online survey. The application helps improve the information sharing behavior of dentists to enhance the patients' right to make informed decisions. The paper clearly demonstrates the relevance of interactive communication technologies for dentist–patient communication.

  1. The four-flipper swimming method of plesiosaurs enabled efficient and effective locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscutt, Luke E; Dyke, Gareth; Weymouth, Gabriel D; Naish, Darren; Palmer, Colin; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-08-30

    The extinct ocean-going plesiosaurs were unique within vertebrates because they used two flipper pairs identical in morphology for propulsion. Although fossils of these Mesozoic marine reptiles have been known for more than two centuries, the function and dynamics of their tandem-flipper propulsion system has always been unclear and controversial. We address this question quantitatively for the first time in this study, reporting a series of precisely controlled water tank experiments that use reconstructed plesiosaur flippers scaled from well-preserved fossils. Our aim was to determine which limb movements would have resulted in the most efficient and effective propulsion. We show that plesiosaur hind flippers generated up to 60% more thrust and 40% higher efficiency when operating in harmony with their forward counterparts, when compared with operating alone, and the spacing and relative motion between the flippers was critical in governing these increases. The results of our analyses show that this phenomenon was probably present across the whole range of plesiosaur flipper motion and resolves the centuries-old debate about the propulsion style of these marine reptiles, as well as indicating why they retained two pairs of flippers for more than 100 million years. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Comparative Effectiveness Research, Genomics-Enabled Personalized Medicine, and Rapid Learning Health Care: A Common Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Kuderer, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite stunning advances in our understanding of the genetics and the molecular basis for cancer, many patients with cancer are not yet receiving therapy tailored specifically to their tumor biology. The translation of these advances into clinical practice has been hindered, in part, by the lack of evidence for biomarkers supporting the personalized medicine approach. Most stakeholders agree that the translation of biomarkers into clinical care requires evidence of clinical utility. The highest level of evidence comes from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). However, in many instances, there may be no RCTs that are feasible for assessing the clinical utility of potentially valuable genomic biomarkers. In the absence of RCTs, evidence generation will require well-designed cohort studies for comparative effectiveness research (CER) that link detailed clinical information to tumor biology and genomic data. CER also uses systematic reviews, evidence-quality appraisal, and health outcomes research to provide a methodologic framework for assessing biologic patient subgroups. Rapid learning health care (RLHC) is a model in which diverse data are made available, ideally in a robust and real-time fashion, potentially facilitating CER and personalized medicine. Nonetheless, to realize the full potential of personalized care using RLHC requires advances in CER and biostatistics methodology and the development of interoperable informatics systems, which has been recognized by the National Cancer Institute's program for CER and personalized medicine. The integration of CER methodology and genomics linked to RLHC should enhance, expedite, and expand the evidence generation required for fully realizing personalized cancer care. PMID:23071236

  3. The effect of nanoparticle uptake on cellular behavior: disrupting or enabling functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miserocchi G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alice Panariti, Giuseppe Miserocchi, Ilaria RivoltaDepartment of Experimental Medicine, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, ItalyAbstract: Nanoparticles (NPs are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale range. They have unique physicochemical properties, and have emerged as important players in current research in modern medicine. In the last few decades, several types of NPs and microparticles have been synthesized and proposed for use as contrast agents for diagnostics and imaging and for drug delivery; for example, in cancer therapy. Yet specific targeting that will improve their delivery still represents an unsolved challenge. The mechanism by which NPs enter the cell has important implications not only for their fate but also for their impact on biological systems. Several papers in the literature discuss the potential risks related to NP exposure, and more recently the concept that even sublethal doses of NPs may elicit a cell response has been proposed. In this review, we intend to present an overall view of cell mechanisms that may be perturbed by cell–NP interaction. Published data, in fact, emphasize that NPs should no longer be viewed only as simple carriers for biomedical applications, but that they can also play an active role in mediating biological effects.Keywords: nanoparticles, uptake, intracellular trafficking, bio compatibility

  4. PROCEDURE ENABLING SIMULATION AND IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL EFFECTS IN CAMERA-BASED TIME-OF-FLIGHT SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baumgart

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation approach for Time-of-Flight cameras to estimate sensor performance and accuracy, as well as to help understanding experimentally discovered effects. The main scope is the detailed simulation of the optical signals. We use a raytracing-based approach and use the optical path length as the master parameter for depth calculations. The procedure is described in detail with references to our implementation in Zemax OpticStudio and Python. Our simulation approach supports multiple and extended light sources and allows accounting for all effects within the geometrical optics model. Especially multi-object reflection/scattering ray-paths, translucent objects, and aberration effects (e.g. distortion caused by the ToF lens are supported. The optical path length approach also enables the implementation of different ToF senor types and transient imaging evaluations. The main features are demonstrated on a simple 3D test scene.

  5. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds, https://vortex-winds.org, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  6. The AMERE project: Enabling real-time detection of radiation effects in individual cells in deep space

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Meesen, Geert; Szpirer, Cedric; Scohy, Sophie; Cherukuri, Chaitanya; Evrard, Olivier; Hutsebaut, Xavier; Beghuin, Didier

    2012-12-01

    A major concern for long-term deep space missions is the detrimental impact of cosmic radiation on human health. Especially the presence of high-energy particles of high atomic mass (HZE) represents a serious threat. To contribute to a fundamental understanding of space radiation effects and to help improving risk assessment for humans on the Moon, the ESA Lunar Lander mission model payload includes a package dedicated to cell-based radiobiology experiments in the form of an Autonomous Microscope for Examination of Radiation Effects (AMERE). The purpose of this setup is to enable real-time visualization of DNA damage repair in living cells after traversal of HZE particles on the Moon. To assess the feasibility of this challenging experiment, we have analysed the biological and technological demands. In this article, we discuss the experimental concept, the biological considerations and describe the implications for system design.

  7. Mechanistic models enable the rational use of in vitro drug-target binding kinetics for better drug effects in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Wong, Yin Cheong; Nederpelt, Indira; Heitman, Laura H; Danhof, Meindert; van der Graaf, Piet H; Gilissen, Ron A H J; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2016-01-01

    Drug-target binding kinetics are major determinants of the time course of drug action for several drugs, as clearly described for the irreversible binders omeprazole and aspirin. This supports the increasing interest to incorporate newly developed high-throughput assays for drug-target binding kinetics in drug discovery. A meaningful application of in vitro drug-target binding kinetics in drug discovery requires insight into the relation between in vivo drug effect and in vitro measured drug-target binding kinetics. In this review, the authors discuss both the relation between in vitro and in vivo measured binding kinetics and the relation between in vivo binding kinetics, target occupancy and effect profiles. More scientific evidence is required for the rational selection and development of drug-candidates on the basis of in vitro estimates of drug-target binding kinetics. To elucidate the value of in vitro binding kinetics measurements, it is necessary to obtain information on system-specific properties which influence the kinetics of target occupancy and drug effect. Mathematical integration of this information enables the identification of drug-specific properties which lead to optimal target occupancy and drug effect in patients.

  8. Junctionless Diode Enabled by Self-Bias Effect of Ion Gel in Single-Layer MoS2 Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Atif; Rathi, Servin; Park, Jinwoo; Lim, Dongsuk; Lee, Yoontae; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-08-16

    The self-biasing effects of ion gel from source and drain electrodes on electrical characteristics of single layer and few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) field-effect transistor (FET) have been studied. The self-biasing effect of ion gel is tested for two different configurations, covered and open, where ion gel is in contact with either one or both, source and drain electrodes, respectively. In open configuration, the linear output characteristics of the pristine device becomes nonlinear and on-off ratio drops by 3 orders of magnitude due to the increase in "off" current for both single and few layer MoS 2 FETs. However, the covered configuration results in a highly asymmetric output characteristics with a rectification of around 10 3 and an ideality factor of 1.9. This diode like behavior has been attributed to the reduction of Schottky barrier width by the electric field of self-biased ion gel, which enables an efficient injection of electrons by tunneling at metal-MoS 2 interface. Finally, finite element method based simulations are carried out and the simulated results matches well in principle with the experimental analysis. These self-biased diodes can perform a crucial role in the development of high-frequency optoelectronic and valleytronic devices.

  9. An international multicenter study comparing EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage with enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde pancreatography after Whipple surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-I; Levy, Michael J; Moreels, Tom G; Hajijeva, Gulara; Will, Uwe; Artifon, Everson L; Hara, Kazuo; Kitano, Masayuki; Topazian, Mark; Abu Dayyeh, Barham; Reichel, Andreas; Vilela, Tiago; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Haito-Chavez, Yamile; Bukhari, Majidah; Okolo, Patrick; Kumbhari, Vivek; Ismail, Amr; Khashab, Mouen A

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic management of post-Whipple pancreatic adverse events (AEs) with enteroscopy-assisted endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (e-ERP) is associated with high failure rates. EUS-guided pancreatic duct drainage (EUS-PDD) has shown promising results; however, no comparative data have been done for these 2 modalities. The goal of this study is to compare EUS-PDD with e-ERP in terms of technical success (PDD through dilation/stent), clinical success (improvement/resolution of pancreatic-type symptoms), and AE rates in patients with post-Whipple anatomy. This is an international multicenter comparative retrospective study at 7 tertiary centers (2 United States, 2 European, 2 Asian, and 1 South American). All consecutive patients who underwent EUS-PDD or e-ERP between January 2010 and August 2015 were included. In total, 66 patients (mean age, 57 years; 48% women) and 75 procedures were identified with 40 in EUS-PDD and 35 in e-ERP. Technical success was achieved in 92.5% of procedures in the EUS-PDD group compared with 20% of procedures in the e-ERP group (OR, 49.3; P procedures in the EUS-PDD group compared with 23.1% in the e-ERP group (OR, 23.3; P Procedure time and length of stay were not significantly different between the 2 groups. EUS-PDD is superior to e-ERP in post-Whipple anatomy in terms of efficacy with acceptable safety. As such, EUS-PDD should be considered as a potential first-line treatment in post-pancreaticoduodenectomy anatomy when necessary expertise is available. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  11. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of international sustainable development law principles in enabling effective renewable energy policy – a South African perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barnard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is universally accepted that renewable energy is an important contributing factor towards the promotion of sustainable development. The implementation of renewable energy needs to be regulated in an effective manner which in turn necessitates the formulation of law and policy geared towards sustainable development. Recent policy developments in South Africa propose to facilitate the promotion of sustainable development through the implementation of renewable energy, among others. In terms of existing energy policy in South-Africa, the interconnectivity of renewable energy and sustainable development is evident. Most notably, the White Paper on Renewable Energy of 2003 promotes increased access to affordable renewable energy in order to contribute to sustainable development. Moreover, the 2008 first review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South-Africa of 2005 states that in order for the country’s renewable energy policy to be considered sustainable, it needs to facilitate development in the social, economic and environmental spheres. Notwithstanding, attaining the goal of sustainable development depends on whether all its effecting principles are catered for in the policy developments. Accordingly, in order to ascertain whether South-African law and policy can successfully facilitate/enable sustainable development via the implementation of renewable energy, a specific methodology is proposed. In terms of the New Delhi Declaration of 2002 there are 7 principles of international law effecting sustainable development. These principles will be used as criteria in a principled assessment of South-African renewable energy law and policy in order to establish whether the goal of promoting sustainable development would be effected through the national policy developments.

  13. Identification of ballast water discharge profiles of a port to enable effective ballast water management and environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Matej; Gollasch, Stephan; Penko, Ludvik

    2018-03-01

    Information about the profile of ballast water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels ballast water. In the lack of ballast water reporting, ballast water discharge assessments need to be conducted. In this study we have assessed and compared ballast water discharge profiles of two ports with different maritime traffic and cargo profiles, the Port of Hamburg (Germany) and the Muuga Harbour, Port of Tallinn (Estonia). This study shows methods and approaches which can be used to assess volumes and donor ports of ballast water discharges for a port at the level of each vessel call. These methods and approaches can be applied to any port to support the implementation of feasible and efficient ballast water management measures and to enable environmental studies including long-term accumulation risks of disinfection by-products from ballast water management systems making use of active substances, as well as for discharges of other chemical compounds.

  14. Synchrotron-based nu-XRF mapping and mu-FTIR microscopy enable to look into the fate and effects of tattoo pigments in human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiver , Ines; Hesse , Bernhard; Seim , Christian; Castillo-Michel , Hiram; Villanova , Julie; Laux , Peter; Dreiack , Nadine; Penning , Randolf; Tucoulou , Remi; Cotte , Marine; Luch , Andreas

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (mu) and nano (nu) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium di...

  15. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souris, K; Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L; Janssens, G; Sterpin, E; Lee, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  16. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, K [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Janssens, G [IBA, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Sterpin, E [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lee, J [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  17. Next-generation phage display: integrating and comparing available molecular tools to enable cost-effective high-throughput analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Dias-Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i the counting of transducing units and (ii the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges.We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU, with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs approximately 250-fold for generating 10(6 ligand sequences.Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall, qPhage plus pyrosequencing is superior to TU-counting plus Sanger

  18. Diagnostic yield of 335 push video-enteroscopies Rendimiento diagnóstico de 355 videoenteroscopias por pulsión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Gómez Rodríguez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: the diagnostic yield of push enteroscopy (PE varies widely from 13 to 78% of cases, according to the various series. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the endoscopic and histological yield of PE in our health area. Patients and methods: a total of 355 consecutive patients (190 males/165 females; mean age 45 years, range 15-89 underwent PE over a 6-year period, from 1997 to 2003. PE was performed under sedation and without overtube. Small-bowel mucosa biopsies were taken in 199 explorations (56%. Clinical indications for PE included: chronic diarrhea (35%, occult digestive bleeding (ODB or iron-deficiency anemia (28%, suspected small-bowel malignancy (16%, chronic abdominal pain (28/355; 8%, follow-up of polyposis or malabsorption syndromes (7%, and abnormal radiographic findings (6%. Results: PE detected lesions in 122 cases (34%; in 6 cases (6% lesions were within the reach of esophagogastroduodenoscopy. A normal macroscopic appearance of the small intestinal mucosa with an abnormal histological study was seen in 16 patients (6%. Major findings included: malabsorptive diseases (14%, nonspecific enteropathy (5%, angiodysplasia (3,5%, lymphangiectasia (3%; jejunal polyps (2%, Crohn's disease (2%, intestinal tumors (2%, extrinsic jejunal strictures (0.5%, and other (10/355; 3%. Abnormal radiographic findings (62%, chronic diarrhea (37% and ODB (31% were the indications with a higher diagnostic yield. No major complications were seen. Conclusions: according to our experience, PE is a safe and useful tool for the evaluation of small-bowel disease, especially in some indications (abnormal radiographic findings, chronic diarrhea, and ODB. Small-bowel biopsy increases PE's diagnostic yield in patients with chronic diarrhea.Introducción y objetivos: el rendimiento diagnóstico de la enteroscopia por pulsión (EP varía ampliamente (13-78% según las series. El objetivo de este estudio retrospectivo

  19. Effectiveness and feasibility of virtual reality and gaming system use at home by older adults for enabling physical activity to improve health-related domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly J; Adair, Brooke S; Pearce, Alan J; Said, Catherine M; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Morris, Meg M

    2014-03-01

    use of virtual reality and commercial gaming systems (VR/gaming) at home by older adults is receiving attention as a means of enabling physical activity. to summarise evidence for the effectiveness and feasibility of VR/gaming system utilisation by older adults at home for enabling physical activity to improve impairments, activity limitations or participation. a systematic review searching 12 electronic databases from 1 January 2000-10 July 2012 using key search terms. Two independent reviewers screened yield articles using pre-determined selection criteria, extracted data using customised forms and applied the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Downs and Black Checklist to rate study quality. fourteen studies investigating the effects of VR/gaming system use by healthy older adults and people with neurological conditions on activity limitations, body functions and physical impairments and cognitive and emotional well-being met the selection criteria. Study quality ratings were low and, therefore, evidence was not strong enough to conclude that interventions were effective. Feasibility was inconsistently reported in studies. Where feasibility was discussed, strong retention (≥70%) and adherence (≥64%) was reported. Initial assistance to use the technologies, and the need for monitoring exertion, aggravation of musculoskeletal symptoms and falls risk were reported. existing evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness VR/gaming systems use by older adults at home to enable physical activity to address impairments, activity limitations and participation is weak with a high risk of bias. The findings of this review may inform future, more rigorous research.

  20. Engineered, Spatially Varying Isothermal Holds: Enabling Combinatorial Studies of Temperature Effects, as Applied to Metastable Titanium Alloy β-21S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Brian; Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Samimi, Peyman; Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Collins, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A novel method to systematically vary temperature and thus study the resulting microstructure of a material is presented. This new method has the potential to be used in a combinatorial fashion, allowing the rapid study of thermal holds on microstructures to be conducted. This is demonstrated on a beta titanium alloy, where the thermal history has a strong effect on microstructure. It is informed by simulation and executed using the resistive heating capabilities of a Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical simulator. Spatially varying isothermal holds of 4 h were affected, where the temperature range of the multiple isothermal holds varied by ~175 °C.

  1. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogeneous clinical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  2. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogenous clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Hazlehurst, Brian L; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has the potential to transform the current health care delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods, and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for interinstitutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast 6 large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, sociotechnical model of health information technology to help guide our work. We identified 6 generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions.

  3. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  4. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach....... The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  5. "Water-in-salt" electrolytes enable the use of cost-effective aluminum current collectors for aqueous high-voltage batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, R-S; Reber, D; Remhof, A; Figi, R; Bleiner, D; Battaglia, C

    2016-08-16

    The extended electrochemical stability window offered by highly concentrated electrolytes allows the operation of aqueous batteries at voltages significantly above the thermodynamic stability limit of water, at which the stability of the current collector potentially limits the cell voltage. Here we report the observation of suppressed anodic dissolution of aluminum in "water-in-salt" electrolytes enabling roll-to-roll electrode fabrication for high-voltage aqueous lithium-ion batteries on cost-effective light-weight aluminum current collectors using established lithium-ion battery technology.

  6. Sequence-engineered mRNA Without Chemical Nucleoside Modifications Enables an Effective Protein Therapy in Large Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thess, Andreas; Grund, Stefanie; Mui, Barbara L; Hope, Michael J; Baumhof, Patrick; Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola; Schlake, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics require chemical nucleoside modifications to obtain sufficient protein expression and avoid activation of the innate immune system. Here we show that chemically unmodified mRNA can achieve those goals as well by applying sequence-engineered molecules. Using erythropoietin (EPO) driven production of red blood cells as the biological model, engineered Epo mRNA elicited meaningful physiological responses from mice to nonhuman primates. Even in pigs of about 20 kg in weight, a single adequate dose of engineered mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) induced high systemic Epo levels and strong physiological effects. Our results demonstrate that sequence-engineered mRNA has the potential to revolutionize human protein therapies. PMID:26050989

  7. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  8. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  9. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  10. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  11. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  12. Enabling distributed collaborative science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Maglaughlin, K.

    2000-01-01

    To enable collaboration over distance, a collaborative environment that uses a specialized scientific instrument called a nanoManipulator is evaluated. The nanoManipulator incorporates visualization and force feedback technology to allow scientists to see, feel, and modify biological samples bein...

  13. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  14. Tunable optical frequency comb enabled scalable and cost-effective multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network with source-free optical network units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Liu, Deming; Qiu, Kun; Liu, Shuang

    2012-10-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiple access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON) with source-free optical network units (ONUs), enabled by tunable optical frequency comb generation technology. By cascading a phase modulator (PM) and an intensity modulator and dynamically controlling the peak-to-peak voltage of a PM driven signal, a tunable optical frequency comb source can be generated. It is utilized to assist the configuration of a multiple source-free ONUs enhanced OFDMA-PON where simultaneous and interference-free multiuser upstream transmission over a single wavelength can be efficiently supported. The proposed multiuser OFDMA-PON is scalable and cost effective, and its feasibility is successfully verified by experiment.

  15. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  16. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  17. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  18. Impaired drug absorption due to high stomach pH: a review of strategies for mitigation of such effect to enable pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Amitava; Kesisoglou, Filippos

    2013-11-04

    Published reports have clearly shown that weakly basic drugs which have low solubility at high pH could have impaired absorption in patients with high gastric pH thus leading to reduced and variable bioavailability. Since such reduction in exposure can lead to significant loss of efficacy, it is imperative to (1) understand the behavior of the compound as a function of stomach pH to inform of any risk of bioavailability loss in clinical studies and (2) develop a robust formulation which can provide adequate exposure in achlorhydric patients. In this review paper, we provide an overview of the factors that can cause high gastric pH in human, discuss clinical and preclinical pharmacokinetic data for weak bases under conditions of normal and high gastric pH, and give examples of formulation strategies to minimize or mitigate the reduced absorption of weakly basic drugs under high gastric pH conditions. It should be noted that the ability to overcome pH sensitivity issues is highly compound dependent and there are no obvious and general solutions to overcome such effect. Further, we discuss, along with several examples, the use of biopharmaceutical tools such as in vitro dissolution, absorption modeling, and gastric pH modified animal models to assess absorption risk of weak bases in high gastric pH and also the use of these tools to enable development of formulations to mitigate such effects.

  19. The effect of individual enabling and support on empowerment and depression severity in persons with affective disorders: outcome of a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Susann; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2018-01-30

    To evaluate the effect of Individual Enabling and Support (IES) on empowerment and depression severity as compared to Traditional Vocational Rehabilitation (TVR) in people with affective disorders at 12 months follow-up. Additionally, longitudinal changes within the intervention groups and the correlation over time between empowerment and depression severity were evaluated. A single-blind randomized controlled trial of two intervention groups, IES (n = 33) and TVR (n = 28), was performed with measurement points at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Individuals with affective disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder diagnoses were included. The Empowerment Scale and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Self-Rating Scale were administered, and Intention-To-Treat analysis was applied. The study was registered with the trial number ISRCTN93470551. There was a statistically significant difference between the intervention groups on empowerment and depression severity at 12 months. Within-group analysis showed that IES-participants increased their perceived empowerment and decreased their depression severity between measurement points, this was not seen among TVR-participants. A moderate, inverse relationship was detected between empowerment and depression. IES is more effective in increasing empowerment and decreasing depression severity after a 12-month intervention than is TVR. This study was limited by a small sample size and larger trials in different contexts are needed.

  20. EnableATIS strategy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Systems (EnableATIS) is the traveler information component of the Dynamic Mobility Application (DMA) program. The objective of : the EnableATIS effort is to foster transformative traveler information application...

  1. Enabling Digital Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Georgsen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    There are some tensions between high-level policy definitions of “digital literacy” and actual teaching practice. We need to find workable definitions of digital literacy; obtain a better understanding of what digital literacy might look like in practice; and identify pedagogical approaches, which...... support teachers in designing digital literacy learning. We suggest that frameworks such as Problem Based Learning (PBL) are approaches that enable digital literacy learning because they provide good settings for engaging with digital literacy. We illustrate this through analysis of a case. Furthermore......, these operate on a meso-level mediating between high-level concepts of digital literacy and classroom practice....

  2. CtOS Enabler

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cepeda, Rodrigo; El Yamri El Khatibi, Meriem; Carrera García, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Las Smart Cities son, indudablemente, el futuro próximo de la tecnología al que nos acercamos cada día, lo que se puede observar en la abundancia de dispositivos móviles entre la población, que informatizan la vida cotidiana mediante el uso de la geolocalización y la información. Pretendemos unir estos dos ámbitos con CtOS Enabler para crear un estándar de uso que englobe todos los sistemas de Smart Cities y facilite a los desarrolladores de dicho software la creación de nuevas herramientas. ...

  3. Effects of interprofessional education for medical and nursing students: enablers, barriers and expectations for optimizing future interprofessional collaboration - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hingst, Peter; Oppermann, Roman F; Dreier-Wolfgramm, Adina

    2018-01-01

    To ensure high quality patient care an effective interprofessional collaboration between healthcare professionals is required. Interprofessional education (IPE) has a positive impact on team work in daily health care practice. Nevertheless, there are various challenges for sustainable implementation of IPE. To identify enablers and barriers of IPE for medical and nursing students as well as to specify impacts of IPE for both professions, the 'Cooperative academical regional evidence-based Nursing Study in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania' (Care-N Study M-V) was conducted. The aim is to explore, how IPE has to be designed and implemented in medical and nursing training programs to optimize students' impact for IPC. A qualitative study was conducted using the Delphi method and included 25 experts. Experts were selected by following inclusion criteria: (a) ability to answer every research question, one question particularly competent, (b) interdisciplinarity, (c) sustainability and (d) status. They were purposely sampled. Recruitment was based on existing collaborations and a web based search. The experts find more enablers than barriers for IPE between medical and nursing students. Four primary arguments for IPE were mentioned: (1) development and promotion of interprofessional thinking and acting, (2) acquirement of shared knowledge, (3) promotion of beneficial information and knowledge exchange, and (4) promotion of mutual understanding. Major barriers of IPE are the coordination and harmonization of the curricula of the two professions. With respect to the effects of IPE for IPC, experts mentioned possible improvements on (a) patient level and (b) professional level. Experts expect an improved patient-centered care based on better mutual understanding and coordinated cooperation in interprofessional health care teams. To sustainably implement IPE for medical and nursing students, IPE needs endorsement by both, medical and nursing faculties. In conclusion, IPE

  4. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  5. Predialing the number of cinegraphic frames enables an effective patient dose due to coronary angiography of 0.8 mSv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Schmitt, M.; Dorn, C.; Pfahlberg, A.; Gefeller, O.; Dahm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a new device for predialing the number of cinegraphic frame before each coronary angiography, with the objective of reducing the patient dose area product (DAP) from coronary angiography, which typically requires 1000 to 2350 cinegraphic frames. That DAP is high and stated to be between 15.6 to 106.3 Gy x cm 2 . Applying the accepted DAP-to-ED conversion factors, for the thoracic region of approximately 0.20 mSv/Gy x cm 2 , this corresponds to a mean effective dose (ED) in the range of 3.1 to 21.3 mSv. Material and Methods: For patients undergoing elective coronary angiography, we compared various parameters of radiation exposure obtained with judicious radiation reducing standard techniques (n=106) and with an additional new rotary switch for predialing the number of cinegraphic frames (n=106). Results: The patient radiation dose was significantly lower with the new device, with the mean DAP reduced to 5.5 from 9.1 Gy x cm 2 . The corresponding reducation of the mean DAP for left ventriculography and coronary angiography was 1.3 from 1.7, and 4.2 from 7.4 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames was 98 vs. 184, whereas the number of cinegraphic runs and the fluoroscopy time were comparable. Conclusion: Predialing the cinegraphic frame number before each cinegraphic run enables a reduction of the patients effective dose from coronary angiography to 0.8 mSv, i.e. to 57% of the baseline value and far below typically reported values. (orig.) [de

  6. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  7. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  8. Enabling distributed petascale science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Bharathi, Shishir; Bresnahan, John

    2007-01-01

    Petascale science is an end-to-end endeavour, involving not only the creation of massive datasets at supercomputers or experimental facilities, but the subsequent analysis of that data by a user community that may be distributed across many laboratories and universities. The new SciDAC Center for Enabling Distributed Petascale Science (CEDPS) is developing tools to support this end-to-end process. These tools include data placement services for the reliable, high-performance, secure, and policy-driven placement of data within a distributed science environment; tools and techniques for the construction, operation, and provisioning of scalable science services; and tools for the detection and diagnosis of failures in end-to-end data placement and distributed application hosting configurations. In each area, we build on a strong base of existing technology and have made useful progress in the first year of the project. For example, we have recently achieved order-of-magnitude improvements in transfer times (for lots of small files) and implemented asynchronous data staging capabilities; demonstrated dynamic deployment of complex application stacks for the STAR experiment; and designed and deployed end-to-end troubleshooting services. We look forward to working with SciDAC application and technology projects to realize the promise of petascale science

  9. Enabling immersive simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  10. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  11. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  12. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezbahuddin, Mohammad; Grant, Robert F.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.

    2017-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1) oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions, and (2) vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May-October WTD drawdown of ˜ 0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re) by 0.26 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen) status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP) and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss) GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in GPP and Re caused no significant WTD effects on modeled

  13. Coupled eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms enable the simulation of water table depth effects on boreal peatland net CO2 exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mezbahuddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water table depth (WTD effects on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of boreal peatlands are largely mediated by hydrological effects on peat biogeochemistry and the ecophysiology of peatland vegetation. The lack of representation of these effects in carbon models currently limits our predictive capacity for changes in boreal peatland carbon deposits under potential future drier and warmer climates. We examined whether a process-level coupling of a prognostic WTD with (1 oxygen transport, which controls energy yields from microbial and root oxidation–reduction reactions, and (2 vascular and nonvascular plant water relations could explain mechanisms that control variations in net CO2 exchange of a boreal fen under contrasting WTD conditions, i.e., shallow vs. deep WTD. Such coupling of eco-hydrology and biogeochemistry algorithms in a process-based ecosystem model, ecosys, was tested against net ecosystem CO2 exchange measurements in a western Canadian boreal fen peatland over a period of drier-weather-driven gradual WTD drawdown. A May–October WTD drawdown of  ∼  0.25 m from 2004 to 2009 hastened oxygen transport to microbial and root surfaces, enabling greater microbial and root energy yields and peat and litter decomposition, which raised modeled ecosystem respiration (Re by 0.26 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. It also augmented nutrient mineralization, and hence root nutrient availability and uptake, which resulted in improved leaf nutrient (nitrogen status that facilitated carboxylation and raised modeled vascular gross primary productivity (GPP and plant growth. The increase in modeled vascular GPP exceeded declines in modeled nonvascular (moss GPP due to greater shading from increased vascular plant growth and moss drying from near-surface peat desiccation, thereby causing a net increase in modeled growing season GPP by 0.39 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 per 0.1 m of WTD drawdown. Similar increases in

  14. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  15. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  16. Enabling scientific teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereld, Mark; Uram, Thomas; Hudson, Randy; Norris, John; Papka, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    The Computer Supported Collaborative Work research community has identified that the technology used to support distributed teams of researchers, such as email, instant messaging, and conferencing environments, are not enough. Building from a list of areas where it is believed technology can help support distributed teams, we have divided our efforts into support of asynchronous and synchronous activities. This paper will describe two of our recent efforts to improve the productivity of distributed science teams. One effort focused on supporting the management and tracking of milestones and results, with the hope of helping manage information overload. The second effort focused on providing an environment that supports real-time analysis of data. Both of these efforts are seen as add-ons to the existing collaborative infrastructure, developed to enhance the experience of teams working at a distance by removing barriers to effective communication.

  17. Enabling scientific teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereld, Mark; Hudson, Randy; Norris, John; Papka, Michael E.; Uram, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The Computer Supported Collaborative Work research community has identified that the technology used to support distributed teams of researchers, such as email, instant messaging, and conferencing environments, are not enough. Building from a list of areas where it is believed technology can help support distributed teams, we have divided our efforts into support of asynchronous and synchronous activities. This paper will describe two of our recent efforts to improve the productivity of distributed science teams. One effort focused on supporting the management and tracking of milestones and results, with the hope of helping manage information overload. The second effort focused on providing an environment that supports real-time analysis of data. Both of these efforts are seen as add-ons to the existing collaborative infrastructure, developed to enhance the experience of teams working at a distance by removing barriers to effective communication.

  18. Effectiveness, cost effectiveness, acceptability and implementation barriers/enablers of chronic kidney disease management programs for Indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand and Canada: a systematic review of mixed evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Evans, Katharine; Gomersall, Judith; Gorham, Gillian; Peters, Micah D J; Warren, Steven; O'Shea, Rebekah; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex

    2016-04-06

    Indigenous peoples in Australia, New Zealand and Canada carry a greater burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than the general populations in each country, and this burden is predicted to increase. Given the human and economic cost of dialysis, understanding how to better manage CKD at earlier stages of disease progression is an important priority for practitioners and policy-makers. A systematic review of mixed evidence was undertaken to examine the evidence relating to the effectivness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of chronic kidney disease management programs designed for Indigenous people, as well as barriers and enablers of implementation of such programs. Published and unpublished studies reporting quantitative and qualitative data on health sector-led management programs and models of care explicitly designed to manage, slow progression or otherwise improve the lives of Indigenous people with CKD published between 2000 and 2014 were considered for inclusion. Data on clinical effectiveness, ability to self-manage, quality of life, acceptability, cost and cost-benefit, barriers and enablers of implementation were of interest. Quantitative data was summarized in narrative and tabular form and qualitative data was synthesized using the Joanna Briggs Institute meta-aggregation approach. Ten studies were included. Six studies provided evidence of clinical effectiveness of CKD programs designed for Indigenous people, two provided evidence of cost and cost-effectiveness of a CKD program, and two provided qualitative evidence of barriers and enablers of implementation of effective and/or acceptable CKD management programs. Common features of effective and acceptable programs were integration within existing services, nurse-led care, intensive follow-up, provision of culturally-appropriate education, governance structures supporting community ownership, robust clinical systems supporting communication and a central role for Indigenous Health Workers. Given

  19. Geo-Enabled, Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    We are witnessing the emergence of a global infrastructure that enables the widespread deployment of geo-enabled, mobile services in practice. At the same time, the research community has also paid increasing attention to data management aspects of mobile services. This paper offers me...

  20. Toward genome-enabled mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbett, David S; Stajich, Jason E; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Genome-enabled mycology is a rapidly expanding field that is characterized by the pervasive use of genome-scale data and associated computational tools in all aspects of fungal biology. Genome-enabled mycology is integrative and often requires teams of researchers with diverse skills in organismal mycology, bioinformatics and molecular biology. This issue of Mycologia presents the first complete fungal genomes in the history of the journal, reflecting the ongoing transformation of mycology into a genome-enabled science. Here, we consider the prospects for genome-enabled mycology and the technical and social challenges that will need to be overcome to grow the database of complete fungal genomes and enable all fungal biologists to make use of the new data.

  1. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  2. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  3. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  4. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 [WC Docket No. 04-36; FCC 09-40] IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date... Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic non-dominant...

  5. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H; van de Ven, Anne L; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O; Smid, Christine A; Buchanan, Rachel M; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of 'losing sight of the forest for the trees'. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of "-omic" technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon "-omic" technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology "snapshot" of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to "self-correct" in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  7. OGC® Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Percivall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a high-level overview of and architecture for the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards activities that focus on sensors, sensor networks, and a concept called the “Sensor Web”. This OGC work area is known as Sensor Web Enablement (SWE. This article has been condensed from "OGC® Sensor Web Enablement: Overview And High Level Architecture," an OGC White Paper by Mike Botts, PhD, George Percivall, Carl Reed, PhD, and John Davidson which can be downloaded from http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/15540. Readers interested in greater technical and architecture detail can download and read the OGC SWE Architecture Discussion Paper titled “The OGC Sensor Web Enablement Architecture” (OGC document 06-021r1, http://www.opengeospatial.org/pt/14140.

  8. Antagonistic effects of drought and sand burial enable the survival of the biocrust moss Bryum argenteum in an arid sandy desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocrust moss is an essential soil surface bio-cover. It can represent the latest succession stage among the diverse range of surface-dwelling cryptogams (e.g., cyanobacteria, green algae, and lichen, which are also referred to as biocrusts, and it can make a major contribution to soil stability and fertility in many arid sandy desert ecosystems. The soil surface represents a very large ecological niche that is poikilohydric in nature. Biocrust moss is therefore highly susceptible to drought and sand burial, which are two ubiquitous stressors in arid sandy deserts. However, little information is available regarding the mechanism by which biocrust moss can survive and flourish in these habitats when stressed simultaneously by the two stressors. The combined effects of drought and sand burial were evaluated in a field experiment using the predominant biocrust moss, Bryum argenteum Hedw., in the Tengger Desert, China. Drought was simulated by applying distilled water in three artificial rainfall regimes at 8-day intervals in spring and autumn: 4 and 6 mm (average rainfall, control, 2 and 3 mm (double drought, and 1 and 1.5 mm (4-fold drought, respectively. The effect of sand burial was determined by applying six treatments, i.e., sand depths of 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 10 mm. The four parameters of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, regeneration potential, and shoot upgrowth were evaluated in the moss. It was found that the combined effects of drought and sand burial did not exacerbate the single negative effects of the four parameters tested. Drought significantly ameliorated the negative effects of deep-sand burial on the retention of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, and the regeneration potential of B. argenteum. Sand burial diminished and even reversed the negative effects of drought on the maintenance of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, and regeneration potential

  9. Antagonistic effects of drought and sand burial enable the survival of the biocrust moss Bryum argenteum in an arid sandy desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongliang; Zhao, Yun; Gao, Yanhong; Hui, Rong; Yang, Haotian; Wang, Zenru; Li, Yixuan

    2018-02-01

    Biocrust moss is an essential soil surface bio-cover. It can represent the latest succession stage among the diverse range of surface-dwelling cryptogams (e.g., cyanobacteria, green algae, and lichen, which are also referred to as biocrusts), and it can make a major contribution to soil stability and fertility in many arid sandy desert ecosystems. The soil surface represents a very large ecological niche that is poikilohydric in nature. Biocrust moss is therefore highly susceptible to drought and sand burial, which are two ubiquitous stressors in arid sandy deserts. However, little information is available regarding the mechanism by which biocrust moss can survive and flourish in these habitats when stressed simultaneously by the two stressors. The combined effects of drought and sand burial were evaluated in a field experiment using the predominant biocrust moss, Bryum argenteum Hedw., in the Tengger Desert, China. Drought was simulated by applying distilled water in three artificial rainfall regimes at 8-day intervals in spring and autumn: 4 and 6 mm (average rainfall, control), 2 and 3 mm (double drought), and 1 and 1.5 mm (4-fold drought), respectively. The effect of sand burial was determined by applying six treatments, i.e., sand depths of 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 10 mm. The four parameters of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, regeneration potential, and shoot upgrowth were evaluated in the moss. It was found that the combined effects of drought and sand burial did not exacerbate the single negative effects of the four parameters tested. Drought significantly ameliorated the negative effects of deep-sand burial on the retention of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, and the regeneration potential of B. argenteum. Sand burial diminished and even reversed the negative effects of drought on the maintenance of chlorophyll a content, PSII photochemical efficiency, and regeneration potential. Although drought and sand

  10. The Effectiveness of the Community Medicine Undergraduate Program in Medical Schools on Enabling Medical Graduates to Work in the Health Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jabbari Bayrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main mission of medical schools is to train competent medical trainees for providing primary health care services, management of health care team and improving the health status of the population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the undergraduate program of community medicine department among the graduates as general (family physicians in health system of East Azerbaijan, North-West of` Iran. Methods: In this cross- sectional study all family physicians of East Azerbaijan province were included. A questionnaire on the views of graduates about the effectiveness of community medicine undergraduate program was used for gathering data. Data were analyzed by T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation. Results: Performance of community medicine department in creating competency for providing effective health services among physicians was 2.13 and management competency was 1.96 out of 4. To teach the necessary skills to meet the professional needs in Primary Health Care (PHC, Tabriz Community Medicine Department was better compared to Azad and other medical schools (p<0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that the community medicine program in undergraduate medical education was effective for future career of physicians in the health system. There is a need to revise the health management courses in community medicine program.

  11. A Framework for Developing Effective Technology-Enabled Distance Education Programs in Management: A Study of a Video Conference-Based Program in an Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaydeep Mukherje; Mukti Mishra

    2014-01-01

    A major problem in delivering quality management education to working executives in India has been the inability of the candidates to leave their job for a prolonged period of time to attend the on-campus management programs. With the proliferation of two way Video Conferencing (VC) facilities across the country, as well as the use of Internet technology, this limitations could quite effectively be overcome for both students and management educators.

  12. To 'enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market': British American Tobacco's strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2015-08-21

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy-making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company's global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalised tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products.

  13. Copolymer Networks From Oligo(ε-caprolactone) and n-Butyl Acrylate Enable a Reversible Bidirectional Shape-Memory Effect at Human Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Mersa; Behl, Marc; Nöchel, Ulrich; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Exploiting the tremendous potential of the recently discovered reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME) for biomedical applications requires switching temperatures in the physiological range. The recent strategy is based on the reduction of the melting temperature range (ΔT m ) of the actuating oligo(ε-caprolactone) (OCL) domains in copolymer networks from OCL and n-butyl acrylate (BA), where the reversible effect can be adjusted to the human body temperature. In addition, it is investigated whether an rbSME in the temperature range close or even above Tm,offset (end of the melting transition) can be obtained. Two series of networks having mixtures of OCLs reveal broad ΔTm s from 2 °C to 50 °C and from -10 °C to 37 °C, respectively. In cyclic, thermomechanical experiments the rbSME can be tailored to display pronounced actuation in a temperature interval between 20 °C and 37 °C. In this way, the application spectrum of the rbSME can be extended to biomedical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. To ‘enable our legal product to compete effectively with the transit market’: British American Tobacco’s strategies in Thailand following the 1990 GATT dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Lee, Kelley; LeGresley, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The opening of the Thai tobacco market, following action brought by the US Trade Representative under the GATT, is seen as a key case study of the tensions between trade and health policy. Interpretations of the dispute cast it, either as an example of how trade agreements undermine national policy making, or how governments can adopt effective public health protections compliant with international trade rules. As a UK-based company, British American Tobacco has been regarded as peripheral to this dispute. This paper argues that its close monitoring of the illegal trade during this period, the role of smuggling in the company’s global business strategy, and its management of the relative supply and pricing of legal and illegal products after market opening provide a fuller understanding of the interests and roles of transnational tobacco companies and the government in this dispute. The findings have important policy implications, notably the role of effective governance in countries facing pressure to open their tobacco sectors, need to better understand corporate-level activities within an increasingly globalized tobacco industry, and need to address the intertwined legal and illegal trade in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products. PMID:26295971

  15. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Devine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings.Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1 giving chloroquine alone and (2 giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar.In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values

  16. Integrating metabolic performance, thermal tolerance, and plasticity enables for more accurate predictions on species vulnerability to acute and chronic effects of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magozzi, Sarah; Calosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Predicting species vulnerability to global warming requires a comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of sublethal and lethal thermal tolerances. To date, however, most studies investigating species physiological responses to increasing temperature have focused on the underlying physiological traits of either acute or chronic tolerance in isolation. Here we propose an integrative, synthetic approach including the investigation of multiple physiological traits (metabolic performance and thermal tolerance), and their plasticity, to provide more accurate and balanced predictions on species and assemblage vulnerability to both acute and chronic effects of global warming. We applied this approach to more accurately elucidate relative species vulnerability to warming within an assemblage of six caridean prawns occurring in the same geographic, hence macroclimatic, region, but living in different thermal habitats. Prawns were exposed to four incubation temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 °C) for 7 days, their metabolic rates and upper thermal limits were measured, and plasticity was calculated according to the concept of Reaction Norms, as well as Q10 for metabolism. Compared to species occupying narrower/more stable thermal niches, species inhabiting broader/more variable thermal environments (including the invasive Palaemon macrodactylus) are likely to be less vulnerable to extreme acute thermal events as a result of their higher upper thermal limits. Nevertheless, they may be at greater risk from chronic exposure to warming due to the greater metabolic costs they incur. Indeed, a trade-off between acute and chronic tolerance was apparent in the assemblage investigated. However, the invasive species P. macrodactylus represents an exception to this pattern, showing elevated thermal limits and plasticity of these limits, as well as a high metabolic control. In general, integrating multiple proxies for species physiological acute and chronic responses to increasing

  17. Sustainable Venture Capital Investments: An Enabler Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antarciuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Investing in sustainable projects can help tackle the current sustainability challenges. Venture capital investments can contribute significantly to the growth of sustainable start-ups. Sustainable venture capital (SVC research is just emerging. This paper identifies enablers for sustainable venture capital investments in Saudi Arabia taking into account different stakeholders and firm’s tangible and intangible resources. Using perspectives from venture capital experts in Saudi Arabia and the grey-based Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study pinpoints the most critical enablers and investigates their causal and effect interconnections. The methodological process consists of reviewing the SVC literature and consulting the experts to identify the SVC enablers, creating a questionnaire, acquiring the answers from four experts, analyzing the data with grey-based DEMATEL and performing a sensitivity analysis. The government use of international standards, policies and regulations for sustainable investments, the commitment of the venture capitalists to sustainability and their deep understanding of sustainable business models are the most influential enablers. The paper concludes with implications for different actors, limitations and prospective directions for the sustainable venture capital research.

  18. Organizational Enablers for Project Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Shao, Jingting; Pemsel, Sofia

    and their relationships to organizational success. Based on these results, the authors discovered that organizational enablers (including key factors such as leadership, governance, and influence of project managers) have a critical impact on how organizations operate, adapt to market fluctuations and forces, and make......While corporate culture plays a significant role in the success of any corporation, governance and “governmentality” not only determine how business should be conducted, but also define the policies and procedures organizations follow to achieve business functions and goals. In their book......, Organizational Enablers for Project Governance, Ralf Müller, Jingting Shao, and Sofia Pemsel examine the interaction of governance and governmentality in various types of companies and demonstrate how these factors drive business success and influence project work, efficiency, and profitability. The data...

  19. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  20. Enabling Highly Effective Boiling from Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Taylor P.; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2018-04-01

    A variety of industrial applications such as power generation, water distillation, and high-density cooling rely on heat transfer processes involving boiling. Enhancements to the boiling process can improve the energy efficiency and performance across multiple industries. Highly wetting textured surfaces have shown promise in boiling applications since capillary wicking increases the maximum heat flux that can be dissipated. Conversely, highly nonwetting textured (superhydrophobic) surfaces have been largely dismissed for these applications as they have been shown to promote formation of an insulating vapor film that greatly diminishes heat transfer efficiency. The current Letter shows that boiling from a superhydrophobic surface in an initial Wenzel state, in which the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid, results in remarkably low surface superheat with nucleate boiling sustained up to a critical heat flux typical of hydrophilic wetting surfaces, and thus upends this conventional wisdom. Two distinct boiling behaviors are demonstrated on both micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces based on the initial wetting state. For an initial surface condition in which vapor occupies the interstices of the surface texture (Cassie-Baxter state), premature film boiling occurs, as has been commonly observed in the literature. However, if the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid (Wenzel state) prior to boiling, drastically improved thermal performance is observed; in this wetting state, the three-phase contact line is pinned during vapor bubble growth, which prevents the development of a vapor film over the surface and maintains efficient nucleate boiling behavior.

  1. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  2. NASP - Enabling new space launch options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, David; Gaubatz, William; Mathews, George

    1990-10-01

    Successful NASP developments in the United States are bringing about the possibility of effective, fully reusable vehicles for transport of people and cargo between earth and space. These developments include: extension of airbreathing propulsion to a much higher speed; densification of propellants for greater energy per unit volume of mass; structures with much greater strength-to-weight at high temperatures; computational advancements that enable more optimal design and integration of airframes, engines and controls; and advances in avionics, robotics, artificial intelligence and automation that enable accomplishment of earth-to-orbit (ETO) operations with much less manpower support and cost. This paper describes the relative magnitude of improvement that these developments may provide.

  3. Thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermodynamic theory of dislocation-enabled plasticity is based on two unconventional hypotheses. The first of these is that a system of dislocations, driven by external forces and irreversibly exchanging heat with its environment, must be characterized by a thermodynamically defined effective temperature that is not the same as the ordinary temperature. The second hypothesis is that the overwhelmingly dominant mechanism controlling plastic deformation is thermally activated depinning of entangled pairs of dislocations. This paper consists of a systematic reformulation of this theory followed by examples of its use in analyses of experimentally observed phenomena including strain hardening, grain-size (Hall-Petch) effects, yielding transitions, and adiabatic shear banding.

  4. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  5. Simulation enabled safeguards assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Bjornard, Trond; Larson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wire-frame construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed. (authors)

  6. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-01-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed

  7. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  8. Uncertainty enabled Sensor Observation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Dan; Williams, Matthew; Bastin, Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Almost all observations of reality are contaminated with errors, which introduce uncertainties into the actual observation result. Such uncertainty is often held to be a data quality issue, and quantification of this uncertainty is essential for the principled exploitation of the observations. Many existing systems treat data quality in a relatively ad-hoc manner, however if the observation uncertainty is a reliable estimate of the error on the observation with respect to reality then knowledge of this uncertainty enables optimal exploitation of the observations in further processes, or decision making. We would argue that the most natural formalism for expressing uncertainty is Bayesian probability theory. In this work we show how the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Observation Service can be implemented to enable the support of explicit uncertainty about observations. We show how the UncertML candidate standard is used to provide a rich and flexible representation of uncertainty in this context. We illustrate this on a data set of user contributed weather data where the INTAMAP interpolation Web Processing Service is used to help estimate the uncertainty on the observations of unknown quality, using observations with known uncertainty properties. We then go on to discuss the implications of uncertainty for a range of existing Open Geospatial Consortium standards including SWE common and Observations and Measurements. We discuss the difficult decisions in the design of the UncertML schema and its relation and usage within existing standards and show various options. We conclude with some indications of the likely future directions for UncertML in the context of Open Geospatial Consortium services.

  9. Enabling information sharing in a port

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2012-01-01

    Ports are integral parts of many supply chains and are as such a contributing factor to the overall efficiency of the supply chain. Ports are also dynamic entities where things changes continuously. The dynamic nature of ports is also a problem when trying to optimise the utilisation of resources...... and ensure a low lead-time. Information sharing is a very important tool to reduce the effect of dynamism. This paper attempts to explain how information sharing is enabled in such an environment, and which considerations are relevant, both in regards to the information and required technology. The paper...

  10. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  11. Plasmonic Metallurgy Enabled by DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael B; Ku, Jessie C; Lee, Byeongdu; Mirkin, Chad A; Schatz, George C

    2016-04-13

    Mixed silver and gold plasmonic nanoparticle architectures are synthesized using DNA-programmable assembly, unveiling exquisitely tunable optical properties that are predicted and explained both by effective thin-film models and explicit electrodynamic simulations. These data demonstrate that the manner and ratio with which multiple metallic components are arranged can greatly alter optical properties, including tunable color and asymmetric reflectivity behavior of relevance for thin-film applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  13. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  14. Coupling Functions Enable Secure Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovski, Tomislav; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    Secure encryption is an essential feature of modern communications, but rapid progress in illicit decryption brings a continuing need for new schemes that are harder and harder to break. Inspired by the time-varying nature of the cardiorespiratory interaction, here we introduce a new class of secure communications that is highly resistant to conventional attacks. Unlike all earlier encryption procedures, this cipher makes use of the coupling functions between interacting dynamical systems. It results in an unbounded number of encryption key possibilities, allows the transmission or reception of more than one signal simultaneously, and is robust against external noise. Thus, the information signals are encrypted as the time variations of linearly independent coupling functions. Using predetermined forms of coupling function, we apply Bayesian inference on the receiver side to detect and separate the information signals while simultaneously eliminating the effect of external noise. The scheme is highly modular and is readily extendable to support different communications applications within the same general framework.

  15. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to

  16. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  17. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  18. An internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an internet enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The techniques used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience. (authors)

  19. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience

  20. The enabling approach for housing supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2011-12-01

    The paper attempts to highlight prerequisites needed to improve the success of the enabling approach in achieving adequate housing provision. Then the paper revisits the Egyptian experiences in the application of the enabling approach from 2005 till 2010. Finally, the paper highlights the main drops and lessons must be considered as promising approach after the revolution.

  1. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  2. On the security of SSL/TLS-enabled applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Lal Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SSL/TLS (Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security-enabled web applications aim to provide public key certificate based authentication, secure session key establishment, and symmetric key based traffic confidentiality. A large number of electronic commerce applications, such as stock trading, banking, shopping, and gaming rely on the security strength of the SSL/TLS protocol. In recent times, a potential threat, known as main-in-the-middle (MITM attack, has been exploited by attackers of SSL/TLS-enabled web applications, particularly when naive users want to connect to an SSL/TLS-enabled web server. In this paper, we discuss about the MITM threat to SSL/TLS-enabled web applications. We review the existing space of solutions to counter the MITM attack on SSL/TLS-enabled applications, and then, we provide an effective solution which can resist the MITM attack on SSL/TLS-enabled applications. The proposed solution uses a soft-token based approach for user authentication on top of the SSL/TLS’s security features. We show that the proposed solution is secure, efficient and user friendly in comparison to other similar approaches.

  3. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  4. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  5. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, S.S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; Sony, G., E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  6. Europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamchand, S.S.; Sony, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide based nanoparticles are receiving great attention ought to their excellent luminescent and magnetic properties and find challenging biomedical applications. Among the luminescent lanthanide NPs, europium based NPs (Eu-NPs) are better candidates for immunoassay and imaging applications. The Eu-NPs have an edge over quantum dots (QDs) by means of their stable luminescence, long fluorescence lifetime, sharp emission peaks with narrow band width, lack of blinking and biocompatibility. This review surveys the synthesis and properties of a variety of Eu-NPs consolidated from different research articles, for their applications in medicine and biology. The exquisite luminescent properties of Eu-NPs are explored for developing biomedical applications such as immunoassay and bioimaging including multimodal imaging. The biomedical applications of Eu-NPs are mostly diagnostic in nature and mainly focus on various key analytes present in biological systems. The luminescent properties of europium enabled NPs are influenced by a number of factors such as the site symmetry, the metal nanoparticles, metal ions, quantum dots, surfactants, morphology of Eu-NPs, crystal defect, phenomena like antenna effect and physical parameters like temperature. Through this review we explore and assimilate all the factors which affect the luminescence in Eu-NPs and coil a new thread of parameters that control the luminescence in Eu-NPs, which would provide further insight in developing Eu-based nanoprobes for future biomedical prospects. - Highlights: • The review describes 14 major factors that influence the luminescence properties of europium enabled luminescent nanoparticles (Eu-NPs). • Surveys different types of europium containing nanoparticles that have been reported for their biomedical applications. • Eu-NPs are conveniently divided into four different categories, based on the type of the substrates involved. The four categories are (1) virgin Eu-substrate based NPs; (2

  7. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  8. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  9. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the ... the scope of operations of private sector enterprises in the West Bank and Gaza. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  10. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  11. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  12. 5G-Enabled Tactile Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Meryem; Aijaz, Adnan; Dohler, Mischa; Sachs, Joachim; Fettweis, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The long-term ambition of the Tactile Internet is to enable a democratization of skill, and how it is being delivered globally. An integral part of this is to be able to transmit touch in perceived real-time, which is enabled by suitable robotics and haptics equipment at the edges, along with an unprecedented communications network. The fifth generation (5G) mobile communications systems will underpin this emerging Internet at the wireless edge. This paper presents the most important technolo...

  13. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  14. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  15. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  16. Enabling Open Innovation: Lessons from Haier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arie Y.Lewin; Liisa V(a)likangas; Jin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Open innovation has become a dominant innovation paradigm.However,the actual adoption of open innovation organizational designs and practices remains elusive,and ongoing examples of large companies practicing open innovation in mature industries or beyond R&D activities are rare.Despite the continuing interest in open innovation and the surging research on the topic,not much is documented about how,in particular,large companies interpret and implement open innovation or develop and sustain an innovation-enabling culture.This paper reports on a study of Haier's adoption of six radical innovations as it implements an open innovation organization over a period of seven years.The study is unique in that the cases reveal how open innovation is enabled by the socially enabling mechanisms developed under Chairman Ruimin Zhang's leadership.These varied enabling mechanisms open the organization to serendipity at every level,from the bottom up to suppliers.Most importantly,the mechanisms imprint and sustain an open innovation culture recognized as important-yet often left unarticulated in terms of how it is practiced-in the prior literature.The paper contributes to and highlights the centrality of socially enabling mechanisms underlying an organization's innovation absorptive capacity.

  17. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs

  19. The ENABLER - Based on proven NERVA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Julie M.; Pierce, Bill L.

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial mass in low Earth orbit and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tommorrow's space propulsion needs.

  20. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  1. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  2. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    2004-01-01

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characterized...... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. It is therefore particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context aware.Mobile...

  3. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  4. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  5. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, and their extreme dependence on foreign assistance and Israeli-controlled customs revenues, had led to the conclusion that the Palestinian ...

  6. Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an Economically Enabling and Competitive Business Environment in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The prospect of indefinite Israeli occupation of the ... Impact of implementing the Palestinian banking law on the performance of the private sector [Arabic language]. Documents. Impact of the commercial agents law ...

  7. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  8. Enablements and constraints to school leadership practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many schools in developing countries which, despite the challenges they face, defy the odds and continue to perform at exceptionally high levels. We cast our gaze on one of these resilient schools in South Africa, and sought to learn about the leadership practices prevalent in this school and the enablements and ...

  9. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  10. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  11. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  12. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  13. Enabling ICU patients to die at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Emma; Bates, Lucy; Liderth, Emma; Jones, Samantha; Sheen, Sheryl; Ginty, Andrew; Northmore, Melanie

    2014-10-07

    There is often an overlap between intensive care medicine and palliative medicine. When all curative treatment options have been explored, keeping the patient comfortable and free from pain is the main concern for healthcare practitioners. Patient autonomy in end of life decisions has not been encouraged in the intensive care unit (ICU), until now, because of its specialised and technical nature. Staff at the Royal Bolton Hospital have broken down the barriers to enabling ICU patients to die in their own homes, and have developed a system of collaborative working that can help to fulfil a patient's final wish to go home. This article describes how ICU staff developed a process that enabled two ventilated patients to be transferred home for end of life care.

  14. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yathish Shivanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure.

  15. Enablers & Barriers for Realizing Modularity Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Thyssen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    far less attention compared to the theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems. Harvesting the full potential of modularization, particularly in relation to product development agility, depends on more than an optimal architecture. Key enablers in this context......Although modularization is becoming both a well-described domain in academia and a broadly applied concept in business, many of today’s firm still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received...... are the organizational and systems related aspects. Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers with regard to obtaining the full...

  16. Enabling Sustainable Improvement in IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Renaud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Firms must embrace processes that enable the information technology (IT function to become a strategic partner to the business functions it serves. Process ambidexterity is a way for processes to be augmented to improve alignment and adaptability to new markets and technologies. By applying the principles of process ambidexterity, the key elements required for sustainable change within the capabilities that comprise the IT function of the firm are identified. Furthermore, the scope and depth of the dysfunction that is widespread across large firms that depend upon IT are outlined to provide a contextual basis for presenting a solution framework to address sustainable change. This framework for sustainable change is of primary benefit to IT executives seeking to systematically transform the IT function and enable IT entrepreneurship.

  17. Enabling Routes as Context in Mobile Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brilingaite, Agne; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Zokaite, Nora

    With the continuing advances in wireless communications, geo-positioning, and portable electronics, an infrastructure is emerging that enables the delivery of on-line, location-enabled services to very large numbers of mobile users. A typical usage situation for mobile services is one characteriz...... and accumulates the routes of a user along with their usage patterns and that makes the routes available to services. Experiences from using the component on logs of GPS positions acquired from vehicles traveling within a real road network are reported....... by a small screen and no keyboard, and by the service being only a secondary focus of the user. Under such circumstances, it is particularly important to deliver the "right" information and service at the right time, with as little user interaction as possible. This may be achieved by making services context...

  18. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Hellmundt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013. But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gleaned from students enrolled in the Preparing for Success Program at Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia. The findings from the students indicate that the GEMS framework activates student potential and enables them to use existing knowledge and experience to not only deepen and broaden their learning but also successfully prepare for further study.

  19. Exploring the Enablers of Organizational and Marketing Innovations in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi Moses Ajayi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research studies on innovation tend to focus on process and product innovations. Recent theoretical opinions reveal that Organizational and Marketing Innovations (OMIs could be the necessary prerequisites to optimally utilize and deploy such process and product innovations. It is important to note that there is a dearth of information on the enablers of OMIs capabilities among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Despite their closeness to their customers, many SMEs are finding it difficult to achieve successful and effective innovations; these are innovations that have a positive impact on the business growth and returns. This study presents findings from exploratory qualitative research conducted in South-Western Nigeria. Drawing upon information-rich evidence from 13 in-depth interviews with the owners and the managers of SMEs, this study identifies some enablers that can promote SMEs’ OMIs capabilities, effective innovations, and organizational survival.

  20. A Web-based Architecture Enabling Multichannel Telemedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Lamberti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine scenarios include today in-hospital care management, remote teleconsulting, collaborative diagnosis and emergency situations handling. Different types of information need to be accessed by means of etherogeneous client devices in different communication environments in order to enable high quality continuous sanitary assistance delivery wherever and whenever needed. In this paper, a Web-based telemedicine architecture based on Java, XML and XSL technologies is presented. By providing dynamic content delivery services and Java based client applications for medical data consultation and modification, the system enables effective access to an Electronic Patient Record based standard database by means of any device equipped with a Web browser, such as traditional Personal Computers and workstation as well as modern Personal Digital Assistants. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture has been evaluated in different scenarios, experiencing fixed and mobile clinical data transmissions over Local Area Networks, wireless LANs and wide coverage telecommunication network including GSM and GPRS.

  1. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  2. Contextual Interaction Design Research: Enabling HCI

    OpenAIRE

    Murer , Martin; Meschtscherjakov , Alexander; Fuchsberger , Verena; Giuliani , Manuel; Neureiter , Katja; Moser , Christiane; Aslan , Ilhan; Tscheligi , Manfred

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has always been about humans, their needs and desires. Contemporary HCI thinking investigates interactions in everyday life and puts an emphasis on the emotional and experiential qualities of interactions. At the Center for Human-Computer Interaction we seek to bridge meandering strands in the field by following a guiding metaphor that shifts focus to what has always been the core quality of our research field: Enabling HCI, as a leitmo...

  3. IT Enabled Agility in Organizational Ambidexterity

    OpenAIRE

    Röder, Nina; Schermann, Michael; Krcmar, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The aim of ambidextrous organizations is to balance exploratory and exploitative learning concepts. They innovate through experiments and research, and capture the value of innovations through refinement and continuous improvement. In this paper, we study the relationship of organizational ambidexterity and IT enabled agility. Based on a case study with a German car manufacturer we find that (1) entrepreneurial agility impedes exploitative concepts, (2) adaptive agility impedes exploratory co...

  4. Naval Science & Technology: Enabling the Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    corn for disruptive technologies Laser Cooling Spintronics Bz 1st U.S. Intel satellite GRAB Semiconductors GaAs, GaN, SiC GPS...Payoff • Innovative and game-changing • Approved by Corporate Board • Delivers prototype Innovative Naval Prototypes (5-10 Year) Disruptive ... Technologies Free Electron Laser Integrated Topside EM Railgun Sea Base Enablers Tactical Satellite Large Displacement UUV AACUS Directed

  5. Enabling collaboration on semiformal mathematical knowledge by semantic web integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics is becoming increasingly collaborative, but software does not sufficiently support that: Social Web applications do not currently make mathematical knowledge accessible to automated agents that have a deeper understanding of mathematical structures. Such agents exist but focus on individual research tasks, such as authoring, publishing, peer-review, or verification, instead of complex collaboration workflows. This work effectively enables their integration by bridging the document-oriented perspective of mathematical authoring and publishing, and the network perspective of threaded

  6. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  7. Barriers affecting successful technology enablement of supply chain: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R.; Haleem, A.; Farooquie, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    In order to compete, organizations need to focus on improving supply chain and technology acts as a major enabler. Technology enablement of supply chain has not always been successful and has been examined by many researchers. The purpose of this paper is to do a systematic literature review of technology enabled supply chain from a strategic viewpoint. The literature is examined from two perspectives. Firstly, it studies the growing interest in technology-enabled supply chain in India. Secondly, it studies barriers affecting technology enablement of supply chain. The literature review identifies that technology enabled supply chain helps in improving performance via effective decision making, monitoring entire supply chain, faster reaction to customer service problems, etc. The research has emphasized the importance of 12 barriers affecting technology enablement. This research will help as a guide for practitioners in order to successfully implement technology and fills the gap in existing literature by highlighting and consolidating the significant research work done in past.

  8. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  9. Memory Reactivation Enables Long-Term Prevention of Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herszage, Jasmine; Censor, Nitzan

    2017-05-22

    The ability of the human brain to successively learn or perform two competing tasks constitutes a major challenge in daily function. Indeed, exposing the brain to two different competing memories within a short temporal offset can induce interference, resulting in deteriorated performance in at least one of the learned memories [1-4]. Although previous studies have investigated online interference and its effects on performance [5-13], whether the human brain can enable long-term prevention of future interference is unknown. To address this question, we utilized the memory reactivation-reconsolidation framework [2, 12] stemming from studies at the synaptic level [14-17], according to which reactivation of a memory enables its update. In a set of experiments, using the motor sequence learning task [18] we report that a unique pairing of reactivating the original memory (right hand) in synchrony with novel memory trials (left hand) prevented future interference between the two memories. Strikingly, these effects were long-term and observed a month following reactivation. Further experiments showed that preventing future interference was not due to practice per se, but rather specifically depended on a limited time window induced by reactivation of the original memory. These results suggest a mechanism according to which memory reactivation enables long-term prevention of interference, possibly by creating an updated memory trace integrating original and novel memories during the reconsolidation time window. The opportunity to induce a long-term preventive effect on memories may enable the utilization of strategies optimizing normal human learning, as well as recovery following neurological insults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of 4 years of growth hormone therapy in children with Noonan syndrome in the American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER Program® registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noonan syndrome (NS is a genetic disorder characterized by phenotypic features, including facial dysmorphology, cardiovascular anomalies, and short stature. Growth hormone (GH has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for short stature in children with NS. The objective of this analysis was to assess the height standard deviation score (HSDS and change in HSDS (ΔHSDS for up to 4 years (Y4 of GH therapy in children with NS. Methods The American Norditropin Studies: Web-Enabled Research (ANSWER Program®, a US-based registry, collects long-term efficacy and safety information on patients treated with Norditropin® (somatropin rDNA origin, Novo Nordisk A/S at the discretion of participating physicians. A total of 120 children (90 boys, 30 girls with NS, naïve to previous GH treatment, were included in this analysis. Results The mean (SD baseline age of subjects (n = 120 was 9.2 (3.8 years. Mean (SD HSDS increased from –2.65 (0.73 at baseline to –1.32 (1.11 at Y4 (n = 17. Subjects showed continued increase in HSDS from baseline to Y4 without significant differences between genders at Y1 or Y2. The mean (SD GH dose was 47 (11 mcg/kg/day at baseline and 59 (16 mcg/kg/day at Y4. There was a negative correlation between baseline age and ΔHSDS at Y1 (R = –0.3156; P = 0.0055 and Y2 (R = –0.3394; P = 0.017. ΔHSDS at Y1 was significantly correlated with ΔHSDS at Y2 (n = 37; R = 0.8527, P  Conclusions GH treatment-naïve patients with NS showed continued increases in HSDS during 4 years of treatment with GH with no significant differences between genders up to 2 years. Baseline age was negatively correlated with ΔHSDS at Y1 and Y2. Whether long-term therapy in NS results in continued increase in HSDS to adult height remains to be investigated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01009905

  11. Identifying enabling management practices for employee engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Joubert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A currently emerging viewpoint is that today's management practices no longer add value to organisations. The focus of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the scholarly literature on management practices that could be related to employee engagement. Research purpose: This study searched for evidence in support of the notion of a management value chain, and enabling management practices within each value chain component that could relate to employee engagement. Motivation for the study: An alternative management value chain model could contribute towards a better understanding of which management practices may potentially impact employee engagement. Research design, approach, and method: This is a non-empirical (theoretical study, based on a systematic, in-depth literature review to identify the key management components and enabling practices within this proposed management value chain. Scholarly research databases were sourced for relevant peer reviewed research conducted since 1990, not excluding important contributions prior to 1990. The literature was systematically searched, selected, studied, and contextualized within this study. Main findings: Support was found for the notion of a management value chain, for enabling management practices within each proposed management value chain component, and it was also established these management practices indeed have an impact on employee engagement. Practical/managerial/implications: The possibility that management work can be presented as a generic management value chain allows managers to approach engaging management practices more systematically. Contribution/value-add: This study highlights the importance of some management practices that have never been seen as part of management work.

  12. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  13. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  14. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  15. Blended Learning: enabling Higher Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Matheos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning research and practice have been areas of growth for two decades in Canada, with over 95% of Canadian higher education institutions involved in some form of blended learning. Despite strong evidence based research and practice blended learning, for the most part, has remained at sidelined in Canadian universities. The article argues the need for blended learning to situate itself within the timely and crucial Higher Education Reform (HER agenda. By aligning the affordances of blended learning with the components of HER, blended learning can clearly serve as an enabler for HER.

  16. Product Line Enabled Intelligent Mobile Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2007-01-01

    research project called PLIMM that focuses on user-centered application scenarios. PLIMM is designed based on software product line ideas which make it possible for specialized customization and optimization for different purposes and hardware/software platforms. To enable intelligence, the middleware...... needs access to a range of context models. We model these contexts with OWL, focusing on user-centered concepts. The basic building block of PLIMM is the enhanced BDI agent where OWL context ontology logic reasoning will add indirect beliefs to the belief sets. Our approach also addresses the handling...

  17. Framework for Enabling User-Generated Content

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin H

    2012-01-01

    User-generated content, UGC, is a modern topic today and refers to media and creative works created by Internet users and posted on the Internet. More and more application developers wants to offer sharing functionalities in their applications and on their websites. The alternatives of doing so today are to use UGC platforms API, like Facebook and Twitter, to upload the content to that specific platform or to implement the framework ShareKit that enables the user to share their content on mul...

  18. Nanoarchitecture Control Enabled by Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Heather A.; Limmer, Krista R.; Labukas, Joseph P.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquids have many advantages over traditional aqueous electrosynthesis for fabrication of functional nanoarchitectures, including enabling the integration of nanoparticles into traditional coatings, superhydrophobicity, nanofoams, and other hierarchical structures. Shape and size control through ionic liquid selection and processing conditions can synthesize nanoparticles and nanoarchitectures without the use of capping agents, surfactants, or templates that are often deleterious to the functionality of the resultant system. Here we give a brief overview of some recent and interesting applications of ionic liquids to the synthesis of nanoparticles and nanoarchitectures.

  19. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2017-01-01

    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  20. Enablers of and barriers to abortion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.

  1. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  2. Blue space geographies: Enabling health in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Drawing from research on therapeutic landscapes and relationships between environment, health and wellbeing, we propose the idea of 'healthy blue space' as an important new development Complementing research on healthy green space, blue space is defined as; 'health-enabling places and spaces, where water is at the centre of a range of environments with identifiable potential for the promotion of human wellbeing'. Using theoretical ideas from emotional and relational geographies and critical understandings of salutogenesis, the value of blue space to health and wellbeing is recognised and evaluated. Six individual papers from five different countries consider how health can be enabled in mixed blue space settings. Four sub-themes; embodiment, inter-subjectivity, activity and meaning, document multiple experiences within a range of healthy blue spaces. Finally, we suggest a considerable research agenda - theoretical, methodological and applied - for future work within different forms of blue space. All are suggested as having public health policy relevance in social and public space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  4. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  5. Technology enabled evolutions in liquids marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, S.

    1998-01-01

    Deregulation, mergers, changing economic conditions, and downsizing have captured the headlines in the energy industry in recent times. To say that companies have struggled to react to these changes would be an understatement. Huge trading organizations have grown from nothing in a few years, while entire industry segments have been forced to restructure themselves. Information technology has enabled much of this change. By bringing information management out of the back office and onto the trading floors, companies have radically redesigned their work processes. The future promises even faster change, with business focus turning to innovative packaging of services with products, expanding asset bases, and reducing costs. Information technology will fuel this transformation by providing enterprise-wide trading solutions and, ultimately, linking the entire industry into a virtual supply chain. To remain competitive, companies need a strategy to manage information technology as a core asset

  6. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufnagel, Dick [Fermilab

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  7. Enabling Indoor Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura

    Indoor spaces have always attracted interest from different scientific disciplines. Relatively recent interest in indoor settings by computer scientists is driven in part by the increasing use of smartphones, which serve as a platform for service delivery and can generate extensive volumes...... of trajectory data that can be used to study how people actually use indoor spaces. In this dissertation, we contribute partial solutions that address challenges in indoor positioning and indoor trajectory management and analysis. The key enabler of indoor location-based services and indoor movement analysis...... is a well-functioning positioning system that can be easily deployed in most public places. Different technologies are able to provide indoor positioning with different accuracy and coverage, but it is difficult to find a technology that by itself can provide good positioning in the many different layouts...

  8. Enabling women to achieve their breastfeeding goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.

  9. Flexibility-enabling Contracts in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boscan, Luis; Poudineh, Rahmatallah

    As the share of intermittent renewable energy increases in the generation mix, power systems are exposed to greater levels of uncertainty and risk, which requires planners, policy and business decision makers to incentivise flexibility, that is: their adaptability to unforeseen variations....... Additionally, along with traditional sources, which already enable flexibility, a number of business models, such as thermostat-based demand response, aggregators and small storage providers, are emerging in electricity markets and expected to constitute important sources of flexibility in future decentralised...... power systems. However, due to presence of high transaction costs, relative to the size of resource, the emerging small resources cannot directly participate in an organised electricity market and/or compete. This paper asks the fundamental question of how should the provision of flexibility, as a multi...

  10. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  11. Metasurface-Enabled Remote Quantum Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj K; Ni, Xingjie; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2015-07-10

    An anisotropic quantum vacuum (AQV) opens novel pathways for controlling light-matter interaction in quantum optics, condensed matter physics, etc. Here, we theoretically demonstrate a strong AQV over macroscopic distances enabled by a judiciously designed array of subwavelength-scale nanoantennas-a metasurface. We harness the phase-control ability and the polarization-dependent response of the metasurface to achieve strong anisotropy in the decay rate of a quantum emitter located over distances of hundreds of wavelengths. Such an AQV induces quantum interference among radiative decay channels in an atom with orthogonal transitions. Quantum vacuum engineering with metasurfaces holds promise for exploring new paradigms of long-range light-matter interaction for atom optics, solid-state quantum optics, quantum information processing, etc.

  12. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  13. Males in Enabling: Painting a portrait through narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Armstrong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of males entering higher education via an enabling pathway is slowly increasing; yet, males still battle with the anti-intellectual attitude that is prevalent in regional areas of Australia. Previous research undertaken by the authors began exploring the factors that inhibited or enhanced the male experience within an enabling course. This paper expands upon this research with a deeper focus on the male experience through personalised accounts derived from individual interviews. Using qualitative methodology and narrative inquiry, the findings provide a deeper understanding of the issues that males of different ages face when creating a new identity as a university student. This paper shares insights into what motivated the male students to enter university via an enabling pathway; the actual personal experiences both positive and negative during this time; and the effect that this commitment to study had on them personally and the people around them. The lens of transformative theory underpins this research through exploring frames of reference that align with the students’ experiences. Portraiture prose shares the individual stories which are analysed and the key findings extrapolated.

  14. Multimodal supervision programme to reduce catheter associated urinary tract infections and its analysis to enable focus on labour and cost effective infection control measures in a tertiary care hospital in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Namita; Sissodia, Pushpa

    2012-10-01

    Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) contribute 30%-40% of all the nosocomial infections and they are associated with substantially increased institutional death rates. A multimodal supervision program which incorporates training of the staff with respect to infection control measures can be effective in reducing the CAUTIs in hospitals. To assess the impact of a multimodal UTI supervision program on the CAUTI rates over a year, from January 2009 to December 2009, in a tertiary care hospital in India. A 215 bedded tertiary care private hospital. The CAUTI rates were analyzed for the first 6 months (January 2009-June 2009). A UTI supervision program was instituted in the month of July 2009, which included training with respect to the standard protocols for the sample collection and diagnosis, the bundle components of the urinary catheter checklist and hand hygiene practices. The impact was assessed as per the CAUTI rates in the subsequent months. The average CAUTI rate was reduced by 47.1% (from 10.6 to 5.6) after the introduction of the supervision program. This study presented the mean age of the patients with CAUTIs as 54.5 years and it showed an approximately equal contribution of both the sexes (52.94% in males and 47.05% in females). The impact analysis of the supervision program showed a reduction of 8.7% (from 23 days to 21 days) during the average duration of the catheterization. The adherence to the components of the urinary catheter check list was increased by 44.4% (p=0.069) and the hand hygiene compliance was increased by 56.4% (p=0.004) respectively after the interventions. Components like bladder irrigation and practising perineal cleaning were found to show no effect on the CAUTI rates. The most common labour and cost effective infection control measures as revealed by the supervision programme were adherence to the urinary catheter checklist components (indication for catheter insertion and change, asepsis maintenance during and

  15. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  16. The antidepressant agomelatine blocks the adverse effects of stress on memory and enables spatial learning to rapidly increase neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conboy, Lisa; Tanrikut, Cihan; Zoladz, Phillip R; Campbell, Adam M; Park, Collin R; Gabriel, Cecilia; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Sandi, Carmen; Diamond, David M

    2009-04-01

    Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as a melatonin receptor agonist and 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist. As stress is a significant risk factor in the development of depression, we sought to determine if chronic agomelatine treatment would block the stress-induced impairment of memory in rats trained in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. Moreover, since neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to be critically involved in memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, we evaluated the effects of agomelatine on NCAM, and polysialylated NCAM (PSA-NCAM) expression in rats given spatial memory training with or without predator stress. Adult male rats were pre-treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg i.p., daily for 22 d), followed by a single day of RAWM training and memory testing. Rats were given 12 training trials and then they were placed either in their home cages (no stress) or near a cat (predator stress). Thirty minutes later the rats were given a memory test trial followed immediately by brain extraction. We found that: (1) agomelatine blocked the predator stress-induced impairment of spatial memory; (2) agomelatine-treated stressed, as well as non-stressed, rats exhibited a rapid training-induced increase in the expression of synaptic NCAM in the ventral hippocampus; and (3) agomelatine treatment blocked the water-maze training-induced decrease in PSA-NCAM levels in both stressed and non-stressed animals. This work provides novel observations which indicate that agomelatine blocks the adverse effects of stress on hippocampus-dependent memory and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  17. Realising the Uncertainty Enabled Model Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, D.; Bastin, L.; Pebesma, E. J.; Williams, M.; Stasch, C.; Jones, R.; Gerharz, L.

    2012-12-01

    The FP7 funded UncertWeb project aims to create the "uncertainty enabled model web". The central concept here is that geospatial models and data resources are exposed via standard web service interfaces, such as the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) suite of encodings and interface standards, allowing the creation of complex workflows combining both data and models. The focus of UncertWeb is on the issue of managing uncertainty in such workflows, and providing the standards, architecture, tools and software support necessary to realise the "uncertainty enabled model web". In this paper we summarise the developments in the first two years of UncertWeb, illustrating several key points with examples taken from the use case requirements that motivate the project. Firstly we address the issue of encoding specifications. We explain the usage of UncertML 2.0, a flexible encoding for representing uncertainty based on a probabilistic approach. This is designed to be used within existing standards such as Observations and Measurements (O&M) and data quality elements of ISO19115 / 19139 (geographic information metadata and encoding specifications) as well as more broadly outside the OGC domain. We show profiles of O&M that have been developed within UncertWeb and how UncertML 2.0 is used within these. We also show encodings based on NetCDF and discuss possible future directions for encodings in JSON. We then discuss the issues of workflow construction, considering discovery of resources (both data and models). We discuss why a brokering approach to service composition is necessary in a world where the web service interfaces remain relatively heterogeneous, including many non-OGC approaches, in particular the more mainstream SOAP and WSDL approaches. We discuss the trade-offs between delegating uncertainty management functions to the service interfaces themselves and integrating the functions in the workflow management system. We describe two utility services to address

  18. The echo-enabled harmonic generation options for FLASH II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Haixiao; Decking, Winfried; Faatz, Bart

    2011-03-01

    FLASH II is an upgrade to the existing free electron laser (FEL) FLASH. The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme is proposed to be a potential seeding option of FLASH II. In this paper, the possibility of EEHG operation of FLASH II is investigated for the first time. With a combination of existing numerical codes, i.e. a laser-beam interaction code in an undulator (LBICU), a beam tracking code in a chicane (ELEGANT) and an universal FEL simulating code (GENESIS), the effects of beam energy chirp and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on EEHG operation are studied as well. In addition, several interesting issues concerning EEHG simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  19. DEFINE: A Service-Oriented Dynamically Enabling Function Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Wei-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an innovative Dynamically Enable Function In Network Equipment (DEFINE to allow tenant get the network service quickly. First, DEFINE decouples an application into different functional components, and connects these function components in a reconfigurable method. Second, DEFINE provides a programmable interface to the third party, who can develop their own processing modules according to their own needs. To verify the effectiveness of this model, we set up an evaluating network with a FPGA-based OpenFlow switch prototype, and deployed several applications on it. Our results show that DEFINE has excellent flexibility and performance.

  20. Enabling Anticancer Therapeutics by Nanoparticle Carriers: The Delivery of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX, are indispensable for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. However, the application of most drugs is greatly limited by the low water solubility, poor permeability, or high efflux from cells. Nanoparticles have been widely investigated to enable drug delivery due to their low toxicity, sustained drug release, molecular targeting, and additional therapeutic and imaging functions. This review takes paclitaxel as an example and compares different nanoparticle-based delivery systems for their effectiveness in cancer chemotherapy.

  1. Payload hardware and experimental protocol development to enable future testing of the effect of space microgravity on the resistance to gentamicin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and its σs-deficient mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, A. C.; Wang, J.-H.; Keyhan, Mimi; Singh, Rachna; Benoit, Michael; Parra, Macarena P.; Padgen, Michael R.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Chin, Matthew; Friedericks, Charlie R.; Chinn, Tori N.; Cohen, Aaron; Henschke, Michael B.; Snyder, Timothy V.; Lera, Matthew P.; Ross, Shannon S.; Mayberry, Christina M.; Choi, Sungshin; Wu, Diana T.; Tan, Ming X.; Boone, Travis D.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Piccini, Matthew E.; Spremo, Stevan M.

    2017-11-01

    Human immune response is compromised and bacteria can become more antibiotic resistant in space microgravity (MG). We report that under low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), stationary-phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) become more resistant to gentamicin (Gm), and that this increase is dependent on the presence of σs (a transcription regulator encoded by the rpoS gene). UPEC causes urinary tract infections (UTIs), reported to afflict astronauts; Gm is a standard treatment, so these findings could impact astronaut health. Because LSMMG findings can differ from MG, we report preparations to examine UPEC's Gm sensitivity during spaceflight using the E. coli Anti-Microbial Satellite (EcAMSat) as a free-flying "nanosatellite" in low Earth orbit. Within EcAMSat's payload, a 48-microwell fluidic card contains and supports study of bacterial cultures at constant temperature; optical absorbance changes in cell suspensions are made at three wavelengths for each microwell and a fluid-delivery system provides growth medium and predefined Gm concentrations. Performance characterization is reported here for spaceflight prototypes of this payload system. Using conventional microtiter plates, we show that Alamar Blue (AB) absorbance changes can assess the Gm effect on E. coli viability, permitting telemetric transfer of the spaceflight data to Earth. Laboratory results using payload prototypes are consistent with wellplate and flask findings of differential sensitivity of UPEC and its ΔrpoS strain to Gm. if σs plays the same role in space MG as in LSMMG and Earth gravity, countermeasures discovered in recent Earth studies (aimed at weakening the UPEC antioxidant defense) to control UPEC infections would prove useful also in space flights. Further, EcAMSat results should clarify inconsistencies from previous space experiments on bacterial antibiotic sensitivity and other issues.

  2. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  3. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  4. Breakthrough Science Enabled by Smallsat Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjian, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent NRC panel on "Achieving Science with Cubesats" found that "CubeSats have already proven themselves to be an important scientific tool. CubeSats can produce high-value science, as demonstrated by peer-reviewed publications that address decadal survey science goals." While some science is purely related to the size of the collecting aperture, there are plentiful examples of new and exciting experiments that can be achieved using the relatively inexpensive Cubesat platforms. We will present various potential science applications that can benefit from higher bandwidth communication. For example, on or near Earth orbit, Cubesats could provide hyperspectral imaging, gravity field mapping, atmospheric probing, and terrain mapping. These can be achieved either as large constellations of Cubesats or a few Cubesats that provide multi-point observations. Away from the Earth (up to 1AU) astrophysical variability studies, detections of solar particles between the Earth and Venus, mapping near earth objects, and high-speed videos of the Sun will also be enabled by high bandwidth communications.

  5. Enabling Semantic Queries Against the Spatial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PENG, X.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial database based upon the object-relational database management system (ORDBMS has the merits of a clear data model, good operability and high query efficiency. That is why it has been widely used in spatial data organization and management. However, it cannot express the semantic relationships among geospatial objects, making the query results difficult to meet the user's requirement well. Therefore, this paper represents an attempt to combine the Semantic Web technology with the spatial database so as to make up for the traditional database's disadvantages. In this way, on the one hand, users can take advantages of ORDBMS to store and manage spatial data; on the other hand, if the spatial database is released in the form of Semantic Web, the users could describe a query more concisely with the cognitive pattern which is similar to that of daily life. As a consequence, this methodology enables the benefits of both Semantic Web and the object-relational database (ORDB available. The paper discusses systematically the semantic enriched spatial database's architecture, key technologies and implementation. Subsequently, we demonstrate the function of spatial semantic queries via a practical prototype system. The query results indicate that the method used in this study is feasible.

  6. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  7. BEST: barcode enabled sequencing of tetrads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Adrian C; Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Dudley, Aimée M

    2014-05-01

    Tetrad analysis is a valuable tool for yeast genetics, but the laborious manual nature of the process has hindered its application on large scales. Barcode Enabled Sequencing of Tetrads (BEST)1 replaces the manual processes of isolating, disrupting and spacing tetrads. BEST isolates tetrads by virtue of a sporulation-specific GFP fusion protein that permits fluorescence-activated cell sorting of tetrads directly onto agar plates, where the ascus is enzymatically digested and the spores are disrupted and randomly arrayed by glass bead plating. The haploid colonies are then assigned sister spore relationships, i.e. information about which spores originated from the same tetrad, using molecular barcodes read during genotyping. By removing the bottleneck of manual dissection, hundreds or even thousands of tetrads can be isolated in minutes. Here we present a detailed description of the experimental procedures required to perform BEST in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, starting with a heterozygous diploid strain through the isolation of colonies derived from the haploid meiotic progeny.

  8. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  9. Enabling technologies for industrial energy demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, Caroline H.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Jones, Craig I.; McKenna, Russell C.

    2008-01-01

    This state-of-science review sets out to provide an indicative assessment of enabling technologies for reducing UK industrial energy demand and carbon emissions to 2050. In the short term, i.e. the period that will rely on current or existing technologies, the road map and priorities are clear. A variety of available technologies will lead to energy demand reduction in industrial processes, boiler operation, compressed air usage, electric motor efficiency, heating and lighting, and ancillary uses such as transport. The prospects for the commercial exploitation of innovative technologies by the middle of the 21st century are more speculative. Emphasis is therefore placed on the range of technology assessment methods that are likely to provide policy makers with a guide to progress in the development of high-temperature processes, improved materials, process integration and intensification, and improved industrial process control and monitoring. Key among the appraisal methods applicable to the energy sector is thermodynamic analysis, making use of energy, exergy and 'exergoeconomic' techniques. Technical and economic barriers will limit the improvement potential to perhaps a 30% cut in industrial energy use, which would make a significant contribution to reducing energy demand and carbon emissions in UK industry. Non-technological drivers for, and barriers to, the take-up of innovative, low-carbon energy technologies for industry are also outlined

  10. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  11. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  12. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  13. Enabling Process Alignment for IT Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available All firms use information technology (IT. Larger firms have IT organizations whose business function is to supply and manage IT infrastructure and applications to support the firm's business objectives. Regardless of whether the IT function has been outsourced or is resident within a firm, the objectives of the IT organization must be aligned to the strategic needs of the business. It is often a challenge to balance the demand for IT against the available supply within the firm. Most IT organizations have little capacity to carry out activities that go beyond the incremental ones that are needed to run the immediate needs of the business. A process-ambidexterity framework for IT improves the IT organization's entrepreneurial ability, which in turn, better aligns the IT function with the business functions in the firm. Process ambidexterity utilizes both process alignment and process adaptability. This article presents a framework for process alignment in IT. This is useful for understanding how the processes in Business Demand Management, a core component of the process-ambidexterity framework for IT, relate to those in IT Governance and IT Supply Chain Management. The framework is presented through three lenses (governance, business, and technology along with real-world examples from major firms in the USA. Enabling process alignment in the IT function, and process ambidexterity overall, benefits those who govern IT, the executives who lead IT, as well as their peers in the business functions that depend on IT.

  14. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants’ information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans’ intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It’s also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  15. Enabling technologies built on a sonochemical platform: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Pedro; Tagliapietra, Silvia; Caporaso, Marina; Tabasso, Silvia; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Scientific and technological progress now occurs at the interface between two or more scientific and technical disciplines while chemistry is intertwined with almost all scientific domains. Complementary and synergistic effects have been found in the overlay between sonochemistry and other enabling technologies such as mechanochemistry, microwave chemistry and flow-chemistry. Although their nature and effects are intrinsically different, these techniques share the ability to significantly activate most chemical processes and peculiar phenomena. These studies offer a comprehensive overview of sonochemistry, provide a better understanding of correlated phenomena (mechanochemical effects, hot spots, etc.), and pave the way for emerging applications which unite hybrid reactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Here, line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  17. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  18. Cusps enable line attractors for neural computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuocheng; Zhang, Jiwei; Sornborger, Andrew T.; Tao, Louis

    2017-11-01

    Line attractors in neuronal networks have been suggested to be the basis of many brain functions, such as working memory, oculomotor control, head movement, locomotion, and sensory processing. In this paper, we make the connection between line attractors and pulse gating in feed-forward neuronal networks. In this context, because of their neutral stability along a one-dimensional manifold, line attractors are associated with a time-translational invariance that allows graded information to be propagated from one neuronal population to the next. To understand how pulse-gating manifests itself in a high-dimensional, nonlinear, feedforward integrate-and-fire network, we use a Fokker-Planck approach to analyze system dynamics. We make a connection between pulse-gated propagation in the Fokker-Planck and population-averaged mean-field (firing rate) models, and then identify an approximate line attractor in state space as the essential structure underlying graded information propagation. An analysis of the line attractor shows that it consists of three fixed points: a central saddle with an unstable manifold along the line and stable manifolds orthogonal to the line, which is surrounded on either side by stable fixed points. Along the manifold defined by the fixed points, slow dynamics give rise to a ghost. We show that this line attractor arises at a cusp catastrophe, where a fold bifurcation develops as a function of synaptic noise; and that the ghost dynamics near the fold of the cusp underly the robustness of the line attractor. Understanding the dynamical aspects of this cusp catastrophe allows us to show how line attractors can persist in biologically realistic neuronal networks and how the interplay of pulse gating, synaptic coupling, and neuronal stochasticity can be used to enable attracting one-dimensional manifolds and, thus, dynamically control the processing of graded information.

  19. Integrated and Intelligent Manufacturing: Perspectives and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With ever-increasing market competition and advances in technology, more and more countries are prioritizing advanced manufacturing technology as their top priority for economic growth. Germany announced the Industry 4.0 strategy in 2013. The US government launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP in 2011 and the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI in 2014. Most recently, the Manufacturing USA initiative was officially rolled out to further “leverage existing resources... to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization” by fostering close collaboration between industry, academia, and government partners. In 2015, the Chinese government officially published a 10-year plan and roadmap toward manufacturing: Made in China 2025. In all these national initiatives, the core technology development and implementation is in the area of advanced manufacturing systems. A new manufacturing paradigm is emerging, which can be characterized by two unique features: integrated manufacturing and intelligent manufacturing. This trend is in line with the progress of industrial revolutions, in which higher efficiency in production systems is being continuously pursued. To this end, 10 major technologies can be identified for the new manufacturing paradigm. This paper describes the rationales and needs for integrated and intelligent manufacturing (i2M systems. Related technologies from different fields are also described. In particular, key technological enablers, such as the Internet of Things and Services (IoTS, cyber-physical systems (CPSs, and cloud computing are discussed. Challenges are addressed with applications that are based on commercially available platforms such as General Electric (GE’s Predix and PTC’s ThingWorx.

  20. The Grid-Enabled NMR Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawenda, M.; Meyer, N.; Stroinski, M.; Popenda, L.; Gdaniec, Z.; Adamiak, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    The laboratory equipment used for experimental work is very expensive and unique as well. Only big regional or national centers could afford to purchase and use it, but on a very limited scale. That is a real problem that disqualifies all other research groups not having direct access to these instruments. Therefore the proposed framework plays a crucial role in equalizing the chances of all research groups. The Virtual Laboratory (VLab) project focuses its activity on embedding laboratory equipments in grid environments (handling HPC and visualization), touching some crucial issues not solved yet. In general the issues concern the standardization of the laboratory equipment definition to treat it as a simple grid resource, supporting the end user under the term of the workflow definition, introducing the accounting issues and prioritizing jobs which follow experiments on equipments. Nowadays, we have a lot of various equipments, which can be accessed remotely via network, but only on the way allowing the local management console/display to move through the network to make a simpler access. To manage an experimental and post-processing data as well as store them in a organized way, a special Digital Science Library was developed. The project delivers a framework to enable the usage of many different scientific facilities. The physical layer of the architecture includes the existing high-speed network like PIONIER in Poland, and the HPC and visualization infrastructure. The application, in fact the framework, can be used in all experimental disciplines, where access to physical equipments are crucial, e.g., chemistry (spectrometer), radio astronomy (radio telescope), and medicine (CAT scanner). The poster presentation will show how we deployed the concept in chemistry, supporting these disciplines with grid environment and embedding the Bruker Avance 600 MHz and Varian 300 MHz spectrometers. (author)

  1. Enabling physical teaching and learning environment for South African public schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motsatsi, L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This presentation investigates the typology of learning environments that enable effective school teaching and learning. According to the National Education Policy Act (27/1996),research show that there is a direct link between the physical...

  2. A Secure NEC-enabling Architecture : Disentangling Infrastructure, Information and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, D.; Hartog, T.; Schotanus, H.A.; Verkoelen, C.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The NATO Network-Enabled Capability (NNEC) study envisions effective and efficient cooperation among the coalition partners in missions. This requires information sharing and efficient deployment of IT assets. Current military communication infrastructures are mostly deployed as stand-alone

  3. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    reach places .1 Broadly grouped under the moniker Global Strike,2 this family-of-systems capability should mature by 2035 leading to the realization of...and] ‘micro-actors with massive impact,’…[combine] with new technology and new or transfigured ways of war, but the old threats also remain and have...as the Joint Time-Sensitive Targets Manager (JTSTM),38 “operators and analysts [could] access the same dynamic common operating picture…to provide

  4. ICT Enabled Disaster Communications for Vulnerable Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine how information and communication technology (ICT) ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... a new funding opportunity aimed at fostering effective, long-term climate action to ...

  5. Doctors' health: obstacles and enablers to returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Rhydderch, M; Reading, P; Williams, S

    2015-08-01

    For doctors returning to work after absence due to ill-health or performance concerns, the obstacles can seem insurmountable. Doctors' perspectives of these obstacles have been investigated. To support them more effectively, the perspectives of organizations that interact with such doctors should also be considered. To explore the obstacles and enablers to doctors' return to work after long-term absence from the perspective of key organizations involved in assessment and support. We identified organizations operating in the field of doctors' health, well-being and performance. We conducted semi-structured, 30-45 min telephone interviews with representatives of the organizations, exploring problems that they had encountered that were experienced by doctors with health or performance concerns returning to work after absence of a month or longer. We analysed our field notes using theoretical analysis. We conducted 11 telephone interviews. Data analysis identified four key themes of obstacles and enablers to returning to work: 'communication', 'return to work', 'finance and funding' and 'relationships and engagement'. Sub-themes relating to the organization and the individual also emerged. Organizations responsible for supporting doctors back to work reported poor communication as a significant obstacle to doctors returning to work after illness. They also reported differences between specialities, employing organizations, occupational health departments and human resources in terms of knowledge and expertise in supporting doctors with complex issues. Clear communication channels, care pathways and support processes, such as workplace advocates, were perceived as strong enablers to return to work for doctors after long-term absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Creating an enabling environment for WR&R implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathatou, P-M; Kampragou, E; Grigoropoulou, H; Assimacopoulos, D; Karavitis, C; Gironás, J

    2017-09-01

    Reclaimed water is receiving growing attention worldwide as an effective solution for alleviating the growing water scarcity in many areas. Despite the various benefits associated with reclaimed water, water recycling and reuse (WR&R) practices are not widely applied around the world. This is mostly due to complex and inadequate local legal and institutional frameworks and socio-economic structures, which pose barriers to wider WR&R implementation. An integrated approach is therefore needed while planning the implementation of WR&R schemes, considering all the potential barriers, and aiming to develop favourable conditions for enhancing reclaimed water use. This paper proposes a comprehensive methodology supporting the development of an enabling environment for WR&R implementation. The political, economic, social, technical, legal and institutional factors that may influence positively (drivers) or negatively (barriers) WR&R implementation in the regional water systems are identified, through the mapping of local stakeholder perceptions. The identified barriers are further analysed, following a Cross-Impact/System analysis, to recognize the most significant barriers inhibiting system transition, and to prioritize the enabling instruments and arrangements that are needed to boost WR&R implementation. The proposed methodology was applied in the Copiapó River Basin in Chile, which faces severe water scarcity. Through the analysis, it was observed that barriers outweigh drivers for the implementation of WR&R schemes in the Copiapó River Basin, while the key barriers which could be useful for policy formulation towards an enabling environment in the area concern the unclear legal framework regarding the ownership of treated wastewater, the lack of environmental policies focusing on pollution control, the limited integration of reclaimed water use in current land use and development policies, the limited public awareness on WR&R, and the limited availability of

  7. Lithography for enabling advances in integrated circuits and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C Michael

    2012-08-28

    Because the transistor was fabricated in volume, lithography has enabled the increase in density of devices and integrated circuits. With the invention of the integrated circuit, lithography enabled the integration of higher densities of field-effect transistors through evolutionary applications of optical lithography. In 1994, the semiconductor industry determined that continuing the increase in density transistors was increasingly difficult and required coordinated development of lithography and process capabilities. It established the US National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors and this was expanded in 1999 to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to align multiple industries to provide the complex capabilities to continue increasing the density of integrated circuits to nanometre scales. Since the 1960s, lithography has become increasingly complex with the evolution from contact printers, to steppers, pattern reduction technology at i-line, 248 nm and 193 nm wavelengths, which required dramatic improvements of mask-making technology, photolithography printing and alignment capabilities and photoresist capabilities. At the same time, pattern transfer has evolved from wet etching of features, to plasma etch and more complex etching capabilities to fabricate features that are currently 32 nm in high-volume production. To continue increasing the density of devices and interconnects, new pattern transfer technologies will be needed with options for the future including extreme ultraviolet lithography, imprint technology and directed self-assembly. While complementary metal oxide semiconductors will continue to be extended for many years, these advanced pattern transfer technologies may enable development of novel memory and logic technologies based on different physical phenomena in the future to enhance and extend information processing.

  8. ARIES: Enabling Visual Exploration and Organization of Art Image Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissaff, Lhaylla; Wood Ruby, Louisa; Deutch, Samantha; DuBois, R Luke; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Freire, Juliana; Silva, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Art historians have traditionally used physical light boxes to prepare exhibits or curate collections. On a light box, they can place slides or printed images, move the images around at will, group them as desired, and visual-ly compare them. The transition to digital images has rendered this workflow obsolete. Now, art historians lack well-designed, unified interactive software tools that effectively support the operations they perform with physi-cal light boxes. To address this problem, we designed ARIES (ARt Image Exploration Space), an interactive image manipulation system that enables the exploration and organization of fine digital art. The system allows images to be compared in multiple ways, offering dynamic overlays analogous to a physical light box, and sup-porting advanced image comparisons and feature-matching functions, available through computational image processing. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system to support art historians tasks through real use cases.

  9. Can Mobile Technology Enable Knowledge Communication in a Learning Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Islas Sedano, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    this mobile phone game to help next years' students navigated the CampusNet system in order to study for the exam.  The CampusNet system can be seen as a knowledge management technology situated within the social context of the Project Management course, and so the examples offered, in effect, demonstrate...... To be effective, knowledge management systems need to encompass both social processes and technical components (McDermott 2000),   On the other hand, knowledge communication as a concept has emerged not from the inspiration of technology, but partly from the social-technical challenge of dealing...... with technology in knowledge management systems.  So, is knowledge communication a process that can be technologically enabled?  In this presentation, we explore the possibilities of socio-technical interaction for knowledge communication through the use of a mobile phone game as a knowledge communication tool...

  10. Social-ecological enabling conditions for payments for ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi R. Huber-Stearns; Drew E. Bennett; Stephen Posner; Ryan C. Richards; Jenn Hoyle. Fair; Stella J. M. Cousins; Chelsie L. Romulo

    2017-01-01

    The concept of "enabling conditions" centers on conditions that facilitate approaches to addressing social and ecological challenges. Although multiple fields have independently addressed the concept of enabling conditions, the literature lacks a shared understanding or integration of concepts. We propose a more synthesized understanding of enabling conditions beyond disciplinary boundaries by focusing on the enabling conditions that influence the implementation of a range of environmental p...

  11. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Eric [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  12. People avoid situations that enable them to deceive others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalvi, S.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Information advantage enables people to benefit themselves by deceiving their counterparts. Using a modified ultimatum bargaining game with an exit option, we find that people are more likely to avoid settings enabling them to privately deceive their counterparts than settings which do not enable

  13. Perspectives on Modelling BIM-enabled Estimating Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Sher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BIM-enabled estimating processes do not replace or provide a substitute for the traditional approaches used in the architecture, engineering and construction industries. This paper explores the impact of BIM on these traditional processes.  It identifies differences between the approaches used with BIM and other conventional methods, and between the various construction professionals that prepare estimates. We interviewed 17 construction professionals from client organizations, contracting organizations, consulting practices and specialist-project firms. Our analyses highlight several logical relationships between estimating processes and BIM attributes. Estimators need to respond to the challenges BIM poses to traditional estimating practices. BIM-enabled estimating circumvents long-established conventions and traditional approaches, and focuses on data management.  Consideration needs to be given to the model data required for estimating, to the means by which these data may be harnessed when exported, to the means by which the integrity of model data are protected, to the creation and management of tools that work effectively and efficiently in multi-disciplinary settings, and to approaches that narrow the gap between virtual reality and actual reality.  Areas for future research are also identified in the paper.

  14. Enabling Precision Cardiology Through Multiscale Biology and Systems Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipp W. Johnson, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The traditional paradigm of cardiovascular disease research derives insight from large-scale, broadly inclusive clinical studies of well-characterized pathologies. These insights are then put into practice according to standardized clinical guidelines. However, stagnation in the development of new cardiovascular therapies and variability in therapeutic response implies that this paradigm is insufficient for reducing the cardiovascular disease burden. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine 3 interconnected ideas we put forth as key concepts for enabling a transition to precision cardiology: 1 precision characterization of cardiovascular disease with machine learning methods; 2 the application of network models of disease to embrace disease complexity; and 3 using insights from the previous 2 ideas to enable pharmacology and polypharmacology systems for more precise drug-to-patient matching and patient-disease stratification. We conclude by exploring the challenges of applying a precision approach to cardiology, which arise from a deficit of the required resources and infrastructure, and emerging evidence for the clinical effectiveness of this nascent approach. Key Words: cardiology, clinical informatics, multi-omics, precision medicine, translational bioinformatics

  15. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  16. Envisioning and Enabling Sustainable Smart Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many of the world’s most urgent problems such as climate change, population growth, poverty, malnutrition and environmental degradation not only demand solutions but also require us to find more sustainable ways of living. Market mechanisms can be effective in

  17. Campus Cyberinfrastructure: A Crucial Enabler for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Peter A.; Almes, Guy T.

    2005-01-01

    Driven by the needs of college/university researchers and guided by a blue-ribbon advisory panel chaired by Daniel E. Atkins, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a broad, multi-directorate activity to create modern cyberinfrastructure and to apply it to transforming the effectiveness of the scientific research enterprise in higher…

  18. Workplace-Based Practicum: Enabling Expansive Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, Bruce A.; Deed, Craig; Cox, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Effective pre-service teacher education integrates theoretical and practical knowledge. One means of integration is practicum in a school workplace. In a time of variable approaches to, and models of, practicum, we outline an innovative model of school immersion as part of a teacher preparation program. We apply Fuller and Unwin's (2004) expansive…

  19. Enabling technologies for fiber optic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Selwan K.; Farnan, Martin; Karabacak, Devrez M.; Singer, Johannes M.

    2016-04-01

    In order for fiber optic sensors to compete with electrical sensors, several critical parameters need to be addressed such as performance, cost, size, reliability, etc. Relying on technologies developed in different industrial sectors helps to achieve this goal in a more efficient and cost effective way. FAZ Technology has developed a tunable laser based optical interrogator based on technologies developed in the telecommunication sector and optical transducer/sensors based on components sourced from the automotive market. Combining Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensing technology with the above, high speed, high precision, reliable quasi distributed optical sensing systems for temperature, pressure, acoustics, acceleration, etc. has been developed. Careful design needs to be considered to filter out any sources of measurement drifts/errors due to different effects e.g. polarization and birefringence, coating imperfections, sensor packaging etc. Also to achieve high speed and high performance optical sensing systems, combining and synchronizing multiple optical interrogators similar to what has been used with computer/processors to deliver super computing power is an attractive solution. This path can be achieved by using photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology which opens the doors to scaling up and delivering powerful optical sensing systems in an efficient and cost effective way.

  20. Automatic Mode Transition Enabled Robust Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Guo, Hengyu; Li, Zhaoling; Zheng, Li; Su, Yuanjie; Wen, Zhen; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-12-22

    Although the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been proven to be a renewable and effective route for ambient energy harvesting, its robustness remains a great challenge due to the requirement of surface friction for a decent output, especially for the in-plane sliding mode TENG. Here, we present a rationally designed TENG for achieving a high output performance without compromising the device robustness by, first, converting the in-plane sliding electrification into a contact separation working mode and, second, creating an automatic transition between a contact working state and a noncontact working state. The magnet-assisted automatic transition triboelectric nanogenerator (AT-TENG) was demonstrated to effectively harness various ambient rotational motions to generate electricity with greatly improved device robustness. At a wind speed of 6.5 m/s or a water flow rate of 5.5 L/min, the harvested energy was capable of lighting up 24 spot lights (0.6 W each) simultaneously and charging a capacitor to greater than 120 V in 60 s. Furthermore, due to the rational structural design and unique output characteristics, the AT-TENG was not only capable of harvesting energy from natural bicycling and car motion but also acting as a self-powered speedometer with ultrahigh accuracy. Given such features as structural simplicity, easy fabrication, low cost, wide applicability even in a harsh environment, and high output performance with superior device robustness, the AT-TENG renders an effective and practical approach for ambient mechanical energy harvesting as well as self-powered active sensing.

  1. Wind Energy: Trends And Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Alam, Mansoor; Boyapati, Premchand; Chandna, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Lack, Lewis; Nims, Douglas; Wang, Lingfeng

    2010-09-15

    With attention now focused on the damaging impact of greenhouse gases, wind energy is rapidly emerging as a low carbon, resource efficient, cost-effective sustainable technology in many parts of the world. Despite higher economic costs, offshore appears to be the next big step in wind energy development alternative because of the space scarcity for installation of onshore wind turbine. This paper presents the importance of off-shore wind energy, the wind farm layout design, the off-shore wind turbine technological developments, the role of sensors and the smart grid, and the challenges and future trends of wind energy.

  2. Enabling fast charging - Infrastructure and economic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Dufek, Eric J.; Stephens, Thomas; Francfort, James; Michelbacher, Christopher; Carlson, Richard B.; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Dias, Fernando; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Scoffield, Don; Hardy, Keith; Shirk, Matthew; Hovsapian, Rob; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Pesaran, Ahmad; Tanim, Tanvir R.

    2017-11-01

    The ability to charge battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on a time scale that is on par with the time to fuel an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) would remove a significant barrier to the adoption of BEVs. However, for viability, fast charging at this time scale needs to also occur at a price that is acceptable to consumers. Therefore, the cost drivers for both BEV owners and charging station providers are analyzed. In addition, key infrastructure considerations are examined, including grid stability and delivery of power, the design of fast charging stations and the design and use of electric vehicle service equipment. Each of these aspects have technical barriers that need to be addressed, and are directly linked to economic impacts to use and implementation. This discussion focuses on both the economic and infrastructure issues which exist and need to be addressed for the effective implementation of fast charging at 400 kW and above. In so doing, it has been found that there is a distinct need to effectively manage the intermittent, high power demand of fast charging, strategically plan infrastructure corridors, and to further understand the cost of operation of charging infrastructure and BEVs.

  3. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  4. Bunching phase and constraints on echo enabled harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, E.

    2018-05-01

    A simple mathematical description is developed for the bunching spectrum in echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) that incorporates the effect of additional electron beam energy modulations. Under common assumptions, they are shown to contribute purely through the phase of the longitudinal bunching factor, which allows the spectral moments of the bunching to be calculated directly from the known energy modulations. In particular, the second moment (spectral bandwidth) serves as simple constraint on the amplitude of the energy modulations to maintain a transform-limited seed. We show that, in general, the impact on the spectrum of energy distortions that develop between the EEHG chicanes scales like the harmonic number compared to distortions that occur upstream. This may limit the parameters that will allow EEHG to reach short wavelengths in high brightness FELs.

  5. Knowledge Management Enablers and Process in Hospital Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of knowledge management enablers, such as organizational structure, leadership, learning, information technology systems, trust, and collaboration, on the knowledge management process of creation, storage, sharing, and application. Using data from self-administered questionnaires in four Korean tertiary hospitals, this survey investigated the main organizational factors affecting the knowledge management process in these organizations. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. The results showed that organizational factors affect the knowledge management process differently in each hospital organization. From a managerial perspective, the implications of these factors for developing organizational strategies that encourage and foster the knowledge management process are discussed.

  6. Enabling Compassionate Health Care: Perils, Prospects and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Mannion

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging consensus that caring and compassion are under threat in the frenetic environment of modern healthcare. Enabling and sustaining compassionate care requires not only a focus on the needs of the patient, but also on those of the care giver. As such, threats and exhortations to health professionals are likely to have limited and perverse effects and it is to the organisational and system arrangements which support staff that attention should shift. Any approach to supporting compassionate care may work for some services, for some patients and staff, some of the time. No single approach is likely to be a panacea. Unravelling the contexts within which different approaches are effectual will allow for more selective development of support systems and interventions.

  7. Network Enabled - Unresolved Residual Analysis and Learning (NEURAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D.; Poole, M.; Camp, M.

    Since the advent of modern computational capacity, machine learning algorithms and techniques have served as a method through which to solve numerous challenging problems. However, for machine learning methods to be effective and robust, sufficient data sets must be available; specifically, in the space domain, these are generally difficult to acquire. Rapidly evolving commercial space-situational awareness companies boast the capability to collect hundreds of thousands nightly observations of resident space objects (RSOs) using a ground-based optical sensor network. This provides the ability to maintain custody of and characterize thousands of objects persistently. With this information available, novel deep learning techniques can be implemented. The technique discussed in this paper utilizes deep learning to make distinctions between nightly data collects with and without maneuvers. Implementation of these techniques will allow the data collected from optical ground-based networks to enable well informed and timely the space domain decision making.

  8. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L-1.

  9. Assumptions of Customer Knowledge Enablement in the Open Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskienė Raminta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

  10. ENABLING USE OF STANDARD COSTING IN LEAN ORGANIZATIONS AS DETERMINANT OF GOAL CONGRUENT BEHAVIOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Using the enabling formalization framework in two longitudinal case studies combined with a survey in the companies, we find that a standard costing model can be perceived as a form of enabling formalization in Lean organizations. Hence, standard costing cannot be characterized as coercive...... formalization per se. This contradicts conventional wisdom. Repair is a feature of enabling formalization through the use of standard costing. Applying a structural equation model, we present evidence that this repair feature has a direct effect on behavior that is congruent with Lean objectives. Internal...... and global transparency together with flexibility are three other features of enabling formalization through use of standard costing, but these have an indirect effect on Lean-goal-congruent behavior through the repair feature. Thus, these three features are antecedents of the repair feature, and we also...

  11. Ocean Research Enabled by Underwater Gliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Underwater gliders are autonomous underwater vehicles that profile vertically by changing their buoyancy and use wings to move horizontally. Gliders are useful for sustained observation at relatively fine horizontal scales, especially to connect the coastal and open ocean. In this review, research topics are grouped by time and length scales. Large-scale topics addressed include the eastern and western boundary currents and the regional effects of climate variability. The accessibility of horizontal length scales of order 1 km allows investigation of mesoscale and submesoscale features such as fronts and eddies. Because the submesoscales dominate vertical fluxes in the ocean, gliders have found application in studies of biogeochemical processes. At the finest scales, gliders have been used to measure internal waves and turbulent dissipation. The review summarizes gliders' achievements to date and assesses their future in ocean observation.

  12. Superconductors Enable Lower Cost MRI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright, light, and green, especially where aircraft are concerned. The division of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program called the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is aiming to reach new heights by 2025-2035, improving the efficiency and environmental impact of air travel by developing new capabilities for cleaner, quieter, and more fuel efficient aircraft. One of the many ways NASA plans to reach its aviation goals is by combining new aircraft configurations with an advanced turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system. Jeff Trudell, an engineer at Glenn Research Center, says, "The TeDP system consists of gas turbines generating electricity to power a large number of distributed motor-driven fans embedded into the airframe." The combined effect increases the effective bypass ratio and reduces drag to meet future goals. "While room temperature components may help reduce emissions and noise in a TeDP system, cryogenic superconducting electric motors and generators are essential to reduce fuel burn," says Trudell. Superconductors provide significantly higher current densities and smaller and lighter designs than room temperature equivalents. Superconductors are also able to conduct direct current without resistance (loss of energy) below a critical temperature and applied field. Unfortunately, alternating current (AC) losses represent the major part of the heat load and depend on the frequency of the current and applied field. A refrigeration system is necessary to remove the losses and its weight increases with decreasing temperature. In 2001, a material called magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered to be superconducting. The challenge, however, has been learning to manufacture MgB2 inexpensively and in long lengths to wind into large coils while meeting the application requirements.

  13. Enabling Autonomous Navigation for Affordable Scooters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the technical success of existing assistive technologies, for example, electric wheelchairs and scooters, they are still far from effective enough in helping those in need navigate to their destinations in a hassle-free manner. In this paper, we propose to improve the safety and autonomy of navigation by designing a cutting-edge autonomous scooter, thus allowing people with mobility challenges to ambulate independently and safely in possibly unfamiliar surroundings. We focus on indoor navigation scenarios for the autonomous scooter where the current location, maps, and nearby obstacles are unknown. To achieve semi-LiDAR functionality, we leverage the gyros-based pose data to compensate the laser motion in real time and create synthetic mapping of simple environments with regular shapes and deep hallways. Laser range finders are suitable for long ranges with limited resolution. Stereo vision, on the other hand, provides 3D structural data of nearby complex objects. To achieve simultaneous fine-grained resolution and long range coverage in the mapping of cluttered and complex environments, we dynamically fuse the measurements from the stereo vision camera system, the synthetic laser scanner, and the LiDAR. We propose solutions to self-correct errors in data fusion and create a hybrid map to assist the scooter in achieving collision-free navigation in an indoor environment.

  14. Enabling Autonomous Navigation for Affordable Scooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaikai; Mulky, Rajathswaroop

    2018-06-05

    Despite the technical success of existing assistive technologies, for example, electric wheelchairs and scooters, they are still far from effective enough in helping those in need navigate to their destinations in a hassle-free manner. In this paper, we propose to improve the safety and autonomy of navigation by designing a cutting-edge autonomous scooter, thus allowing people with mobility challenges to ambulate independently and safely in possibly unfamiliar surroundings. We focus on indoor navigation scenarios for the autonomous scooter where the current location, maps, and nearby obstacles are unknown. To achieve semi-LiDAR functionality, we leverage the gyros-based pose data to compensate the laser motion in real time and create synthetic mapping of simple environments with regular shapes and deep hallways. Laser range finders are suitable for long ranges with limited resolution. Stereo vision, on the other hand, provides 3D structural data of nearby complex objects. To achieve simultaneous fine-grained resolution and long range coverage in the mapping of cluttered and complex environments, we dynamically fuse the measurements from the stereo vision camera system, the synthetic laser scanner, and the LiDAR. We propose solutions to self-correct errors in data fusion and create a hybrid map to assist the scooter in achieving collision-free navigation in an indoor environment.

  15. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs , and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries ; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  16. Multi-characteristic opsin enabled vision restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Weldon; Pradhan, Sanjay; Bhattacharya, Sulgana; Mahapatra, Vasu; Tripathy, Ashutosh; Gajjeraman, Sivakumar; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2017-02-01

    Photodegenerative retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and dry age related macular degeneration (dry- AMD) lead to loss of vision in millions of individuals. Currently, no surgical or medical treatment is available though optogenetic therapies are in clinical development. Here, we demonstrate vision restoration using Multi- Characteristics Opsin (MCO1) in animal models with photo-degenerated retina. MCO1 is reliably delivered to specific retinal cells via intravitreal injection of Adeno-Associated Virus, leading to significant improvement in visually guided behavior conducted using a radial-arm water maze. The time to reach platform significantly reduced after delivery of MCO1. Notably, the improvement in visually guided behavior was observed even at light intensity levels orders of magnitude lower than that required for Channelrhodopsin-2 opsin. Chronic light exposure study showed that chronic light exposure did not compromise viability of vMCO1-treated retina. Safe virus-mediated MCO1-delivery has potential for effective gene therapy of diverse retinal degenerations in patients.

  17. Digital technology to enable aging in place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Il; Gollamudi, Shreya S; Steinhubl, Steven

    2017-02-01

    Aging, both of individuals and populations, presents challenges and opportunities. The multitude of morbidities and disabilities that are a too common component of aging represent significant challenges to individuals, their families and to healthcare systems. Aging in place is the ability to safely and comfortably maintain an independent and high quality of life in one's own home and community and is a highly desirable goal of most individuals with the additional benefit of significantly impacting the impending enormous healthcare burden. In order to make this possible, new care models that take advantage of novel technologies for tracking important physiologic and safety parameters need to be developed and implemented. By thoughtfully doing so, it can be possible to seamlessly provide preventative interventions when and as needed, detect the earliest signs of aggravation of chronic conditions, or identify and respond to any emergency situations, such as falls or cardiac arrest. In contrast to current approaches, caring for elderly individuals in their homes based on a digital technology infrastructure could be effective and cost-saving. In this review, we provide an overview of the characteristics of potential digital solutions applicable to creative aging along with the existing evidence supporting their ability to improve care, increase quality of life, and substantially decrease the emotional and financial costs associated with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy the enabler, in our changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomanoff, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical industrial and social development made possible by energy technologies throughout the world serves as a paradigm for looking into the future. Energy usage is directly responsible for productivity. World population is increasing rapidly necessitating still more energy. The number of college students (a measure of new ideas and demands) has also increased rapidly. The U.S. has led in energy usage and the resultant growth in transportation and communication but changes are occurring. Urbanization - another effect of energy - shows the majority of high density populations now are in developing countries. Societies are changing from single nation states to interdependent loosely-knit larger socio-economic-environmental areas - Economic Communities. Successful technology must now engage producers, users, governments, as well as communities of interest. Political management systems must recognize these changes to permit the continued development of energy technologies. Looking toward the 21st Century and our continued development in a changing world necessitates recognition of the need for a systems orientation, interdisciplinary approach to find multi-answers to problems. All must participate in the decision making process - looking for solutions (rather than identification of problems) learning together and from each other - and most importantly, managing conflict before it manages us. (orig.)

  19. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  20. ITK: Enabling Reproducible Research and Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Michael McCormick

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature.Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification.This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46.

  1. Violet Laser Diode Enables Lighting Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Fang; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Li-Yin; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2017-09-05

    Violet laser diode (VLD) based white-light source with high color rendering index (CRI) for lighting communication is implemented by covering with Y 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ (YAG:Ce) or Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce 3+ /CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ (LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu) phosphorous diffuser plates. After passing the beam of VLD biased at 70 mA (~2I th ) through the YAG:Ce phosphorous diffuser, a daylight with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5068 K and a CRI of 65 is acquired to provide a forward error correction (FEC) certified data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. By using the VLD biased at 122 mA (~3.5I th ) to excite the LuAG:Ce/CASN:Eu phosphorous diffuser with 0.85-mm thickness, a warm white-light source with a CCT of 2700 K and a CRI of 87.9 is obtained at a cost of decreasing transmission capacity to 2.4 Gbit/s. Thinning the phosphor thickness to 0.75 mm effectively reduces the required bias current by 32 mA to achieve the same CCT for the delivered white light, which offers an enlarged CRI of 89.1 and an increased data rate of 4.4 Gbit/s. Further enlarging the bias current to 105 mA remains the white-light transmission capacity at 4.4 Gbit/s but reveals an increased CCT of 3023 K and an upgraded CRI of 91.5.

  2. The MMI Device Ontology: Enabling Sensor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, C.; Galbraith, N.; Morris, R. A.; Bermudez, L. E.; Graybeal, J.; Arko, R. A.; Mmi Device Ontology Working Group

    2010-12-01

    .g., SensorML, NetCDF). These identifiers can be resolved through a web browser, or other client applications via HTTP against the MMI Ontology Registry and Repository (ORR), where the ontology is maintained. SPARQL-based query capabilities, which are enhanced with reasoning, along with several supported output formats, allow the effective interaction of diverse client applications with the semantic information associated with the device ontology. In this presentation we describe the process for the development of the MMI Device Ontology and illustrate extensions and applications that demonstrate the benefits of adopting this semantic approach, including example queries involving inference. We also highlight the issues encountered and future work.

  3. Semantic Sensor Web Enablement for COAST, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that facilitates discovery and integration of...

  4. Logistics Reduction: RFID Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Radio-frequency identification (RFID) Enabled Autonomous Logistics Management (REALM) task...

  5. Genetic heritage as a risk factor enabling chilhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Madalena; Aparício, Graça; Duarte, João; Pereira, Anabela; Albuquerque, Carlos; Oliveira, António

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, it is an evidence that maternal obesity is an important predictor of obesity in the descendants, not being consensual if that influence comes from the interaction between genes and facilitators family contexts or both. 1) To determinate the prevalence of the child overweight; 2) to classify the nutritional status and metabolic risk of the progenitors; 3) to analyze the effect of the markers of the family metabolic risk in the expression of the illness in the child. Descriptive study composed by 1424 children, average age 4.58 years old and their mothers, average age 34.47 years old, living in several parts of Portugal. The children's anthropometric measures were evaluated and classified according to the NCHS referential (CDC, 2000)(1) and of the progenitors by the orientations of the WHO (2000)(2) and Portugal, DGS (2005).(3) Social demographic data was obtained by filling in the Food Frequency Questionnaire adapted from Rito (2007).(4) The overweight affected 34.3% of the children, (including 17.4% obesity), being the higher values on boys (36.8%) and in 5 year old children (39.5). In 41.9% of the progenitors overweight was noted (12.1% obesity), being higher in mothers with low scholarship, low income, older and living in a rural area. The probability of the child to be overweighted was 1.4 times higher when mothers were overweight, and close to 2 times in the relationship mother/daughter. Others enabling factors were revealed, like weight gain above recommended during pregnancy and a higher weight at birth. Due to the obtained interferences, it is accepted the existence of enabling factors of maternal and child markers in the development of overweight in the child, so that the prevention of child obesity should consider not only the environmental dimension but also the genetic heritage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  7. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  8. Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    FINAL REPORT Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) Fort Bliss Military Reservation ESTCP Project EW-201140 FEBRUARY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microgrid Enabled Distributed Energy Solutions (MEDES) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-11-C-0082 Fort Bliss, Texas...Lockheed Martin’s Intelligent Microgrid Solution can provide more energy security while also lowering electric utility costs and greenhouse gas emissions

  9. Social-ecological enabling conditions for payments for ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi R. Huber-Stearns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "enabling conditions" centers on conditions that facilitate approaches to addressing social and ecological challenges. Although multiple fields have independently addressed the concept of enabling conditions, the literature lacks a shared understanding or integration of concepts. We propose a more synthesized understanding of enabling conditions beyond disciplinary boundaries by focusing on the enabling conditions that influence the implementation of a range of environmental policies termed payments for ecosystem services (PES. Through an analysis of key literature from different disciplinary perspectives, we examined how researchers and practitioners refer to and identify enabling conditions within the context of PES. Through our synthesis, we identified 24 distinct enabling conditions organized within 4 broad themes: biophysical, economic, governance, and social-cultural conditions. We found that the literature coalesces around certain enabling conditions, such as strong ecosystem science and existing institutions, regardless of disciplinary background or journal audience. We also observed key differences in how authors perceive the direction of influence for property type, program objectives, and number of actors. Additionally, we noted an emphasis on the importance of the contextual nature of many enabling conditions that may cause certain conditions to have a disproportionate impact on successful implementation in some circumstances. Unraveling the relative importance of specific enabling conditions in diverse contexts remains a research frontier. Ultimately, no single disciplinary perspective is likely to provide all necessary insights for PES creation, and given the intertwined nature of enabling conditions, practitioners need to consider insights from multiple dimensions. Our work suggests opportunities to better connect diverse conversations through integration of concepts, a common vocabulary, and a synthetic framework.

  10. The role of multisensory interplay in enabling temporal expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Michels, Lara E; Thiele, Carsten; Noesselt, Toemme

    2018-01-01

    Temporal regularities can guide our attention to focus on a particular moment in time and to be especially vigilant just then. Previous research provided evidence for the influence of temporal expectation on perceptual processing in unisensory auditory, visual, and tactile contexts. However, in real life we are often exposed to a complex and continuous stream of multisensory events. Here we tested - in a series of experiments - whether temporal expectations can enhance perception in multisensory contexts and whether this enhancement differs from enhancements in unisensory contexts. Our discrimination paradigm contained near-threshold targets (subject-specific 75% discrimination accuracy) embedded in a sequence of distractors. The likelihood of target occurrence (early or late) was manipulated block-wise. Furthermore, we tested whether spatial and modality-specific target uncertainty (i.e. predictable vs. unpredictable target position or modality) would affect temporal expectation (TE) measured with perceptual sensitivity (d ' ) and response times (RT). In all our experiments, hidden temporal regularities improved performance for expected multisensory targets. Moreover, multisensory performance was unaffected by spatial and modality-specific uncertainty, whereas unisensory TE effects on d ' but not RT were modulated by spatial and modality-specific uncertainty. Additionally, the size of the temporal expectation effect, i.e. the increase in perceptual sensitivity and decrease of RT, scaled linearly with the likelihood of expected targets. Finally, temporal expectation effects were unaffected by varying target position within the stream. Together, our results strongly suggest that participants quickly adapt to novel temporal contexts, that they benefit from multisensory (relative to unisensory) stimulation and that multisensory benefits are maximal if the stimulus-driven uncertainty is highest. We propose that enhanced informational content (i.e. multisensory

  11. Organizational Enablers for Governance and Governmentality of Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Ralf; Pemsel, Sofia; Shao, Jingting

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the organizational enablers for governance in the realm of projects. We first conceptualize organizational enablers as comprising of process facilitators and discursive abilities, each with its own factors and mechanisms. Then we apply this concept to the literature on proje......, and through development of self-responsible, self-organizing people for governmentality in project settings. Questions for future research are indicated....... governance, governance of projects and governmentality. Outcomes indicate that governance is enabled through different forms of flexibility at different levels of governance, institutional setup and authority at the project level, flexible structures and mindsets of people at the organizational level...

  12. Implementation analysis of lean enablers for managing engineering programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arnim, Joachim; Oehmen, Josef; Rebentisch, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research to improve the applicability of the Lean Enablers and consists of two parts. The first is a case study of a very successful project management maturity improvement initiative at Siemens Industry Sector’s Industry Automation division in the US. It views the initiative...... from the perspective of the Lean Enablers [Oehmen 2012] and is based on information from [Sopko 2012a], [Sopko 2012b], [Sopko 2010], [Sopko 2009], interviews, internal documentation, and the used MSP program management methodology [UK 2011]. The analysis of Lean Enablers incorporated in the MSP...

  13. Internet-enabled collaborative agent-based supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiming; Kremer, Rob; Norrie, Douglas H.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents some results of our recent research work related to the development of a new Collaborative Agent System Architecture (CASA) and an Infrastructure for Collaborative Agent Systems (ICAS). Initially being proposed as a general architecture for Internet based collaborative agent systems (particularly complex industrial collaborative agent systems), the proposed architecture is very suitable for managing the Internet enabled complex supply chain for a large manufacturing enterprise. The general collaborative agent system architecture with the basic communication and cooperation services, domain independent components, prototypes and mechanisms are described. Benefits of implementing Internet enabled supply chains with the proposed infrastructure are discussed. A case study on Internet enabled supply chain management is presented.

  14. Molecular-targeted nanotherapies in cancer: enabling treatment specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Elvin; Hsiao, Angela; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U; Landry, Matthew G; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Ferrari, Mauro

    2011-12-01

    Chemotherapy represents a mainstay and powerful adjuvant therapy in the treatment of cancer. The field has evolved from drugs possessing all-encompassing cell-killing effects to those with highly targeted, specific mechanisms of action; a direct byproduct of enhanced understanding of tumorigenic processes. However, advances regarding development of agents that target key molecules and dysregulated pathways have had only modest impacts on patient survival. Several biological barriers preclude adequate delivery of drugs to tumors, and remain a formidable challenge to overcome in chemotherapy. Currently, the field of nanomedicine is enabling the delivery of chemotherapeutics, including repositioned drugs and siRNAs, by giving rise to carriers that provide for protection from degradation, prolonged circulation times, and increased tumor accumulation, all the while resulting in reduced patient morbidity. This review aims to highlight several innovative, nanoparticle-based platforms with the potential of providing clinical translation of several novel chemotherapeutic agents. We will also summarize work regarding the development of a multistage drug delivery strategy, a robust carrier platform designed to overcome several biological barriers while en route to tumors. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological assessment of nano-enabled supercapacitors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M.; Dura, H.; Shimon, B.; Baumann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziemann, S.; Lei, C.; Markoulidis, F.; Lekakou, T.; Decker, M.

    2012-09-01

    New materials on nano scale have the potential to overcome existing technical barriers and are one of the most promising key technologies to enable the decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption. Developing these innovative materials for industrial applications means facing a complex quality profile, which includes among others technical, economic, and ecological aspects. So far the two latter aspects are not sufficiently included in technology development, especially from a life cycle point of view. Supercapacitors are considered a promising option for electric energy storage in hybrid and full electric cars. In comparison with presently used lithium based electro chemical storage systems supercapacitors possess a high specific power, but a relatively low specific energy. Therefore, the goal of ongoing research is to develop a new generation of supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy. To reach this goal particularly nano materials are developed and tested on cell level. In the presented study the ecological implications (regarding known environmental effects) of carbon based nano materials are analysed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Major attention is paid to efficiency gains of nano particle production due to scaling up of such processes from laboratory to industrial production scales. Furthermore, a developed approach will be displayed, how to assess the environmental impact of nano materials on an automotive system level over the whole life cycle.

  16. How youth-serving organizations enable acquaintance molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, some of the country's most prominent institutions have been ensnared in child sex abuse scandals. While each abuse incident features its own particular circumstances, institutions that have been the subject of these scandals have displayed similar patterns of organizational behavior that allowed molesting to occur and molesters to escape accountability. We can learn from those patterns to better understand and combat acquaintance molestation in youth-serving organizations. Although sex abuse is an inherent risk in youth work, American youth-serving organizations have responded to this risk largely on a case-by-case basis after abuse incidents have been revealed, rather than through proactive strategies to reduce the risk of abuse and to respond effectively to allegations. An examination of abuse scandals reveals common patterns of behavior among paid and volunteer staff in organizations that did not enact comprehensive, proactive strategies: Faith in the organiation blinded staff to the liklihood of abuse; organizations kept workers ignorant about the extent of the abuse problem; when abuse accusations arose, staff gave the benefit of the doubt to the adult; when abuse accusations were confirmed, staffers did not know how to respond; and not knowing how to resopnd, staff prioritized the protection of the organization. As a result, child molesters have been falsely exonerated or not held accountable, abused children have been disbelieved, and abuse has continued. These organizations inadvertently achieved the opposite of their missions: They enabled child molesters at the expense of children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Flexible, Penetrating Brain Probes Enabled by Advances in Polymer Microfabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuva Weltman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of high-fidelity, long-term neural recordings in vivo is critically important to advance neuroscience and brain–machine interfaces. For decades, rigid materials such as metal microwires and micromachined silicon shanks were used as invasive electrophysiological interfaces to neurons, providing either single or multiple electrode recording sites. Extensive research has revealed that such rigid interfaces suffer from gradual recording quality degradation, in part stemming from tissue damage and the ensuing immune response arising from mechanical mismatch between the probe and brain. The development of “soft” neural probes constructed from polymer shanks has been enabled by advancements in microfabrication; this alternative has the potential to mitigate mismatch-related side effects and thus improve the quality of recordings. This review examines soft neural probe materials and their associated microfabrication techniques, the resulting soft neural probes, and their implementation including custom implantation and electrical packaging strategies. The use of soft materials necessitates careful consideration of surgical placement, often requiring the use of additional surgical shuttles or biodegradable coatings that impart temporary stiffness. Investigation of surgical implantation mechanics and histological evidence to support the use of soft probes will be presented. The review concludes with a critical discussion of the remaining technical challenges and future outlook.

  19. Tough and Conductive Hybrid Hydrogels Enabling Facile Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengbo; Lin, Ji; Wu, Zi Liang; Qu, Shaoxing; Yin, Jun; Qian, Jin; Zheng, Qiang

    2018-04-25

    Conductive polymer hydrogels (CPHs) that combine the unique properties of hydrogels and electronic properties of conductors have shown their great potentials in wearable/implantable electronic devices, where materials with remarkable mechanical properties, high conductivity, and easy processability are demanding. Here, we have developed a new type of polyion complex/polyaniline (PIC/PAni) hybrid hydrogels that are tough, conductive, and can be facilely patterned. The incorporation of conductive phase (PAni) into PIC matrix through phytic acid resulted in hybrid gels with ∼65 wt % water; high conductivity while maintaining the key viscoelasticity of the tough matrix. The gel prepared from 1 M aniline (Ani) exhibited the breaking strain, fracture stress, tensile modulus, and electrical conductivity of 395%, 1.15 MPa, 5.31 MPa, and 0.7 S/m, respectively, superior to the most existing CPHs. The mechanical and electrical performance of PIC/PAni hybrid hydrogels exhibited pronounced rate-dependent and self-recovery behaviors. The hybrid gels can effectively detect subtle human motions as strain sensors. Alternating conductive/nonconductive patterns can be readily achieved by selective Ani polymerization using stencil masks. This facile patterning method based on PIC/PAni gels can be readily scaled up for fast fabrication of wavy gel circuits and multichannel sensor arrays, enabling real-time monitoring of the large-extent and large-area deformations with various sensitivities.

  20. Optimising LAN access to grid enabled storage elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G A; Dunne, B; Elwell, A; Millar, A P; Cowan, G A

    2008-01-01

    When operational, the Large Hadron Collider experiments at CERN will collect tens of petabytes of physics data per year. The worldwide LHC computing grid (WLCG) will distribute this data to over two hundred Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centres, enabling particle physicists around the globe to access the data for analysis. Although different middleware solutions exist for effective management of storage systems at collaborating institutes, the patterns of access envisaged for Tier-2s fall into two distinct categories. The first involves bulk transfer of data between different Grid storage elements using protocols such as GridFTP. This data movement will principally involve writing ESD and AOD files into Tier-2 storage. Secondly, once datasets are stored at a Tier-2, physics analysis jobs will read the data from the local SE. Such jobs require a POSIX-like interface to the storage so that individual physics events can be extracted. In this paper we consider the performance of POSIX-like access to files held in Disk Pool Manager (DPM) storage elements, a popular lightweight SRM storage manager from EGEE

  1. Ecological assessment of nano-enabled supercapacitors for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, M; Dura, H; Shimon, B; Baumann, M; Zimmermann, B; Ziemann, S; Decker, M; Lei, C; Markoulidis, F; Lekakou, T

    2012-01-01

    New materials on nano scale have the potential to overcome existing technical barriers and are one of the most promising key technologies to enable the decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption. Developing these innovative materials for industrial applications means facing a complex quality profile, which includes among others technical, economic, and ecological aspects. So far the two latter aspects are not sufficiently included in technology development, especially from a life cycle point of view. Supercapacitors are considered a promising option for electric energy storage in hybrid and full electric cars. In comparison with presently used lithium based electro chemical storage systems supercapacitors possess a high specific power, but a relatively low specific energy. Therefore, the goal of ongoing research is to develop a new generation of supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy. To reach this goal particularly nano materials are developed and tested on cell level. In the presented study the ecological implications (regarding known environmental effects) of carbon based nano materials are analysed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Major attention is paid to efficiency gains of nano particle production due to scaling up of such processes from laboratory to industrial production scales. Furthermore, a developed approach will be displayed, how to assess the environmental impact of nano materials on an automotive system level over the whole life cycle.

  2. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  3. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Implementation–Enablers and Barriers in the Textile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Oelze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The distinct definition of accordance in the perceived barriers and enablers for sustainable supply chain management (SSCM policy implementation has been the subject of various research studies, but a distinct focus on the textile sector has been the object of limited previous attention. However, it has been found that it affects the approach to developments in company approaches to sustainable supply chain management within that industry. This article presents the results of an in-depth comparative case study analysis, drawing on 23 interviews with managers of 10 companies from the textile industry. The analysis demonstrates that specific modes of collaboration can both enable an effective SSCM and diminish barriers for policy implementation. The width and depth varies between a collaborative management approach for an effective internal SSCM versus industry collaboration and buyer supplier collaboration to address external barriers and enablers.

  4. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  5. Informed Systems: Enabling Collaborative Evidence Based Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Somerville

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – In response to unrelenting disruptions in academic publishing and higher education ecosystems, the Informed Systems approach supports evidence based professional activities to make decisions and take actions. This conceptual paper presents two core models, Informed Systems Leadership Model and Collaborative Evidence-Based Information Process Model, whereby co-workers learn to make informed decisions by identifying the decisions to be made and the information required for those decisions. This is accomplished through collaborative design and iterative evaluation of workplace systems, relationships, and practices. Over time, increasingly effective and efficient structures and processes for using information to learn further organizational renewal and advance nimble responsiveness amidst dynamically changing circumstances. Methods – The integrated Informed Systems approach to fostering persistent workplace inquiry has its genesis in three theories that together activate and enable robust information usage and organizational learning. The information- and learning-intensive theories of Peter Checkland in England, which advance systems design, stimulate participants’ appreciation during the design process of the potential for using information to learn. Within a co-designed environment, intentional social practices continue workplace learning, described by Christine Bruce in Australia as informed learning enacted through information experiences. In addition, in Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka’s theories foster information exchange processes and knowledge creation activities within and across organizational units. In combination, these theories promote the kind of learning made possible through evolving and transferable capacity to use information to learn through design and usage of collaborative communication systems with associated professional practices. Informed Systems therein draws from three antecedent theories to create an original

  6. Deep Eutectic Solvents Enable More Robust Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Pengfei; Wang, Xuping; Zeng, Chaoxi; Wang, Weifei; Yang, Bo; Hollmann, F.; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic method for the production of epoxidized vegetable oils was developed. The unique combination of the commercial lipase G from Penicillieum camembertii with certain deep eutectic solvents enabled the efficient production of epoxidized vegetable oils.

  7. Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruda, Harald

    2001-01-01

    .... We have designed a Web-Enabled ATR/Fusion Development System (WEADS) that will allow distributed development and execution of AIR and fusion algorithms using currently available infrastructures...

  8. Enabling search services on outsourced private spatial data

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung; Ghinita, Gabriel; Jensen, Christian Sø ndergaard; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Cloud computing services enable organizations and individuals to outsource the management of their data to a service provider in order to save on hardware investments and reduce maintenance costs. Only authorized users are allowed to access the data

  9. Prognostics-Enabled Power Supply for ADAPT Testbed, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop's role is to develop electronic prognostics for sensing power systems in support of NASA/Ames ADAPT testbed. The prognostic enabled power systems from...

  10. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  11. Starshade Assembly Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunsfeld, J. M.; Siegler, N.; Mukherjee, R.

    2018-02-01

    A starshade is a large external coronagraph which will allow the direct imaging and analysis of planets around nearby stars. We present how the Deep Space Gateway would enable the robotic/astronaut construction of a starshade.

  12. Enabling legislation and regulatory determinations for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1977-01-01

    General remarks on objectives and scope of enabling legislation, on the regulatory body and on the IAEA activities and assistance in regulatory matters e.g. the IAEA Safety Guides which are in preparation. (HP) [de

  13. Distributed Collaborative Learning Communities Enabled by Information Communication Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Alvarez (Heidi Lee)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow and why can Information Communication Technology (ICT) contribute to enhancing learning in distributed Collaborative Learning Communities (CLCs)? Drawing from relevant theories concerned with phenomenon of ICT enabled distributed collaborative learning, this book identifies gaps in

  14. Intercultural Knowledge Flows in Edge Organizations: Trust as an Enabler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gavrieli, Dana A; Scott, W. R

    2005-01-01

    ...., across military services and coalition partners) and knowledge flows. A major factor that emerges as an enabler of knowledge flows, especially in dynamic environments such as those in which Edge organizations operate, is trust...

  15. Excavating obstacles and enablers to internationalization at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Jos; Woldegiyorgis, Ayenachew A.; Rumbley, Laura E.; de Wit, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Gives an overview of my research as a visiting scholar at The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. This research classifies these obstacles and enablers in four categories: disciplinary, external, internal and personal.

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  17. Gradient microfluidics enables rapid bacterial growth inhibition testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Qiu, Yong; Glidle, Andrew; McIlvenna, David; Luo, Qian; Cooper, Jon; Shi, Han-Chang; Yin, Huabing

    2014-03-18

    Bacterial growth inhibition tests have become a standard measure of the adverse effects of inhibitors for a wide range of applications, such as toxicity testing in the medical and environmental sciences. However, conventional well-plate formats for these tests are laborious and provide limited information (often being restricted to an end-point assay). In this study, we have developed a microfluidic system that enables fast quantification of the effect of an inhibitor on bacteria growth and survival, within a single experiment. This format offers a unique combination of advantages, including long-term continuous flow culture, generation of concentration gradients, and single cell morphology tracking. Using Escherichia coli and the inhibitor amoxicillin as one model system, we show excellent agreement between an on-chip single cell-based assay and conventional methods to obtain quantitative measures of antibiotic inhibition (for example, minimum inhibition concentration). Furthermore, we show that our methods can provide additional information, over and above that of the standard well-plate assay, including kinetic information on growth inhibition and measurements of bacterial morphological dynamics over a wide range of inhibitor concentrations. Finally, using a second model system, we show that this chip-based systems does not require the bacteria to be labeled and is well suited for the study of naturally occurring species. We illustrate this using Nitrosomonas europaea, an environmentally important bacteria, and show that the chip system can lead to a significant reduction in the period required for growth and inhibition measurements (<4 days, compared to weeks in a culture flask).

  18. Architectural Strategies for Enabling Data-Driven Science at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Law, E. S.; Doyle, R. J.; Little, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of large data collections from NASA or other agencies is often executed through traditional computational and data analysis approaches, which require users to bring data to their desktops and perform local data analysis. Alternatively, data are hauled to large computational environments that provide centralized data analysis via traditional High Performance Computing (HPC). Scientific data archives, however, are not only growing massive, but are also becoming highly distributed. Neither traditional approach provides a good solution for optimizing analysis into the future. Assumptions across the NASA mission and science data lifecycle, which historically assume that all data can be collected, transmitted, processed, and archived, will not scale as more capable instruments stress legacy-based systems. New paradigms are needed to increase the productivity and effectiveness of scientific data analysis. This paradigm must recognize that architectural and analytical choices are interrelated, and must be carefully coordinated in any system that aims to allow efficient, interactive scientific exploration and discovery to exploit massive data collections, from point of collection (e.g., onboard) to analysis and decision support. The most effective approach to analyzing a distributed set of massive data may involve some exploration and iteration, putting a premium on the flexibility afforded by the architectural framework. The framework should enable scientist users to assemble workflows efficiently, manage the uncertainties related to data analysis and inference, and optimize deep-dive analytics to enhance scalability. In many cases, this "data ecosystem" needs to be able to integrate multiple observing assets, ground environments, archives, and analytics, evolving from stewardship of measurements of data to using computational methodologies to better derive insight from the data that may be fused with other sets of data. This presentation will discuss

  19. Make or buy of IT-enabled innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    , an analysis of three companies in the financial sector - Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investment, and Merrill Lynch - reveals that governance choices influence a company's ap-propriable learning curve advantage to slow down or speed up adoption and imitation of IT-enabled innovation. Moreover, we discuss...... the implications of governance choices in techno-logical environments characterised by either accumulation or disruption. Keywords: IT-enabled innovation, outsourcing, technological regime, strategic posture, first-mover advantages, financial services, online brokerage...

  20. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  1. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    modal biometrics submissions to include iris, face, palm and finger prints from biometrics collection devices, which will support the Warfighter in...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management...Phone: 227-3119 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 15, 2015 Program Information Program Name Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) DoD

  2. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  3. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  4. Physician communication via Internet-enabled technology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Neil G; Randall, Glen E; Archer, Norman P; Musson, David M

    2017-10-01

    The use of Internet-enabled technology (information and communication technology such as smartphone applications) may enrich information exchange among providers and, consequently, improve health care delivery. The purpose of this systematic review was to gain a greater understanding of the role that Internet-enabled technology plays in enhancing communication among physicians. Studies were identified through a search in three electronic platforms: the Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search identified 5140 articles; of these, 21 met all inclusion criteria. In general, physicians were satisfied with Internet-enabled technology, but consensus was lacking regarding whether Internet-enabled technology improved efficiency or made a difference to clinical decision-making. Internet-enabled technology can play an important role in enhancing communication among physicians, but the extent of that benefit is influenced by (1) the impact of Internet-enabled technology on existing work practices, (2) the availability of adequate resources, and (3) the nature of institutional elements, such as privacy legislation.

  5. Exploring the Classroom Practices That May Enable a Compassionate Approach to Financial Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2018-01-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The…

  6. Providing information and enabling transactions: which website function is more important for success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Janny C.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.; Krawczyk, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose and test a chain of effects from website content, through informational and transactional success to overall website success and company performance. This framework enables us to determine the relative importance of the informational and transaction-related website

  7. DrumNet : Building a GSM-enabled Information System for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gradual penetration of mobile telephony into rural Kenya offered a timely alternative. ... During Phase II, researchers will design and implement a global system for mobile communications (GSM)-enabled system that provides interactive links ... By cell phone, scientists assist African farmers facing effects of climate change ...

  8. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  9. IT-enabled dynamic capability on performance: An empirical study of BSC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Carlos Yoshikuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ew studies have investigated the influence of “information capital,” through IT-enabled dynamic capability, on corporate performance, particularly in economic turbulence. Our study investigates the causal relationship between performance perspectives of the balanced scorecard using partial least squares path modeling. Using data on 845 Brazilian companies, we conduct a quantitative empirical study of firms during an economic crisis and observe the following interesting results. Operational and analytical IT-enabled dynamic capability had positive effects on business process improvement and corporate performance. Results pertaining to mediation (endogenous variables and moderation (control variables clarify IT’s role in and benefits for corporate performance.

  10. What enables size-selective trophy hunting of wildlife?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris T Darimont

    Full Text Available Although rarely considered predators, wildlife hunters can function as important ecological and evolutionary agents. In part, their influence relates to targeting of large reproductive adults within prey populations. Despite known impacts of size-selective harvests, however, we know little about what enables hunters to kill these older, rarer, and presumably more wary individuals. In other mammalian predators, predatory performance varies with knowledge and physical condition, which accumulates and declines, respectively, with age. Moreover, some species evolved camouflage as a physical trait to aid in predatory performance. In this work, we tested whether knowledge-based faculty (use of a hunting guide with accumulated experience in specific areas, physical traits (relative body mass [RBM] and camouflage clothing, and age can predict predatory performance. We measured performance as do many hunters: size of killed cervid prey, using the number of antler tines as a proxy. Examining ∼ 4300 online photographs of hunters posing with carcasses, we found that only the presence of guides increased the odds of killing larger prey. Accounting for this effect, modest evidence suggested that unguided hunters presumably handicapped with the highest RBM actually had greater odds of killing large prey. There was no association with hunter age, perhaps because of our coarse measure (presence of grey hair and the performance trade-offs between knowledge accumulation and physical deterioration with age. Despite its prevalence among sampled hunters (80%, camouflage had no influence on size of killed prey. Should these patterns be representative of other areas and prey, and our interpretations correct, evolutionarily-enlightened harvest management might benefit from regulatory scrutiny on guided hunting. More broadly, we suggest that by being nutritionally and demographically de-coupled from prey and aided by efficient killing technology and road access

  11. Recombinant human hyaluronidase-enabled subcutaneous pediatric rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Coburn H; Etzwiler, Lisa S; Miller, Melissa K; Maher, George; Mace, Sharon; Hostetler, Mark A; Smith, Sharon R; Reinhardt, Neil; Hahn, Barry; Harb, George

    2009-11-01

    The Increased Flow Utilizing Subcutaneously-Enabled (INFUSE)-Pediatric Rehydration Study was designed to assess efficacy, safety, and clinical utility of recombinant human hyaluronidase (rHuPH20)-facilitated subcutaneous rehydration in children 2 months to 10 years of age. Patients with mild/moderate dehydration requiring parenteral treatment in US emergency departments were eligible for this phase IV, multicenter, single-arm study. They received subcutaneous injection of 1 mL rHuPH20 (150 U), followed by subcutaneous infusion of 20 mL/kg isotonic fluid over the first hour. Subcutaneous rehydration was continued as needed for up to 72 hours. Rehydration was deemed successful if it was attributed by the investigator primarily to subcutaneous fluid infusion and the child was discharged without requiring an alternative method of rehydration. Efficacy was evaluated in 51 patients (mean age: 1.9 years; mean weight: 11.2 kg). Initial subcutaneous catheter placement was achieved with 1 attempt for 46/51 (90.2%) of patients. Rehydration was successful for 43/51 (84.3%) of patients. Five patients (9.8%) were hospitalized but deemed to be rehydrated primarily through subcutaneous therapy, for a total of 48/51 (94.1%) of patients. No treatment-related systemic adverse events were reported, but 1 serious adverse event occurred (cellulitis at infusion site). Investigators found the procedure easy to perform for 96% of patients (49/51 patients), and 90% of parents (43/48 parents) were satisfied or very satisfied. rHuPH20-facilitated subcutaneous hydration seems to be safe and effective for young children with mild/moderate dehydration. Subcutaneous access is achieved easily, and the procedure is well accepted by clinicians and parents.

  12. Big data-enabled multiscale serviceability analysis for aging bridges☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to constructing a multi-scale structural health monitoring system to monitor and evaluate the serviceability of bridges based on the Hadoop Ecosystem (MS-SHM-Hadoop. By taking the advantages of the fault-tolerant distributed file system called the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS and high-performance parallel data processing engine called MapReduce programming paradigm, MS-SHM-Hadoop features include high scalability and robustness in data ingestion, fusion, processing, retrieval, and analytics. MS-SHM-Hadoop is a multi-scale reliability analysis framework, which ranges from nationwide bridge-surveys, global structural integrity analysis, and structural component reliability analysis. This Nationwide bridge survey uses deep-learning techniques to evaluate the bridge serviceability according to real-time sensory data or archived bridge-related data such as traffic status, weather conditions and bridge structural configuration. The global structural integrity analysis of a targeted bridge is made by processing and analyzing the measured vibration signals incurred by external loads such as wind and traffic flow. Component-wise reliability analysis is also enabled by the deep learning technique, where the input data is derived from the measured structural load effects, hyper-spectral images, and moisture measurement of the structural components. As one of its major contributions, this work employs a Bayesian network to formulate the integral serviceability of a bridge according to its components serviceability and inter-component correlations. Here the inter-component correlations are jointly specified using a statistics-oriented machine learning method (e.g., association rule learning or structural mechanics modeling and simulation.

  13. Biofunctionalized conductive polymers enable efficient CO2 electroreduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Halime; Aljabour, Abdalaziz; De Luna, Phil; Farka, Dominik; Greunz, Theresia; Stifter, David; Kus, Mahmut; Zheng, Xueli; Liu, Min; Hassel, Achim W.; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Stadler, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Selective electrocatalysts are urgently needed for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels, thereby closing the carbon cycle. To date, noble metals have achieved the best performance in energy yield and faradaic efficiency and have recently reached impressive electrical-to-chemical power conversion efficiencies. However, the scarcity of precious metals makes the search for scalable, metal-free, CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) catalysts all the more important. We report an all-organic, that is, metal-free, electrocatalyst that achieves impressive performance comparable to that of best-in-class Ag electrocatalysts. We hypothesized that polydopamine—a conjugated polymer whose structure incorporates hydrogen-bonded motifs found in enzymes—could offer the combination of efficient electrical conduction, together with rendered active catalytic sites, and potentially thereby enable CO2RR. Only by developing a vapor-phase polymerization of polydopamine were we able to combine the needed excellent conductivity with thin film–based processing. We achieve catalytic performance with geometric current densities of 18 mA cm−2 at 0.21 V overpotential (−0.86 V versus normal hydrogen electrode) for the electrosynthesis of C1 species (carbon monoxide and formate) with continuous 16-hour operation at >80% faradaic efficiency. Our catalyst exhibits lower overpotentials than state-of-the-art formate-selective metal electrocatalysts (for example, 0.5 V for Ag at 18 mA cm−1). The results confirm the value of exploiting hydrogen-bonded sequences as effective catalytic centers for renewable and cost-efficient industrial CO2RR applications. PMID:28798958

  14. Self discovery enables robot social cognition: are you my teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipa, Krishnanand N; Bongard, Josh C; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    Infants exploit the perception that others are 'like me' to bootstrap social cognition (Meltzoff, 2007a). This paper demonstrates how the above theory can be instantiated in a social robot that uses itself as a model to recognize structural similarities with other robots; this thereby enables the student to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate teachers. This is accomplished by the student robot first performing self-discovery, a phase in which it uses actuation-perception relationships to infer its own structure. Second, the student models a candidate teacher using a vision-based active learning approach to create an approximate physical simulation of the teacher. Third, the student determines that the teacher is structurally similar (but not necessarily visually similar) to itself if it can find a neural controller that allows its self model (created in the first phase) to reproduce the perceived motion of the teacher model (created in the second phase). Fourth, the student uses the neural controller (created in the third phase) to move, resulting in imitation of the teacher. Results with a physical student robot and two physical robot teachers demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The generalizability of the proposed model allows it to be used over variations in the demonstrator: The student robot would still be able to imitate teachers of different sizes and at different distances from itself, as well as different positions in its field of view, because change in the interrelations of the teacher's body parts are used for imitation, rather than absolute geometric properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroscience imaging enabled by new highly tunable and high peak power femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscience applications benefit from recent developments in industrial femtosecond laser technology. New laser sources provide several megawatts of peak power at wavelength of 1040 nm, which enables simultaneous optogenetics photoactivation of tens or even hundreds of neurons using red shifted opsins. Another recent imaging trend is to move towards longer wavelengths, which would enable access to deeper layers of tissue due to lower scattering and lower absorption in the tissue. Femtosecond lasers pumping a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) enable the access to longer wavelengths with high peak powers. High peak powers of >10 MW at 1300 nm and 1700 nm allow effective 3-photon excitation of green and red shifted calcium indicators respectively and access to deeper, sub-cortex layers of the brain. Early results include in vivo detection of spontaneous activity in hippocampus within an intact mouse brain, where neurons express GCaMP6 activated in a 3-photon process at 1320 nm.

  16. Cognitive, sensory and physical factors enabling driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Wood, Joanne; Lord, Stephen; Walker, Janine G

    2005-01-01

    We reviewed literature on cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors associated with safe driving and crash risk in older adults with the goal of developing a model of factors enabling safe driving behaviour. Thirteen empirical studies reporting associations between cognitive, sensory, motor and physical factors and either self-reported crashes, state crash records or on-road driving measures were identified. Measures of attention, reaction time, memory, executive function, mental status, visual function, and physical function variables were associated with driving outcome measures. Self-monitoring was also identified as a factor that may moderate observed effects by influencing driving behavior. We propose that three enabling factors (cognition, sensory function and physical function/medical conditions) predict driving ability, but that accurate self-monitoring of these enabling factors is required for safe driving behaviour.

  17. Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2018-06-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The financial maths task asked students to decide on the best fundraising option for the school. We used the theory of practice architectures to analyse the interactions in the classroom in order to understand what may have enabled and constrained classroom practices. We found that classroom practices such as engaging with peers through positive and collaborative learning opportunities, making ethical, social and mathematical connections of the task, and considering the impact of financial decisions on others may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education.

  18. Exploring the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Levon Ellen; O'Brien, Mia; Makar, Katie

    2017-08-01

    From an early age, children are faced with financial dilemmas and are expected to make effective financial decisions about money. In this paper, we explore the classroom practices that may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education. We observed an inquiry-based mathematics lesson in a Year 4 primary school classroom. The financial maths task asked students to decide on the best fundraising option for the school. We used the theory of practice architectures to analyse the interactions in the classroom in order to understand what may have enabled and constrained classroom practices. We found that classroom practices such as engaging with peers through positive and collaborative learning opportunities, making ethical, social and mathematical connections of the task, and considering the impact of financial decisions on others may enable a compassionate approach to financial literacy education.

  19. A federated semantic metadata registry framework for enabling interoperability across clinical research and care domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaci, A Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B

    2013-10-01

    In order to enable secondary use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) by bridging the interoperability gap between clinical care and research domains, in this paper, a unified methodology and the supporting framework is introduced which brings together the power of metadata registries (MDR) and semantic web technologies. We introduce a federated semantic metadata registry framework by extending the ISO/IEC 11179 standard, and enable integration of data element registries through Linked Open Data (LOD) principles where each Common Data Element (CDE) can be uniquely referenced, queried and processed to enable the syntactic and semantic interoperability. Each CDE and their components are maintained as LOD resources enabling semantic links with other CDEs, terminology systems and with implementation dependent content models; hence facilitating semantic search, much effective reuse and semantic interoperability across different application domains. There are several important efforts addressing the semantic interoperability in healthcare domain such as IHE DEX profile proposal, CDISC SHARE and CDISC2RDF. Our architecture complements these by providing a framework to interlink existing data element registries and repositories for multiplying their potential for semantic interoperability to a greater extent. Open source implementation of the federated semantic MDR framework presented in this paper is the core of the semantic interoperability layer of the SALUS project which enables the execution of the post marketing safety analysis studies on top of existing EHR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers and enablers to physical activity participation in patients with COPD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Olivia; Johnston, Kylie; Kumar, Saravana

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to improve symptoms in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the high health and financial costs, the uptake of management strategies, particularly participation in PA and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), are low. The review objective here was to identify potential barriers and enablers, which people with COPD report being associated with their participation in PA programs, including PR. A systematic search was undertaken to identify studies (published Jan 2000 to Aug 2011) reporting any barriers and enablers experienced by people with COPD regarding participation in PA and PR. Methodological quality of the studies was appraised using McMaster critical appraisal tools. A narrative summary of findings was undertaken reporting on individual study characteristics, country of origin, participants, and potential barriers and enablers. Eleven studies (8 qualitative and 3 quantitative) met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Several methodological issues (small sampling, poor description of data collection and analysis, issues with generalizability of the research findings) were common among included studies. Barriers identified included changing health status, personal issues, lack of support, external factors, ongoing smoking, and program-specific barriers. Enablers identified included social support, professional support, personal drivers, personal benefit, control of condition, specific goals, and program-specific enablers. The findings from this review may assist health professionals, patients, care givers and the wider community to develop effective strategies to promote participation in PA and PR among people with COPD.

  1. Barriers and enablers that influence sustainable interprofessional education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Tanya Rechael; Anson, Judith; Greenfield, David

    2014-07-01

    The effective incorporation of interprofessional education (IPE) within health professional curricula requires the synchronised and systematic collaboration between and within the various stakeholders. Higher education institutions, as primary health education providers, have the capacity to advocate and facilitate this collaboration. However, due to the diversity of stakeholders, facilitating the pedagogical change can be challenging and complex, and brings a degree of uncertainty and resistance. This review, through an analysis of the barriers and enablers investigates the involvement of stakeholders in higher education IPE through three primary stakeholder levels: Government and Professional, Institutional and Individual. A review of eight primary databases using 21 search terms resulted in 40 papers for review. While the barriers to IPE are widely reported within the higher education IPE literature, little is documented about the enablers of IPE. Similarly, the specific identification and importance of enablers for IPE sustainability and the dual nature of some barriers and enablers have not been previously reported. An analysis of the barriers and enablers of IPE across the different stakeholder levels reveals five key "fundamental elements" critical to achieving sustainable IPE in higher education curricula.

  2. Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer; Cappers, Peter

    2017-08-28

    The Demand Response Advanced Controls Framework and Assessment of Enabling Technology Costs research describe a variety of DR opportunities and the various bulk power system services they can provide. The bulk power system services are mapped to a generalized taxonomy of DR “service types”, which allows us to discuss DR opportunities and bulk power system services in fewer yet broader categories that share similar technological requirements which mainly drive DR enablement costs. The research presents a framework for the costs to automate DR and provides descriptions of the various elements that drive enablement costs. The report introduces the various DR enabling technologies and end-uses, identifies the various services that each can provide to the grid and provides the cost assessment for each enabling technology. In addition to a report, this research includes a Demand Response Advanced Controls Database and User Manual. They are intended to provide users with the data that underlies this research and instructions for how to use that database more effectively and efficiently.

  3. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  4. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sherjeel M; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2018-04-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  6. The ENABLER---based on proven NERVA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.M.; Pierce, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ENABLER reactor for use in a nuclear thermal propulsion engine uses the technology developed in the NERVA/Rover program, updated to incorporate advances in the technology. Using composite fuel, higher power densities per fuel element, improved radiation resistant control components and the advancements in use of carbon-carbon materials; the ENABLER can provide a specific impulse of 925 seconds, an engine thrust to weight (excluding reactor shield) approaching five, an improved initial Mass In Low Earth Orbit (IMLEO) and a consequent reduction in launch costs and logistics problems. This paper describes the 75,000 lbs thrust ENABLER design which is a low cost, low risk approach to meeting tomorrow's space propulsion needs

  7. CMOS Enabled Microfluidic Systems for Healthcare Based Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Sherjeel M.

    2018-02-27

    With the increased global population, it is more important than ever to expand accessibility to affordable personalized healthcare. In this context, a seamless integration of microfluidic technology for bioanalysis and drug delivery and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled data-management circuitry is critical. Therefore, here, the fundamentals, integration aspects, and applications of CMOS-enabled microfluidic systems for affordable personalized healthcare systems are presented. Critical components, like sensors, actuators, and their fabrication and packaging, are discussed and reviewed in detail. With the emergence of the Internet-of-Things and the upcoming Internet-of-Everything for a people-process-data-device connected world, now is the time to take CMOS-enabled microfluidics technology to as many people as possible. There is enormous potential for microfluidic technologies in affordable healthcare for everyone, and CMOS technology will play a major role in making that happen.

  8. Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a

  9. A Network Enabled Platform for Canadian Space Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Boteler, D. R.; Jayachandran, T. P.; Mann, I. R.; Sofko, G.; Yau, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    The internet is an example of a pervasive disruptive technology that has transformed society on a global scale. The term "cyberinfrastructure" refers to technology underpinning the collaborative aspect of large science projects and is synonymous with terms such as e-Science, intelligent infrastructure, and/or e- infrastructure. In the context of space science, a significant challenge is to exploit the internet and cyberinfrastructure to form effective virtual organizations (VOs) of scientists that have common or agreed- upon objectives. A typical VO is likely to include universities and government agencies specializing in types of instrumentation (ground and/or space based), which in deployment produce large quantities of space data. Such data is most effectively described by metadata, which if defined in a standard way, facilitates discovery and retrieval of data over the internet by intelligent interfaces and cyberinfrastructure. One recent and significant approach is SPASE, which is being developed by NASA as a data-standard for its Virtual Observatories (VxOs) programs. The space science community in Canada has recently formed a VO designed to complement the e-POP microsatellite mission, and new ground-based observatories (GBOs) that collect data over a large fraction of the Canadian land-mass. The VO includes members of the CGSM community (www.cgsm.ca), which is funded operationally by the Canadian Space Agency. It also includes the UCLA VMO team, and scientists in the NASA THEMIS mission. CANARIE (www.canarie.ca), the federal agency responsible for management, design and operation of Canada's research internet, has recently recognized the value of cyberinfrastucture through the creation of a Network-Enabled-Platforms (NEPs) program. An NEP for space science was funded by CANARIE in its first competition. When fully implemented, the Space Science NEP will consist of a front-end portal providing access to CGSM data. It will utilize an adaptation of the SPASE

  10. Web-palvelu Housing Enabler -arviointivälineelle

    OpenAIRE

    Liukko, Sakarias

    2009-01-01

    Opinnäytteen lähtökohtana oli ET Elämisen Tuki Oy:n tarve korvata esteettömyyden arvioinnissa käytettävä, Housing Enabler -menetelmän apuna toiminut, tietokonesovellus tietoverkkojen välityksellä toimivalla järjestelmällä. Työssä perehdyttiin Housing Enabler -arviointivälineeseen ja palvelukeskeisen arkkitehtuurin mukaisesti toteutettaviin tietoverkkojen kautta käytettävien palvelujen toteutusteknologioihin Java EE -arkkitehtuurissa. Järjestelmä toteutettiin näiden periaatteiden mukaises...

  11. Constructing Chains of Enablers for Alternative Economic Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    economies. This article illustrates a way of researching alternative economic futures by identifying chains of enablers in Denmark and other Nordic countries by which society and business can co-develop and capture capabilities to take on new roles in globalization. Focus is on institutional enablers.......). Being generally inclusive of social movements, welfare states has also helped identify new needs on the "demand side" such as child- and eldercare, environmental protection, alternative energy and energy-saving, health, and city planning. This is illustrated by a number of firms that supply products...

  12. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues

  13. Nanostructure-Enabled and Macromolecule-Grafted Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Small

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have enabled the development of functional biomaterials with surface properties that reduce the rate of the device rejection in injectable and implantable biomaterials. In addition, the surface of biomaterials can be functionalized with macromolecules for stimuli-responsive purposes to improve the efficacy and effectiveness in drug release applications. Furthermore, macromolecule-grafted surfaces exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure that mimics nanotextured surfaces for the promotion of cellular responses in tissue engineering. Owing to these unique properties, this review focuses on the grafting of macromolecules on the surfaces of various biomaterials (e.g., films, fibers, hydrogels, and etc. to create nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces for biomedical applications, such as thrombosis prevention and wound healing. The macromolecule-modified surfaces can be treated as a functional device that either passively inhibits adverse effects from injectable and implantable devices or actively delivers biological agents that are locally based on proper stimulation. In this review, several methods are discussed to enable the surface of biomaterials to be used for further grafting of macromolecules. In addition, we review surface-modified films (coatings and fibers with respect to several biomedical applications. Our review provides a scientific update on the current achievements and future trends of nanostructure-enabled and macromolecule-grafted surfaces in biomedical applications.

  14. Enabling software defined networking experiments in networked critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Genge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fact that Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCI, e.g., power plants, water plants, oil and gas distribution infrastructures, and electricity grids, are targeted by significant cyber threats is well known. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that specific characteristics of NCI can be exploited in the enabling of more efficient mitigation techniques, while novel techniques from the field of IP networks can bring significant advantages. In this paper we explore the interconnection of NCI communication infrastructures with Software Defined Networking (SDN-enabled network topologies. SDN provides the means to create virtual networking services and to implement global networking decisions. It relies on OpenFlow to enable communication with remote devices and has been recently categorized as the “Next Big Technology”, which will revolutionize the way decisions are implemented in switches and routers. Therefore, the paper documents the first steps towards enabling an SDN-NCI and presents the impact of a Denial of Service experiment over traffic resulting from an XBee sensor network which is routed across an emulated SDN network.

  15. An overview of enabling technology research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the US Fusion Energy Sciences Program is to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. In support of this overall mission, the Enabling Technology Program in the US incorporates both near and long term R and D, contributes to material and engineering sciences as well as technology development, contributes to spin-off applications, and performs global systems assessments and focused design studies. This work supports both magnetic and inertial fusion energy (IFE) concepts. The Enabling Technology research mission is to contribute to the national science and technology base by developing the enabling technology for existing and next-step experimental devices, by exploring and understanding key materials and technology feasibility issues for attractive fusion power sources, by conducting advanced design studies that integrate the wealth of our understanding to guide R and D priorities and by developing design solutions for next-step and future devices. The Enabling Technology Program Plan is organized around five elements: plasma technologies, fusion (chamber) technologies, materials sciences, advanced design, and IFE chamber and target technologies. The principal technical features and research objectives are described for each element

  16. An Agent-based Application to Enable Deregulated Energy Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capodieci, Nicola; Cabri, Giacomo; Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Private houses are more and more enabled with devices that can produce renewable energy, and the not so remote chance of selling the surplus energy makes them new players in the energy market. This market is likely to become deregulated since each energy home-producer can negotiate the energy price

  17. Enabling Sex Workers to Document Violence (India and Cambodia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Digital advocacy techniques have been used to document human rights abuses and communicate these to people of influence, but these have yet to be systematically applied to sex worker-led advocacy. This project is based on the assumption that enabling sex workers to document violations and amplify their advocacy ...

  18. The Value of RFID Technology Enabled Information to Manage Perishables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Ketzenberg (Michael); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe address the value of RFID technology enabled information to manage perishables in the context of a supplier that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product's lifetime is largely determined by the time and temperature history in the supply

  19. Sparsity enabled cluster reduced-order models for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eurika; Morzyński, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Kutz, J. Nathan; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling nonlinear, multi-scale phenomena are central goals in science and engineering. Cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) was introduced to exploit the underlying low-dimensional dynamics of complex systems. CROM builds a data-driven discretization of the Perron-Frobenius operator, resulting in a probabilistic model for ensembles of trajectories. A key advantage of CROM is that it embeds nonlinear dynamics in a linear framework, which enables the application of standard linear techniques to the nonlinear system. CROM is typically computed on high-dimensional data; however, access to and computations on this full-state data limit the online implementation of CROM for prediction and control. Here, we address this key challenge by identifying a small subset of critical measurements to learn an efficient CROM, referred to as sparsity-enabled CROM. In particular, we leverage compressive measurements to faithfully embed the cluster geometry and preserve the probabilistic dynamics. Further, we show how to identify fewer optimized sensor locations tailored to a specific problem that outperform random measurements. Both of these sparsity-enabled sensing strategies significantly reduce the burden of data acquisition and processing for low-latency in-time estimation and control. We illustrate this unsupervised learning approach on three different high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems from fluids with increasing complexity, with one application in flow control. Sparsity-enabled CROM is a critical facilitator for real-time implementation on high-dimensional systems where full-state information may be inaccessible.

  20. Combinatorial algorithms enabling computational science: tales from the front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Boman, Erik G; Devine, Karen; Gebremedhin, Assefaw; Hendrickson, Bruce; Hovland, Paul; Munson, Todd; Pothen, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial algorithms have long played a crucial enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. The importance of discrete algorithms continues to grow with the demands of new applications and advanced architectures. This paper surveys some recent developments in this rapidly changing and highly interdisciplinary field

  1. Concept relation discovery and innovation enabling technology (CORDIET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Neznanov, A.; Viaene, S.; Kuznetsov, S.O.; Ignatov, D.; Dedene, G.

    2011-01-01

    Concept Relation Discovery and Innovation Enabling Technology (CORDIET), is a toolbox for gaining new knowledge from unstructured text data. At the core of CORDIET is the C-K theory which captures the essential elements of innovation. The tool uses Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Emergent Self

  2. ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper centres on ICT enabled education and ICT driven e-learning strategies: benefits and setbacks in Nigeria education system. It is in fact among the academic struggle to bring to the lime-light, the knowledge of ICT to scholars especially in the domain of education. The paper captured interesting discussion on the ...

  3. School Culture and Postgraduate Professional Development: Delineating the "Enabling School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Linet; Marland, Harriet; Pill, Amanda; Rea, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The culture of the "enabling school" is investigated within the context of the government's policy of continuing professional development and postgraduate professional development for teachers in England. This context is problematised by considering teachers' conceptualisations of their professional autonomy, status and personal…

  4. Enabling white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents towards post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using rich qualitative data, we describe the ecosystemically-embedded protective antecedents that enabled 10 white, Afrikaans-speaking adolescents from divorced families towards resilience. The description both confirms and extends what was known about the roots of adolescent resilience, post-divorce. We use these ...

  5. Enabling spaces in education research: an agenda for impactful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An enabling schools research agenda could intentionally guide inquiry into that which supports education, where chronic poverty renders society as characteristically less equal. Keywords: barriers to education; buffers in education; egalitarian political philosophy; equality of opportunity; global South education; high risk ...

  6. Enablement in health care context: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Bravo, Gina; Poitras, Marie-Eve

    2011-02-01

    The enablement process is defined as a professional intervention aiming to recognize, support and emphasize the patient's capacity to have control over her or his health and life. The purpose of this article was to study the enablement concept through a concept analysis in the health care context to identify: (1) its attributes and (2) its antecedents and consequents. A concept analysis was performed according to the method of Rodgers. The literature was reviewed from 1980 to June 2008, using search strategies adapted to the databases Cinahl, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and Social Works Abstract, and hand searching. All articles contributing to a deeper understanding of the concept were included. The analysis was carried out according to a thematic analysis procedure, as described by Miles & Huberman. The search identified 1305 citations. After in-depth assessment of 148 potentially eligible citations, 61 articles were included in the review. Five articles were added with hand searching. Sixty-seven per cent of these articles were related to nursing. The attributes of the enablement concept included: contribution to the therapeutic relationship; consideration of the person as a whole; facilitation of learning; valorization of the person's strengths; implication and support to decision making; and broadening of the possibilities. These attributes could be used as a basis for other studies on enablement. Conceptual and empirical work is still needed to better position this concept among others such as patient-centred care, shared decision making and patient's participation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Enabling the development of student teacher professional identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the views of student teachers who were provided vicarious learning opportunities during an educational excursion, and how the learning enabled them to develop their teacher professional identity. This qualitative research study, using a social-constructivist lens highlights how vicarious learning ...

  8. "Design for Somebody" - Approach Enabling Mobile Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Tommiska, Janika; Saarinen, Tatu-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents case examples of Design for Somebody (DfS) philosophy used both in developing novel technologies and modifying existing main stream technologies applicable for users with special needs. DfS embodies variety of mobile technology approaches to generate personalised means to enable and motivate physical, cognitive and social skills development.

  9. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  10. Enabling legislation and regulatory determinations for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Vinh, Phuong

    1975-01-01

    Broad definition of the scope of enabling legislation, identification of branches of laws involved in the licensing and regulatory control, overview of some typical licensing practices and provisions, some specific legislative or regulatory requirements including financial security to over nuclear liability. (HP) [de

  11. Parent Group Education to ENABLE “Barrio” Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Curiel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a 1960s “War on Poverty” parent group education program that brought together three national private voluntary agencies with federal funding by the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO. Project ENABLE (Education Neighborhood Action for a Better Living Environment sought to direct professional efforts to help/empower the poor and societal members of ethnic minority groups. Group education as a preventive modality was used to strengthen parents’ problem solving skills in their roles both as parents and as community leaders. The author describes his group leadership role together with that of the indigenous case aides who helped direct/enable the collective power of a group of poor Spanish speaking Mexican origin families living in barrios (neighborhoods of a major metropolitan southern city. Project ENABLE embraced a strengths-based perspective characteristic of social work’s historical empowerment traditions. Despite its brief existence, Project ENABLE functioned as a demonstration program in 62 communities across the United States. Ironically, its prevention focus and demonstration nature served to undermine its ability to compete with other OEO initiatives like Head Start and job training programs. The author cites a combination of historical and logistic factors that contributed to the short life and ultimate demise of a once promising outreach program.

  12. Exploring leadership behaviours perceived to enable salesperson performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boehnke Peesker, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study builds on previous sales leadership research by examining, comparing, and contrasting sales leaders’ and sales representatives’ perceptions of what leadership behaviours enable salesperson performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sales teams in a global enterprise software company. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and statements coded into categories of leadership behaviours. Overall the sales professionals perceived the leadership behaviou...

  13. Laser enabled refurbishment and performance enhancement of industrial components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is unavailable Thank you for your attention! ? CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 33 The Laser Materials Processing Competence area wishes to express their gratitude to: ? DST ? CSIR ?Fraunhofer ILT For enabling us to make LIGHT work...

  14. Key enabling technologies (Kets) observatory. Second report December 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, Els van de; Pieterjan, Debergh; Wydra, Sven; Som, Oliver; Heide, Marcel de

    2015-01-01

    Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) provide the basis for innovation in a wide range of products and processes across all industrial sectors (emerging and traditional) and are essential to solve Europe’s major societal challenges. Six KETs have been identified as important for Europe’s future competitiveness: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Advanced Materials, Nanotechnology, Micro- and Nanoelectronics, Industrial Biotechnology, and Photonics.

  15. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  16. Combinatorial algorithms enabling computational science: tales from the front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Boman, Erik G [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Devine, Karen [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gebremedhin, Assefaw [Computer Science Department, Old Dominion University (United States); Hendrickson, Bruce [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Hovland, Paul [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Munson, Todd [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Pothen, Alex [Computer Science Department, Old Dominion University (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Combinatorial algorithms have long played a crucial enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. The importance of discrete algorithms continues to grow with the demands of new applications and advanced architectures. This paper surveys some recent developments in this rapidly changing and highly interdisciplinary field.

  17. Exploring the fact ors that enable or obstruct collaboration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the fact ors that enable or obstruct collaboration among female mathematics teachers in a South African primary school. ... the factors that facilitate or hinder teacher collaboration centre around a shared vision for good practice, strong professional relationships and opportunities for teachers to share their practices.

  18. Designing Technology-Enabled Instruction to Utilize Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Randall; Nyland, Robert; Bodily, Robert; Chapman, John; Jones, Brian; Young, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A key notion conveyed by those who advocate for the use of data to enhance instruction is an awareness that learning analytics has the potential to improve instruction and learning but is not currently reaching that potential. Gibbons (2014) suggested that a lack of learning facilitated by current technology-enabled instructional systems may be…

  19. Enabling Success: 2011-2012 Think Tank Initiative Annual Report ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-06-12

    In addition to a review of the Initiative's overall progress, this year's annual report, Enabling Success, captures the conversations at last year's TTI Exchange in Cape Town about what it means to be a ... English · Français ... June 12, 2013.

  20. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  1. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  2. Feeding the nuclear pipeline: Enabling a global nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, Alan E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: There is nothing more vital to the advancement of human civilization than the abundance of usable and affordable energy. It underpins national security, economic prosperity, and global stability. Nuclear energy, which exhibits a unique combination of environmental and sustainable attributes, appears strongly positioned to play a much larger and more pivotal role in the mix of future global energy supplies than it has played in the past. Unfortunately, after a fairly rapid growth period within the industrialized nations in the 1960 to 1980 time frame, a variety of factors led to a substantial reduction in commercial nuclear power plant construction (with the possible exception of several Pacific Rim countries). This, in turn, led to a serious erosion in the enrollment patterns of nuclear engineering programs - causing alarmingly low enrollment levels in many counties by the turn of the century. Numerous studies conducted over the past five years have soberly come to the consistent conclusion that the nuclear pipeline cannot keep up with the needs of the nuclear industry. In fact, when combining the aging work force with low matriculation rates in most nuclear engineering academic programs, a huge (and unacceptable) mismatch between needs and supply is strikingly evident. This is further exasperated by the lack of meaningful efforts to capture the knowledge of the 'first nuclear era' professionals in a form that can be effectively transferred to the upcoming generation. Methods must be found to better capture the enormous body of experience already accumulated and both document it and then mentor the new nuclear engineers that do enter the work force to enable them to build upon this experience, rather than having to re-create it. On the positive side, enrollment patterns in the majority of nuclear engineering programs still in existence within the United States are now generally on the rise, at least at the undergraduate level. Some programs have

  3. Toxicological Implications of Released Particulate Matter during Thermal Decomposition of Nano-Enabled Thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, Christa; Singh, Dilpreet; Demokritou, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Nano-enabled thermoplastics are part of the growing market of nano-enabled products (NEPs) that have vast utility in several industries and consumer goods. The use and disposal of NEPs at their end of life has raised concerns about the potential release of constituent engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) during thermal decomposition and their impact on environmental health and safety. To investigate this issue, industrially relevant nano-enabled thermoplastics including polyurethane, polycarbonate, and polypropylene containing carbon nanotubes (0.1 and 3% w/v, respectively), polyethylene containing nanoscale iron oxide (5% w/v), and ethylene vinyl acetate containing nanoscale titania (2 and 5% w/v) along with their pure thermoplastic matrices were thermally decomposed using the recently developed lab based Integrated Exposure Generation System (INEXS). The life cycle released particulate matter (called LCPM) was monitored using real time instrumentation, size fractionated, sampled, extracted and prepared for toxicological analysis using primary small airway epithelial cells to assess potential toxicological effects. Various cellular assays were used to assess reactive oxygen species and total glutathione as measurements of oxidative stress along with mitochondrial function, cellular viability, and DNA damage. By comparing toxicological profiles of LCPM released from polymer only (control) with nano-enabled LCPM, potential nanofiller effects due to the use of ENMs were determined. We observed associations between NEP properties such as the percent nanofiller loading, host matrix, and nanofiller chemical composition and the physico-chemical properties of released LCPM, which were linked to biological outcomes. More specifically, an increase in percent nanofiller loading promoted a toxicological response independent of increasing LCPM dose. Importantly, differences in host matrix and nanofiller composition were shown to enhance biological activity and toxicity of LCPM

  4. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  5. Can Mobile-Enabled Payment Methods Reduce Petty Corruption in Urban Water Provision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Krolikowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in the urban water sector constrains economic growth and human development in low-income countries. This paper empirically evaluates the ability of novel mobile-enabled payment methods to reduce information asymmetries and mitigate petty corruption in the urban water sector’s billing and payment processes. Overcoming these barriers may promote improved governance and water service delivery. The case of Dar es Salaam is used to explore the role of mobile-enabled payment instruments through the use of a stratified random sample of 1097 water utility customers and 42 interviews with representatives from the water sector, the telecommunications industry, civil society, and banking institutions. Results show that mobile-enabled payment methods can reduce information asymmetries and the incidence of petty corruption to promote improved financial management by making payment data more transparent and limiting the availability of economic rents in the billing and payment process. Implications for African urban water services include wider availability and more effective use of human and financial resources. These can be used to enhance water service delivery and citizen participation in the production of urban water supplies. The use of mobile-enabled payment methods in the urban water sector represents an application of mobile communication technologies in a low-income country with proven potential for scalability that simultaneously supports the achievement of development objectives.

  6. Emotional labour demands in enabling education: A qualitative exploration of the unique challenges and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Crawford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in enabling programs bring richness, diversity, and complexity to the teaching and learning environment. They are often from under-represented backgrounds, have experienced educational disadvantage or disruption, belong to multiple equity groups, and face academic and non-academic challenges, including mental ill-health. This pilot study explored academic staff experiences in teaching and supporting students in enabling programs. Using a collaborative autoethnographical approach, four members of a multi-institutional research group wrote first-person reflections in response to guiding questions. From generative and reflective discussions, different themes arose. A major theme was the high ‘emotional labour demands’ of teaching a vulnerable cohort, with both positive and negative effects on staff. Other major themes included: the diversity of emotional responses and coping strategies; the complex, sometimes contradictory, role of the enabling educator; the importance of communities of care and support; and the impact of witnessing students’ transformations. Within these themes, the challenges, rewards, and protective factors, which mitigate stress among enabling educators, were identified.

  7. A standard-enabled workflow for synthetic biology

    KAUST Repository

    Myers, Chris J.

    2017-06-15

    A synthetic biology workflow is composed of data repositories that provide information about genetic parts, sequence-level design tools to compose these parts into circuits, visualization tools to depict these designs, genetic design tools to select parts to create systems, and modeling and simulation tools to evaluate alternative design choices. Data standards enable the ready exchange of information within such a workflow, allowing repositories and tools to be connected from a diversity of sources. The present paper describes one such workflow that utilizes, among others, the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) to describe genetic designs, the Systems Biology Markup Language to model these designs, and SBOL Visual to visualize these designs. We describe how a standard-enabled workflow can be used to produce types of design information, including multiple repositories and software tools exchanging information using a variety of data standards. Recently, the ACS Synthetic Biology journal has recommended the use of SBOL in their publications.

  8. The Role of Technology as an Enabler in Job Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Savino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an acknowledgement of the role of technology as an enabler that encourages the constant need to evaluate, update and employ changing job descriptions and business processes that truly acknowledge job requirements as they are versus notions of what they have been or should be. Advancements in technology have brought about a significant amount of change in terms of how we go about doing our daily work. The evolution from being a manufacturing economy to being information and service based brought to the workplace new realities and responsibilities. As a result, workers can no longer expect to be given a specific listing of assigned duties and tasks that remain fixed over a long period of time. The new paradigm in the workplace relies on continuous demands for improvement and acquired knowledge in a dynamic environment. The catalyst that enables continuous improvement is technology.

  9. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  10. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Several technologies can be applied to enable mobile location services, but most of them suffer from limited accuracy and availability. GPS can solve the problem of determining the location of users in most outdoor situations, but an end-user position inside a building cannot be pinpointed. Other...... mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approaches must be supplemented by new technologies. Wireless short-range technologies like Bluetooth could...... be candidates for solving these problems. This paper shows that Bluetooth can act as a key enabler of mobile location services in an in-door environment. The advantage of Bluetooth technology is, that it can provide rather precise location data inside a building or hotspot area, while the Bluetooth terminal...

  11. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  12. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corliss, G.F.; Griewank, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste

  13. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  14. Green communication: The enabler to multiple business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Clemmensen, Suberia; Taran, Yariv

    2010-01-01

    Companies stand at the forefront of a new business model reality with new potentials - that will change their basic understanding and practice of running their business models radically. One of the drivers to this change is green communication, its strong relation to green business models and its...... possibility to enable lower energy consumption. This paper shows how green communication enables innovation of green business models and multiple business models running simultaneously in different markets to different customers.......Companies stand at the forefront of a new business model reality with new potentials - that will change their basic understanding and practice of running their business models radically. One of the drivers to this change is green communication, its strong relation to green business models and its...

  15. Democratized electronics to enable smart living for all

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-12-25

    With the increased global population, smart living is an increasingly important criteria to ensure equal opportunities for all. Therefore, what is Smart Living? The first time when we tossed this terminology seven years back, we thought reducing complexities in human life. Today we believe it more. However, smart living for all complicates the technological need further. As by all, we mean any age group, any academic background and any financial condition. Although electronics are powerful today and have enabled our digital world, many as of today have not experienced that progress. Going forward while we realize more and more electronics in our daily life, the most important question would be how. Here we show, a heterogeneous integration approach to integrate low-cost high performance interactive electronic system which are physically compliant. We are redesigning electronics to redefine its purposes to reconfigure life for all to enable smart living.

  16. Democratized electronics to enable smart living for all

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Nassar, Joanna M.; Khan, S. M.; Saikh, S. F.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Babatain, Wedyan; Muslem, A. S.; Nour, Maha A.; Wicaksono, I.; Mishra, Kush

    2017-01-01

    With the increased global population, smart living is an increasingly important criteria to ensure equal opportunities for all. Therefore, what is Smart Living? The first time when we tossed this terminology seven years back, we thought reducing complexities in human life. Today we believe it more. However, smart living for all complicates the technological need further. As by all, we mean any age group, any academic background and any financial condition. Although electronics are powerful today and have enabled our digital world, many as of today have not experienced that progress. Going forward while we realize more and more electronics in our daily life, the most important question would be how. Here we show, a heterogeneous integration approach to integrate low-cost high performance interactive electronic system which are physically compliant. We are redesigning electronics to redefine its purposes to reconfigure life for all to enable smart living.

  17. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management).

  18. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, Kenneth I. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  19. GNSS CORS hardware and software enabling new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P.

    2009-12-01

    GNSS CORS networks are enabling new opportunities for science and public and private sector business. This paper will explore how the newest geodetic monitoring software and GNSS receiver hardware from Trimble Navigation Ltd are enabling new science. Technology trends and science opportunities will be explored. These trends include the installation of active GNSS control, automation of observations and processing, and the advantages of multi-observable and multi-constellation observations, all performed with the use of off the shelf products and industry standard open-source data formats. Also the possibilities with moving science from an after-the-fact postprocessed model to a real-time epoch-by-epoch solution will be explored. This presentation will also discuss the combination of existing GNSS CORS networks with project specific installations used for monitoring. Experience is showing GNSS is able to provide higher resolution data than previous methods, providing new tools for science, decision makers and financial planners.

  20. Enablers and barriers to implementing collaborative care for anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbeck, Gritt; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2016-01-01

    shown significant positive effects for patients suffering from depression, but since collaborative care is a complex intervention, it is important to understand the factors which affect its implementation. We present a qualitative systematic review of the enablers and barriers to implementing...... employed the normalization process theory (NPT). RESULTS: We included 17 studies in our review of which 11 were conducted in the USA, five in the UK, and one in Canada. We identified several barriers and enablers within the four major analytical dimensions of NPT. Securing buy-in among primary care...... collaborative care interventions: effective educational programs, especially for care managers; issues of reimbursement in relation to primary care providers; good systems for communication and monitoring; and promoting face-to-face interaction between care managers and physicians, preferably through co...

  1. Enabling smart retail settings via mobile augmented reality shopping apps

    OpenAIRE

    Dacko, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Retail settings are being challenged to become smarter and provide greater value to both consumers and retailers. An increasingly recognised approach having potential for enabling smart retail is mobile augmented reality (MAR) apps. In this research, we seek to describe and discover how, why and to what extent MAR apps contribute to smart retail settings by creating additional value to customers as well as benefiting retailers. In particular, by adopting a retail customer experience perspecti...

  2. Speed and Agility: How Defense Acquisition Can Enable Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Accelerators such as Y Combinator enable speed to market via a defined schedule. Y Combinator alone funded over 1,000 startups with a combined valuation ...of over $65 billion. Rapid Acquisition Organizations Acquisition executives, policy-makers, and process owners can learn from both Silicon Valley ...traits and organizational culture of the successful organizations. DARPA, Silicon Valley , and many other government and commercial organizations have

  3. Traditional and IS-Enabled Customer Acquisition on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Jeonghye Choi; David R. Bell; Leonard M. Lodish

    2012-01-01

    Geographic variation in consumer use of Internet retailers is partly explained by variation in offline shopping costs. Explanations for geographic variation in the efficacy of different customer acquisition methods including traditional methods of offline word-of-mouth (WOM) and magazine advertising and information systems (IS)-enabled methods of online WOM and online search remain unexplored. We estimate a multivariate negative binomial distribution (NBD) model on zip code-level customer cou...

  4. DNA-Enabled Integrated Molecular Systems for Computation and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Computational devices can be chemically conjugated to different strands of DNA that are then self-assembled according to strict Watson − Crick binding rules... DNA -Enabled Integrated Molecular Systems for Computation and Sensing Craig LaBoda,† Heather Duschl,† and Chris L. Dwyer*,†,‡ †Department of...guided folding of DNA , inspired by nature, allows designs to manipulate molecular-scale processes unlike any other material system. Thus, DNA can be

  5. Enabling content distribution in vehicular ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Luan, Tom H; Bai, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents key enabling technologies and state-of-the-art research on delivering efficient content distribution services to fast moving vehicles. It describes recent research developments and proposals towards the efficient, resilient and scalable content distribution to vehicles through both infrastructure-based and infrastructure-less vehicular networks. The authors focus on the rich multimedia services provided by vehicular environment content distribution including vehicular communications and media playback, giving passengers many infotainment applications. Common problem

  6. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE ENABLED JOINT CONCEPT FOR ENTRY OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    The “off-equipment” AFSs have been reduced as well. Gone are the backshops of Electrical/Environmental, Hydraulics , Avionics, and Armament. The 5th...area (A2/AD) denial battlefronts. While this is a great concept, more must be done to reduce the logistics footprint, improve logistics agility and... reduce costs of logistics operations. Logisticians must always find a way to enable the operations that our Services require. Thesis From the

  7. Enabling high performance computational science through combinatorial algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Erik G; Bozdag, Doruk; Catalyurek, Umit V; Devine, Karen D; Gebremedhin, Assefaw H; Hovland, Paul D; Pothen, Alex; Strout, Michelle Mills

    2007-01-01

    The Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations (CSCAPES) Institute is developing algorithms and software for combinatorial problems that play an enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. Discrete algorithms will be increasingly critical for achieving high performance for irregular problems on petascale architectures. This paper describes recent contributions by researchers at the CSCAPES Institute in the areas of load balancing, parallel graph coloring, performance improvement, and parallel automatic differentiation

  8. Formal Modeling and Verification of Opportunity-enabled Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aldini, Alessandro; Seigneur, Jean-Marc; Ballester Lafuente, Carlos; Titi, Xavier; Guislain, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) trend, mobile work is achieving a widespread diffusion that challenges the traditional view of security standard and risk management. A recently proposed model, called opportunity-enabled risk management (OPPRIM), aims at balancing the analysis of the major threats that arise in the BYOD setting with the analysis of the potential increased opportunities emerging in such an environment, by combining mechanisms of risk estimation with trust an...

  9. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BIM-enabled Conceptual Modelling and Representation of Building Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Kook; Kim, Mi Jeong

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how a building information modelling (BIM)-based approach for building circulation enables us to change the process of building design in terms of its computational representation and processes, focusing on the conceptual modelling and representation of circulation within buildings. BIM has been designed for use by several BIM authoring tools, in particular with the widely known interoperable industry foundation classes (IFCs), which follow an object-oriented data modelli...

  11. On the security of SSL/TLS-enabled applications

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Manik Lal; Samdaria, Navkar

    2014-01-01

    SSL/TLS (Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security)-enabled web applications aim to provide public key certificate based authentication, secure session key establishment, and symmetric key based traffic confidentiality. A large number of electronic commerce applications, such as stock trading, banking, shopping, and gaming rely on the security strength of the SSL/TLS protocol. In recent times, a potential threat, known as main-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, has been exploited by attackers of...

  12. Bluetooth enables in-door mobile location services

    OpenAIRE

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    Several technologies can be applied to enable mobile location services, but most of them suffer from limited accuracy and availability. GPS can solve the problem of determining the location of users in most outdoor situations, but an end-user position inside a building cannot be pinpointed. Other mobile location techniques can also provide the user's position, but the accuracy is rather low. In order to improve the accuracy and make location-based services really attractive, existing approach...

  13. Ways of explaining sexual harassment: motivating, enabling and legitimizing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...

  14. Workflow Support for Advanced Grid-Enabled Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fenglian; Eres, M.H.; Tao, Feng; Cox, Simon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geodise project brings computer scientists and engineer's skills together to build up a service-oriented computing environmnet for engineers to perform complicated computations in a distributed system. The workflow tool is a front GUI to provide a full life cycle of workflow functions for Grid-enabled computing. The full life cycle of workflow functions have been enhanced based our initial research and development. The life cycle starts with a composition of a workflow, followed by an ins...

  15. Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Networks (CHRON): Enabling Technologies and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We introduce and discuss in particular the technologies and techniques that will enable a cognitive optical...... network to observe, act, learn and optimizes its performance, taking into account its high degree of heterogeneity with respect to quality of service, transmission and switching techniques....

  16. Mirage: Mitigating Illicit Inventorying in a RFID Enabled Retail Environment

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jonathan; Banerjee, Nilanjan

    2010-01-01

    Given its low dollar and maintenance cost, RFID is poised to become the enabling technology for inventory control and supply chain management. However, as an outcome of its low cost, RFID based inventory control is susceptible to pernicious security and privacy threats. A deleterious attack on such a system is corporate espionage, where attackers through illicit inventorying infer sales and restocking trends for products. In this paper, we first present plausible aftermaths of corporate espio...

  17. Enabling high performance computational science through combinatorial algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Erik G [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Bozdag, Doruk [Biomedical Informatics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University (United States); Catalyurek, Umit V [Biomedical Informatics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University (United States); Devine, Karen D [Discrete Algorithms and Math Department, Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gebremedhin, Assefaw H [Computer Science and Center for Computational Science, Old Dominion University (United States); Hovland, Paul D [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Pothen, Alex [Computer Science and Center for Computational Science, Old Dominion University (United States); Strout, Michelle Mills [Computer Science, Colorado State University (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The Combinatorial Scientific Computing and Petascale Simulations (CSCAPES) Institute is developing algorithms and software for combinatorial problems that play an enabling role in scientific and engineering computations. Discrete algorithms will be increasingly critical for achieving high performance for irregular problems on petascale architectures. This paper describes recent contributions by researchers at the CSCAPES Institute in the areas of load balancing, parallel graph coloring, performance improvement, and parallel automatic differentiation.

  18. How to Enable Employee Creativity in a Team Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Yuntao; Lin, Li; Li, Peter Ping

    2016-01-01

    . However, the issue of how to enhance employee creativity from the perspective of team leader in a team context is largely understudied. This study aims to explore the cross-level links between the transformational behavior of team leader and employee creativity in a team context. We propose a three....... This study highlights the critical role of transformational leadership as across-level enabler for employee creativity....

  19. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  20. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  1. Architectural Techniques to Enable Reliable and Scalable Memory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Prashant J.

    2017-01-01

    High capacity and scalable memory systems play a vital role in enabling our desktops, smartphones, and pervasive technologies like Internet of Things (IoT). Unfortunately, memory systems are becoming increasingly prone to faults. This is because we rely on technology scaling to improve memory density, and at small feature sizes, memory cells tend to break easily. Today, memory reliability is seen as the key impediment towards using high-density devices, adopting new technologies, and even bui...

  2. How Enterprise Architecture Maturity Enables Post-merger IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törmer, Robert Lorenz; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    advances the argument that a company’s pre-existing Enterprise Architecture decisively shapes the capability to implement post-merger IT integration and subsequently realize benefits from M&A. Our multiple-case study investigates three acquisition cases and develops an explanatory theory of how Enterprise...... Architecture maturity enables the implementation of distinct integration strategies. The results do not only enrich the academic literature on M&A, but also show the strategic value of Enterprise Architecture maturity....

  3. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US?Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3%...

  4. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  5. Multi-target electrochemical biosensing enabled by integrated CMOS electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, J; Lewandowska, M K; Heer, F; Frey, O; Hierlemann, A

    2011-01-01

    An integrated electrochemical measurement system, based on CMOS technology, is presented, which allows the detection of several analytes in parallel (multi-analyte) and enables simultaneous monitoring at different locations (multi-site). The system comprises a 576-electrode CMOS sensor chip, an FPGA module for chip control and data processing, and the measurement laptop. The advantages of the highly versatile system are demonstrated by two applications. First, a label-free, hybridization-based DNA sensor is enabled by the possibility of large-scale integration in CMOS technology. Second, the detection of the neurotransmitter choline is presented by assembling the chip with biosensor microprobe arrays. The low noise level enables a limit of detection of, e.g., 0.3 µM choline. The fully integrated system is self-contained: it features cleaning, functionalization and measurement functions without the need for additional electrical equipment. With the power supplied by the laptop, the system is very suitable for on-site measurements

  6. Route Network Construction with Location-Direction-Enabled Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideyuki; Sagara, Shota; Ohmori, Tadashi; Shintani, Takahiko

    2018-05-01

    We propose a method for constructing a geometric graph for generating routes that summarize a geographical area and also have visual continuity by using a set of location-direction-enabled photographs. A location- direction-enabled photograph is a photograph that has information about the location (position of the camera at the time of shooting) and the direction (direction of the camera at the time of shooting). Each nodes of the graph corresponds to a location-direction-enabled photograph. The location of each node is the location of the corresponding photograph, and a route on the graph corresponds to a route in the geographic area and a sequence of photographs. The proposed graph is constructed to represent characteristic spots and paths linking the spots, and it is assumed to be a kind of a spatial summarization of the area with the photographs. Therefore, we call the routes on the graph as spatial summary route. Each route on the proposed graph also has a visual continuity, which means that we can understand the spatial relationship among the continuous photographs on the route such as moving forward, backward, turning right, etc. In this study, when the changes in the shooting position and shooting direction satisfied a given threshold, the route was defined to have visual continuity. By presenting the photographs in order along the generated route, information can be presented sequentially, while maintaining visual continuity to a great extent.

  7. A linked GeoData map for enabling information access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Logan J.; Varanka, Dalia E.

    2018-01-10

    OverviewThe Geospatial Semantic Web (GSW) is an emerging technology that uses the Internet for more effective knowledge engineering and information extraction. Among the aims of the GSW are to structure the semantic specifications of data to reduce ambiguity and to link those data more efficiently. The data are stored as triples, the basic data unit in graph databases, which are similar to the vector data model of geographic information systems (GIS); that is, a node-edge-node model that forms a graph of semantically related information. The GSW is supported by emerging technologies such as linked geospatial data, described below, that enable it to store and manage geographical data that require new cartographic methods for visualization. This report describes a map that can interact with linked geospatial data using a simulation of a data query approach called the browsable graph to find information that is semantically related to a subject of interest, visualized using the Data Driven Documents (D3) library. Such a semantically enabled map functions as a map knowledge base (MKB) (Varanka and Usery, 2017).A MKB differs from a database in an important way. The central element of a triple, alternatively called the edge or property, is composed of a logic formalization that structures the relation between the first and third parts, the nodes or objects. Node-edge-node represents the graphic form of the triple, and the subject-property-object terms represent the data structure. Object classes connect to build a federated graph, similar to a network in visual form. Because the triple property is a logical statement (a predicate), the data graph represents logical propositions or assertions accepted to be true about the subject matter. These logical formalizations can be manipulated to calculate new triples, representing inferred logical assertions, from the existing data.To demonstrate a MKB system, a technical proof-of-concept is developed that uses geographically

  8. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  9. Enablers towards establishing and growing South Africa's waste to electricity industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Heinrich; Thopil, George Alex

    2017-10-01

    In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context. Furthermore it is an attempt at informing what appropriate interventions (operational and policy) may be considered suitable for South Africa to overcome these barriers in order to enable a sustainable South African waste to electricity (WTE) Industry. Findings show that numerous barriers to a WTE exists in the South African context, however overcoming these barriers is not as simple as adopting the European model with the aim to modify the electricity generation mix and waste management landscape. Selected enablers deemed appropriate in the South African context are adapted from the European model, and are greatly influenced by the prevailing socio-economic status of South Africa. Primary enablers identified were, (i) government support is needed especially in the form of subsidisation for green energy, (ii) increase landfill costs through the implementation of a landfill tax, (iii) streamline the process for Independent Private Power Producers (IPPPs) to connect to the national grid with off-take guaranteed and the inclusion of WTE into an electricity roadmap (effectively government's strategy). The proposed enabling interventions would help in overcoming the barriers for a South African WTE industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enabling fast charging – A battery technology gap assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Tanim, Tanvir; Dufek, Eric J.; Pesaran, Ahmad; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Hardy, Keith; Keyser, Matthew; Kreuzer, Cory; Markel, Anthony; Meintz, Andrew; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Nelson, Paul A.; Robertson, David C.; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Vijayagopal, Ram; Zhang, Jiucai

    2017-11-01

    The battery technology literature is reviewed, with an emphasis on key elements that limit extreme fast charging. Key gaps in existing elements of the technology are presented as well as developmental needs. Among these needs are advanced models and methods to detect and prevent lithium plating; new positive-electrode materials which are less prone to stress-induced failure; better electrode designs to accommodate very rapid diffusion in and out of the electrode; measure temperature distributions during fast charge to enable / validate models; and develop thermal management and pack designs to accommodate the higher operating voltage.

  11. Diazo groups endure metabolism and enable chemoselectivity in cellulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kristen A; Aronoff, Matthew R; McGrath, Nicholas A; Raines, Ronald T

    2015-02-25

    We introduce a stabilized diazo group as a reporter for chemical biology. ManDiaz, which is a diazo derivative of N-acetylmannosamine, is found to endure cellular metabolism and label the surface of a mammalian cell. There its diazo group can undergo a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a strained alkyne, providing a signal comparable to that from the azido congener, ManNAz. The chemoselectivity of diazo and alkynyl groups enables dual labeling of cells that is not possible with azido and alkynyl groups. Thus, the diazo group, which is approximately half the size of an azido group, provides unique opportunities for orthogonal labeling of cellular components.

  12. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable.

  13. Why should SME adopt IT enabled CRM strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends of fast adoption of CRM, whether as a philosophy, a strategy, an aid to the general marketing effort and mix, or merely as a fashion; as every body else is doing it; is driven by a clear acknowledgement and recognition that long-term relationships with customers are one of the most important assets of an organization and that information-enabled systems must be developed that will give the organization some form of ownership, that is: 'customer ownership'.

  14. Analysis of enabling factors in realizing modularization benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2012-01-01

    Although modularization is becoming a welldescribed and broadly applied concept, many of today’s firms still struggle to realize the promised benefits of this approach. Managing modularization is a complex matter, and in spite of this, a topic that has received far less attention compared...... to theories and methods concerning modularization of technical systems.Recognizing the need for guidance to realize the benefits of modularity, the purpose of this study is through a literature study and a case study to improve the insight into the organizational and systems related enablers and barriers...... with regard to obtaining the full potential of modularization....

  15. Enabling CoO improvement thru green initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eric; Padmabandu, G. G.; Ujazdowski, Richard; Haran, Don; Lake, Matt; Mason, Eric; Gillespie, Walter

    2015-03-01

    Chipmakers continued pressure to drive down costs while increasing utilization requires development in all areas. Cymer's commitment to meeting customer's needs includes developing solutions that enable higher productivity as well as lowering cost of lightsource operation. Improvements in system power efficiency and predictability were deployed to chipmakers' in 2014 with release of our latest Master Oscillating gas chamber. In addition, Cymer has committed to reduced gas usage, completing development in methods to reduce Helium gas usage while maintaining superior bandwidth and wavelength stability. The latest developments in lowering cost of operations are paired with our advanced ETC controller in Cymer's XLR 700ix product.

  16. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper

    The project aims to investigate the benefits for health and environment that the use of nanomaterials in products and technologies may have. More specifically, the project provides an overview of the most relevant nano-enabled environmental technologies, different types of products and technologies...... on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation of soil...

  17. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliga, Nitin S. [Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  18. Enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing through employee involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Eva; Dahl, Susanne

    In this paper we want to suggest that involving the employees in the development of the new workspaces is an important element in organisational learning and that it makes good sense to rethink space in order to support both tacit knowledge and collaboration. We want to argue that involving...... the employees in the design of their future workplace is key to giving the employee ownership for the change and may provide the organisation with invaluable ideas for the new work environment and the process of enabling organisational learning and knowledge sharing. We base our argument on a series of research...

  19. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  20. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  1. Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy gain of a system is defined as the ratio of its output energy divided by the energy provided to operate the system. Most familiar systems have energy gains less than one due to various inefficiencies. By contrast, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR) offer high energy gains. Theoretical values in excess of 1000 are possible. Energy gains over 100 have already been reported. But, they have not yet been sustained for commercially significant durations. This article summarizes the current status of LENR energy gains. (author)

  2. Working Towards New Transformative Geoscience Analytics Enabled by Petascale Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L.

    2012-04-01

    Currently the top 10 supercomputers in the world are petascale and already exascale computers are being planned. Cloud computing facilities are becoming mainstream either as private or commercial investments. These computational developments will provide abundant opportunities for the earth science community to tackle the data deluge which has resulted from new instrumentation enabling data to be gathered at a greater rate and at higher resolution. Combined, the new computational environments should enable the earth sciences to be transformed. However, experience in Australia and elsewhere has shown that it is not easy to scale existing earth science methods, software and analytics to take advantage of the increased computational capacity that is now available. It is not simply a matter of 'transferring' current work practices to the new facilities: they have to be extensively 'transformed'. In particular new Geoscientific methods will need to be developed using advanced data mining, assimilation, machine learning and integration algorithms. Software will have to be capable of operating in highly parallelised environments, and will also need to be able to scale as the compute systems grow. Data access will have to improve and the earth science community needs to move from the file discovery, display and then locally download paradigm to self describing data cubes and data arrays that are available as online resources from either major data repositories or in the cloud. In the new transformed world, rather than analysing satellite data scene by scene, sensor agnostic data cubes of calibrated earth observation data will enable researchers to move across data from multiple sensors at varying spatial data resolutions. In using geophysics to characterise basement and cover, rather than analysing individual gridded airborne geophysical data sets, and then combining the results, petascale computing will enable analysis of multiple data types, collected at varying

  3. Factors Enabling Information Propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    A relevant feature of Social Network Sites is their ability to propagate units of information and create large distributed conversations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant because of the speed of information propagation, which is known to be much faster than within traditional media......, and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...... at measuring specific socio-technical factors enabling information spreading in Social Network Sites....

  4. Multi-dimensional technology-enabled social learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petreski, Hristijan; Tsekeridou, Sofia; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2013-01-01

    ’t respond to this systemic and structural changes and/or challenges and retains its status quo than it is jeopardizing its own existence or the existence of the education, as we know it. This paper aims to precede one step further by proposing a multi-dimensional approach for technology-enabled social...... in learning while socializing within their learning communities. However, their “educational” usage is still limited to facilitation of online learning communities and to collaborative authoring of learning material complementary to existing formal (e-) learning services. If the educational system doesn...

  5. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Kihei, HI)

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  6. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  7. A Single-use Strategy to Enable Manufacturing of Affordable Biologics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Jacquemart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current processing paradigm of large manufacturing facilities dedicated to single product production is no longer an effective approach for best manufacturing practices. Increasing competition for new indications and the launch of biosimilars for the monoclonal antibody market have put pressure on manufacturers to produce at lower cost. Single-use technologies and continuous upstream processes have proven to be cost-efficient options to increase biomass production but as of today the adoption has been only minimal for the purification operations, partly due to concerns related to cost and scale-up. This review summarizes how a single-use holistic process and facility strategy can overcome scale limitations and enable cost-efficient manufacturing to support the growing demand for affordable biologics. Technologies enabling high productivity, right-sized, small footprint, continuous, and automated upstream and downstream operations are evaluated in order to propose a concept for the flexible facility of the future.

  8. A delicate web: household changes in health behaviour enabled by microcredit in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennink, Monique; McFarland, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Providing microcredit to women in developing countries has long been highlighted as a simple and effective strategy for poverty reduction and health improvement. However, little is known about how microcredit enables changes in health behaviour. This knowledge is critical to further strengthen microcredit initiatives. This qualitative study, conducted in Burkina Faso, shows how microcredit can not only facilitate savings and investment strategies, but also lead to changes in household decision-making, enabling women to initiate health prevention, seek health treatment and manage health emergencies. Some changes led to increased household burdens for women that impeded health gains, such as administrative loan delays by the microcredit institution and reduced household contributions by the husband. Furthermore, the study highlighted the fragile nature of health gains, which may be eroded due to economic shocks on a household, such as crop failure, drought or illness.

  9. Towards a comprehensive framework for reuse: A reuse-enabling software evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes and knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demand. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows broad and extensive reuse could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. The scope of a comprehensive framework for understanding, planning, evaluating and motivating reuse practices and the necessary research activities is outlined. As a first step towards such a framework, a reuse-enabling software evolution environment model is introduced which provides a basis for the effective recording of experience, the generalization and tailoring of experience, the formalization of experience, and the (re-)use of experience.

  10. Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, Florian O; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2012-01-17

    Laser beams that can self-reconstruct their initial beam profile even in the presence of massive phase perturbations are able to propagate deeper into inhomogeneous media. This ability has crucial advantages for light sheet-based microscopy in thick media, such as cell clusters, embryos, skin or brain tissue or plants, as well as scattering synthetic materials. A ring system around the central intensity maximum of a Bessel beam enables its self-reconstruction, but at the same time illuminates out-of-focus regions and deteriorates image contrast. Here we present a detection method that minimizes the negative effect of the ring system. The beam's propagation stability along one straight line enables the use of a confocal line principle, resulting in a significant increase in image contrast. The axial resolution could be improved by nearly 100% relative to the standard light-sheet techniques using scanned Gaussian beams, while demonstrating self-reconstruction also for high propagation depths.

  11. Insulated transcriptional elements enable precise design of genetic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yeqing; Zhang, Haoqian M; Lyu, Cheng; Ji, Xiangyu; Hou, Junran; Guo, Xian; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2017-07-03

    Rational engineering of biological systems is often complicated by the complex but unwanted interactions between cellular components at multiple levels. Here we address this issue at the level of prokaryotic transcription by insulating minimal promoters and operators to prevent their interaction and enable the biophysical modeling of synthetic transcription without free parameters. This approach allows genetic circuit design with extraordinary precision and diversity, and consequently simplifies the design-build-test-learn cycle of circuit engineering to a mix-and-match workflow. As a demonstration, combinatorial promoters encoding NOT-gate functions were designed from scratch with mean errors of 96% using our insulated transcription elements. Furthermore, four-node transcriptional networks with incoherent feed-forward loops that execute stripe-forming functions were obtained without any trial-and-error work. This insulation-based engineering strategy improves the resolution of genetic circuit technology and provides a simple approach for designing genetic circuits for systems and synthetic biology.Unwanted interactions between cellular components can complicate rational engineering of biological systems. Here the authors design insulated minimal promoters and operators that enable biophysical modeling of bacterial transcription without free parameters for precise circuit design.

  12. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, John [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States); Pugh, Jerry [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  13. Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhuo; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Qing; Uysal, Ismail; Zheng, Lirong

    2014-06-13

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  14. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  15. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry. PMID:24324392

  16. Mesh Network Architecture for Enabling Inter-Spacecraft Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christopher; Merrill, Garrick

    2017-01-01

    To enable communication between spacecraft operating in a formation or small constellation, a mesh network architecture was developed and tested using a time division multiple access (TDMA) communication scheme. The network is designed to allow for the exchange of telemetry and other data between spacecraft to enable collaboration between small spacecraft. The system uses a peer-to-peer topology with no central router, so that it does not have a single point of failure. The mesh network is dynamically configurable to allow for addition and subtraction of new spacecraft into the communication network. Flight testing was performed using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) formation acting as a spacecraft analogue and providing a stressing environment to prove mesh network performance. The mesh network was primarily devised to provide low latency, high frequency communication but is flexible and can also be configured to provide higher bandwidth for applications desiring high data throughput. The network includes a relay functionality that extends the maximum range between spacecraft in the network by relaying data from node to node. The mesh network control is implemented completely in software making it hardware agnostic, thereby allowing it to function with a wide variety of existing radios and computing platforms..

  17. Processing Approaches for DAS-Enabled Continuous Seismic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Wood, T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Robertson, M.; McDonald, S.; Pevzner, R.; Lindsey, N.; Gelvin, A.; Saari, S.; Morales, A.; Ekblaw, I.; Wagner, A. M.; Ulrich, C.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) is creating a "field as laboratory" capability for seismic monitoring of subsurface changes. By providing unprecedented spatial and temporal sampling at a relatively low cost, DAS enables field-scale seismic monitoring to have durations and temporal resolutions that are comparable to those of laboratory experiments. Here we report on seismic processing approaches developed during data analyses of three case studies all using DAS-enabled seismic monitoring with applications ranging from shallow permafrost to deep reservoirs: (1) 10-hour downhole monitoring of cement curing at Otway, Australia; (2) 2-month surface monitoring of controlled permafrost thaw at Fairbanks, Alaska; (3) multi-month downhole and surface monitoring of carbon sequestration at Decatur, Illinois. We emphasize the data management and processing components relevant to DAS-based seismic monitoring, which include scalable approaches to data management, pre-processing, denoising, filtering, and wavefield decomposition. DAS has dramatically increased the data volume to the extent that terabyte-per-day data loads are now typical, straining conventional approaches to data storage and processing. To achieve more efficient use of disk space and network bandwidth, we explore improved file structures and data compression schemes. Because noise floor of DAS measurements is higher than that of conventional sensors, optimal processing workflow involving advanced denoising, deconvolution (of the source signatures), and stacking approaches are being established to maximize signal content of DAS data. The resulting workflow of data management and processing could accelerate the broader adaption of DAS for continuous monitoring of critical processes.

  18. A Registry Framework Enabling Patient-Centred Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Napier, Kathryn; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Lamont, Leanne; Graham, Caroline; Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Sue; Goldblatt, Jack; Hunter, Adam A; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions rely on expert knowledge that draws on quality patient phenotypic and physiological data. In this regard, systems that can support patient-centric care are essential. Patient registries are a key component of patient-centre care and can come in many forms such as disease-specific, recruitment, clinical, contact, post market and surveillance. There are, however, a number of significant challenges to overcome in order to maximise the utility of these information management systems to facilitate improved patient-centred care. Registries need to be harmonised regionally, nationally and internationally. However, the majority are implemented as standalone systems without consideration for data standards or system interoperability. Hence the task of harmonisation can become daunting. Fortunately, there are strategies to address this. In this paper, a disease registry framework is outlined that enables efficient deployment of national and international registries that can be modified dynamically as registry requirements evolve. This framework provides a basis for the development and implementation of data standards and enables patients to seamlessly belong to multiple registries. Other significant advances include the ability for registry curators to create and manage registries themselves without the need to contract software developers, and the concept of a registry description language for ease of registry template sharing.

  19. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbert Anton Kivits

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modeling (BIM is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.

  20. BIM: enabling sustainability and asset management through knowledge management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivits, Robbert Anton; Furneaux, Craig

    2013-11-10

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.